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Cologne
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{{short description|city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany}}{{about||the perfume|Eau de Cologne|other uses of Cologne|Cologne (disambiguation)}}{{redirect2|Köln|Koln|other uses of Köln|Köln (disambiguation)}}{{use dmy dates|date=June 2014}}







factoids
|state = Nordrhein-WestfalenCologne (region)>Cologne|district = Urban districts of Germany|elevation = 37|area = 405.15|pop_metro = 3573500|Stand = 2014/12/31|postal_code = 50441–51149|PLZ-alt = 5000|area_code = 0221, 02203 (Porz)|licence = K|Gemeindeschlüssel = 05 3 15 000|LOCODE = DE CGN|mayor = Henriette Reker|Bürgermeistertitel = Lord Mayor|website = www.stadt-koeln.de|year = 38 BC}}Cologne ({{IPAc-en|lang|pron|k|É™|ˈ|l|oÊŠ|n}}; , {{IPA-de|kÅ“ln|pron|Koeln.ogg}}, {{IPA-ksh|ˈkÅ“lÉ™||Koelle.ogg}}) is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, and its 1 million+ (2016) inhabitants make it the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich. The largest city on the Rhine, it is also the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, which is Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, and of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about {{convert|45|km}} southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and {{convert|25|km}} northwest of Bonn. It is the largest city in the Central Franconian and Ripuarian dialect areas.The city's famous Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom) is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln), one of Europe's oldest and largest universities,WEB, Economy,weblink KölnTourismus, 18 April 2011, the Technical University of Cologne (Technische Hochschule Köln), Germany's largest university of applied sciences, and the German Sport University Cologne (Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln), Germany's only sport university. Cologne Bonn Airport (Flughafen Köln/Bonn) is Germany's seventh-largest airport and lies in the southeast of the city. The main airport for the Rhine-Ruhr region is Düsseldorf Airport.Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the first word of which is the origin of its name.WEB, From Ubii village to metropolis,weblink City of Cologne, 17 April 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120417171004weblink">weblink An alternative Latin name of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii.BOOK, Benjamin E., Smith, Augusta Ubiorum, The Century Cyclopedia of Names, New York, Century Co., 1895, 1, 2nd, 237135281,weblink 96, "Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. Cologne functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages the city flourished as being located on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to World War II the city had undergone several occupations by the French and also by the British (1918–1926). Cologne was one of the most heavily bombed cities in Germany during World War II, with the Royal Air Force (RAF) dropping {{convert|34,711|long ton|tonne|abbr= off}} of bombs on the city.WEB,weblink bomber command – mines laid – flight august – 1945 – 1571 – Flight Archive, The bombing reduced the population by 95%, mainly due to evacuation, and destroyed almost the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a very mixed and unique cityscape.Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland; it hosts more than 30 museums and hundreds of galleries. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture. The Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne, Gamescom, and the Photokina.

History

Roman Cologne

File:Wall painting with Dionysian scenes from a luxurious Roman villa excavated to the south of the cathedral, Romisch-Germanisches Museum, Cologne (8119154487).jpg|thumb|Fresco with Dionysian scenes from a Roman villa of Cologne, Germany (site of the ancient city Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium), 3rd century AD, Romano-Germanic MuseumRomano-Germanic MuseumThe first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (Cologne) on the river Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD.WEB, Facts and figures,weblink City of Cologne, 3 May 2019, Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne, especially near the wharf area, where a 1,900-year-old Roman boat was discovered in late 2007.WEB,weblink C.Michael Hogan, ''Cologne Wharf'', The Megalithic Portal, editor Andy Burnham, 2007, Megalithic.co.uk, 24 July 2009, From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus, Marius, and Victorinus. In 310 under emperor Constantine I a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map.Maternus, who was elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne. The city was the capital of a Roman province until it was occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890.

Middle Ages

Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire. In 716, Charles Martel commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic II, King of Neustria, invaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne. Charles fled to the Eifel mountains, rallied supporters, and took the city back that same year after defeating Chilperic in the Battle of Amblève.Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period; under Charlemagne, in 795, bishop Hildebold was promoted to archbishop. In 843, Cologne became a city within the Treaty of Verdun-created East Francia.In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jülich, as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark.By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803.Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City. Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced to reside in Bonn.Harry de Quetteville. "History of Cologne". The Catholic Encyclopedia, 28 November 2009. The archbishop nevertheless preserved the right of capital punishment. Thus the municipal council (though in strict political opposition towards the archbishop) depended upon him in all matters concerning criminal justice. This included torture, which sentence was only allowed to be handed down by the episcopal judge, the so-called "Greve". This legal situation lasted until the French conquest of Cologne.{{citation needed|date=September 2013}}Besides its economic and political significance Cologne also became an important centre of medieval pilgrimage, when Cologne's Archbishop Rainald of Dassel gave the relics of the Three Wise Men to Cologne's cathedral in 1164 (after they, in fact, had been taken from Milan). Besides the three magi Cologne preserves the relics of Saint Ursula and Albertus Magnus.Joseph P. Huffman, Family, Commerce, and Religion in London and Cologne (1998) covers from 1000 to 1300.Cologne's location on the river Rhine placed it at the intersection of the major trade routes between east and west as well as the main Western Europe trade route, South – North Northern Italy-Flanders. These two trade routes were the basis of Cologne's growth. By 1300 the city population was 50,000-55,000.The population of European cities, Bairoch Cologne was a member of the Hanseatic League in 1475, when Frederick III confirmed the city's imperial immediacy.(File:Cologn1411.jpg|thumb|upright=2.5|center|Cologne around 1411)

Early modern history

The economic structures of medieval and early modern Cologne were characterised by the city's status as a major harbour and transport hub on the Rhine. Craftsmanship was organised by self-administering guilds, some of which were exclusive to women.As a free city, Cologne was a sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire and as such had the right (and obligation) to maintain its own military force. As they wore a red uniform, these troops were known as the Rote Funken (red sparks). These soldiers were part of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire ("Reichskontingent") and fought in the wars of the 17th and 18th century, including the wars against revolutionary France, when the small force was almost completely wiped out in combat. The tradition of these troops is preserved as a military persiflage by Cologne's most outstanding carnival society, the Rote Funken.WEB,weblink Rote Funken – Kölsche Funke rut-wieß vun 1823 e.V. – Rote Funken Koeln, Rote-funken.de, 5 May 2009, The free city of Cologne must not be confused with the Archbishopric of Cologne which was a state of its own within the Holy Roman Empire. Since the second half of the 16th century the archbishops were drawn from the Bavaria Wittelsbach dynasty. Due to the free status of Cologne, the archbishops were usually not allowed to enter the city. Thus they took up residence in Bonn and later in Brühl on the Rhine. As members of an influential and powerful family, and supported by their outstanding status as electors, the archbishops of Cologne repeatedly challenged and threatened the free status of Cologne during the 17th and 18th centuries, resulting in complicated affairs, which were handled by diplomatic means and propaganda as well as by the supreme courts of the Holy Roman Empire.

From the 19th century until World War II

(File:Hohestraße - Cöln am Rhein, 1912.tif|thumb|Hohestraße, 1912)(File:Hängebrücke - Köln (1).tif|thumb|Hängebrücke)Cologne lost its status as a free city during the French period. According to the Peace Treaty of Lunéville (1801) all the territories of the Holy Roman Empire on the left bank of the Rhine were officially incorporated into the French Republic (which had already occupied Cologne in 1794). Thus this region later became part of Napoleon's Empire. Cologne was part of the French Département Roer (named after the river Roer, German: Rur) with Aachen (French: Aix-la-Chapelle) as its capital. The French modernised public life, for example by introducing the Napoleonic code and removing the old elites from power. The Napoleonic code remained in use on the left bank of the Rhine until 1900, when a unified civil code (the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch) was introduced in the German Empire. In 1815 at the Congress of Vienna, Cologne was made part of the Kingdom of Prussia, first in the Jülich-Cleves-Berg province and then the Rhine province.The permanent tensions between the Roman Catholic Rhineland and the overwhelmingly Protestant Prussian state repeatedly escalated with Cologne being in the focus of the conflict. In 1837 the archbishop of Cologne, Clemens August von Droste-Vischering, was arrested and imprisoned for two years after a dispute over the legal status of marriages between Protestants and Roman Catholics (Mischehenstreit). In 1874, during the Kulturkampf, Archbishop Paul Melchers was imprisoned before taking asylum in the Netherlands. These conflicts alienated the Catholic population from Berlin and contributed to a deeply felt anti-Prussian resentment, which was still significant after World War II, when the former mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer, became the first West German chancellor.During the 19th and 20th centuries, Cologne absorbed numerous surrounding towns, and by World War I had already grown to 700,000 inhabitants. Industrialisation changed the city and spurred its growth. Vehicle and engine manufacturing was especially successful, though the heavy industry was less ubiquitous than in the Ruhr area. The cathedral, started in 1248 but abandoned around 1560, was eventually finished in 1880 not just as a place of worship but also as a German national monument celebrating the newly founded German empire and the continuity of the German nation since the Middle Ages. Some of this urban growth occurred at the expense of the city's historic heritage with much being demolished (for example, the city walls or the area around the cathedral) and sometimes replaced by contemporary buildings.Cologne was designated as one of the Fortresses of the German Confederation.United Services Magazine, December 1835 It was turned into a heavily armed fortress (opposing the French and Belgian fortresses of Verdun and Liège) with two fortified belts surrounding the city, the remains of which can be seen to this day.WEB,weblink Festung Köln, 1 April 2011, The military demands on what became Germany's largest fortress presented a significant obstacle to urban development, with forts, bunkers, and wide defensive dugouts completely encircling the city and preventing expansion; this resulted in a very densely built-up area within the city itself.During World War I Cologne was the target of several minor air raids but suffered no significant damage. Cologne was occupied by the British Army of the Rhine until 1926, under the terms of the Armistice and the subsequent Versailles Peace Treaty.Cologne Evacuated, TIME Magazine, 15 February 1926In contrast with the harsh behaviour of the French occupation troops in Germany, the British forces were more lenient to the local population. Konrad Adenauer, the mayor of Cologne from 1917 until 1933 and later a West German chancellor, acknowledged the political impact of this approach, especially since Britain had opposed French demands for a permanent Allied occupation of the entire Rhineland.As part of the demilitarisation of the Rhineland, the city's fortifications had to be dismantled. This was an opportunity to create two green belts (Grüngürtel) around the city by converting the fortifications and their fields of fire into large public parks. This was not completed until 1933. In 1919 the University of Cologne, closed by the French in 1798, was reopened. This was considered to be a replacement for the loss of the University of Strasbourg on the west bank of the Rhine, which reverted to France with the rest of Alsace. Cologne prospered during the Weimar Republic (1919–33), and progress was made especially in public governance, city planning, housing and social affairs. Social housing projects were considered exemplary and were copied by other German cities. Cologne competed to host the Olympics, and a modern sports stadium was erected at Müngersdorf. When the British occupation ended, the prohibition of civil aviation was lifted and Cologne Butzweilerhof Airport soon became a hub for national and international air traffic, second in Germany only to Berlin Tempelhof Airport.The democratic parties lost the local elections in Cologne in March 1933 to the Nazi Party and other right wing parties. The Nazis then arrested the Communist and Social Democrats members of the city assembly, and Mayor Adenauer was dismissed. Compared to some other major cities, however, the Nazis never gained decisive support in Cologne. (Significantly, the number of votes cast for the Nazi Party in Reichstag elections had always been the national average.)WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080211085633weblink">weblink 11 February 2008, Weimarer Wahlen, Web.archive.org, 11 February 2008, 24 July 2009, WEB,weblink Voting results 1919–1933 Cologne-Aachen, Wahlen-in-deutschland.de, 8 August 2010, By 1939 the population had risen to 772,221 inhabitants.

World War II

(File:Koeln 1945.jpg|thumb|The devastation of Cologne, 1945)During World War II, Cologne was a Military Area Command Headquarters (Militärbereichshauptkommandoquartier) for the Military District (Wehrkreis) VI of Münster. Cologne was under the command of Lieutenant-General Freiherr Roeder von Diersburg, who was responsible for military operations in Bonn, Siegburg, Aachen, Jülich, Düren, and Monschau. Cologne was home to the 211th Infantry Regiment and the 26th Artillery Regiment.The Allies dropped 44,923.2 tons of bombs on the city during World War II, destroying 61% of its built up area. During the Bombing of Cologne in World War II, Cologne endured 262 air raidsWEB, koelnarchitektur,weblink on the reconstruction of Cologne, Koelnarchitektur.de, 15 July 2003, 24 July 2009, by the Western Allies, which caused approximately 20,000 civilian casualties and almost completely wiped out the central part of the city. During the night of 31 May 1942, Cologne was the target of "Operation Millennium", the first 1,000 bomber raid by the Royal Air Force in World War II. 1,046 heavy bombers attacked their target with 1,455 tons of explosives, approximately two-thirds of which were incendiary.Tourtellot, Arthur B. et al. Life's Picture History of World War II, p. 237. Time, Inc., New York, 1950. This raid lasted about 75 minutes, destroyed {{convert|600|acre|ha|0}} of built-up area (61%)weblink killed 486 civilians and made 59,000 people homeless. The devastation was recorded by Hermann Claasen from 1942 until the end of the war, and presented in his exhibition and book of 1947 Singing in the furnace. Cologne - Remains of an old city {{Citation | author1=Claasen, Hermann | author2=Hoyer, Franz A | title=Gesang im feuerofen : Köln; überreste einer alten deutschen stadt | publication-date=1949 | publisher=L. Schwann | edition= [2. aufl.] | url=https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/14736437}}Cologne was taken by the American First Army in early March, 1945.BOOK,weblink World War Two in Europe, Zabecki, David T., 1999-01-01, Taylor & Francis, 9780824070298, en, By the end of the war, the population of Cologne had been reduced by 95 percent. This loss was mainly caused by a massive evacuation of the people to more rural areas. The same happened in many other German cities in the last two years of war. By the end of 1945, however, the population had already recovered to approximately 500,000.{{cn|date=April 2019}}By the end of the war, essentially all of Cologne's pre-war Jewish population of 11,000 had been deported or killed by the Nazis.Kirsten Serup-Bilfeld, Zwischen Dom und Davidstern. Jüdisches Leben in Köln von den Anfängen bis heute. Köln 2001, page 193 The six synagogues of the city were destroyed. The synagogue on Roonstraße was rebuilt in 1959.WEB,weblink Synagogen-Gemeinde Köln, Sgk.de, 26 June 1931, 8 August 2010,

Post-war Cologne until today

File:KölnFromTheISS.jpg|upright=1.25|thumb|Cologne, seen from the International Space StationInternational Space StationDespite Cologne's status as the largest city in the region, nearby Düsseldorf was chosen as the political capital of the federated state of North Rhine-Westphalia. With Bonn being chosen as the provisional federal capital (provisorische Bundeshauptstadt) and seat of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany (then informally West Germany), Cologne benefited by being sandwiched between two important political centres. The city became–and still is–home to a number of federal agencies and organizations. After reunification in 1990, Berlin was made the capital of Germany.In 1945 architect and urban planner Rudolf Schwarz called Cologne the "world's greatest heap of rubble". Schwarz designed the master plan for reconstruction in 1947, which included the construction of several new thoroughfares through the city centre, especially the Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive"). The master plan took into consideration the fact that even shortly after the war a large increase in automobile traffic could be anticipated. Plans for new roads had already, to a certain degree, evolved under the Nazi administration, but the actual construction became easier when most of the city centre was in ruins.The destruction of 95% of the city centre, including the famous Twelve Romanesque churches such as St. Gereon, Great St. Martin, St. Maria im Kapitol and several other monuments in World War II, meant a tremendous loss of cultural treasures. The rebuilding of those churches and other landmarks such as the Gürzenich event hall was not undisputed among leading architects and art historians at that time, but in most cases, civil intention prevailed. The reconstruction lasted until the 1990s, when the Romanesque church of St. Kunibert was finished.In 1959, the city's population reached pre-war numbers again. It then grew steadily, exceeding 1 million for about one year from 1975. It remained just below that until mid-2010, when it exceeded 1 million again.(File:2013-08-10 07-18-55 Ballonfahrt über Köln EH 0626.jpg|thumb|left|Cologne in 2013)

Post-reunification

(File:1983 09 15 to 23 Envelope of the Letter from Odessa to Cuba.jpg|thumb|Soviet letter's envelope in honor of the Internationale Philatelic Exhibition LUPOSTA in Cologne in 1983.)In the 1980s and 1990s Cologne's economy prospered for two main reasons. The first was the growth in the number of media companies, both in the private and public sectors; they are especially catered for in the newly developed Media Park, which creates a strongly visual focal point in Cologne city centre and includes the KölnTurm, one of Cologne's most prominent high-rise buildings. The second was the permanent improvement of the diverse traffic infrastructure, which made Cologne one of the most easily accessible metropolitan areas in Central Europe.Due to the economic success of the Cologne Trade Fair, the city arranged a large extension to the fair site in 2005. At the same time the original buildings, which date back to the 1920s, were rented out to RTL, Germany's largest private broadcaster, as their new corporate headquarters.Cologne was the focus of the 2015 New Year's Eve sexual assaults, with over 500 women reporting that they were sexually assaulted by persons of African and Arab appearance.NEWS,weblink Tensions rise in Germany over handling of mass sexual assaults in Cologne, Connolly, Kate, The Guardian, 7 January 2016, 12 January 2016, WEB,weblink 1075 Anzeigen nach Kölner Silvesternacht – 73 Verdächtige, 1,075 assaults by Cologne New Year's Eve – 73 suspects, Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, German, 15 February 2016,

Geography

The metropolitan area encompasses over {{convert|405|km2|0|abbr=off}}, extending around a central point that lies at 50° 56' 33 latitude and 6° 57' 32 longitude. The city's highest point is {{convert|118|m|1|abbr=on}} above sea level (the Monte Troodelöh) and its lowest point is {{convert|37.5|m|1|abbr=on}} above sea level (the Worringer Bruch).Bezirksregierung Köln: Topografische Karte 1:50.000 (TK 50), Blatt L 5108 Köln-Mülheim. Köln 2012, {{ISBN|978-3-89439-422-6}}. The city of Cologne lies within the larger area of the Cologne Lowland, a cone-shaped area of the central Rhineland that lies between Bonn, Aachen and Düsseldorf.

Districts

Cologne is divided into 9 boroughs (Stadtbezirke) and 85 districts (Stadtteile):WEB, Cologne at a glance,weblink City of Cologne, 17 April 2011, {| class="toccolours" style="margin:0 auto; background:none;"
Innenstadt (Stadtbezirk 1)
Altstadt-Nord, Altstadt-Süd, Neustadt-Nord, Neustadt-Süd, Deutz
Rodenkirchen (Stadtbezirk 2)
Bayenthal, Godorf, Hahnwald, Immendorf, Marienburg, Meschenich, Raderberg, Raderthal, Rodenkirchen, Rondorf, Sürth, Weiß, Zollstock
Lindenthal (Stadtbezirk 3)
Braunsfeld, Junkersdorf, Klettenberg, Lindenthal, Lövenich, Müngersdorf, Sülz, Weiden, Widdersdorf
Ehrenfeld (Stadtbezirk 4)
Bickendorf, Bocklemünd/Mengenich, Ehrenfeld, Neuehrenfeld, Ossendorf, Vogelsang
Nippes (Stadtbezirk 5)
Bilderstöckchen, Longerich, Mauenheim, Niehl, Nippes, Riehl, Weidenpesch
300px)|
Chorweiler (Stadtbezirk 6)
Blumenberg, Chorweiler, Esch/Auweiler, Fühlingen, Heimersdorf, Lindweiler, Merkenich, Pesch, Roggendorf/Thenhoven, Seeberg, Volkhoven/Weiler, Worringen
Porz (Stadtbezirk 7)
Eil, Elsdorf, Ensen, Finkenberg, Gremberghoven, Grengel, Langel, Libur, Lind, Poll, Porz, Urbach, Wahn, Wahnheide, Westhoven, Zündorf
Kalk (Stadtbezirk 8)
Brück, Höhenberg, Humboldt/Gremberg, Kalk, Merheim, Neubrück, Ostheim, Rath/Heumar, Vingst
Mülheim (Stadtbezirk 9)
Buchforst, Buchheim, Dellbrück, Dünnwald, Flittard, Höhenhaus, Holweide, Mülheim, Stammheim

Climate

Located in the Rhine-Ruhr area, Cologne is one of the warmest cities in Germany. It has a temperate–oceanic climate ((Köppen climate classification|Köppen: Cfb)) with cool winters and warm summers. It is also one of the cloudiest cities in Germany, with just 1568 hours of sun a year. Its average annual temperature is {{convert|10.3|°C|0|abbr=on}}: {{convert|14.8|°C|0|abbr=on}} during the day and {{convert|5.8|°C|0|abbr=on}} at night. In January, the mean temperature is {{convert|2.6|°C|0|abbr=on}}, while the mean temperature in July is {{convert|18.8|°C|0|abbr=on}}. Temperatures can vary significantly over the course of a month with warmer and colder weather. Precipitation is spread evenly throughout the year with a light peak in summer due to showers and thunderstorms.{{Weather box| location = Cologne/Bonn Airport 1981-2010, extremes 1957-present|metric first = Yes|single line = Yes|Jan record high C = 16.2|Feb record high C = 20.7|Mar record high C = 25.3|Apr record high C = 30.8|May record high C = 34.4|Jun record high C = 36.8|Jul record high C = 37.3|Aug record high C = 38.8|Sep record high C = 33.1|Oct record high C = 27.6|Nov record high C = 20.2|Dec record high C = 16.7|year record high C = 38.8|Jan high C = 5.4|Feb high C = 6.7|Mar high C = 10.9|Apr high C = 15.1|May high C = 19.3|Jun high C = 21.9|Jul high C = 24.4|Aug high C = 24.0|Sep high C = 19.9|Oct high C = 15.1|Nov high C = 9.5|Dec high C = 5.9|year high C = 14.8| Jan avg record high C = 12.5| Feb avg record high C = 14.0| Mar avg record high C = 19.0| Apr avg record high C = 23.7| May avg record high C = 27.7| Jun avg record high C = 30.8| Jul avg record high C = 32.3| Aug avg record high C = 32.0| Sep avg record high C = 26.4| Oct avg record high C = 21.9| Nov avg record high C = 16.4| Dec avg record high C = 12.8| year avg record high C = 34.1|Jan mean C = 2.6|Feb mean C = 2.9|Mar mean C = 6.3|Apr mean C = 9.7|May mean C = 14.0|Jun mean C = 16.6|Jul mean C = 18.8|Aug mean C = 18.1|Sep mean C = 14.5|Oct mean C = 10.6|Nov mean C = 6.3|Dec mean C = 3.3|year mean C = 10.3|Jan low C = -0.6|Feb low C = -0.7|Mar low C = 2.0|Apr low C = 4.2|May low C = 8.1|Jun low C = 11.0|Jul low C = 13.2|Aug low C = 12.6|Sep low C = 9.8|Oct low C = 6.7|Nov low C = 3.1|Dec low C = 0.4|year low C = 5.8|Jan avg record low C= -10.3|Feb avg record low C= -8.9|Mar avg record low C= -5.2|Apr avg record low C= -3.2|May avg record low C= 1.3|Jun avg record low C= 4.7|Jul avg record low C= 7.6|Aug avg record low C= 6.8|Sep avg record low C= 3.5|Oct avg record low C= -0.8|Nov avg record low C= -4.2|Dec avg record low C= -8.3|year avg record low C= -13.0|Jan record low C = -23.4|Feb record low C = -19.2|Mar record low C = -13.4|Apr record low C = -8.8|May record low C = -2.9|Jun record low C = -0.5|Jul record low C = 2.9|Aug record low C = 1.9|Sep record low C = -1.3|Oct record low C = -6.0|Nov record low C = -10.4|Dec record low C = -18.0|year record low C = -23.4|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 62.1|Feb precipitation mm = 54.2|Mar precipitation mm = 64.6|Apr precipitation mm = 53.9|May precipitation mm = 72.2|Jun precipitation mm = 90.7|Jul precipitation mm = 85.8|Aug precipitation mm = 75.0|Sep precipitation mm = 74.9|Oct precipitation mm = 67.1|Nov precipitation mm = 67.0|Dec precipitation mm = 71.1|year precipitation mm = 838.6|Jan sun = 54.0|Feb sun = 78.8|Mar sun = 120.3|Apr sun = 167.2|May sun = 193.0|Jun sun = 193.6|Jul sun = 209.7|Aug sun = 194.2|Sep sun = 141.5|Oct sun = 109.2|Nov sun = 60.7|Dec sun = 45.3|year sun = 1567.5|source 1 = Data derived from Deutscher WetterdienstWEB
,weblink
, Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte
, WEB
,weblink
, Klimastatistik Köln-Wahn
,
|date=April 27, 2017
}}

Flood protection

(File:Bundesarchiv Bild 102-10776, Köln, Hochwasser.jpg|right|thumb|The 1930 flood in Cologne)Cologne is regularly affected by flooding from the Rhine and is considered the most flood-prone European city.WEB,weblink Flood Forecasting and Flood Defence in Cologne, Martin Gocht, Reinhard Vogt, Mitigation of Climate Induced Natural Hazards (MITCH), 20 March 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090324213456weblink">weblink 24 March 2009, dmy-all, A city agency (Stadtentwässerungsbetriebe Köln,WEB,weblink Stadtentwässerungsbetriebe Köln : Flood Management, Steb-koeln.de, 7 July 2009, "Cologne Urban Drainage Operations") manages an extensive flood control system which includes both permanent and mobile flood walls, protection from rising waters for buildings close to the river banks, monitoring and forecasting systems, pumping stations and programmes to create or protect floodplains, and river embankments.WEB,weblink Flood Defence Scheme City of Cologne, 20 March 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090324213456weblink">weblink 24 March 2009, dmy-all, The system was redesigned after a 1993 flood, which resulted in heavy damage.

Demographics

{{historical populations3000050000400004202475858144722372229516527657175740082733500603283803616101377197669495355196288410071191034175104668010605821080701}}{| class="infobox" style="float:right;" Top 20 Foreign-passport citizensSTATISTISCHES JAHRBUCH KöLN 2017 >URL=HTTP://WWW.STADT-KOELN.DE/MEDIAASSET/CONTENT/PDF15/1_STATISTISCHES_JAHRBUCH_K%C3%B6LN_2017_BEV%C3%B6LKERUNG_UND_HAUSHALTE.PDF, 19 June 2018, ! Nationality || Population (2016)Turkey}} 55,567Italy}} 19,048Poland}} 9,757Iraq}} 7,905Bulgaria}} 7,438Syria}} 6,344Serbia & Montenegro}} 6,040Greece}} 5,765Russia}} 4,754Iran}} 4,491Romania}} 4,417Spain}} 3,844Bosnia}} 3,810Croatia}} 3,369Ukraine}} 3,339Portugal}} 3,196Afghanistan}} 2,963France}} 2,774Kosovo}} 2,677China}} 2,492In the Roman Empire the city was large and rich with a population of 40,000 in 100–200 AD.BOOK, Traffic and Congestion in the Roman Empire, van Tilburg, C., 2007, Taylor & Francis, 9781134129751,weblink 42, 5 October 2014, The city was home to around 20,000 people in 1000 AD, growing to 50,000 in 1200 AD. The Rhineland metropolis still had 50,000 residents in 1300 AD.BOOK, Ecologies and Economies in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Studies in Environmental History for Richard C. Hoffmann, Bruce, S.G., 2010, Brill, 9789004180079,weblink 48, 5 October 2014, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150903230511weblink">weblink yes, 3 September 2015, 30 November 2009, International trade and institutional change: A death in Venice, Diego Puga & Daniel Trefler, 5 October 2014, Cologne is the fourth-largest city in Germany after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich. As of 31 December 2016, there were 1,080,701 people registered as living in Cologne in an area of {{convert|401.15|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink 1 081 701 Kölnerinnen und Kölner in 2016, stadt-koeln.de, 25 September 2016, The population density was {{convert|2641|PD/sqkm|PD/sqmi|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Statistisches Jahrbuch 2016, stadt-koeln.de, 1 February 2016, 25 September 2017, The metropolitan area of the Cologne Bonn Region is home to 3,573,500 living on {{convert|4415|PD/sqkm|PD/sqmi|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Region Köln Bon, region-koeln-bonn.de, 2013, 25 September 2017, It is part of the polycentric megacity region Rhine-Ruhr with a population of over 11,000,000 people.There were 546,498 women and 522,694 men in Cologne. For every 1,000 males, there were 1,046 females. In 2015, there were 11,337 births in Cologne (of which 34.53% were to unmarried women); 7,704 marriages and 2,203 divorces, and 9,629 deaths. In the city, the population was spread out with 15.6% under the age of 18, and 17.6% were 65 years of age or older. 163 people in Cologne were over the age of 100.According to the Statistical Office of the City of Cologne, the number of people with a migrant background is at 36.7% (393,7936). 2,537 people acquired German citizenship in 2015.In 2015, there were 557,090 households, of which 18.3% had children under the age of 18; 50.6% of all households were made up of singles. 8.7% of all households were single-parent households. The average household size was 1.87.

Residents of Cologne with foreign citizenship

Cologne residents with a foreign citizenship as of 31 December 2015 is as followsweblink{|class="wikitable"! style="background:#efefef;"|Citizenship! style="background:#efefef;"|Number! style="background:#efefef;"|% |100%Europe>|70.2%European Union>|34%Asian people>Asian58,86914.9%African people>African25,3016.4%Americas>American11,8053.0%Australian and Oceanian>|0.2%

Language

{{See also|Colognian dialect}}Colognian or Kölsch ({{IPA-ksh|kœɫːʃ}}) (natively Kölsch Platt) is a small set of very closely related dialects, or variants, of the Ripuarian Central German group of languages. These dialects are spoken in the area covered by the Archdiocese and former Electorate of Cologne reaching from Neuss in the north to just south of Bonn, west to Düren and east to Olpe in the North-West of Germany. Kölsch is one of the very few city dialects in Germany, besides for example, the dialect spoken in Berlin.

Religion

Slightly more than half of the residents of Cologne are members of a religion. As of 2015, 35.5% of the population belonged to the Roman Catholic Church, the largest religious body, and 15.5% to the Evangelical Church.WEB,weblink Statistisches Jahrbuch 2016, 1 February 2016, stadt-koeln.de, 25 September 2017, Irenaeus of Lyons claimed that Christianity was brought to Cologne by Roman soldiers and traders at an unknown early date. Though it is known that in the early second century it was a bishop’s seat. The first historical Bishop of Cologne was Saint Maternus.WEB,weblink CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Cologne, www.knight.org, 2019-04-20, Thomas Aquinas studied in Cologne in 1244 under Albertus Magnus.WEB,weblink St. Thomas Aquinas > By Individual Philosopher > Philosophy, www.philosophybasics.com, 2019-04-20, Cologne is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne. There are several mosques, including the Cologne Central Mosque run by the Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious Affairs. Cologne also has one of the oldest and largest Jewish communities in Germany.NEWS,weblink Cologne: Germany's Oldest Jewish Community, Serup-Bilfeldt, Kirsten, 19 August 2005, Deutsche Welle, 6 September 2011,

Government

{{See also|Cologne City Hall}}The city's administration is headed by the mayor and the three deputy mayors.

Political traditions and developments

The long tradition of a free imperial city, which long dominated an exclusively Catholic population and the age-old conflict between the church and the bourgeoisie (and within it between the patricians and craftsmen) have created its own political climate in Cologne. Various interest groups often form networks beyond party boundaries. The resulting web of relationships, with political, economic, and cultural links with each other in a system of mutual favours, obligations and dependencies, is called the 'Cologne coterie'. This has often led to an unusual proportional distribution in the city government and degenerated at times into corruption: in 1999, a "waste scandal" over kickbacks and illegal campaign contributions came to light, which led not only to the imprisonment of the entrepreneur Hellmut Trienekens, but also to the downfall of almost the entire leadership of the ruling Social Democrats.

Mayor

The Lord Mayor of Cologne is Henriette Reker. She received 52.66% of the vote at the municipal election on 17 October 2015 and was appointed on 15 December 2015.WEB,weblink Oberbürgermeisterwahl – Wahl des/der Oberbürgermeisters/in 2015 in der Stadt Köln – Gesamtergebnis, 18 October 2015, stadt-koeln.de, de, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151020160002weblink">weblink 20 October 2015, dmy-all,

Elections

City Councillors are elected for a five-year term and the Mayor has a six-year term.WEB, Wahlperiode,weblink 15 April 2011, City of Cologne, German, ">

Make-up of city council{| class"wikitable"

!Party!!SeatsSocial Democratic Party of Germany>Social Democratic Party27Christian Democratic Union (Germany)>Christian Democratic Union24Alliance '90/The Greens>Green Party18The Left (Germany)>The Left6Free Democratic Party (Germany)>Free Democratic Party5Alternative for Germany>|3Pirate Party Germany>|2Pro Germany Citizens' Movement#Pro Cologne Citizen's Movement>pro Cologne2|2Free Voters>|1Source: City of CologneWEB, Alle Ratsmitglieder,weblink City of Cologne, 22 June 2014, German,

Cityscape

{{wide image|Cologne - Panoramic Image of the old town at dusk.jpg|1000px|Panoramic view of the city at night as seen from Deutz; from left to right: Deutz Bridge, Great St. Martin Church, Cologne Cathedral, Hohenzollern Bridge}}The inner city of Cologne was completely destroyed during World War II. The reconstruction of the city followed the style of the 1950s, while respecting the old layout and naming of the streets. Thus, the city today is characterized by simple and modest post-war buildings, with a few interspersed pre-war buildings which were reconstructed due to their historical importance. Some buildings of the "Wiederaufbauzeit" (era of reconstruction), for example, the opera house by Wilhelm Riphahn, are nowadays regarded as classics of modern architecture.{{Citation needed|date=April 2018}}BOOK,weblink Heidi Klum & Seal The truth about the divorce, Hombach, Jean-Pierre, 2010, 978-1-4716-2190-1, 31, en, Nevertheless, the uncompromising style of the Cologne Opera house and other modern buildings has remained controversial.Green areas account for over a quarter of Cologne, which is approximately {{convert|75|m2|2|abbr=on}} of public green space for every inhabitant.WEB, Green Cologne,weblink KölnTourismus, 17 April 2011,

Wildlife

The presence of animals in Cologne is generally limited to insects, small rodents, and several species of birds. Pigeons are the most often seen animals in Cologne, although the number of birds is augmented each year by a growing population of feral exotics, most visibly parrots such as the rose-ringed parakeet. The sheltered climate in southeast Northrhine-Westphalia allows these birds to survive through the winter, and in some cases, they are displacing native species. The plumage of Cologne's green parrots is highly visible even from a distance, and contrasts starkly with the otherwise muted colours of the cityscape.WEB, In NRW behaupten sich immer mehr exotische Vögel,weblink RP Online, 16 January 2013,

Tourism

Cologne had 5.8 million overnight stays booked and 3.35 million arrivals in 2016.WEB,weblink Tourism results for 2016: Moderate decrease in visitor numbers due to difficult general conditions, KölnTourismus, 21 February 2017, 13 September 2017, The city also has the most pubs per capita in Germany.WEB, Nightlife,weblink KölnTourismus, 13 September 2017, The city has 70 clubs, "countless" bars, restaurants, and pubs.

Landmarks

Churches

  • Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom) is the city's most famous monument and the Cologne residents' most loved landmark. It is a Gothic church, started in 1248, and completed in 1880. In 1996, it was designated a World Heritage site; it houses the Shrine of the Three Kings, which supposedly contains the relics of the Three Magi (see alsoWEB,weblink Offizielle Webseite des Kölner Doms &124; Bedeutende Werke, Koelner-dom.de, 5 May 2009, ). Residents of Cologne sometimes refer to the cathedral as "the eternal construction site" (die ewige Baustelle).
  • Twelve Romanesque churches: These buildings are outstanding examples of medieval church architecture. The origins of some of the churches go back as far as Roman times, for example St. Gereon, which was originally a chapel in a Roman graveyard. With the exception of St. Maria Lyskirchen all of these churches were very badly damaged during World War II. Reconstruction was only finished in the 1990s.
Kdom.jpg|Cologne CathedralKöln - Groß St. Martin vom Dom.jpg|Great St. Martin ChurchSevereinskirche aus Severinstorburg 2009.jpg|Basilica of St. SeverinKoeln mariae himmelfahrt 001.jpg|Church of the AssumptionTrinitatiskirche Koeln2007.jpg|Trinity Church

Medieval houses

The Cologne City Hall (Kölner Rathaus), founded in the 12th century, is the oldest city hall in Germany still in use.WEB,weblink Strategic Management Society – Cologne Conference – Cologne Information, Cologne.strategicmanagement.net, 14 October 2008, 26 July 2010, The Renaissance-style loggia and tower were added in the 15th century. Other famous buildings include the Gürzenich, Haus Saaleck and the Overstolzenhaus.File:Keoln Maerz 2009 PD 20090327 028.JPG|Cologne City HallFile:Köln gürzenich.jpg|GürzenichFile:Overstolzenhaus-Rheingasse-Köln.JPG|Overstolzenhaus

Medieval city gates

(File:A Plan of the City of Cologne, 1800, John Stockdale-9832.jpg|thumb|upright=1.0 | A plan published in 1800 shows the mediaeval city wall still intact, locating 16 gates (Nr. 36-51 in the legend), e.g. 47: Eigelsteintor, 43: Hahnentor, 39: Severinstor)Of the twelve medieval city gates that once existed, only the Eigelsteintorburg at Ebertplatz, the Hahnentor at Rudolfplatz and the Severinstorburg at Chlodwigplatz still stand today.File:Köln eigelsteintorburg.jpg|EigelsteintorFile:Hahnentorburg.jpg|HahnentorFile:Severinstorburg Köln-0410.jpg|Severinstor{{^|(File:Dropped cone Cologne.jpg|thumb|208x208px)}}

Streets

  • The Cologne Ring boulevards (such as Hohenzollernring, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring, Hansaring) with their medieval city gates (such as Hahnentorburg on Rudolfplatz) are also known for their night life.
  • Hohe Straße (literally: High Street) is one of the main shopping areas and extends past the cathedral in an approximately southerly direction. The street contains many gift shops, clothing stores, fast food restaurants and electronic goods dealers.
  • Schildergasse – connects Neumarkt square at its western end to the Hohe Strasse shopping street at its eastern end and has been named the busiest shopping street in Europe with 13,000 people passing through every hour, according to a 2008 study by GfK.
  • Ehrenstraße – the shopping area around Apostelnstrasse, Ehrenstrasse, and Rudolfplatz is a little more on the quirky and stylish side.

Bridges

(File:Bridge in Cologne over the Rhine River.jpg|thumb|left |Bridge in Cologne over the Rhine River.)(File:Rhine River at Cologne, Germany.jpg|thumb|right|Rhine River at Cologne, Germany.)Several bridges cross the Rhine in Cologne. They are (from south to north): the Cologne Rodenkirchen Bridge, South Bridge (railway), Severin Bridge, Deutz Bridge, Hohenzollern Bridge (railway), Zoo Bridge (Zoobrücke) and Cologne Mülheim Bridge. In particular the iron tied arch Hohenzollern Bridge (Hohenzollernbrücke) is a dominant landmark along the river embankment. A Rhine crossing of a special kind is provided by the Cologne Cable Car (German: Kölner Seilbahn), a cableway that runs across the Rhine between the Cologne Zoological Garden in Riehl and the Rheinpark in Deutz.

High-rise structures

Cologne's tallest structure is the Colonius telecommunication tower at {{convert|266|m|ft|0|abbr=on|disp=or}}. The observation deck has been closed since 1992. A selection of the tallest buildings in Cologne is listed below. Other tall structures include the Hansahochhaus (designed by architect Jacob Koerfer and completed in 1925—it was at one time Europe's tallest office building), the Kranhaus buildings at Rheinauhafen, and the Messeturm Köln ("trade fair tower").{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center; background:#fefef6; width:80%;"! Skyscraper!class="unsortable"| Image! Height in metres! Floors! Year! Address!class="unsortable"| Notes KölnTurm60px)| 148.5| 43| 2001 MediaPark 8, Neustadt-Nord (literally: Cologne Tower), Cologne's second tallest building at {{convertm2}} in height, second only to the Colonius telecommunication tower. The 30th floor of the building has a restaurant and a terrace with 360° views of the city. Colonia-Hochhaus60px)| 147| 45| 1973 An der Schanz 2, Riehl tallest building in Germany from 1973 to 1976. Today, it is still the country's tallest residential building.Rheintower60px)| 138| 34| 1980 Raderberggürtel, Marienburg former headquarters of Deutsche Welle, since 2007 under renovation with the new name Rheintower Köln-Marienburg. Uni-CenterHTTP://WWW.UNICENTERKOELN.DE/SITE/UNSER_HAUS/INDEX.PHP >TITLE=HOMEPAGE OF THE UNI-CENTER DATE= DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=27 MARCH 2010, dmy-all, 60px)| 133| 45| 1973 Luxemburger Straße, Sülz TÜV Rheinland60px)| 112| 22| 1974 Am Grauen Stein, Poll Ringturm60px)| 109| 26| 1973 Ebertplatz, Neustadt-Nord Justizzentrum Köln60px)| 105| 25| 1981 Luxemburger Straße, Sülz KölnTriangle60px)| 103| 29| 2006 Ottoplatz 1, Deutz opposite to the cathedral with a {{convertm0|abbr=on}} high viewing platform and a view of the cathedral over the Rhine. Herkules-Hochhaus60px)| 102| 31| 1969 Graeffstraße 1, Ehrenfeld Deutschlandfunk-Turm60px)| 102| 19| 1975 Raderberggürtel, Marienburg

Culture

File:Kolumba Köln - Innenhof.jpg|thumb|Courtyard of the Kolumba museum in 2007, designed by Peter ZumthorPeter ZumthorCologne has several museums. The famous Roman-Germanic Museum features art and architecture from the city's distant past; the Museum Ludwig houses one of the most important collections of modern art in Europe, including a Picasso collection matched only by the museums in Barcelona and Paris. The Museum Schnütgen of religious art is partly housed in St. Cecilia, one of Cologne's Twelve Romanesque churches.Many art galleries in Cologne enjoy a worldwide reputation like e.g. Galerie Karsten Greve, one of the leading galleries for postwar and contemporary art.Several orchestras are active in the city, among them the Gürzenich Orchestra, which is also the orchestra of the Cologne Opera and the WDR Symphony Orchestra Cologne (German State Radio Orchestra), both based at the Cologne Philharmonic Orchestra Building (Kölner Philharmonie).WEB,weblink Kölner Philharmonie, Web.archive.org, 11 December 2007, 8 August 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071211142559weblink">weblink 11 December 2007, Other orchestras are the Musica Antiqua Köln and the WDR Rundfunkorchester Köln, and several choirs, including the WDR Rundfunkchor Köln. Cologne was also an important hotbed for electronic music in the 1950s (Studio für elektronische Musik, Karlheinz Stockhausen) and again from the 1990s onward. The public radio and TV station WDR was involved in promoting musical movements such as Krautrock in the 1970s; the influential Can was formed there in 1968. There are several centres of nightlife, among them the Kwartier Latäng (the student quarter around the Zülpicher Straße) and the nightclub-studded areas around Hohenzollernring, Friesenplatz and Rudolfplatz.(File:Water feature in Cologne, Germany.jpg|thumb|left|Water feature in Cologne, Germany, summer of 2017.)The large annual literary festival Lit. Cologne features regional and international authors. The main literary figure connected with Cologne is the writer Heinrich Böll, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature.Cologne is well known for its beer, called Kölsch. Kölsch is also the name of the local dialect. This has led to the common joke of Kölsch being the only language one can drink.Cologne is also famous for Eau de Cologne (German: Kölnisch Wasser; lit: "Water of Cologne"), a perfume created by Italian expatriate Johann Maria Farina at the beginning of the 18th century. During the 18th century, this perfume became increasingly popular, was exported all over Europe by the Farina family and Farina became a household name for Eau de Cologne. In 1803 Wilhelm Mülhens entered into a contract with an unrelated person from Italy named Carlo Francesco Farina who granted him the right to use his family name and Mühlens opened a small factory at Cologne's Glockengasse. In later years, and after various court battles, his grandson Ferdinand Mülhens was forced to abandon the name Farina for the company and their product. He decided to use the house number given to the factory at Glockengasse during the French occupation in the early 19th century, 4711. Today, original Eau de Cologne is still produced in Cologne by both the Farina family, currently in the eighth generation, and by Mäurer & Wirtz who bought the 4711 brand in 2006.

Carnival

The Cologne carnival is one of the largest street festivals in Europe. In Cologne, the carnival season officially starts on 11 November at 11 minutes past 11 a.m. with the proclamation of the new Carnival Season, and continues until Ash Wednesday. However, the so-called "Tolle Tage" (crazy days) do not start until Weiberfastnacht (Women's Carnival) or, in dialect, Wieverfastelovend, the Thursday before Ash Wednesday, which is the beginning of the street carnival. Zülpicher Strasse and its surroundings, Neumarkt square, Heumarkt and all bars and pubs in the city are crowded with people in costumes dancing and drinking in the streets. Hundreds of thousands of visitors flock to Cologne during this time. Generally, around a million people celebrate in the streets on the Thursday before Ash Wednesday.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080125230206weblink">weblink 25 January 2008, Carnival – Cologne's "fifth season" – Cologne Sights & Events – Stadt Köln, Web.archive.org, 26 January 2008, 24 July 2009,

Rivalry with Düsseldorf

Cologne and Düsseldorf have a "fierce regional rivalry",NEWS, Giving Beer A Home in the Rhineland,weblink 28 July 2011, The Local, 28 July 2011, which includes carnival parades, football, and beer. People in Cologne prefer Kölsch while people in Düsseldorf prefer Altbier ("Alt"). Waiters and patrons will "scorn" and make a "mockery" of people who order Alt beer in Cologne or Kölsch in Düsseldorf. The rivalry has been described as a "love–hate relationship".

Museums

File:Museum Ludwig Köln - Südeingang - Schriftzug.jpg|thumb|The Museum Ludwig houses one of the most important collections of modern artmodern artFile:Dionysusmozaïek 17-02-2009 10-51-23.JPG|thumb|Roman excavation in Cologne: Dionysus Mosaic on display at Römisch-Germanisches MuseumRömisch-Germanisches Museum

Music fairs and festivals

The city was home to the internationally famous Ringfest, and now to the C/o pop festival. WEB,weblink C/o Pop Official Website, In addition, Cologne enjoys a thriving Christmas Market (Weihnachtsmarkt) presence with several locations in the city.

Economy

File:Koelnmesse Nordeingang.jpg|thumb|North entrance to KoelnmesseKoelnmesseFile:Rheinauhafen - The Bench - Rheinseite (1828-30).jpg|thumb|Modern office building at RheinauhafenRheinauhafenAs the largest city in the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, Cologne benefits from a large market structure.stadt-koeln.de Cologne Business Guide {{de icon}} {{en icon}} In competition with Düsseldorf, the economy of Cologne is primarily based on insurance and media industries,WEB,weblink Cologne, Encyclopædia Britannica, while the city is also an important cultural and research centre and home to a number of corporate headquarters.Among the largest media companies based in Cologne are Westdeutscher Rundfunk, RTL Television (with subsidiaries), n-tv, Deutschlandradio, Brainpool TV and publishing houses like J. P. Bachem, Taschen, Tandem Verlag, and M. DuMont Schauberg. Several clusters of media, arts and communications agencies, TV production studios, and state agencies work partly with private and government-funded cultural institutions. Among the insurance companies based in Cologne are Central, DEVK, DKV, Generali Deutschland, Gen Re, Gothaer, HDI Gerling and national headquarters of AXA Insurance, Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Group and Zurich Financial Services.The German flag carrier Lufthansa and its subsidiary Lufthansa CityLine have their main corporate headquarters in Cologne.NEWS, Directory: World Airlines, Flight International, 107, 3 April 2007, The largest employer in Cologne is Ford Europe, which has its European headquarters and a factory in Niehl (Ford-Werke GmbH).WEB,weblink Ãœber Ford – Standorte, Ford Germany, 20 June 2009, de, Toyota Motorsport GmbH (TMG), Toyota's official motorsports team, responsible for Toyota rally cars, and then Formula One cars, has its headquarters and workshops in Cologne. Other large companies based in Cologne include the REWE Group, TÃœV Rheinland, Deutz AG and a number of Kölsch breweries. Cologne has the country's highest density of pubs per capita. The largest three Kölsch breweries are Reissdorf, Gaffel, and Früh.{| class="wikitable"! style="text-align:left;"| Brewery! valign=bottom | Established! valign=bottom | Annual output in hectoliters| Heinrich Reissdorf| 1894| 650,000| Gaffel Becker & Co| 1908| 500,000| Cölner Hofbräu Früh| 1904| 440,000Historically, Cologne has always been an important trade city, with land, air, and sea connections. The city has five Rhine ports, the second largest inland port in Germany and one of the largest in Europe. Cologne-Bonn Airport is the second largest freight terminal in Germany. Today, the Cologne trade fair (Koelnmesse) ranks as a major European trade fair location with over 50 trade fairs and other large cultural and sports events. In 2008 Cologne had 4.31 million overnight stays booked and 2.38 million arrivals. Cologne's largest daily newspaper is the Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger.Cologne shows a significant increase in startup companies, especially when considering digital business.WEB, Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Kölm, Kölner Digitalwirtschaft gut aufgestellt,weblink 28 October 2016,

Transport

Road transport

File:Koelner Ring.png|thumb|left|Major roads through and around Cologne ]]Road building had been a major issue in the 1920s under the leadership of mayor Konrad Adenauer. The first German limited-access road was constructed after 1929 between Cologne and Bonn. Today, this is the Bundesautobahn 555. In 1965, Cologne became the first German city to be fully encircled by a motorway ring road. Roughly at the same time, a city centre bypass (Stadtautobahn) was planned, but only partially put into effect, due to opposition by environmental groups. The completed section became Bundesstraße ("Federal Road") B 55a, which begins at the Zoobrücke ("Zoo Bridge") and meets with A 4 and A 3 at the interchange Cologne East. Nevertheless, it is referred to as Stadtautobahn by most locals. In contrast to this, the Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive") was actually completed, a new four/six-lane city centre through-route, which had already been anticipated by planners such as Fritz Schumacher in the 1920s. The last section south of Ebertplatz was completed in 1972.In 2005, the first stretch of an eight-lane motorway in North Rhine-Westphalia was opened to traffic on Bundesautobahn 3, part of the eastern section of the Cologne Beltway between the interchanges Cologne East and Heumar.

Cycling

File:4517Bensberg.jpg|thumb|right|Cologne Stadtbahn at Bensberg station ]]File:146 019-5 Rheinexpressinkoelnhbf.jpg|thumb|right|Train at Köln HauptbahnhofKöln HauptbahnhofCompared to other German cities, Cologne has a traffic layout that is not very bicycle-friendly. It has repeatedly ranked among the worst in an independent evaluationWEB,weblink Archived copy, 2015-03-10, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150304204535weblink">weblink 4 March 2015, dmy-all, conducted by the Allgemeiner Deutscher Fahrrad-Club. In 2014 it ranked 36th out of 39 German cities with a population greater than 200,000.

Rail transport

Cologne has a railway service with Deutsche Bahn InterCity and ICE-trains stopping at Köln Hauptbahnhof (Cologne Main Station), Köln Messe/Deutz and Cologne/Bonn Airport. ICE and TGV Thalys high-speed trains link Cologne with Amsterdam, Brussels (in 1h47, 9 departures/day) and Paris (in 3h14, 6 departures/day). There are frequent ICE trains to other German cities, including Frankfurt am Main and Berlin. ICE Trains to London via the Channel Tunnel were planned for 2013.WEB,weblink High-speed trains to link England and Germany, Brisbanetimes.com.au, 16 October 2011, 26 January 2012, The Cologne Stadtbahn operated by Kölner Verkehrsbetriebe (KVB)WEB,weblink Kölner Verkehrsbetriebe (KVB), Kvb-koeln.de, 24 July 2009, is an extensive light rail system that is partially underground and serves Cologne and a number of neighbouring cities. It evolved from the tram system. Nearby Bonn is linked by both the Stadtbahn and main line railway trains, and occasional recreational boats on the Rhine. Düsseldorf is also linked by S-Bahn trains, which are operated by Deutsche Bahn.The Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn has 5 lines which cross Cologne.The S13/S19 runs 24/7 between Cologne Hbf and Cologne/Bonn airport.There are also frequent buses covering most of the city and surrounding suburbs, and Eurolines coaches to London via Brussels.

Water transport

Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln (Ports and Goods traffic Cologne, HGK) is one of the largest operators of inland ports in Germany.WEB,weblink Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln AG, Hgk.de, 8 August 2010, Ports include Köln-Deutz, Köln-Godorf, and Köln-Niehl I and II.

Air transport

Cologne's international airport is Cologne/Bonn Airport (CGN). It is also called Konrad Adenauer Airport after Germany's first post-war Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who was born in the city and was mayor of Cologne from 1917 until 1933. The airport is shared with the neighbouring city of Bonn. Cologne is headquarters to the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The airport is also the main hub of the airline Germanwings.

Education

Cologne is home to numerous universities and colleges,WEB,weblink Hochschulen – Wissensdurst KĂśln – Das KĂślner Wissenschaftsportal, Wissensdurst-koeln.de, 26 July 2010, WEB,weblink Forschungsschwerpunkte, Wissensdurst-koeln.de, and host to some 72,000 students. Its oldest university, the University of Cologne (founded in 1388) is the largest university in Germany, as the Cologne University of Applied Sciences is the largest university of Applied Sciences in the country. The Cologne University of Music and Dance is the largest conservatory in Europe.WEB,weblink goethe.de, goethe.de, 8 August 2010, Foreigners can have German lessons in the VHS (Adult Education Centre).WEB,weblink Cologne Adult Education Centre – City of Cologne, Stadt-koeln.de, 16 November 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121104190033weblink">weblink 4 November 2012, dmy-all, {| Former colleges include:

Media

Within Germany, Cologne is known as an important media centre. Several radio and television stations, including Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR), RTL and VOX, have their headquarters in the city. Film and TV production is also important. The city is "Germany's capital of TV crime stories".WEB, Productions "made in Cologne",weblink Cologne Tourism, 22 April 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100808143408weblink">weblink 8 August 2010, yes, dmy-all, A third of all German TV productions are made in the Cologne region. Furthermore, the city hosts the Cologne Comedy Festival, which is considered to be the largest comedy festival in mainland Europe.WEB,weblink Cologne Comedy Festival website, Koeln-comedy.de, 21 October 2007,

Sports

File:FIFA WM06 Stadion Koeln.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.05|RheinEnergieStadion is the stadium of 1. Bundesliga club 1. FC Köln1. FC KölnCologne hosts 1. FC Köln,WEB, Sport and relaxation,weblink Cologne Tourist Information, 13 March 2013, who play in the 1. Bundesliga. They play their home matches in RheinEnergieStadion which also hosted 5 matches of the 2006 FIFA World Cup.WEB, The RheinEnergie Stadium,weblink 1. FC Köln, 20 April 2011, The International Olympic Committee and Internationale Vereinigung Sport- und Freizeiteinrichtungen e.V. gave RheinEnergieStadion a bronze medal for "being one of the best sporting venues in the world". Cologne also hosts FC Viktoria Köln 1904 and SC Fortuna Köln, who play in the Regionalliga West (fourth division) respectively the 3. Liga (third division).The city is also home of the ice hockey team Kölner Haie, in the highest ice hockey league in Germany, the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. They are based at Lanxess Arena.Several horse races per year are held at Cologne-Weidenpesch Racecourse since 1897, the annual Cologne Marathon was started in 1997.Japanese automotive manufacturer Toyota have their major motorsport facility known by the name Toyota Motorsport GmbH. Which is located in Marsdorf suburb, and is responsible for Toyota's major motorsport development and operations, which in the past included the FIA Formula One World Championship, the FIA World Rally Championship and the Le Mans Series. Currently they are working on Toyota's team (Toyota Gazoo Racing) which competes in the FIA World Endurance Championship.Cologne is considered "the secret golf capital of Germany". The first golf club in North Rhine-Westphalia was founded in Cologne in 1906. The city offers the most options and top events in Germany.The city has hosted several athletic events which includes the 2005 FIFA Confederations Cup, 2006 FIFA World Cup, 2007 World Men's Handball Championship, 2010 and 2017 Ice Hockey World Championships and 2010 Gay Games.

Notable residents

Notable people, whose roots can be found in Cologne:{{Div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}

International relations

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany}}

Twin towns and sister cities

Cologne is twinned with:{{colbegin}}
  • {{flagicon|Spain|140px}} Barcelona, Spain (since 1984)
  • {{flagicon|Germany|140px}} Berlin-Neukölln, Germany
  • {{flagicon|Germany|140px}} Berlin-Treptow, Germany
  • {{flagicon|Palestine|140px}} Bethlehem, Palestine (1996)
  • {{flagicon|Romania|140px}} Cluj Napoca/Klausenburg, Romania (1976)
  • {{flagicon|Nicaragua|140px}} Corinto/El Realejo, Nicaragua (1988)
  • {{flagicon|Ireland|140px}} Cork, Ireland (27. June 1988)
  • {{flagicon|Luxembourg|140px}} Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg (1958)
  • {{flagicon|United States|140px}} Indianapolis, USA
  • {{flagicon|Turkey|140px}} Istanbul, Turkey (1997)
  • {{flagicon|Poland|140px}} Katowice, Poland (15 March 1991)
  • {{flagicon|Japan|140px}} Kyoto, Japan (21 January 1963)
  • {{flagicon|France|140px}} Lille, France (1958)
  • {{flagicon|United Kingdom|140px}} Liverpool, UK (1952)
  • {{flagicon|Belgium|140px}} Lüttich, Belgium (1958)
  • {{flagicon|China|140px}} Beijing, China (14 September 1987)
  • {{flagicon|Brazil|140px}} Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (19 September 2011)
  • {{flagicon|Netherlands|140px}} Rotterdam, Netherlands (1958)
  • {{flagicon|Israel|140px}} Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel (6 August 1979)
  • {{flagicon|Greece|140px}} Thessaloniki, Greece (3 May 1988)
  • {{flagicon|Tunisia|140px}} Tunis, Tunisia (12 June 1964)
  • {{flagicon|Italy|140px}} Turin, Italy (1958)
  • {{flagicon|Finland|140px}} Turku, Finland (1967)
  • {{flagicon|Russia|140px}} Volgograd, Russia
{{colend}}

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Cologne}}{{Wikisource1911Enc|Cologne}} {{Geographic location|Centre = Cologne|North = Düsseldorf|Northeast = Wuppertal|East = Siegen|Southeast = Koblenz|South = BonnBrühl, North Rhine-Westphalia>Brühl|West = Aachen|Northwest = Neuss}}{{Districts of Cologne}}{{Germany districts north rhine-westphalia}}{{Cities in Germany}}{{Hanseatic League}}{{Free Imperial Cities}}{{Authority control}}

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