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Creed
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{{redirect|Articles of Faith}}{{About|a statement of belief}}File:Nicaea icon.jpg|thumb|Icon depicting Emperor Constantine (center) and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno-Constantinopolitan CreedNiceno-Constantinopolitan Creed{{Christianity|state=collapsed}}A creed (also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.One of the most widely used creeds in Christianity is the Nicene Creed, first formulated in AD 325 at the First Council of Nicaea. It was based on Christian understanding of the Canonical Gospels, the letters of the New Testament and to a lesser extent the Old Testament. Affirmation of this creed, which describes the Trinity, is generally taken as a fundamental test of orthodoxy for most Christian denominations.Johnson, Phillip R. "The Nicene Creed." {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090314061400weblink |date=2009-03-14 }} Accessed 17 May 2009 The Apostles' Creed is also broadly accepted. Some Christian denominations and other groups have rejected the authority of those creeds.Muslims declare the shahada, or testimony: "I bear witness that there is no god but (the One) God (Allah), and I bear witness that Muhammad is God's messenger.""Proclaiming the Shahada is the First Step Into Islam." {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090303214355weblink |date=2009-03-03 }} Islamic Learning Materials. Accessed: 17 May 2009. See also "The Shahada, or Shahāda / kalimatu-sh-shahādah / kelime-i şehadet." A. Ismail Mohr. Accessed: 28 May 2012Whether Judaism is creedal has been a point of some controversy. Although some say Judaism is noncreedal in nature, others say it recognizes a single creed, the Shema Yisrael, which begins: "Hear, O Israel: the {{Lord}} our God, the {{Lord}} is one."{{bibleverse||Deut|6:4|HE}}

Terminology

{{see also|Credo}}The word creed is particularly used for a concise statement which is recited as part of liturgy. The term is anglicized from Latin credo "I believe", the incipit of the Latin texts of the Apostles' Creed and the Nicene Creed. A creed is sometimes referred to as a symbol in a specialized meaning of that word (which was first introduced to Late Middle English in this sense), after Latin symbolum "creed" (as in Symbolum Apostolorum = "Apostles' Creed"), after Greek symbolon "token, watchword".Justo L. Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, 2nd ed., Vol. 1, p. 77.Some longer statements of faith in the Protestant tradition are instead called "confessions of faith", or simply "confession" (as in e.g. Helvetic Confession).Within Evangelicalism, the terms "doctrinal statement" or "doctrinal basis" tend to be preferred. Doctrinal statements may include positions on lectionary and translations of the Bible, particularly in fundamentalist churches of the King James Only movement.The term creed is sometimes extended to comparable concepts in non-Christian theologies; thus the Islamic concept of ʿaqīdah (literally "bond, tie") is often rendered as "creed".

Christian creeds

Several creeds have originated in Christianity.
  • 1 Corinthians 15, 3–7 includes an early creed about Jesus' death and resurrection which was probably received by Paul. The antiquity of the creed has been located by most biblical scholars to no more than five years after Jesus' death, probably originating from the Jerusalem apostolic community.see Wolfhart Pannenberg, Jesus—God and Man translated Lewis Wilkins and Duane Pribe (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1968) p. 90; Oscar Cullmann, The Early church: Studies in Early Christian History and Theology, ed. A. J. B. Higgins (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966) p. 66; R. E. Brown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus (New York: Paulist Press, 1973) p. 81; Thomas Sheehan, First Coming: How the Kingdom of God Became Christianity (New York: Random House, 1986) pp. 110, 118; Ulrich Wilckens, Resurrection translated A. M. Stewart (Edinburgh: Saint Andrew, 1977) p. 2; Hans Grass, Ostergeschen und Osterberichte, Second Edition (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1962) p. 96; Grass favors the origin in Damascus.
  • The Old Roman Creed is an earlier and shorter version of the Apostles' Creed. It was based on the 2nd century Rules of Faith and the interrogatory declaration of faith for those receiving baptism, which by the 4th century was everywhere tripartite in structure, following Matthew 28:19.
  • The Apostles' Creed is widely used by most Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes.
  • The Nicene Creed reflects the concerns of the First Council of Nicaea in 325 which had as their chief purpose to establish what Christians believed.Kiefer, James E. "The Nicene Creed." {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090314061400weblink |date=2009-03-14 }} Accessed 17 May 2009
  • The Chalcedonian Creed was adopted at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 in Asia Minor. It defines that Christ is 'acknowledged in two natures', which 'come together into one person and hypostasis'.
  • The Athanasian Creed (Quicumque vult) is a Christian statement of belief focusing on Trinitarian doctrine and Christology. It is the first creed in which the equality of the three persons of the Trinity is explicitly stated and differs from the Nicene and Apostles' Creeds in the inclusion of anathemas, or condemnations of those who disagree with the Creed.
  • The Tridentine Creed was initially contained in the papal bull Iniunctum Nobis, issued by Pope Pius IV on November 13, 1565. The creed was intended to summarize the teaching of the Council of Trent (1545–1563).
  • The Maasai Creed is a creed composed in 1960 by the Maasai people of East Africa in collaboration with missionaries from the Congregation of the Holy Ghost. The creed attempts to express the essentials of the Christian faith within the Maasai culture.
  • The Credo of the People of God is a profession of faith that Pope Paul VI published with the motu proprio Solemni hac liturgia of 30 June 1968. Pope Paul VI spoke of it as "a profession of faith, ... a creed which, without being strictly speaking a dogmatic definition, repeats in substance, with some developments called for by the spiritual condition of our time, the creed of Nicea, the creed of the immortal tradition of the holy Church of God."

Christian confessions of faith

Protestant denominations are usually associated with confessions of faith, which are similar to creeds but usually longer.

Christians without creeds

Some Christian denominations, and particularly those descending from the Radical Reformation, do not profess a creed. This stance is often referred to as "non-creedalism". The Religious Society of Friends, also known as the Quakers, consider that they have no need for creedal formulations of faith. The Church of the Brethren and other Schwarzenau Brethren churches also espouses no creed, referring to the New Testament, as their "rule of faith and practice."Martin, Harold S.: "Forward", "Basic Beliefs Within the Church of the Brethren". Jehovah's Witnesses contrast "memorizing or repeating creeds" with acting to "do what Jesus said"."Creeds—Any Place in True Worship?", Awake!, October 8, 1985, ©Watch Tower, page 23, "The opening words of a creed invariably are, “I believe” or, “We believe.” This expression is translated from the Latin word “credo,” from which comes the word “creed.” ...What do we learn from Jesus’ words? That it is valueless in God’s eyes for one merely to repeat what one claims to believe. ...Thus, rather than memorizing or repeating creeds, we must do what Jesus said" Unitarian Universalists do not share a creed.Maxwell, Bill. "Leading the Unitarian Universalist Association, a faith without a creed." St. Petersburg Times. Apr 11, 2008Many evangelical Protestants similarly reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even while agreeing with some creeds' substance. The Baptists have been non-creedal "in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another".Avis, Paul (2002) The Christian Church: An Introduction to the Major Traditions, SPCK, London, {{ISBN|0-281-05246-8}}{{rp|111}} While many Baptists are not opposed to the ancient creeds, they regard them as "not so final that they cannot be revised and re-expressed. At best, creeds have a penultimacy about them and, of themselves, could never be the basis of Christian fellowship".{{rp|112}} Moreover, Baptist "confessions of faith" have often had a clause such as this from the First London (Particular) Baptist Confession (Revised edition, 1646):Similar reservations about the use of creeds can be found in the Restoration Movement and its descendants, the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Churches of Christ, and the Christian churches and churches of Christ. Restorationists profess "no creed but Christ".WEB, Scott, Harp, George A. Klingman,weblink Restoration History, Buford Church of Christ, 2015-09-19, Bishop John Shelby Spong, retired Episcopal Bishop of Newark, has written that dogmas and creeds were merely "a stage in our development" and "part of our religious childhood." In his book, Sins of the Scripture, Spong wrote that "Jesus seemed to understand that no one can finally fit the holy God into his or her creeds or doctrines. That is idolatry."p. 227, p. 226}}In the Swiss Reformed Churches, there was a quarrel about the Apostles' Creed in the mid-19th century. As a result, most cantonal reformed churches stopped prescribing any particular creed.{{HDS|43205|Apostolikumsstreit|author=Rudolf Gebhard|date=2011-01-27}}

Latter Day Saints

Within the sects of the Latter Day Saint movement, the Articles of Faith are a list composed by Joseph Smith as part of an 1842 letter sent to "Long" John Wentworth, editor of the Chicago Democrat. It is canonized with the "Bible", the "Book of Mormon", the "Doctrine & Covenants" and Pearl of Great Price, as part of the standard works of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.Creedal works include:{{Div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}

Jewish creed

{{refimprove section|date=January 2013}}{{see also|Jewish principles of faith}}Whether Judaism is creedal in character has generated some controversy. Rabbi Milton Steinberg wrote that "By its nature Judaism is averse to formal creeds which of necessity limit and restrain thought" and asserted in his book Basic Judaism (1947) that "Judaism has never arrived at a creed." The 1976 Centenary Platform of the Central Conference of American Rabbis, an organization of Reform rabbis, agrees that "Judaism emphasizes action rather than creed as the primary expression of a religious life."Others,{{who|date=January 2013}} however, characterize the Shema Yisrael{{Bibleref2c|Deut.|6:4}} as a creedal statement in strict monotheism embodied in a single prayer: "Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One" (; transliterated Shema Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Echad).A notable statement of Jewish principles of faith was drawn up by Maimonides as his 13 Principles of Faith."Maimonides' Principles: The Fundamentals of Jewish Faith", in The Aryeh Kaplan Anthology, Volume I, Mesorah Publications, 1994

Islamic creed

The shahada, the two-part statement that "There is no god but God; Muhammad is the messenger of God" is often popularly called "the Islamic creed" and its utterance is one of the "five pillars".WEB,weblink Islam Guide: What Are the Five Pillars of Islam?, www.islam-guide.com, 2017-02-03, In Islamic theology, the term most closely corresponding to "creed" is ʿaqīdah ()The first such creed was written as "a short answer to the pressing heresies of the time" is known as Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar and ascribed to Abū Ḥanīfa.Glasse, Cyril (2001). New Encyclopedia of Islam (Revised ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 105.WEB, Abu Hanifah An-Nu^man, Al- Fiqh Al-Akbar,weblink aicp.org, 14 March 2014, Two well known creeds were the Fiqh Akbar IIAl-Fiqh Al-Akbar II With Commentary by Al-Ninowy "representative" of the al-Ash'ari, and Fiqh Akbar III, "representative" of the Ash-Shafi'i.Iman (}}) in Islamic theology denotes a believer's religious faith .Farāhī, Majmū‘ah Tafāsīr, 2nd ed. (Faran Foundation, 1998), 347.Frederick M. Denny, An Introduction to Islam, 3rd ed., p. 405 Its most simple definition is the belief in the six articles of faith, known as arkān al-īmān.
  1. Belief in God
  2. Belief in the Angels
  3. Belief in Divine Books
  4. Belief in the Prophets
  5. Belief in the Day of Judgment
  6. Belief in God's predestination

See also

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • Christian Confessions: a Historical Introduction, [by] Ted A. Campbell. First ed. xxi, 336 p. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1996. {{ISBN|0-664-25650-3}}
  • Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition. Edited by Jaroslav Pelikan and Valerie Hotchkiss. Yale University Press 2003.
  • Creeds in the Making: a Short Introduction to the History of Christian Doctrine, [by] Alan Richardson. Reissued. London: S.C.M. Press, 1979, cop. 1935. 128 p. {{ISBN|0-334-00264-8}}
  • Ecumenical Creeds and Reformed Confessions. Grand Rapids, Mich.: C.R.C. [i.e. Christian Reformed Church] Publications, 1987. 148 p. {{ISBN|0-930265-34-3}}
  • The Three Forms of Unity (Heidelberg Catechism, Belgic Confession, [and the] Canons of Dordrecht), and the Ecumenical Creeds (the Apostles' Creed, the Athanasian Creed, [and the] Creed of Chalcedon). Reprinted [ed.]. Mission Committee of the Protestant Reformed Churches in America, 1991. 58 p. Without ISBN

External links

{{EB1911 poster|Creeds}}
  • The Creeds of Christendom – A website linking to many formal Christian declarations of faith.
  • Creeds and Canons – A Guide to Early Church Documents from Internet Christian Library
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928022644weblink">ICP Website International Creed for Peace


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