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Daena
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{{Zoroastrianism}}Daena{{Pronunciation-needed}} is a Zoroastrian concept representing insight and revelation, hence "conscience" or "religion." Alternately, Daena is considered to be a divinity, counted among the yazatas.

Nomenclature

Daena is a feminine noun which translates to "that which is seen or observed". In Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to an Ancient Faith, Peter Clark suggests that the term might also be tied to the Avestan root "deh" or "di-" to gain understanding.Clark, Peter (1998), Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to an Ancient Faith, 1, Sussex: Sussex Academic Press: 69-70.The Avestan language term – trisyllabic ' in Gathic Avestan and bisyllabic ' in Younger Avestan – continues into Middle Persian as dÄ“n, which preserves the Avestan meanings. For comparison, it has a Sanskrit cognate dhénā which means thought, but thought in its higher and spiritual reaches.JOURNAL, 3087593, Sanskrit dhénā = Avestan daenā = Lithuanian dainà, Samuel Grant, Oliphant, 1 January 1912, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 32, 4, 393–413, 10.2307/3087593,weblink Remarkably Zen word in Zen Buddhism is also derived from dhayanā.It is thought that the "Daena" of Zoroastrianism, is related to Sanskrit "Dharma", also meaning "the Law".BOOK, Morreall, John, Sonn, Tamara, The Religion Toolkit: A Complete Guide to Religious Studies, 2011, John Wiley & Sons, 9781444343717, 324,weblink en,

In Scripture

File:Sogdian-Zoroastrian Deities, Tunhwang.jpg|thumb|left|Sogdian Deities, a 10th-century line drawing from the Mo-kao CavesMo-kao CavesThe concept of Daena is mentioned in the Gathas, a series of seventeen hymns supposedly written by Zoroaster. Daena appears both in the Ahunavaiti GathaWEB,weblink Avesta: Yasna 28-34 - Ahunavaiti Gatha (English), and in the Ushtavaiti Gatha,WEB,weblink AVESTA: YASNA (English): Chapter 43-46 - Ushtavaiti Gatha, where it is written that Daena is somehow affiliated with the reward that the faithful will receive in the afterlife. However, references to Daena in the Gathas are brief, leaving much ambiguity on its nature.Later Avestan writings, such as the Vendidad, describe the concept of Daena further. The Vendidad portrays Daena as something of a psychopomp, guiding good and pure souls over the Chinvat Bridge to the House of Song, Zoroastrian paradise, while the wicked are dragged to the House of Lies, a place of punishment. She is described as being finely dressed, and accompanied by dogs.WEB,weblink AVESTA: VENDIDAD: Table of Contents, Maneckji Dhalla writes in Zoroastrian Theology that on the dawn of the fourth day after death "there appears then to the soul its own daena, or religious conscience in the shape of a damsel of unsurpassed beauty, the fairest of the fair in the world."WEB,weblink Zoroastrian theology from the earliest times to the present day, Daena (din in modern Persian) is the eternal Law, whose order was revealed to humanity through the Mathra-Spenta ("Holy Words"). Daena has been used to mean religion, faith, law, even as a translation for the Hindu and Buddhist term Dharma, often interpreted as "duty" or social order, right conduct, or virtue. The metaphor of the 'path' of Daena is represented in Zoroastrianism by the muslin undershirt Sudra, the 'Good/Holy Path', and the 72-thread Kushti girdle, the "Pathfinder".

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

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