Congress of the Confederation

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Congress of the Confederation
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{{Distinguish|Confederate States Congress}}{{Use American English|date = April 2019}}{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2011}}

{{Continental Congress}}The Congress of the Confederation, or the Confederation Congress, formally referred to as the United States in Congress Assembled, was the governing body of the United States of America that existed from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789. A unicameral body with legislative and executive function, it was composed of delegates appointed by the legislatures of the several states. Each state delegation had one vote. It was preceded by the Second Continental Congress (1775–1781) and was created by the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union in 1781. The Congress continued to refer itself as the Continental Congress throughout its eight-year history, although modern historians separate it from the two earlier congresses, which operated under slightly different rules and procedures until the later part of American Revolutionary War."Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789", Edited by Worthington C. Ford et al. 34 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1904–37. The membership of the Second Continental Congress automatically carried over to the Congress of the Confederation when the latter was created by the ratification of the Articles of Confederation. It had the same secretary as the Second Continental Congress, namely Charles Thomson. The Congress of the Confederation was succeeded by the Congress of the United States as provided for in the new Constitution of the United States, proposed September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia and ratified by the states through 1787 to 1788 and even into 1789 and 1790.WEB,weblink Confederation Congress, Ohio Historical Society, October 23, 2010,


{{further|Confederation Period}}File:General George Washington Resigning his Commission.jpg|thumb|left|December 23, 1783: General George Washington Resigning His Commission by John TrumbullJohn TrumbullThe Congress of the Confederation opened in the last stages of the American Revolution. Combat ended in October 1781, with the surrender of the British after the Siege and Battle of Yorktown. The British, however, continued to occupy New York City, while the American delegates in Paris, named by the Congress, negotiated the terms of peace with Great Britain.See: Peace of Paris (1783)#Treaty with the United States of America. Based on preliminary articles with the British negotiators made on November 30, 1782, and approved by the "Congress of the Confederation" on April 15, 1783, the Treaty of Paris was further signed on September 3, 1783, and ratified by Confederation Congress then sitting at the Maryland State House in Annapolis on January 14, 1784. This formally ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and the thirteen former colonies, which on July 4, 1776, had declared independence. In December 1783, General George Washington, commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, journeyed to Annapolis after saying farewell to his officers (at Fraunces Tavern) and men who had just reoccupied New York City after the departing British Army. On December 23, at the Maryland State House, where the Congress met in the Old Senate Chamber, he addressed the civilian leaders and delegates of Congress and returned to them the signed commission they had voted him back in June 1775, at the beginning of the conflict. With that simple gesture of acknowledging the first civilian power over the military, he took his leave and returned by horseback the next day to his home and family at Mount Vernon near the colonial river port city on the Potomac River at Alexandria in Virginia.On March 1, 1781, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union were signed by delegates of Maryland at a meeting of the Second Continental Congress, which then declared the Articles ratified. As historian Edmund Burnett wrote, "There was no new organization of any kind, not even the election of a new President." The Congress still called itself the Continental Congress. Nevertheless, despite its being generally the same exact governing body, with some changes in membership over the years as delegates came and went individually according to their own personal reasons and upon instructions of their state governments, some modern historians would later refer to the Continental Congress after the ratification of the Articles as the Congress of the Confederation or the Confederation Congress. (The Congress itself continued to refer to itself at the time as the Continental Congress.)The Congress had little power and without the external threat of a war against the British, it became more difficult to get enough delegates to meet to form a quorum. Nonetheless the Congress still managed to pass important laws, most notably the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.The War of Independence saddled the country with an enormous debt. In 1784, the total Confederation debt was nearly $40 million. Of that sum, $8 million was owed to the French and Dutch. Of the domestic debt, government bonds, known as loan-office certificates, composed $11.5 million, certificates on interest indebtedness $3.1 million, and continental certificates $16.7 million.The certificates were non-interest bearing notes issued for supplies purchased or impressed, and to pay soldiers and officers. To pay the interest and principal of the debt, Congress had twice proposed an amendment to the Articles granting them the power to lay a 5% duty on imports, but amendments to the Articles required the consent of all thirteen states: the 1781 impost plan had been rejected by Rhode Island and Virginia, while the revised plan, discussed in 1783, was rejected by New York.Without revenue, except for meager voluntary state requisitions, Congress could not even pay the interest on its outstanding debt. Meanwhile, the states regularly failed, or refused, to meet the requisitions requested of them by Congress.Proposed Amendments to the Articles of Confederation Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789. Edited by Worthington C. Ford et al. 34 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1904–37. 31:494–98To that end, in September 1786, after resolving a series of disputes regarding their common border along the Potomac River, delegates of Maryland and Virginia called for a larger assembly to discuss various situations and governing problems to meet at the Maryland state capital on the Chesapeake Bay. The later Annapolis Convention with some additional state representatives joining in the sessions first attempted to look into improving the earlier original Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. There were enough problems to bear further discussion and deliberation that the Convention called for a wider meeting to recommend changes and meet the next year in the late Spring of 1787 in Philadelphia. The Confederation Congress itself endorsed the Call and issued one on its own further inviting the states to send delegates. After meeting in secret all summer in the Old Pennsylvania State House now having acquired the nickname and new title of Independence Hall, from the famous action here eleven years earlier. The Philadelphia Convention, under the presidency of former General George Washington instead of a series of amendments, or altering the old charter, issued a proposed new Constitution for the United States to replace the 1776–1778 Articles. The Confederation Congress received and submitted the new Constitution document to the states, and the Constitution was later ratified by enough states (nine were required) to become operative in June 1788. On September 12, 1788, the Confederation Congress set the date for choosing the new Electors in the Electoral College that was set up for choosing a President as January 7, 1789, the date for the Electors to vote for the President as on February 4, 1789, and the date for the Constitution to become operative as March 4, 1789, when the new Congress of the United States should convene, and that they at a later date set the time and place for the Inauguration of the new first President of the United States.The Congress of the Confederation continued to conduct business for another month after setting the various dates. On October 10, 1788, the Congress formed a quorum for the last time; afterwards, although delegates would occasionally appear, there were never enough to officially conduct business. The last meeting of the Continental Congress was held March 2, 1789, two days before the new Constitutional government took over; only one member was present at said meeting, Philip Pell, an ardent Anti-Federalist and opponent of the Constitution, who was accompanied by the Congressional secretary. Pell oversaw the meeting and adjourned the Congress sine die.

Presiding officer

The Continental Congress was presided over by a president (referred to in many official records as President of the United States in Congress Assembled), who was a member of Congress elected by the other delegates to serve as a neutral discussion moderator during meetings. Elected to a non-renewable one-year term, this person also chaired the Committee of the States when Congress was in recess, and performed other administrative functions. He was not, however, an executive in the way the later President of the United States is a chief executive, since all of the functions he executed were under the direct control of Congress.BOOK, Jensen, Merrill, The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 1774–1781, 1959, University of Wisconsin Press, 978-0-299-00204-6, 178–179, There were 10 presidents of Congress under the Articles. The first, Samuel Huntington, had been serving as president of the Continental Congress since September 28, 1779.

Meeting sites

The Second Continental Congress was meeting at the Old Pennsylvania State House (Independence Hall), in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania at the time the Articles of Confederation entered into force on March 1, 1781, but left after a anti-government protest by several hundred soldiers of the Continental Army in June 1783. Congress moved its meeting site successively to Princeton, New Jersey, Annapolis, Maryland, Trenton, New Jersey, and then in January 1785 New York City, which remained the seat of government for several years.WEB, Articles of Confederation, DiCamillo, Michael, 2015,weblink The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia, Mid-Atlantic Regional Center for the Humanities, Rutgers University–Camden, April 19, 2019,

List of sessions

{| class=wikitable! colspan=3 style="background:#ccff99;" | First Congress March 2, 1781{{efn2}}November 3, 1781 Pennsylvania State House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania115px) {{centerPresident: Samuel Huntington (Connecticut politician)>Samuel Huntington{{efn11}}Thomas McKean (from July 10, 1781)}}{| class=wikitable! colspan=3 style="background:#ccff99;" | Second Congress November 5, 1781 –{{indent|2}}November 2, 1782 Pennsylvania State House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania115px) {{center|President: John Hanson}}{| class=wikitable! colspan=3 style="background:#ccff99;" | Third Congress November 4, 1782 –{{indent|2}}November 1, 1783 Pennsylvania State House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania(until June 21, 1783)115px)| Nassau Hall, Princeton, New Jersey(from June 30, 1783)115px) {{center|President: Elias Boudinot}}{| class=wikitable! colspan=3 style="background:#ccff99;" | Fourth Congress November 3, 1783 –{{indent|2}}June 3, 1784 Nassau Hall, Princeton, New Jersey(until November 4, 1783)115px)| Maryland State House, Annapolis, Maryland(from November 26, 1783)115px) {{center|President: Thomas Mifflin}}{| class=wikitable! colspan=3 style="background:#ccff99;" | Fifth Congress November 1, 1784 –{{indent|2}}November 6, 1785 French Arms Tavern, Trenton, New Jersey(until December 24, 1784)115px)Federal Hall>City Hall, New York City, New York (state)>New York(from January 11, 1785)115px) {{center|President: Richard Henry Lee (from November 30, 1784)}}{| class=wikitable! colspan=3 style="background:#ccff99;" | Sixth Congress November 7, 1785 –{{indent|2}}November 2, 1786 City Hall, New York, New York115px) {{centerPresident: John Hancock (from November 23, 1785 until June 5, 1786){{indent>11}}Nathaniel Gorham (from June 6, 1786)}}{| class=wikitable! colspan=3 style="background:#ccff99;" | Seventh Congress November 6, 1786 –{{indent|2}}November 4, 1787 City Hall, New York, New York115px) {{center|President: Arthur St. Clair (from February 2, 1787)}}{| class=wikitable! colspan=3 style="background:#ccff99;" | Eighth Congress November 5, 1787 –{{indent|2}}October 31, 1788 City Hall, New York, New York(until October 6, 1788)115px) Walter Livingston House, New York, New York(from October 8, 1788)(File:US Great Seal 1782 drawing.png|100px)}} {{center|President: Cyrus Griffin (from January 22, 1788)}}{| class=wikitable! colspan=3 style="background:#ccff99;" | Ninth Congress November 3, 1788{{efnquorum (namely, delegates present from seven of the 13 states). Through March 2, 1789, delegates from various states occasionally gathered, but never in sufficient number to constitute a quorum.JILLSON LAST2=WILSON TITLE=CONGRESSIONAL DYNAMICS: STRUCTURE, COORDINATION, AND CHOICE IN THE FIRST AMERICAN CONGRESS, 1774–1789 PUBLISHER=STANFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS DATE=1994 ISBN=0-8047-2293-5 ACCESSDATE=APRIL 20, 2019, }} –{{indentOn September 14, 1788, the Confederation Congress resolved that March 4, 1789, would be the commencement date of the United States federal government under the United States Constitution>Constitution, thus dissolving the Continental Congress on March 3, 1789.}} Walter Livingston House, New York, New York {{center100px)}} {{centerPresident: Cyrus Griffin (de jure, until November 15, 1788){{indent>11}}vacant (from November 15, 1788){{efn|As Congress could not transact official business due to the lack of a quorum, a president could not be elected for the 1788–89 Congressional Year. As a result, Cyrus Griffin, who had been elected to the office January 22, 1788, remained the de jure president of Congress until he resigned on November 15, 1788.}}}}

See also






  • BOOK, Edmund C., Burnett, "The Continental Congress", Greenwood Publishing, 0-8371-8386-3,
  • BOOK, H. James, Henderson, "Party Politics in the Continental Congress", Rowman & Littlefield, Boston, 0-8191-6525-5,
  • BOOK, "New Nation: A History of the United States During the Confederation, 1781–1789", Jensen, Merrill, 1950, Knopf, New York,
  • BOOK, "A Constitutional History of the United States", McLaughlin, Andrew C., 1935, 978-1-931313-31-5,
  • BOOK, Lynn, Montross, "The Reluctant Rebels; the Story of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789", Barnes & Noble, New York, 0-389-03973-X, registration,weblink
  • BOOK, "The Forging of the Union, 1781–1789", Morris, Richard B., 1987, Harper & Row, New York, 0-06-091424-6,
  • JOURNAL, Morris, Richard B., 1956, The Confederation Period and the American Historian, William and Mary Quarterly, 13, 2, 139–156, 10.2307/1920529, 1920529,
  • BOOK, "The Beginnings of National Politics: An Interpretive History of the Continental Congress", Rakove, Jack N., 1979, Knopf, New York, 0-394-42370-4,

External links

{{commons category|Continental Congress}} {{USAConfGov}}{{Historical American Documents}}{{Location of US capital}}{{Pennsylvania during the American Revolutionary War}}{{Presidents of the Continental Congress}}{{Authority control}}

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