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Consequentialism
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File:Demosthenes orator Louvre.jpg|thumb|upright|right|Every advantage in the past is judged in the light of the final issue. —DemosthenesDemosthenesConsequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the (wikt:consequence|consequences) of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct. Thus, from a consequentialist standpoint, a morally right act (or omission from acting) is one that will produce a good outcome, or consequence. Consequentialism is primarily non-prescriptive, meaning the moral worth of an action is determined by its potential consequence, not by whether it follows a set of written edicts or laws. One example would entail lying under the threat of government punishment to save an innocent person's life, even though it is illegal to lie under oath.Consequentialism is usually contrasted with deontological ethics (or deontology), in that deontology, in which rules and moral duty are central, derives the rightness or wrongness of one's conduct from the character of the behaviour itself rather than the outcomes of the conduct. It is also contrasted with virtue ethics, which focuses on the character of the agent rather than on the nature or consequences of the act (or omission) itself, and pragmatic ethics which treats morality like science: advancing socially over the course of many lifetimes, such that any moral criterion is subject to revision. Consequentialist theories differ in how they define moral goods.Some argue that consequentialist and deontological theories are not necessarily mutually exclusive. For example, T. M. Scanlon advances the idea that human rights, which are commonly considered a "deontological" concept, can only be justified with reference to the consequences of having those rights. Similarly, Robert Nozick argues for a theory that is mostly consequentialist, but incorporates inviolable "side-constraints" which restrict the sort of actions agents are permitted to do.

Philosophies

State consequentialism

|Mozi, Mozi (5th century BC) Part I}}Mohist consequentialism, also known as state consequentialism,BOOK, Readings in classical Chinese philosophy, 2005, Ivanhoe, P.J., Van Norden, Bryan William, Hackett Publishing, 978-0-87220-780-6, 60, "he advocated a form of state consequentialism, which sought to maximize three basic goods: the wealth, order, and population of the state, is an ethical theory which evaluates the moral worth of an action based on how much it contributes to the welfare of a state. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Mohist consequentialism, dating back to the 5th century BCE, is the "world's earliest form of consequentialism, a remarkably sophisticated version based on a plurality of intrinsic goods taken as constitutive of human welfare".Fraser, Chris, "Mohism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta.Unlike utilitarianism, which views utility as the sole moral good, "the basic goods in Mohist consequentialist thinking are... order, material wealth, and increase in population".BOOK, The Cambridge History of Ancient China, 1999, Loewe, Michael, Shaughnessy, Edward L., Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-47030-8, 761, During Mozi's era, war and famines were common, and population growth was seen as a moral necessity for a harmonious society. The "material wealth" of Mohist consequentialism refers to basic needs like shelter and clothing, and the "order" of Mohist consequentialism refers to Mozi's stance against warfare and violence, which he viewed as pointless and a threat to social stability.BOOK, Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy, 2011, Van Norden, Bryan W., Hackett Publishing, 978-1-60384-468-0, 52, Stanford sinologist David Shepherd Nivison, in The Cambridge History of Ancient China, writes that the moral goods of Mohism "are interrelated: more basic wealth, then more reproduction; more people, then more production and wealth... if people have plenty, they would be good, filial, kind, and so on unproblematically".The Mohists believed that morality is based on "promoting the benefit of all under heaven and eliminating harm to all under heaven". In contrast to Jeremy Bentham's views, state consequentialism is not utilitarian because it is not hedonistic or individualistic. The importance of outcomes that are good for the community outweigh the importance of individual pleasure and pain.BOOK, Jay L. Garfield, William Edelglass, The Oxford Handbook of World Philosophy,weblink 9 June 2011, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-532899-8, 62, The goods that serve as criteria of morality are collective or public, in contrast, for instance, to individual happiness or well-being, . The term state consequentialism has also been applied to the political philosophy of the Confucian philosopher Xunzi.BOOK, Deen K. Chatterjee, Encyclopedia of Global Justice,weblink 6 October 2011, Springer, 978-1-4020-9159-9, 1170, in this sense, one can interpret Xunzi's political philosophy as a form of state utilitarianism or state consequentialism, On the other hand, the "Legalist" Han Fei "is motivated almost totally from the ruler's point of view".JOURNAL, Chad, Hansen, Fa (Standards: Laws) and Meaning Changes in Chinese Philosophy, Philosophy East and West, 44, 3, 1994, 435–488, 1399736,

Utilitarianism

File:Jeremy Bentham by Henry William Pickersgill detail.jpg|thumb|Jeremy Bentham, best known for his advocacy of utilitarianismutilitarianismIn summary, Jeremy Bentham states that people are driven by their interests and their fears, but their interests take precedence over their fears, and their interests are carried out in accordance with how people view the consequences that might be involved with their interests. "Happiness" on this account is defined as the maximization of pleasure and the minimization of pain.Historically, hedonistic utilitarianism is the paradigmatic example of a consequentialist moral theory. This form of utilitarianism holds that what matters is the aggregate happiness; the happiness of everyone and not the happiness of any particular person. John Stuart Mill, in his exposition of hedonistic utilitarianism, proposed a hierarchy of pleasures, meaning that the pursuit of certain kinds of pleasure is more highly valued than the pursuit of other pleasures.BOOK, Utilitarianism, 1998, Mill, John Stuart, John Stuart Mill, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-0-19-875163-2,weblink However, some contemporary utilitarians, such as Peter Singer, are concerned with maximizing the satisfaction of preferences, hence "preference utilitarianism". Other contemporary forms of utilitarianism mirror the forms of consequentialism outlined below.

Ethical egoism

Ethical egoism can be understood as a consequentialist theory according to which the consequences for the individual agent are taken to matter more than any other result. Thus, egoism will prescribe actions that may be beneficial, detrimental, or neutral to the welfare of others. Some, like Henry Sidgwick, argue that a certain degree of egoism promotes the general welfare of society for two reasons: because individuals know how to please themselves best, and because if everyone were an austere altruist then general welfare would inevitably decrease.BOOK, The Method of Ethics, 1907, Sidgwick, Henry, Henry Sidgwick, Dover (1981), NY, 0-915145-28-6,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071209092717weblink">weblink December 9, 2007,

Ethical altruism

Ethical altruism can be seen as a consequentialist ethic which prescribes that an individual take actions that have the best consequences for everyone except for himself.WEB, Ethics, James, Fisher, Bradley, Dowdwen, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,weblink This was advocated by Auguste Comte, who coined the term "altruism," and whose ethics can be summed up in the phrase "Live for others".WEB, Moran, Gabriel, Christian Religion and National Interests, 2006,weblink {{reliable source|date=July 2018}}

Rule consequentialism

{{See also|Rule utilitarianism}}In general, consequentialist theories focus on actions. However, this need not be the case. Rule consequentialism is a theory that is sometimes seen as an attempt to reconcile deontology and consequentialism—and in some cases, this is stated as a criticism of rule consequentialism.Bernard Williams, "Utilitarianism" in his Morality, Cambridge University Press 1993 Like deontology, rule consequentialism holds that moral behavior involves following certain rules. However, rule consequentialism chooses rules based on the consequences that the selection of those rules has. Rule consequentialism exists in the forms of rule utilitarianism and rule egoism.Various theorists are split as to whether the rules are the only determinant of moral behavior or not. For example, Robert Nozick holds that a certain set of minimal rules, which he calls "side-constraints", are necessary to ensure appropriate actions. There are also differences as to how absolute these moral rules are. Thus, while Nozick's side-constraints are absolute restrictions on behavior, Amartya Sen proposes a theory that recognizes the importance of certain rules, but these rules are not absolute. That is, they may be violated if strict adherence to the rule would lead to much more undesirable consequences.One of the most common objections to rule-consequentialism is that it is incoherent, because it is based on the consequentialist principle that what we should be concerned with is maximizing the good, but then it tells us not to act to maximize the good, but to follow rules (even in cases where we know that breaking the rule could produce better results).Brad Hooker avoided this objection by not basing his form of rule-consequentialism on the ideal of maximizing the good. He writes:…the best argument for rule-consequentialism is not that it derives from an overarching commitment to maximise the good. The best argument for rule-consequentialism is that it does a better job than its rivals of matching and tying together our moral convictions, as well as offering us help with our moral disagreements and uncertainties.Brad Hooker, Ideal Code, Real World Oxford University Press, 2000, p. 101.Derek Parfit described Brad Hooker's book on rule-consequentialism Ideal Code, Real World as the "best statement and defence, so far, of one of the most important moral theories".BOOK, Brad, Hooker, Ideal Code, Real World, Oxford University Press, new edition 2002, back cover,weblink Rule-consequentialism may offer a means to reconcile pure consequentialism with deontological, or rules-based ethics.ARTICLE, Jeevan, D'Souza, On Measuring the Moral Value of Action, Philos, China,weblink

Two-level consequentialism

The two-level approach involves engaging in critical reasoning and considering all the possible ramifications of one's actions before making an ethical decision, but reverting to generally reliable moral rules when one is not in a position to stand back and examine the dilemma as a whole. In practice, this equates to adhering to rule consequentialism when one can only reason on an intuitive level, and to act consequentialism when in a position to stand back and reason on a more critical level.BOOK,weblink The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter, 2015, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, Zalta, Edward N., Winter 2015, {{citation needed|date=December 2012}}This position can be described as a reconciliation between act consequentialism – in which the morality of an action is determined by that action's effects – and rule consequentialism – in which moral behavior is derived from following rules that lead to positive outcomes.{{citation needed|date=December 2012}}The two-level approach to consequentialism is most often associated with R. M. Hare and Peter Singer.{{citation needed|date=December 2012}}

Motive consequentialism

Another consequentialist version is motive consequentialism which looks at whether the state of affairs that results from the motive to choose an action is better or at least as good as each of the alternative state of affairs that would have resulted from alternative actions. This version gives relevance to the motive of an act and links it to its consequences. An act can therefore not be wrong if the decision to act was based on a right motive. A possible inference is, that one can not be blamed for mistaken judgments if the motivation was to do good.JOURNAL, Adams, R. M., 1976, Motive Utilitarianism, Journal of Philosophy, 73, 14, 467–81, 10.2307/2025783,

Negative consequentialism

Most consequentialist theories focus on promoting some sort of good consequences. However, negative utilitarianism lays out a consequentialist theory that focuses solely on minimizing bad consequences.One major difference between these two approaches is the agent's responsibility. Positive consequentialism demands that we bring about good states of affairs, whereas negative consequentialism requires that we avoid bad ones. Stronger versions of negative consequentialism will require active intervention to prevent bad and ameliorate existing harm. In weaker versions, simple forbearance from acts tending to harm others is sufficient. An example of this is the Slippery Slope Argument, which encourages others to avoid a specified act on the grounds that it may ultimately lead to undesirable consequences.JOURNAL, Haigh, Matthew, Wood, Jeffrey S., Stewart, Andrew J., 2016-07-01, Slippery slope arguments imply opposition to change,weblink Memory & Cognition, en, 44, 5, 819–836, 10.3758/s13421-016-0596-9, 0090-502X, Often "negative" consequentialist theories assert that reducing suffering is more important than increasing pleasure. Karl Popper, for example, claimed "…from the moral point of view, pain cannot be outweighed by pleasure...". (While Popper is not a consequentialist per se, this is taken as a classic statement of negative utilitarianism.) When considering a theory of justice, negative consequentialists may use a statewide or global-reaching principle: the reduction of suffering (for the disadvantaged) is more valuable than increased pleasure (for the affluent or luxurious).

Teleological ethics

{{unreferenced section|date=September 2013}}Teleological ethics (Greek telos, "end"; logos, "science") is an ethical theory that holds that the ends or consequences of an act determine whether an act is good or evil. Teleological theories are often discussed in opposition to deontological ethical theories, which hold that acts themselves are inherently good or evil, regardless of the consequences of acts.{{Citation needed|date=February 2012}} The saying, "the end justifies the (wikt:the end justifies the means|means)",BOOK, 104, Mizzoni, John, John Wiley & Sons, Ethics: The Basics,weblink meaning that if a goal is morally important enough, any method of achieving it is acceptable.Cambridge Dictionary: the end justifies the meansTeleological theories differ on the nature of the end that actions ought to promote. Eudaemonist theories (Greek eudaimonia, "happiness") hold that the goal of ethics consists in some function or activity appropriate to man as a human being, and thus tend to emphasize the cultivation of virtue or excellence in the agent as the end of all action. These could be the classical virtues—courage, temperance, justice, and wisdom—that promoted the Greek ideal of man as the "rational animal", or the theological virtues—faith, hope, and love—that distinguished the Christian ideal of man as a being created in the image of God.{{Citation needed|date=February 2012}}File:JohnStuartMill.jpg|thumb|John Stuart Mill, an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century and a teacher of utilitarianismutilitarianismUtilitarian-type theories hold that the end consists in an experience or feeling produced by the action. Hedonism, for example, teaches that this feeling is pleasure—either one's own, as in egoism (the 17th-century English philosopher Thomas Hobbes), or everyone's, as in universalistic hedonism, or utilitarianism (the 19th-century English philosophers Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, and Henry Sidgwick), with its formula of the "greatest pleasure of the greatest number".{{Citation needed|date=February 2012}}Other utilitarian-type views include the claims that the end of action is survival and growth, as in evolutionary ethics (the 19th-century English philosopher Herbert Spencer); the experience of power, as in despotism; satisfaction and adjustment, as in pragmatism (20th-century American philosophers Ralph Barton Perry and John Dewey); and freedom, as in existentialism (the 20th-century French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre).{{Citation needed|date=February 2012}}The chief problem for eudaemonist theories is to show that leading a life of virtue will also be attended by happiness—by the winning of the goods regarded as the chief end of action. That Job should suffer and Socrates and Jesus die while the wicked prosper, then seems unjust. Eudaemonists generally reply that the universe is moral and that, in Socrates' words, "No evil can happen to a good man, either in life or after death," or, in Jesus' words, "But he who endures to the end will be saved." (Matt 10:22).Utilitarian theories, on the other hand, must answer the charge that ends do not justify the means. The problem arises in these theories because they tend to separate the achieved ends from the action by which these ends were produced. One implication of utilitarianism is that one's intention in performing an act may include all of its foreseen consequences. The goodness of the intention then reflects the balance of the good and evil of these consequences, with no limits imposed upon it by the nature of the act itself—even if it be, say, the breaking of a promise or the execution of an innocent man. Utilitarianism, in answering this charge, must show either that what is apparently immoral is not really so or that, if it really is so, then closer examination of the consequences will bring this fact to light. Ideal utilitarianism (G.E. Moore and Hastings Rashdall) tries to meet the difficulty by advocating a plurality of ends and including among them the attainment of virtue itself, which, as John Stuart Mill affirmed, "may be felt a good in itself, and desired as such with as great intensity as any other good".{{Citation needed|date=February 2012}}

Acts and omissions, and the "act and omissions doctrine"

Since pure consequentialism holds that an action is to be judged solely by its result, most consequentialist theories hold that a deliberate action is no different from a deliberate decision not to act. This contrasts with the "acts and omissions doctrine", which is upheld by some medical ethicists and some religions: it asserts there is a significant moral distinction between acts and deliberate non-actions which lead to the same outcome. This contrast is brought out in issues such as voluntary euthanasia.

Issues

Action guidance

One important characteristic of many normative moral theories such as consequentialism is the ability to produce practical moral judgements. At the very least, any moral theory needs to define the standpoint from which the goodness of the consequences are to be determined. What is primarily at stake here is the responsibility of the agent.{{Citation needed|date=February 2012}}

The ideal observer

One common tactic among consequentialists, particularly those committed to an altruistic (selfless) account of consequentialism, is to employ an ideal, neutral observer from which moral judgements can be made. John Rawls, a critic of utilitarianism, argues that utilitarianism, in common with other forms of consequentialism, relies on the perspective of such an ideal observer. The particular characteristics of this ideal observer can vary from an omniscient observer, who would grasp all the consequences of any action, to an ideally informed observer, who knows as much as could reasonably be expected, but not necessarily all the circumstances or all the possible consequences. Consequentialist theories that adopt this paradigm hold that right action is the action that will bring about the best consequences from this ideal observer's perspective.{{Citation needed|date=February 2012}}

The real observer

In practice, it is very difficult, and at times arguably impossible, to adopt the point of view of an ideal observer. Individual moral agents do not know everything about their particular situations, and thus do not know all the possible consequences of their potential actions. For this reason, some theorists have argued that consequentialist theories can only require agents to choose the best action in line with what they know about the situation.BOOK, Mackie, J. L., J. L. Mackie, 1977, Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong, Penguin, London, 0-14-013558-8, 1990, However, if this approach is naïvely adopted, then moral agents who, for example, recklessly fail to reflect on their situation, and act in a way that brings about terrible results, could be said to be acting in a morally justifiable way. Acting in a situation without first informing oneself of the circumstances of the situation can lead to even the most well-intended actions yielding miserable consequences. As a result, it could be argued that there is a moral imperative for an agent to inform himself as much as possible about a situation before judging the appropriate course of action. This imperative, of course, is derived from consequential thinking: a better-informed agent is able to bring about better consequences.{{Citation needed|date=February 2012}}

Consequences for whom

File:Surveyed Consequences of Whistleblowing.png|thumb|Surveyed consequences of whistleblowing ]]Moral action always has consequences for certain people or things. Varieties of consequentialism can be differentiated by the beneficiary of the good consequences. That is, one might ask "Consequences for whom?"

Agent-focused or agent-neutral

A fundamental distinction can be drawn between theories which require that agents act for ends perhaps disconnected from their own interests and drives, and theories which permit that agents act for ends in which they have some personal interest or motivation. These are called "agent-neutral" and "agent-focused" theories respectively.Agent-neutral consequentialism ignores the specific value a state of affairs has for any particular agent. Thus, in an agent-neutral theory, an actor's personal goals do not count any more than anyone else's goals in evaluating what action the actor should take. Agent-focused consequentialism, on the other hand, focuses on the particular needs of the moral agent. Thus, in an agent-focused account, such as one that Peter Railton outlines, the agent might be concerned with the general welfare, but the agent is more concerned with the immediate welfare of herself and her friends and family.BOOK, Consequentialism and Its Critics, 1988, Scheffler, Samuel (Ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-0-19-875073-4, These two approaches could be reconciled by acknowledging the tension between an agent's interests as an individual and as a member of various groups, and seeking to somehow optimize among all of these interests.{{Citation needed|date=October 2012}} For example, it may be meaningful to speak of an action as being good for someone as an individual, but bad for them as a citizen of their town.

Human-centered?

Many consequentialist theories may seem primarily concerned with human beings and their relationships with other human beings. However, some philosophers argue that we should not limit our ethical consideration to the interests of human beings alone. Jeremy Bentham, who is regarded as the founder of utilitarianism, argues that animals can experience pleasure and pain, thus demanding that 'non-human animals' should be a serious object of moral concern.BOOK, An Introduction to the Principles of Moral Legislation, 1996, Bentham, Jeremy, Jeremy Bentham, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-0-19-820516-6,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080105091421weblink">weblink January 5, 2008, More recently, Peter Singer has argued that it is unreasonable that we do not give equal consideration to the interests of animals as to those of human beings when we choose the way we are to treat them.BOOK, Unsanctifying Human Life, Singer, Peter, Peter Singer, Helga Kuhse, ed., 2002, Blackwell, Oxford, 978-0-631-22507-2, Such equal consideration does not necessarily imply identical treatment of humans and non-humans, any more than it necessarily implies identical treatment of all humans.

Value of consequences

One way to divide various consequentialisms is by the types of consequences that are taken to matter most, that is, which consequences count as good states of affairs. According to utilitarianism, a good action is one that results in an increase in pleasure, and the best action is one that results in the most pleasure for the greatest number. Closely related is eudaimonic consequentialism, according to which a full, flourishing life, which may or may not be the same as enjoying a great deal of pleasure, is the ultimate aim. Similarly, one might adopt an aesthetic consequentialism, in which the ultimate aim is to produce beauty. However, one might fix on non-psychological goods as the relevant effect. Thus, one might pursue an increase in material equality or political liberty instead of something like the more ephemeral "pleasure". Other theories adopt a package of several goods, all to be promoted equally.

Virtue ethics

Consequentialism can also be contrasted with aretaic moral theories such as virtue ethics. Whereas consequentialist theories posit that consequences of action should be the primary focus of our thinking about ethics, virtue ethics insists that it is the character rather than the consequences of actions that should be the focal point. Some virtue ethicists hold that consequentialist theories totally disregard the development and importance of moral character. For example, Philippa Foot argues that consequences in themselves have no ethical content, unless it has been provided by a virtue such as benevolence.However, consequentialism and virtue ethics need not be entirely antagonistic. Iain King has developed an approach that reconciles the two schools.King, Ian (2008). (How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time|How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time: Solving the Riddle of Right and Wrong), London: Continuum.{{page needed|date=August 2018}}{{better source|date=August 2018}} Other consequentialists consider effects on the character of people involved in an action when assessing consequence. Similarly, a consequentialist theory may aim at the maximization of a particular virtue or set of virtues. Finally, following Foot's lead, one might adopt a sort of consequentialism that argues that virtuous activity ultimately produces the best consequences.{{Citation needed|date=February 2012}}{{Clarify|What issue in consequentialism is being discussed here?|date=February 2012}}(File:Max Weber 1894.jpg|thumb|Max Weber)

Ultimate end

The ultimate end is a concept in the moral philosophy of Max Weber, in which individuals act in a faithful, rather than rational, manner.{{Citation needed|date=February 2012}}

Etymology

The term "consequentialism" was {{cns|text=coined by|reason=is this the first use of the term "consequentialism"?|date=March 2016}} G. E. M. Anscombe in her essay "Modern Moral Philosophy" in 1958, to describe what she saw as the central error of certain moral theories, such as those propounded by Mill and Sidgwick.JOURNAL, G. E. M. Anscombe, Modern Moral Philosophy, Philosophy, 33, 1–19,weblink 10.1017/S0031819100037943, 1958, Anscombe, G. E. M., 1958, 124, The phrase and concept of "The end justifies the means" are at least as old as the first century BC. Ovid wrote in his Heroides that Exitus acta probat "The result justifies the deed".

Criticisms

G. E. M. Anscombe objects to consequentialism on the grounds that it does not provide ethical guidance in what one ought to do because there is no distinction between consequences that are foreseen and those that are intended.{{full citation needed|Absence of distinction between foreseen and intended consequences|date=November 2012}}Bernard Williams has argued that consequentialism is alienating because it requires moral agents to put too much distance between themselves and their own projects and commitments. Williams argues that consequentialism requires moral agents to take a strictly impersonal view of all actions, since it is only the consequences, and not who produces them, that are said to matter. Williams argues that this demands too much of moral agents—since (he claims) consequentialism demands that they be willing to sacrifice any and all personal projects and commitments in any given circumstance in order to pursue the most beneficent course of action possible. He argues further that consequentialism fails to make sense of intuitions that it can matter whether or not someone is personally the author of a particular consequence. For example, that participating in a crime can matter, even if the crime would have been committed anyway, or would even have been worse, without the agent's participation.Smart, J.J.C. and Williams, Bernard. Utilitarianism: For and Against. Cambridge University Press, 1973, pp. 98 ff.Some consequentialists—most notably Peter Railton—have attempted to develop a form of consequentialism that acknowledges and avoids the objections raised by Williams. Railton argues that Williams's criticisms can be avoided by adopting a form of consequentialism in which moral decisions are to be determined by the sort of life that they express. On his account, the agent should choose the sort of life that will, on the whole, produce the best overall effects.

Notable consequentialists

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See also

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References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Consequentialism, 2002, Darwall, Stephen (Ed.), Blackwell, Oxford, 978-0-631-23108-0,
  • BOOK, Goodman, Charles, Consequences of Compassion: An interpretation and Defense of Buddhist Ethics, 2009, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-0-19-537519-0,
  • JOURNAL, Honderich, Ted, Consequentialism, Moralities of Concern and Selfishness, 2003,weblink
  • BOOK, Portmore, Douglas W., Commonsense Consequentialism: Wherein Morality Meets Rationality, 2011, Oxford University Press, New York, 978-0-19-979453-9,weblink
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Price, Terry, Ronald, Hamowy, Ronald Hamowy, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, Consequentialism,weblink 2008, SAGE Publications, SAGE; Cato Institute, Thousand Oaks, CA, 10.4135/9781412965811.n60, 978-1-4129-6580-4, 750831024, 2008009151, 91–93,
  • BOOK, Scheffler, Samuel, The Rejection of Consequentialism: A Philosophical Investigation of the Considerations Underlying Rival Moral Conceptions, 1994, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-0-19-823511-8,

External links

  • IEP, conseque, Consequentialism,
  • SEP, consequentialism, Consequentialism, Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter,
  • SEP, consequentialism-rule, Rule Consequentialism, Hooker, Brad,
  • Deontology and Ethical Ends
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