Conquest of Mecca

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Conquest of Mecca
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{{expand Arabic|date=April 2019}}{{Multiple issues|{{Cleanup|date=April 2014|reason=reads like has been copied from a book.}}{{refimprove|date=March 2016}}}}

''| conflict = Conquest of MeccaMuslim–Quraysh tribe>Quraysh Wars|| caption = Muhammad advancing on Mecca in Siyer-i Nebi's The Life of the Prophet.| date = December 629 or January 630| place = Mecca| result = Muslim victory
  • End of Muslim–Quraysh Wars| combatant1 = Muslims
Quraysh tribe>QurayshMuhammadAbu Bakr>Abu Bakr ibn Abi QuhafahKhalid ibn al-WalidAli ibn Abi TalibUmar ibn al-KhattabAbu Ubaidah ibn al-JarrahZubayr ibn al-Awam| commander2 = Abu Sufyan ibn HarbIkrimah ibn Abi JahlSuhayl ibn AmrSafwan ibn Umayyah| strength1 = 10,000| strength2 = Approx 2000-4000DATE=10 AUGUST 2007URL=HTTPS://ARCHIVE.ORG/STREAM/KHALIDBINAL-WALEEDSWORDOFALLAH.PDF/KHALIDBINAL-WALEEDSWORDOFALLAH#PAGE/N57/MODE/2UP/SEARCH/MARR-UZ-ZAHRANPUBLISHER=MAKTABAH PUBLICATIONSISBN=0954866525, Agha Ibrahim Akram, Akram 2007, p. 61.>}}{{Campaignbox Rise of Islam}}{{Campaignbox Campaigns of Khalid ibn Walid}}The conquest of Mecca ( {{transl|ar|ALA-LC|fatḥ makkah}}) refers to the event when Mecca was conquered by Muslims led by Muhammad in December 629 or January 630 AD,MUHAMMAD: ISLAM’S FIRST GREAT GENERAL, Richard A., Gabriel, 167, 176,weblink (Julian), 10-20 Ramadan, 8 AH.


Ancient sources vary as to the dates of these events.
  • The date Muhammad set out for Mecca is variously given as 2, 6 or 10 Ramadan 8 AH.
  • The date Muhammad entered Mecca is variously given as 10, 17/18, 19 or 20 Ramadan 8 AH.
The conversion of these dates to the Julian calendar depends on what assumptions are made about the calendar in use in Mecca at the time. For example, 18 Ramadan 8 AH may be converted to 11 December 629 AD, 10 or 11 January 630, or 6 June 630 AD.


{{see|Muhammad in Mecca|Muhammad in Medina}}In 628 the Meccan tribe of Quraysh and the Muslim community in Medina signed a 10 year truce called the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. In 630, this truce was broken when the Banu Bakr, allies of the Quraysh, attacked the Banu Khuza'a, who had recently become allies of the Muslims.According to the terms of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, the Arab tribes were given the option of joining either of the sides, the Muslims or Quraysh. Should any of these tribes face aggression, the party to which it was allied would have the right to retaliate. As a consequence, Banu Bakr joined Quraysh, and Khuza'ah joined the Muslims. They thus lived in peace for some time; but ulterior motives stretching back to the pre-Islamic period, ignited by unabated fire of revenge, triggered fresh hostilities. Banu Bakr, without concern for the provisions of the treaty, attacked Banu Khuza'a in a place called Al-Wateer in Sha'ban, in 8 AH. Quraysh helped Banu Bakr with men and arms, taking advantage of the dark night. Pressed by their enemies, the tribesmen of Khuza'ah sought the Holy Sanctuary, but here too, their lives were not spared, and, contrary to all accepted traditions, Nawfal, the chief of Banu Bakr, chased them in the sanctified area — where no blood should be shed — and massacred his adversaries. Khuza'ah at once sent a delegation to Medina to inform Muhammad, of this breach of truce and to seek help from Muslims of Medina being their allies.{{Citation needed|reason=this detailed summary needs proper citation(s)|date=August 2018}}After the incident, Quraysh sent a delegation to Muhammad, petitioning to maintain the treaty with the Muslims and offering material compensation. The Muslim forces had gathered in strength to settle account with Quraysh and for the final attack and the opening of Mecca.BOOK, Peters, Francis E., Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, 1994, SUNY Press, 978-0-7914-1875-8, 235 & 334,weblink {{Failed verification|date=August 2018}} BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, The Arabs in history, 1967, Harper & Row, 978-0-06-131029-4, 200,weblink {{Failed verification|date=August 2018}}

Entrance into Mecca

{{Islamic prophets|Events}}After Abu Sufyan ibn Harb's departure, Muhammad immediately assembled a large army. The objective of the operation was kept secret and even Muhammad's close friends and commanders did not know his plans. Muhammad intended to assemble and attack the Quraysh using the element of surprise. For further secrecy, Muhammad sent Abu Qatadah towards "Batan Izm" to give the impression that he wanted to go there.Seerah ibn Hisham p. 226/2,228.{{better source|date=March 2016}}The Muslim army set out for Mecca on Wednesday, 29 November 629 (6 Ramadan, 8 AH).F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events, Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd., London, 2001 pp 3, 72, 134-6 Volunteers and contingents from allied tribes joined the Muslim army on the way swelling its size to about 10,000 strong. This was the largest Muslim force ever assembled as of that time. The army stayed at Marr-uz-Zahran, located ten miles northwest of Mecca. Muhammad ordered every man to light a fire so as to make the Meccans overestimate the size of the army.Akram 2007, p. 61.Meanwhile, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb travelled back and forth between Muhammad and Mecca, still trying to reach a settlement in order to avoid conquest. According to the sources, he found assistance in Muhammad's uncle Al-Abbas, though some scholars{{who|date=December 2011}} consider that historians writing under the rule of Abbas' descendants, the Abbasid Dynasty, had exaggerated Abbas' role and downplayed the role of Abu Sufyan, who was the ancestor of the Abbaside's enemies.John Glubb, The Life and Times of Muhammad, Lanham, 1998, pp. 304–310.Mecca lies in the Valley of Ibrahim, surrounded by black rugged hills reaching heights of {{Convert|1000|ft|abbr=on}} at some places. There were four entry routes through passes in the hills. These were from the north-west, the south-west, the south, and the north-east. Muhammad divided the Muslim army into four columns: one to advance through each pass. The main column in which Muhammad was present was commanded by Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah. It was tasked to enter Mecca through the main Madina route, from the north-west near Azakhir. Muhammad's cousin Zubayr ibn al-Awam commanded the second column and it would enter Mecca from the south-west, through a pass west of Kuda hill. The column entering from the south through Kudai was under the leadership of Muhammad's cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib. The last column under Khalid ibn al-Walid was tasked to enter from the north-east, through Khandama and Lait.Akram 2007, p. 60.Their tactic was to advance simultaneously from all sides targeting a single central objective. This would lead to the dispersion of enemy forces and prevent their concentration on any one front. Another important reason for this tactic was that even if one or two of the attacking columns faced stiff resistance and became unable to break through, then the attack could continue from other flanks. This would also prevent any of the Quraysh from escaping.Muhammad emphasized on refraining from fighting unless Quraysh attacked. The Muslim army entered Mecca on Monday, 11 December 629 (18 Ramadan 8 hijrah). The entry was peaceful and bloodless entry on three sectors except for that of Khalid's column. The hardened anti-Muslims like Ikrimah and Sufwan gathered a band of Quraysh fighters and faced Khalid's column. The Quraysh attacked the Muslims with swords and bows, and the Muslims charged the Quraysh's positions. After a short skirmish the Quraysh gave ground after losing twelve men. Muslim losses were two warriors.


As they march into the city, the Muslims sang the eid Takbeer:"Allah is the Greatest,Allah is the Greatest,Allah is the Greatest,There is no God but Allah.Allah is the Greatest,Allah is the Greatest.And to Allah all praise is due.Allah is Greater, the Greatest,and all praise to Allah.Glory to Allah in the morning and in the evening,No God except Allah, alone.He fulfilled His promise and gave victory to his slave.And strengthened His soldiers and defeated the Ahzab (The Clans, The Coalition, The Combined Forces) alone.There is no God but Allah.And we do not worship any except Him, [being] sincere to Him in religion (faith),Although the disbelievers dislike it.Allah is the Greatest,Allah is the Greatest,Allah is the Greatest.There is no God but Allah.Allah is the Greatest,Allah is the Greatest.And to Allah all praise is due." It repeats.


On the eve of the opening, Abu Sufyan adopted Islam. When asked by Muhammad, he conceded that the Meccan gods had proved powerless and that there was indeed "no god but God", the first part of the Islamic confession of faith. In turn, Muhammad declared Abu Sufyan's house a sanctuary because he was the present chief, and that all the others were gathered over his territory, therefore:
"Even he Who enters the house of Abu Sufyan will be safe, He who lays down arms will be safe, He who locks his door will be safe".weblink" title="">Page 329, Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh by Ibn al-Athir {{ar icon}}.
He also declared:
God has made Mecca a sanctuary since the day He created the Heavens and the Earth, and it will remain a sanctuary by virtue of the sanctity God has bestowed on it until the Day of Resurrection. It (fighting in it) was not made lawful to anyone before me. Nor will it be made lawful to anyone after me, and it was not made lawful for me except for a short period of time. Its animals (that can be hunted) should not be chased, nor should its trees be cut, nor its vegetation or grass uprooted, nor its Luqata (most things) picked up except by one who makes a public announcement about it.'Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, Number 603
Then, along with his companions Muhammad visited the Kaaba. The idols were broken and their gods were destroyed. Thereupon Muhammad recited the following verse from the Quran:"Say, the Truth has come and falsehood gone. Verily falsehood is bound to vanish."(QURAN, 17, 81, ns, n, )The people assembled at the Kaaba, and Muhammad delivered the following address:
"There is no god but God. He has no associate. He has made good His promise that He held to his bondman and helped him and defeated all the confederates. Bear in mind that every claim of privilege, whether that of blood or property is abolished except that of the custody of the Ka'aba and of supplying water to the pilgrims. Bear in mind that for any one who is slain the blood money is a hundred camels. People of Quraysh, surely God has abolished from you all pride of the time of ignorance and all pride in your ancestry, because all men are descended from Adam, and Adam was made of clay."
Then Muhammad turning to the people said:"O Quraysh, what do you think of the treatment that I should accord you?"And they said, "Mercy, O Prophet of God. We expect nothing but good from you."Thereupon Muhammad declared:"I speak to you in the same words as YÅ«suf spoke to his brothers. This day there is no reproof against you; Go your way, for you are free."Related by Ibn Kathir, recorded by Ibn al-Hajjaj MuslimMuhammad's prestige grew after the surrender of the Meccans. Emissaries from all over Arabia came to Medina to accept him.weblink Abu Dawood 8:2677 at International Islamic University MalaysiaTen people were ordered to be killed:The Message by Ayatullah Ja'far Subhani, chapter 48 referencing Sirah by Ibn Hisham, vol. II, page 409. Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl, Abdullah ibn Saad ibn Abi Sarh, Habbar bin Aswad, Miqyas Subabah Laythi, Huwairath bin Nuqayd, Abdullah Hilal and four women who had been guilty of murder or other offences or had sparked off the war and disrupted the peace.However, they were not all killed; Ikrimah lived to adopt Islam and fight in future battles among Muslim ranks.Of the two singing girls who were outlawed by Mohammad, one was slain but the other spared because she converted to Islam.weblink Abu Dawood 8:2678 at International Islamic University Malaysia Ibn Abi Sarh had been granted protection under Uthman ibn Affan and when he initially refused to take the mandatory oath of allegiance to Muhammad, the bystanders still did not kill him, due to misunderstanding the edict of Mohammad.The opening of Mecca was followed by the Battle of Hunayn.

See also

{hide}Wikipedia books
|1=Military career of Muhammad

Notes {| class"wikitable mw-collapsible"

valign=top!colspan=4 align=center| Variation in dates given in ancient sourcesvalign=top!| Primary source!| Date of departure for Meca!| Date of entry into Mecca!| Citationvalign=top Ibrahim 10 Ramadan 8 AH Cited in F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote 158:IBN SA'D >TITLE = KITAB AT-TABAQAT AL-KABIR PAGE=172 TRANSLATOR-FIRST=S., New Delhi, valign=top Abu Sa'id al-Khudri 2 Ramadan 8 AH 17/18 Ramadan 8 AH Cited in F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote 159:IBN SA'D >TITLE = KITAB AT-TABAQAT AL-KABIR PAGE=171 TRANSLATOR-FIRST=S., New Delhi, valign=top Al-Hakam 6 Ramadan 8 AH Cited in F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote 160:IBN SA'D >TITLE = KITAB AT-TABAQAT AL-KABIR PAGE=177 TRANSLATOR-FIRST=S., New Delhi, valign=top ibn 'Abbas, Tabari 10 Ramadan 8 AH Cited in F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote 161:IBN HISHAM >TITLE = AS-SIRAH AN-NABAWIYYAH PAGE=473, AL-TABARI >TITLE = TARIKHUL UMAM WAL-MULUK PAGE=391 DATE= 1982, valign=top ibn Ishaq 20 Ramadan 8 AH Cited in F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote 162:IBN HISHAM >TITLE = AS-SIRAH AN-NABAWIYYAH PAGE=522, valign=top Waqidi Wednesday 10 Ramadan 8 AH Cited in F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote 163:ISHAQUN NABI ALVI>MAGAZINE=BURHANDATE=AUGUST 1964, 92, (Burhan was an Urdu-language magazine.)valign=top ibd Sad Wednesday 10 Ramadan 8 AH Friday 19 Ramadan 8 AH Cited in F.R. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote 164:IBN SA'D >TITLE = KITAB AT-TABAQAT AL-KABIR PAGE=167 TRANSLATOR-FIRST=S. Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote 165:IBN SA'D VOLUME=2 TRANSLATOR-LAST=MOINUL HAQ PUBLICATION-PLACE =NEW DELHI,


  • Gabriel, Richard A, Muhammad: Islam’s First Great General, pub University of Oklahoma Press, 2007, {{ISBN|978-0806138602}}.
{{Characters and names in the Quran}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2017}}

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