aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2016}}

{{small|(including Moravians and Czech Silesians)}}{{CZE}}{{nbsp>2}}6,732,104PDF>URL=HTTP://NOTES2.CZSO.CZ/CZ/SLDB2011/CD_SLDB2011_11_12/INDEX_HTML_FILES/PVCR062.PDFTRANS-TITLE=TAB. 6.2 POPULATION BY NATIONALITY BY REGIONS: RESULTS FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCEWORK=CZECH STATISTICAL OFFICE (CZSO)URL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=16 JANUARY 2013, This number is a lower estimate, as 2,742,669 people opted out declaring ethnicity in 2011, vast majority of whom were ethnic Czechs as the figure from the 2001 census would suggest, where were 9.25 million Czechs, excluding Moravians (9.6 million with them included).–9 246 784HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/EZ.HTML>TITLE=CZECH REPUBLICACCESSDATE=14 NOVEMBER 2014, {{USA}}}}PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES BUREAU OF STATISTICS, 14 November 2014, | region2 = {{GER}}| pop2 = 380,000| region3 = {{CAN}}WEBSITE=12STAT.CAN.GC.CA, 20 December 2017, | region4 = {{ISR}}| pop4 = 150,000| region5 = {{ARG}}| pop5 = 145,000| region6 = {{GBR}}PUBLISHER=OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICSACCESSDATE=20 JULY 2015, Figure given is the central estimate. See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals.| region7 = {{AUT}} WEBSITE=STATISTIK.AT, 20 December 2017, {{ITA}}}} | pop8 = 140,000| region9 = {{FRA}} | pop9 = 110,000| region10 = {{SVK}}URL-STATUS=DEADTITLE=ERROR PAGEACCESSDATE=20 DECEMBER 2017, | region11 = {{AUS}}WEBSITE=CENSUSDATA.ABS.GOV.AU, 18 March 2015, | region12 = {{CHE}}| pop12 = 100,000| region13 = {{HRV}}| pop13 = 100,000 (2011)| region14 = {{CHL}}| pop14 = 100,000| region15 = {{UKR}}| pop15 = 50,000| region16 = {{SWE}}| pop16 = 30,000(2001)| region17 = {{IRL}} PUBLISHER=CENSUS OFFICE IRELAND, January 29, 2013, | region18 = {{ESP}}| pop18 = 5,622 (2006)| region19 = {{RUS}}| pop19 = 5,000–6,000| region20 = {{BRA}}| pop20 = 5,000| region21 = {{NLD}}| pop21 = 3,500| region22 = {{ROM}}| pop22 = 3,339 (2002)| region23 = {{POL}}| pop23 = 3,000| region24 = {{ZAF}}| pop24 = 2,300| region25 = {{MEX}}| pop25 = 2,000 | region26 = {{VEN}}| pop26 = 2,000 | region27 = {{SRB}}WEBSITE=WEBRZS.STAT.GOV.RS, 20 December 2017, | region28 = {{COL}}| pop28 = 1,200| region29 = {{NZL}}| pop29 =1,083| region30 = {{KAZ}}AUTHOR=JOSHUA PROJECTACCESSDATE=14 NOVEMBER 2014, | region31 = {{BIH}}URL-STATUS=DEADTITLE=BOSNA-HERCEGOVINA - BOSNA-ČESKOACCESSDATE=20 DECEMBER 2017, Czech language>CzechChristianity>Christian:Roman Catholic Church, Hussites>Hussite, Lutheranism and otherMostly irreligiousNáBOžENSKá VíRA OBYVATEL PODLE VýSLEDKů SčíTáNí LIDU - 2011WEBSITE=CZSO.CZACCESSDATE=30 SEPTEMBER 2017, czech, |related = Other West Slavs (Moravians, Slovaks, Poles, Silesians, Sorbs and Kashubs)}}The Czechs (, {{IPA-cs|ˈtʃɛʃɪ|pron}}; singular masculine: Čech {{IPA-cs|ˈtʃɛx|}}, singular feminine: Češka {{IPA-cs|ˈtʃɛʃka|}}), or the Czech people (), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and Czech language.Ethnic Czechs were called Bohemians in English until the early 20th century, referring to the medieval land of Bohemia which in turn was adapted from late Iron Age tribe of Celtic Boii. During the Migration Period, West Slavic tribes of Bohemians settled in the area, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations", and formed a principality in the 9th century, which was part of Great Moravia, in form of Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia, the predecessors of the modern republic.The Czech diaspora is found in notable numbers in the United States, Canada, Israel, Austria, Germany, Slovakia, Switzerland, Italy, the United Kingdom, Australia, Chile, Russia, Argentina and Brazil, among others.


{{Culture of the Czech Republic}}The Czech ethnic group is part of the West Slavic subgroup of the larger Slavic ethno-linguistical group. The West Slavs have their origin in early Slavic tribes which settled in Central Europe after East Germanic tribes had left this area during the migration period.BOOK, Kobyliński, Zbigniew, The Slavs, McKitterick, Rosamond, Rosamond McKitterick, The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 1, C.500-c.700,weblink The New Cambridge Medieval History, 1, C.500-c.700, Cambridge University Press, 1995, 531, 9780521362917, The West Slavic tribe of Czechs settled in the area of Bohemia during the migration period, and assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations. They formed a principality in the 9th century, the Duchy of Bohemia, under the Přemyslid dynasty which was part of the Great Moravia under Svatopluk I. According to mythology, the founding father of the Czech people were Forefather Čech, who according to legend brought the tribe of Czechs into its land.The Czech are closely related to the neighbouring Slovaks (with whom they constituted Czechoslovakia 1918–1993). The Czech–Slovak languages form a dialect continuum rather than being two clearly distinct languages.BOOK, Tomasz Kamusella, Motoki Nomachi, Catherine Gibson, The Palgrave Handbook of Slavic Languages, Identities and Borders,weblink 29 April 2016, Palgrave Macmillan UK, 978-1-137-34839-5, 140–, Czech cultural influence in Slovak culture is noted as having been much higher than the other way around.{{sfn|Berger|2003}} Czech (Slavic) people have a long history of coexistence with the Germanic people. In the 17th century, German replaced Czech in central and local administration; upper classes in Bohemia and Moravia were Germanized, and espoused a political identity (landespatriotismus), while Czech ethnic identity survived among the lower and lower-middle classes.BOOK, Joshua A. Fishman, Handbook of Language & Ethnic Identity,weblink 25 January 2001, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-976139-5, 320–, The Czech National Revival took place in the 18th and 19th centuries aiming to revive Czech language, culture and national identity. The Czech were the initiators of Pan-Slavism.BOOK, Hans Kohn, Pan-Slavism: its history and ideology,weblink 1953, University of Notre Dame Press, The Czech ethnonym (archaic Čechové) was the name of a Slavic tribe in central Bohemia that subdued the surrounding tribes in the late 9th century and created the Czech/Bohemian state. The origin of the name of the tribe itself is unknown. According to legend, it comes from their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia. Research regards Čech as a derivative of the root čel- (member of the people, kinsman).JOURNAL,weblink The Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Původ jména Čech, Origin of the name Čech, Jaromír, Spal, Naše řeč (Our Speech), 263–267, 36, 9–10, 1953, Czech, 2012-10-11, The Czech ethnonym was adopted by the Moravians in the 19th century.BOOK, T. Kamusella, The Politics of Language and Nationalism in Modern Central Europe,weblink 16 December 2008, Palgrave Macmillan UK, 978-0-230-58347-4, 501–,


{{Further|Genetic history of Europe}}File:Correspondence Analysis of Y-chromosomal variation in the Czech Republic Am J Phys Anthropol 2007.png|thumb|upright=0.9|right|Distribution of populations in selected nations according to their Haplogroup frequencies, #FFFFFF|Czech samples}}{{legend|#000000|German samples}}{{legend|#FF4040|Polish samples}}{{legend|#2976FF|Italian samples}}{{legend|#5AFF62|Balkan samples}}The population of the Czech lands has been influenced by different human migrations that wide-crossed Europe over time. In their Y-DNA haplogroups, which are inherited along the male line, Czechs have shown a mix of Eastern and Western European traits. According to a 2007 study, 34.2% of Czech men belong to R1a. Within the Czech Republic, the proportion of R1a seems to gradually increase from west to east JOURNAL, Luca, F., Di Giacomo, F., Benincasa, T., et al, 2007, Y-Chromosomal Variation in the Czech Republic,weblink American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 132, 132–139, 10.1002/ajpa.20500, According to a 2000 study, 35.6% of Czech men have haplogroup R1b, which is very common in Western Europe among Germanic and Celtic nations, but rare among Slavic nations.JOURNAL, Semino, O., et al, 2000, ", The genetic legacy of paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans " a Y chromosome perspective, Science, 290, 1155–59, 10.1126/science.290.5494.1155, A mtDNA study of 179 individuals from Western Bohemia showed that 3% had East Eurasian lineages that perhaps entered the gene pool through admixture with Central Asian nomadic tribes in the early Middle Ages.JOURNAL, Malyarchuk, et al, Mitochondrial DNA Variability in the Czech Population, with Application to the Ethnic History of Slavs, Human Biology, 78, 6, 10.1353/hub.2007.0014, 2006, 681–695, A group of scientists suggested that the high frequency of a gene mutation causing cystic fibrosis in Central European (including Czech R.) and Celtic populations supports the theory of some Celtic ancestry among the Czech population.DOCUMENT, Macek, et al, RelativnÄ› vysoký výskyt mutací G551D a CFTRdel21kb CFTR genu v ÄŒeské republice u pacientů s cystickou fibrózou objektivnÄ› prokazuje, že naÅ¡e populace je slovanského a keltského původu, Centrum pro diagnostiku a léčbu cystické fibrosy,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 29 December 2003, dmy-all, {| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center; font-size: 80%"|+ Y-DNA studies! Population || n || R1b || R1a || I  || E1b1b || J || G || N || T || Others || Reference! Czech R. 257 — {{nts|34.2}} {{nts|18.3}} {{nts|5.8}} {{nts|4.7}} {{nts|5.1}} {{nts|1.6}} — — Luca et al. 2007LUCA F, DI GIACOMO F, BENINCASA T, POPA LO, BANYKO J, KRACMAROVA A, MALASPINA P, NOVELLETTO A, BRDICKA R > TITLE = Y-CHROMOSOMAL VARIATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC VOLUME = 132 PAGES = 132–9 PMID = 17078035 URL = HTTPS://ART.TORVERGATA.IT/BITSTREAM/2108/35058/1/LUCA_AJPA_2007.PDF, ! Czech R. ? {{nts|35.6}} ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Semino et al. 2000!Czech R. 817 29.4 26.7 8.6 4.9 5.6 6.8 3.2 1.0 — Czech DNA Project 2001-201weblink


File:Duchy of Bohemia and the Holy Roman Empire in 11th century.svg|thumb|Duchy of Bohemia, the early form of the Czech state pictured in the 11th century within the Holy Roman EmpireHoly Roman EmpireThe population of the Czech Republic descends from diverse peoples of Slavic, Celtic and Germanic origin.Bohemia and Poland. Chapter 20.pp 512-513. [in:] Timothy Reuter. The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 900 – c. 1024. 2000 Presence of West Slavs in the 6th century during the Migration Period has been documented on the Czech territory. Slavs settled in Bohemia, Moravia and Austria sometime during the 6th or 7th centuries,The exact dating of Slavic settlement is a matter of dispute amongst scholars. See e.g. Curta ("The Slavs in Bohemia: A Response to my critics; 2009") who favours a 7th-century settlement versus Nada Profantova, who argues a 6th-century settlement and "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations".Jaroslav Jirik "Bohemian Barbarians. Bohemia in late Antiquity", in Neglected Barbarians Brepols 2010{{page needed|date=February 2017}} According to a popular myth, the Slavs came with Forefather Čech who settled at the Říp Mountain.During the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting against nearby settled Avars, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, Samo's Empire. The principality Great Moravia, controlled by the Moymir dynasty, arose in the 8th century and reached its zenith in the 9th (during the reign of Svatopluk I of Moravia) when it held off the influence of the Franks. Great Moravia was Christianized, the crucial role played Byzantine mission of Cyril and Methodius. The Duchy of Bohemia emerged in the late 9th century. In 880, Prague Castle was constructed by Prince Bořivoj, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty and the city of Prague was established. Vratislav II was the first Czech king in 1085 and the duchy was raised to a hereditary kingdom under Ottokar I in 1198.The second half of the 13th century was a period of advancing German immigration into the Czech lands. The number of Czechs who have at least partly German ancestry today probably runs into hundreds of thousands.WEB,weblink Ethnic German Minorities in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia,, 14 November 2014, The Habsburg Monarchy focused much of its power on religious wars against the Protestants. While these religious wars were taking place, the Czech estates revolted against Habsburg from 1546 to 1547 but were ultimately defeated.WEB,weblink The Habsburg Monarchy and Rudolph II,, 14 November 2014, {{Czechs}}(File:Ottův slovník naučný - 17 České kroje - 2.jpg|thumb|Czech traditional costumes)Defenestrations of Prague in 1618, signaled an open revolt by the Bohemian estates against the Habsburgs and started the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, all Czech lands were declared hereditary property of the Habsburg family. The German language was made equal to the Czech language.Czech patriotic authors tend to call the following period, from 1620 to 1648 until the late 18th century, the "Dark Age". It is characterized by devastation by foreign troops; Germanization; and economic and political decline. It is estimated that the population of the Czech lands declined by a third.{{sfn|Agnew|2004|p=72}}The 18th and 19th century is characterized by the Czech National Revival, focusing to revive Czech culture and national identity.Since the turn of the 20th century, Chicago is the city with the third largest Czech population, after Prague and Vienna.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alicia, Cozine,weblink Czechs and Bohemians, The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago, 2005, live,weblink 4 March 2016, Czech and Slovak roots in Vienna {{webarchive|url= |date=12 May 2014 }}, wieninternational.atDuring World War I, Czechoslovak Legions fought in France, Italy and Russia against the Central Powers. In 1918 the independent state of Czechoslovakia was proclaimed. Czechs formed the leading class in the new state emerging from the remnants of the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy.After 1933, Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in central and eastern Europe. However, in 1938 the Munich Agreement severed the Sudetenland, with a considerable Czech minority, from Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 the German Nazi regime established the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia for Resttschechei (the rump Czech stateGruner, Wolf. 2015. Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. In: Wolf Grüner & Jörg Osterloh (eds.), The Greater German Reich and the Jews: Nazi Persecution Policies in the Annexed Territories 1935–1945, pp. 99–135. Transl. Bernard Heise. New York: Berghahn, p. 103.Ramsden, John. 2002. The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century British Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 450.Rothschild, Joseph. 1974. East Central Europe between the Two World Wars. Seattle: University of Washington Press, p. 366.). Emil Hácha became president of the protectorate under Nazi domination, which only allowed pro-Nazi Czech associations and tended to stress ties of the Czechs with the Bohemian Germans and other parts of the German people, in order to facilitate assimilation by Germanization. In Lidice, Ležáky and Javoříčko the Nazi authorities committed war crimes against the local Czech population. On May 2, 1945, the Prague Uprising reached its peak, supported by the Russian Liberation Army. The post-war expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia and the immediate reprisals against Germans and Nazi collaborators by Czech resistance and the Czechoslovak state authorities, made Czechs—especially in the early 1950s—settle alongside Slovaks and Romani people in the former lands of the Sudeten Germans, who had been deported to East Germany, West Germany and Austria according to the Potsdam Conference and Yalta Conference.The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 was followed by a wave of emigration, unseen before and stopped shortly after in 1969 (estimate: 70,000 immediately, 300,000 in total),WEB,weblink "Day when tanks destroyed Czech dreams of Prague Spring" (Den, kdy tanky zlikvidovaly české sny Pražského jara) at Britské Listy (British Letters),, 14 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 28 September 2007, dead, dmy-all, typically of highly qualified people.Tens of thousands of Czechs had repatriated from Volhynia and Banat after World War II. Since the 1990s, the Czech Republic has been working to repatriate Romania and Kazakhstan's ethnic Czechs.The Czech ethnic minority in Romania, 29-12-2004 - Radio PragueGovernment completes 13-year program to integrate Kazakh Czechs, The Prague Post, 31 October 2007Following the Czech Republic's entry into the European Union in May 2004, Czechs gradually gained the right to work in EU countries without a work permit.WEB,weblink Práce v Evropské unii: jaké máme možnosti?, 23 February 2007,, 14 November 2014,

Notable people

File:Idioma checo.PNG|thumb|Areas where Czech languageCzech language{{see also|List of Czechs}}

Historical figures

The last five Přemyslids were kings: Ottokar I of Bohemia, Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, Ottokar II of Bohemia, Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and Wenceslaus III of Bohemia. The most successful and influential of all Czech kings was Charles IV, who also became the Holy Roman Emperor.WEB,weblink Charles IV (Karel IV.) - Czech king and Holy Roman Emperor,, 18 March 2015, The Luxembourg dynasty represents the heights of Czech (Bohemian) statehood territorial and influence as well as advancement in many areas of human endeavors.WEB,weblink Travel guide - Luxembourg dynasty (1310–1378) - accommodation in hotels and apartments -,, 18 March 2015, Many people are considered national heroes and cultural icons, many national stories concern their lives. Jan Hus was a religious reformist from the 15th century and spiritual father of the Hussite Movement.WEB,weblink Jan Hus,, 18 March 2015, Jan Žižka and Prokop the Great were leaders of hussite army, George of Poděbrady was a hussite king. Albrecht von Wallenstein was a notable military leader during the Thirty Years' War. The teacher of nations Jan Amos Komenský is also considered a notable figure in Czech history.Jan Amos Comenius {{webarchive|url= |date=15 January 2008 }} Joseph Radetzky von Radetz was an Austrian general staff during the later period of the Napoleonic Wars. Josef Jungmann is often credited for expanding the modern Czech language, and preventing its extinction.weblink" title="https:/-/">weblink The first modern Czech politician was František Palacký, often called "father of nation".

Modern politicians

One of the most notable figures are founders of Czechoslovakia, modern state of independence of Czech and Slovak nations, Presidents Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and Edvard Beneš, who was also leader of exile government in World War II. Ludvík Svoboda was a head of the Czechoslovak military units on the Eastern Front during the World War II (later president of Czechoslovakia). The key figures of the Communist regime were Klement Gottwald, Antonín Zápotocký, Antonín Novotný (and Slovak Gustáv Husák), the most famous victims of this regime were Milada Horáková and Rudolf Slánský. Jan Palach committed self-immolation as a political protest against the end of the Prague Spring resulting from the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact armies.Another notable politician after the fall of the communist regime is Václav Havel, last President of Czechoslovakia and first President of the Czech Republic.WEB,weblink Václav Havel, Books and Writers (, Petri, Liukkonen, Kuusankoski Public Library, Finland,weblink" title="">weblink 4 January 2008, dead, dmy-all, The current first directly elected president is Miloš Zeman.WEB,weblink VACLAV HAVEL,, 18 March 2015, The Czech Republic has had multiple Prime Ministers the first of which was latter Presidents Václav Klaus and Miloš Zeman.WEB,weblink Rejstřík předsedů vlád,, 18 March 2015, Another Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic were conservative politicians such as Mirek Topolánek, Petr Nečas and social democratic such as Vladimír Špidla, Jiří Paroubek, Bohuslav Sobotka.WEB,weblink Radio Prague - Milos Zeman - outgoing prime minister,, 18 March 2015, Diplomat Madeleine Albright is of Czech origin and fluent in Czech. Other well-known Czech diplomats were Jan Masaryk or Jiří Dienstbier.


Czechs established themselves mainly in Biology, Chemistry, Philology and Egyptology.


Sports have also been a contributor to famous Czechs especially tennis, football, hockey, and athletics: , Petr ÄŒech

The arts


File:Dvorak Bedrich Smetana and friends in 1865.jpg|thumb|Bedřich Smetana Among his Friends, 1865; oil painting by František Dvořák ]]Czech music had its first significant pieces created in the 11th century.WEB,weblink - History of Czech Music,, 20 December 2017, The great progress of Czech artificial music began with the end of the Renaissance and the early Baroque era, concretely in works of Adam Václav Michna z Otradovic, where the specific character of Czech music was rising up by using the influence of genuine folk music. This tradition determined the development of Czech music and has remained the main sign in the works of great Czech composers of almost all eras – Jan Dismas Zelenka and Josef Mysliveček in Baroque, Bedřich Smetana and Antonín Dvořák in Romanticism, Leoš Janáček, Bohuslav Martinů and Josef Suk in modern classical or Petr Eben and Miloslav Kabeláč in contemporary classical music.Czech musicians also played an important role in the development of European music. Jan Václav Antonín Stamic in 18th-century contributed to the creation of Classicism in musicWEB,weblink Jan Václav Stamic,, 20 December 2017, by innovations of compositional forms and the founding of the Mannheim school. Similarly, Antonín Rejcha's experiments prefigured new compositional techniques in the 19th century.WEB,weblink Classical Net - Basic Repertoire List - Reicha,, 20 December 2017, The influence of Czech musicians expanded beyond the borders of the European continent, when Antonín Dvořák created a new American classical music style, using the richness of ethnic music of that country during his mission in the US. The contribution of Alois Hába to microtonal music in the 20th century must be also mentioned.Czech music reached as far as Qing China. Karel Slavíček was a Jesuit missionary, scientist and sinologist who was introduced to the Kangxi Emperor on February 3, 1717, in Beijing. The emperor favored him and employed him as court musician. (Slavíček was a Spinet player).WEB,weblink Český jezuita na čínském dvoře, 2009-02-26, 2011-02-06,, Some notable modern Czech musicians are US-based composer and guitarist Ivan Král, musician and composer Jan Hammer and the rock band The Plastic People of the Universe which played an important part in the underground movement during the communist regime.The Czech Republic first entered the Eurovision Song Contest in 2007. Czech performer qualified for the grand final for the first time in 2016 when singer Gabriela Gunčíková finished in 25th place. In 2018 the singer Mikolas Josef reached the 6th place in the contest being the best result of the Czech Republic until today.Other important names: Franz Benda, Rafael Kubelík, Jan Ladislav Dussek, Vítězslav Novák, Zdeněk Fibich, Jan Kubelík, Jiří Antonín Benda, Julius Fučík, Karel Svoboda, Karel Kryl, Václav Neumann, Václav Talich, František Xaver Richter, Jan Křtitel Vaňhal, Vojtěch Živný, Josef Bohuslav Foerster, Magdalena Kožená, Karel Ančerl, Ema Destinnová, Maria Jeritza, František Xaver Brixi, Jiří Bělohlávek, Oskar Nedbal, Karel Gott.WEB, Karel Gott,weblink Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republicarchiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink 2008-01-01,


Jaroslav Seifert was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his poetry. Božena Němcová has become a cultural icon and gained much fame for her book Babička.WEB, Partridge, James, Book Review: The Grandmother,weblink Central Europe Review, 2008-02-10, Other important Czech writers include Milan Kundera, Karel Čapek, Jaroslav Hašek, Jan Neruda, Franz Kafka, Bohumil Hrabal, Viktor Dyk, Kosmas, Pavel Kohout, Alois Jirásek, Josef Škvorecký, Karel Jaromír Erben, Jiří Wolker, Karel Hynek Mácha, Vítězslav Nezval, Arnošt Lustig, Jaroslav Vrchlický, Karel Havlíček Borovský, Ivan Klíma, Egon Erwin Kisch, Vladimír Holan, Julius Zeyer or Svatopluk Čech. From contemporary Czech writers can be mentioned Jáchym Topol, Patrik Ouředník, Michal Viewegh or Daniela Hodrová. Important playwrights were Karel Čapek, František Langer or Josef Kajetán Tyl. Strong was also the theatrical avant-garde (Jan Werich, Jiří Voskovec, Emil František Burian). Known journalists were Julius Fučík, Milena Jesenská or Ferdinand Peroutka.

Visual Arts

File:Slovane v pravlasti 81x61m.jpg|thumb|The Slav Epic by Alfons MuchaAlfons Mucha Mikoláš Aleš was a painter, known for redesigning the Prague National Theatre.WEB, Tyman, Jaroslav, Mikoláš Aleš,weblinkAlphonse Mucha was an influential artist in the Art Nouveau movement of the Edwardian Era>Edwardian period. František Kupka was a pioneer and co-founder of the abstract art movement. Other well-known painters are Josef Čapek, Josef Lada, Theodoric of Prague, Wenceslaus Hollar, Toyen, Jan Kupecký, Petr Brandl, Vladimír Vašíček, Václav Brožík, Josef Mánes, Karel Škréta or Max Švabinský. Renowned sculptors were Josef Václav Myslbek or Matyáš Bernard Braun, photographers Jan Saudek, Josef Sudek, František Drtikol or Josef Koudelka, illustrators Zdeněk Burian or Adolf Born, architects Jan Kotěra or Josef Gočár. Jiří Kylián was an important ballet choreographer.


Film director Miloš Forman, known best for his movie, One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest is of Czech origin and started his career in Czechoslovakia.WEB, Erickson, Hal, Milos Forman, biography,weblink Allmovie, 2008-02-10, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 February 2008, dmy-all, Forman was a member of the so-called Czech New Wave. Other members included Jiří Menzel (Oscar 1967), Věra Chytilová and Elmar Klos (Oscar 1965). Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film has also Jan Svěrák (1996). The influential surrealist filmmaker and animator Jan Švankmajer was born in Prague and has resided in the Czech Republic throughout his life. In the field of animation and puppet film made famous Zdeněk Miler, Karel Zeman and Jiří Trnka.Actors Zdeněk Svěrák, Vlastimil Brodský,WEB,weblink Vlastimil Brodsky - Czech Film,, 18 March 2015, Vladimír Menšík,WEB, Czech-Slovak film Database, Vladimír Menšík,weblink POMO Media Group, 2008-02-11,weblink" title="">weblink 3 January 2008, dead, Libuše Šafránková or Karel Roden have also made a mark in modern Czech history. The most successful Czech erotic actress is Silvia Saint.


The first Czech models have made a breakthrough in the international modeling were Paulina Porizkova or Ivana Trump. After the fall of communism in Czechoslovakia many other models succeeded: Karolína Kurková, Eva Herzigová, Taťána Kuchařová, Petra Němcová and Daniela Peštová.


File:St. John of Nepomuk in Divina.jpg|thumb|upright|St. John of Nepomuk (Jan Nepomucký) ]]Czech culture involves many saints,BOOK, Maurice, Edmund, The story of Bohemia from the earliest times to the fall of national independence in 1620;: With a short summary of later events, 1908Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia>St. Wenceslaus (Václav), patron of the Czech nation,WEB, Mershman, Francis, St. Wenceslaus,weblink Kevin KnightJohn of Nepomuk>St. John of Nepomuk (Jan Nepomucký),WEB, Krčmář, Luděk, St. John of Nepomuk - life,weblink MultiMedia Activity, 2008-02-10, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 September 2007, dmy-all, St. Adalbert (Vojtěch),Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. {{ISBN|0-14-051312-4}}. Saint Procopius or St. Agnes of Bohemia (Anežka Česká).WEB,weblink Order of the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star,, 18 March 2015, Although not a Christian, rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel of Prague, a 16th Century scholar and one of the most influential figures of Jewish history, is considered to be part of the country's religious legacy as well.WEB,weblink Rabbi Loew, the Jewish hero of the Czechs - Radio Prague,, 23 January 2018, WEB,weblink Hard Times Give New Life to Prague’s Golem, The New York Times, 23 January 2018,


Modern Czech nation was formed in process of Czech national revival. In it, he pushed linguistic concept of the nation (particularly promoted by Jungmann), i.e. "Czech = one who has Czech language as their first language - naturally or by choice." (That is why they are often considered the Czechs, Slovaks who have chosen the Czech language as their literary language, such as Ján Kollár or Pavel Jozef Šafařík). Like other nations, the Czechs also discuss two alternative concepts - land concept (Czech is one who is born in the historic Czech territory), which in times of Jungmann success primarily nobility, and ethnic concept. Definition by the territory is still discussed alternative,WEB,weblink Co je češství,, 20 December 2017, WEB,weblink CS Magazin,, 20 December 2017, from time to time is indicated for Czechs number of natives (speaking mostly German, English or otherwise) - these include US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, film director Karel Reisz, actor Herbert Lom, the founder of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud, the founder of genetics Gregor Mendel, logician and mathematician Kurt Gödel, the philosopher Edmund Husserl, scientists Gerty Cori, Carl Cori and Peter Grünberg (all Nobel Prize winners) and Ernst Mach, economists Joseph Schumpeter and Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, philosophers Bernard Bolzano, Ernest Gellner, Vilém Flusser and Herbert Feigl, Marxist theoretician Karl Kautsky, astronomer Johann Palisa, legal theorist Hans Kelsen, inventors Alois Senefelder and Viktor Kaplan, automotive designer Ferdinand Porsche, psychologist Max Wertheimer, a geologist Karl von Terzaghi, musicologists Eduard Hanslick and Guido Adler, chemist Johann Josef Loschmidt, biologists Heinrich Wilhelm Schott and Georg Joseph Kamel, the founder of the dermatology Ferdinand Ritter von Hebra, peace activist Bertha von Suttner (Nobel Peace Prize), the composers Gustav Mahler, Heinrich Biber, Viktor Ullmann, Ervin Schulhoff, Pavel Haas, Erich Wolfgang Korngold and Ralph Benatzky, writers Franz Kafka, Reiner Maria Rilke, Max Brod, Karl Kraus, Franz Werfel, Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach, Leo Perutz, Tom Stoppard and Egon Erwin Kisch, painters Anton Raphael Mengs and Emil Orlik, architects Adolf Loos, Peter Parler, Josef Hoffmann, Jan Santini Aichel and Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer, cellist David Popper, violist Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst, pianists Alice Herz-Sommer and Rudolf Serkin, president of Austria Karl Renner, Prime Minister of Poland Jerzy Buzek, industrialist Oskar Schindler, or chess player Wilhelm Steinitz.

Czech ancestry

People with Czech ancestry include the astronauts Eugene Cernan and Jim Lovell, film directors Chris Columbus and Jim Jarmusch, swimmer Katie Ledecky, politicians John Forbes Kerry and Caspar Weinberger, chemist and Nobel Prize laureate Thomas Cech, physicist Karl Guthe Jansky, economist Friedrich Hayek, painters Jan Matejko, Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele and Oskar Kokoschka, actors Ashton Kutcher, Sissy Spacek and Kim Novak, tennis players Richard Krajicek, Jakob Hlasek and Stan Wawrinka, singer Jason Mraz, Brazil president Juscelino Kubitschek, founder of McDonald's company Ray Kroc, writers Georg Trakl and Robert Musil, mayor of Chicago Anton Cermak and Ivanka Trump and her brother Donald Trump Jr.


File:Coat of arms of the Czech Republic.svg|thumb|right|upright|Greater coat of arms of the Czech Republic shows symbols of historical lands Bohemia, Moravia, SilesiaSilesiaThe Czechs live in three historical lands: Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia;WEB,weblink Political subdivision of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia,, 18 March 2015, these regions make up the modern Czech Republic. However, the country is now divided into 14 administrative regions.WEB,weblink The Area of the Czech Republic,, 18 March 2015, The local culture varies somewhat in each of the historical regions.Czech regions - Czech republic {{webarchive|url= |date=4 January 2008 }} Moravians are usually more nationalistic regional patriots of Moravia, but they also speak Czech. Local dialects (such as Central Bohemian, the Chod dialect, Moravian, Cieszyn Silesian, etc.) are found in various parts of the country.WEB,weblink National Virtual Translation Center, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 20 December 2017,

Czech language

{{see also|History of the Czech language}}The Czech language is spoken by approximately 12 million people around the world, but the vast majority are in the Czech Republic.WEB, Czech Language,weblink Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republicarchiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink Proto-Slavic language in the 10th centuryHTTP://WWW.KORTLANDT.NL/PUBLICATIONS/ART066E.PDFTITLE=FROM PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN TO SLAVICWEBSITE=KORTLANDT.NLSlovak language.HTTP://WWW.CZECH-LANGUAGE.CZ/OVERVIEW/ORIGIN.HTMLWEBSITE=CZECH-LANGUAGE.CZ, 18 March 2015,


File:Jan Hus 2.jpg|thumb|upright|Predecessor to Protestantism, Jan HusJan Hus{{see also|Religion in the Czech Republic}}In 1977, Richard Felix Staar described Czechs as "tolerant and even indifferent towards religion as a rule".Richard Felix Staar, Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, Issue 269, p. 90After the Bohemian Reformation, most Czechs (about 85%) became followers of Jan Hus, Petr Chelcicky and other regional Protestant Reformers. Bohemian Estates' defeat in the Battle of White Mountain brought radical religious changes and started a series of intense actions taken by the Habsburgs in order to bring the Czech population back to the Roman Catholic Church. After the Habsburgs regained control of Bohemia, Czech people were forcibly converted to Roman Catholicism. All kinds of Protestant communities including the various branches of Hussites, Lutherans and Reformed were either expelled, killed, or converted to Catholicism. The Catholic Church lost the bulk of its adherents during the Communist era.As of 2015, Pew Research Center found in that 72% of the population of Czech Republic declared to be irreligious, a category which includes atheists, agnostics and those who describe their religion as "nothing in particular", 26% were Christians, while 2% belonged to other faiths.


{{see also|Demographics of the Czech Republic|Czech diaspora}}
In the Czech Republic, the nation state of the Czech people, 6,732,104 (63.7%) declared as ethnic Czech according to the 2011 census. Notably, another 2,742,669 (26%) were undeclared, and 522,474 (4.9%) declared as Moravians. There is a large Czech diaspora, which includes 1,703,930 Americans of Czech/Czechoslovak ancestry,WEB,weblink US Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Decennial Programs, Census 2000, Data Set Census 2000 Summary File 3 (SF 3) – Sample Data, Table: PCT18 ANCESTRY (TOTAL CATEGORIES TALLIED) FOR PEOPLE WITH ONE OR MORE ANCESTRY CATEGORIES REPORTED [109] Universe,, 23 January 2018, 94,805 Canadians of Czech ancestry,WEB,weblink Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey: Data tables,, 14 February 2014, an estimated 45,000 Czech-born residents in the United Kingdom, and ca. 31,000 in Australia.WEB, The People of Australia – Statistics from the 2011 Census,weblink PDF, Australian Government, 20 December 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 14 July 2014, dead, There are smaller communities throughout Europe. Number of Israelis of Czech ancestry is estimated to be about 50,000 to 100,000, with notable induviduals such as Max Brod, Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld or Yehuda Bauer.

See also






  • BOOK, Agnew, Hugh, The Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown,weblink 2004, Hoover Press, 978-0-8179-4492-6, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Berger, Tilman, Slovaks in Czechia—Czechs in Slovakia, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 2003, 162, July 2003, harv, 10.1515/ijsl.2003.035,
  • BOOK, Pánek, Jaroslav, A History of the Czech Lands,weblink 2009, Charles University, 978-80-246-1645-2,
  • BOOK, King, Jeremy, Budweisers Into Czechs and Germans: A Local History of Bohemian Politics, 1848-1948,weblink 2005, Princeton University Press, 0-691-12234-2,
  • BOOK, Wiskemann, Elizabeth, Czechs & Germans: a study of the struggle in the historic provinces of Bohemia and Moravia, Royal Institute of International Affairs; Macmillan, 1967,
  • BOOK, Mastny, Vojtech, The Czechs under Nazi Rule, Columbia University Press, 1971,
  • BOOK, Hermann, Adolf Hanus, A History of the Czechs, Lane, Allen, 1975,
  • BOOK, VyÅ¡ný, Paul, Neo-Slavism and the Czechs 1898-1914,weblink 1977, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-21230-4,

Further reading

  • JOURNAL, Hroch, Miroslav, Miroslav Hroch, From ethnic group toward the modern nation: the Czech case, Nations and Nationalism (journal), Nations and Nationalism, 10, 1–2, 2004, 95–107, 10.1111/j.1354-5078.2004.00157.x,
  • BOOK, Holy, Ladislav, Ladislav Holý, The Little Czech and the Great Czech Nation: National Identity and the Post-Communist Social Transformation,weblink 1996, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-55469-5,

External links

{{Commons category|Czechs}}
  • weblink" title="">Official Czech website, links to multiple articles regarding the Czech people.
{{Slavic ethnic groups}}{{Czech diaspora}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Czechs" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 12:53am EDT - Sat, Oct 19 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott