Christianity in the 1st century

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Christianity in the 1st century
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{{further|Early Christianity|History of early Christianity}}{{merge from|Apostolic Age|discuss=Talk:Christianity in the 1st century#Merge with Apostolic Age|date=April 2019}}(File:Bloch-SermonOnTheMount.jpg|thumb|The Sermon On the Mount. Carl Bloch (1834–1890))Christianity in the 1st century deals with the formative years of the Early Christian community. The earliest followers of Jesus were composed principally from apocalyptic Jewish sects during the late Second Temple period of the 1st century. They were Jewish Christians, who strictly adhered to the Jewish law. Jerusalem had an early Christian community, which was led by James the Just, Peter, and John.McGrath, p. 174Paul the Apostle, a pious Jew who had persecuted the early Christians, converted c. AD 33–36BOOK, Bromiley, Geoffrey William, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A-D (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (W.B.Eerdmans)), 1979, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 0-8028-3781-6, 689, BOOK, Barnett, Paul, Jesus, the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times, 2002, InterVarsity Press, 0-8308-2699-8, 21, BOOK, L. Niswonger, Richard, New Testament History, 1993, Zondervan Publishing Company, 0-310-31201-9, 200, and started to proselytize among the Gentiles. According to Paul, Gentile converts could be allowed exemption from most Jewish commandments, arguing that all are justified by faith in Jesus. This led to a gradual split of early Christianity from Judaism, as Christianity became a predominantly Gentile religion.


Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as 'The Way' (), probably coming from {{bibleref|Isaiah|40:3|NIV}}, "prepare the way of the Lord."Larry Hurtado (August 17, 2017 ), "Paul, the Pagans’ Apostle"{{refn|group=note|It appears in the Acts of the Apostles, {{bibleref|Acts|9:2|NKJV}}, {{bibleref|Acts|19:9|NKJV}} and {{bibleref|Acts|19:23|NKJV}}). Some English translations of the New Testament capitalize 'the Way' (e.g. the New King James Version and the English Standard Version), indicating that this was how 'the new religion seemed then to be designated' Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary on Acts 19,weblinkacts/19.htm accessed 8 October 2015 whereas others treat the phrase as indicative—'the way',Jubilee Bible 2000 'that way' American King James Version or 'the way of the Lord'.Douai-Rheims Bible The Syriac version reads, "the way of God" and the Vulgate Latin version, "the way of the Lord".Gill, J., Gill's Exposition of the Bible, commentary on Acts 19:23 accessed 8 October 2015}} According to {{bibleref|Acts|11:26|NIV}}, the term "Christian" () was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch.E. Peterson (1959), "Christianus." In: Frühkirche, Judentum und Gnosis, publisher: Herder, Freiburg, pp. 353–72 The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" () was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD.{{sfn|Elwell|Comfort|2001|pp=266, 828}}


Jewish-Hellenistic background

Christianity arose in the syncretistic Hellenistic world of the first century CE, which was dominated by Roman law and Greek culture.{{sfn|Mack|1995}} Hellenistic culture had a profound impact on the customs and practices of Jews, both in Roman Palestine and in the Diaspora. The inroads into Judaism gave rise to Hellenistic Judaism in the Jewish diaspora which sought to establish a Hebraic-Jewish religious tradition within the culture and language of Hellenism. Hellenistic Judaism spread to Ptolemaic Egypt from the 3rd century BCE, and became a notable religio licita after the Roman conquest of Greece, Anatolia, Syria, Judea, and Egypt, until its decline in the 3rd century parallel to the rise of Gnosticism and Early Christianity.Palestinian Judaism at this time was divided into antagonistic factions. The main camps were the Pharisees, Saducees, Essenes and Zealots.{{r|group=web|"Shiffman"}}{{r|group=web|"JVL"}} This led to further unrest, and the 1st century BC and 1st century AD saw a number of charismatic religious leaders, contributing to what would become the Mishnah of rabbinic Judaism, including Yohanan ben Zakkai and Hanina ben Dosa; and the ministry of Jesus, which would lead to the emergence of the first Jewish Christian community.{{r|group=web|"Shiffman"}}{{r|group=web|"JVL"}}A central concern in 1st century Judaism was the covenant with God, and the status of the Jews as the chosen people.{{sfn|Ehrman|2012|p=272}} Many Jews believed that this covenant would be renewed with the coming of the Messiah. The Law was given by God to guide them in their worship of the Lord and in their interctions with each other, "the greatest gift God had given his people."{{sfn|Ehrman|2012|p=273}}The Jewish messiah concept has its root in the apocalyptic literature of the 2nd century BC to 1st century BC, promising a future leader or king from the Davidic line who is expected to be anointed with holy anointing oil and rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age and world to come.{{r|group=web|"Immanuel.Moshiah ben Yossef"}}{{r|group=web|"JVL.Blidstein.Messiah"}}{{r|group=web|"JVL.Telushkin.Messiah"}} The Messiah is often referred to as "King Messiah" () or malka meshiḥa in Aramaic.{{r|group=web|"JVL.Flusser.Second Temple Period"}}

Life and ministry of Jesus

{{Gospel Jesus}}File:Giambattista Tiepolo - The Crucifixion.jpg|thumb|left|18th-century painting, The Crucifixion, by Giovanni Battista TiepoloGiovanni Battista TiepoloIn the canonical gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Roman Judea and Transjordan, near the Jordan River, and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples.Christianity: an introduction by Alister E. McGrath 2006 {{ISBN|978-1-4051-0901-7}} pp. 16–22The Gospel of Luke ({{Bibleref2|Luke|3:23}}) states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry.Paul L. Maier "The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus" in Chronos, kairos, Christos: nativity and chronological studies by Jerry Vardaman, Edwin M. Yamauchi 1989 {{ISBN|0-931464-50-1}} pp. 113–129 A chronology of Jesus typically has the date of the start of his ministry estimated at around AD 27–29 and the end in the range AD 30–36.Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times by Paul Barnett 2002 {{ISBN|0-8308-2699-8}} pp. 19–21Jesus' early Galilean ministry begins when after his baptism, he goes back to Galilee from his time in the Judean desert.The Gospel according to Matthew by Leon Morris {{ISBN|0-85111-338-9}} p. 71 In this early period he preaches around Galilee and recruits his first disciples who begin to travel with him and eventually form the core of the early Church.The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 {{ISBN|0-7847-1900-4}} pp. 117–130The major Galilean ministry which begins in Matthew 8 includes the commissioning of the Twelve Apostles, and covers most of the ministry of Jesus in Galilee.A theology of the New Testament by George Eldon Ladd 1993ISBN p. 324The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 {{ISBN|0-7847-1900-4}} pp. 143–160 The final Galilean ministry begins after the death of John the Baptist as Jesus prepares to go to Jerusalem.Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels {{ISBN|0-8054-9444-8}} pp. 97–110The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 {{ISBN|0-7847-1900-4}} pp. 165–180In the later Judean ministry Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem through Judea.Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels {{ISBN|0-8054-9444-8}} pp. 121–135The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 {{ISBN|0-7847-1900-4}} pp. 189–207 As Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the later Perean ministry, about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee (actually a freshwater lake) along the River Jordan, he returns to the area where he was baptized.Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels {{ISBN|0-8054-9444-8}} p. 137The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 {{ISBN|0-7847-1900-4}} pp. 211–229Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 1998 {{ISBN|0-86554-373-9}} p. 929The final ministry in Jerusalem is sometimes called the Passion Week and begins with Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem. The gospels provide more details about the final ministry than the other periods, devoting about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem.Matthew by David L. Turner 2008 {{ISBN|0-8010-2684-9}} p. 613The main sources of information regarding Jesus' life and teachings are the four canonical gospels, and to a lesser extent the Pauline epistles and the New Testament apocrypha.{{r|group=web|"EB.Sanders.Pelikan.Jesus"}} The Gospels are theological documents, which "provide information the authors regarded as necessary for the religious development of the Christian communities in which they worked."{{r|group=web|"EB.Sanders.Pelikan.Jesus"}} They consist of short passages, pericopes, which the Gospel-authors arranged in various ways as suited their aims.{{r|group=web|"EB.Sanders.Pelikan.Jesus"}}In the Synoptic Gospels Jewish eschatology stands central.{{r|group=web|"EB.Sanders.Pelikan.Jesus"}} After being baptized by John the Baptist, Jesus teaches extensively for a year, or maybe just a few months,{{r|group=web|"EB.Sanders.Pelikan.Jesus"}}{{refn|group=note|Sanders and Pelikan: "Besides presenting a longer ministry than do the other Gospels, John also describes several trips to Jerusalem. Only one is mentioned in the Synoptics. Both outlines are plausible, but a ministry of more than two years leaves more questions unanswered than does one of a few months."{{r|group=web|"EB.Sanders.Pelikan.Jesus"}}}} about the coming Kingdom of God (or, in Matthew, the Kingdom of Heaven), in aphorisms and parables, using similes and figures of speech.{{sfn|Theissen|Merz|1998|pp=316–46}}{{r|group=web|"EB.Sanders.Pelikan.Jesus"}} In the Gospel of John, Jesus himself is the main subject.{{r|group=web|"EB.Sanders.Pelikan.Jesus"}} Contemporary scholarship, representing the third quest for the historical Jesus places Jesus firmly in the Jewish tradition,Theissen, Gerd and Annette Merz. The historical Jesus: a comprehensive guide. Fortress Press. 1998. translated from German (1996 edition) and the most prominent view of Jesus is as a Jewish apocalyptic or eschatological teacher.Ehrman, Bart D. (Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium). Oxford University Press, 1999. {{ISBN|978-0195124743}}.{{refn|group=note|Christian eschatology relates to 'last things', such as death, the end of the world and the judgement of humanity. Eschatological passages are found in the Old Testament Prophets, such as Isaiah and Daniel; and in the New Testament, such as the Olivet discourse and the parable of The Sheep and the Goats in the Gospel of Matthew, in the General epistles, the Pauline epistles, and the Book of Revelation. Jesus prophesied that the end of the world and the Day of Judgement were imminent in sayings such as, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand," ((Matthew 3:2), (Matthew 4:17), Mark 1:15){{bibleverse||Matt|3:2|ESV}}{{bibleverse||Matt|4:17}}; {{bibleverse||Mark|1:15|ESV}} and "this generation will not pass away until all these things take place"{{bibleverse||Matt|24:34}}}} A primary criterion used to discern historical details in the "third quest" is that of plausibility, relative to Jesus' Jewish context and to his influence on Christianity.{{sfn|Dunn|2005}}The Synoptics present different views on the Kingdom of God.{{r|group=web|"EB.Sanders.Pelikan.Jesus"}} While the Kingdom is essentially described as eschatological, becoming reality in the near future, some texts present the Kingdom as already being present, while other texts depict the Kingdom as a place in heaven that one enters after death, or as the presence of God on earth.{{r|group=web|"EB.Sanders.Pelikan.Jesus"}}{{refn|group=note|The Kingdom is described as both imminent (s:Bible (American Standard)/Mark#1:15|Mark 1:15]]) and already present in the ministry of Jesus ({{bibleref2|Luke|17:21}}) Jesus promises inclusion in the Kingdom for those who accept his message ({{bibleref2|Mark|10:13–27}})}}. Jesus talks as expecting the coming of the "Son of Man" from heaven, an apocalyptic figure who would initiate "the coming judgment and the redemption of Israel."{{r|group=web|"EB.Sanders.Pelikan.Jesus"}} According to Davies, the Sermon on the Mount presents Jesus as the new Moses who brings a New Law, the Messianic Torah.{{sfn|Lawrence|2017|p=60}}His ministry was ended by his execution by crucifixion. His early followers believed that three days after his death, Jesus rose bodily from the dead and was exaltated to Divine status.{{sfn|Grant|1977|p=176}}{{sfn|Maier|1975|p=5}}Van Daalen, p.41Kremer, pp.49–50{{sfn|Ehrman|2014}} Paul's letters and the Gospels document a number of post-resurrection appearancesGundryWeiss, p.345Davies, pp.305–308Wilckens, pp.128–131Smith, p.406 and the resurrection of Jesus "signalled for earliest believers that the days of eschatological fulfilment were at hand."Larry Hurtado (December 4, 2018 ), ''"When Christians were Jews": Paula Fredriksen on "The First Generation" The resurrection was also seen as the exaltation of Jesus, "the action in which God designated Jesus as the unique divine Son, Lord, and monarch who is to preside in the submission of all things to God’s kingdom," forming the basis and impetus of the Christian faith and devotion.Johnson, p.136Ludemann, p.8Wright, p.26 His followers expected Him to return in the near future, ushering in the Kingdom of God.{{r|group=web|"EB.Sanders.Pelikan.Jesus"}}

Apostolic Age

File:Jerusalem Cenacle BW 5.JPG|thumb|The Cenacle on Mount Zion, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost. Bargil PixnerBargil Pixner, The Church of the Apostles found on Mount Zion, (Biblical Archaeology Review]] 16.3 May/June 1990, {{Webarchive|url= |date=2018-03-09 }} claims the original Church of the Apostles is located under the current structure.)The years following Jesus until the death of the last of the Twelve Apostles is called the Apostolic Age, after the missionary activities of the apostles.August Franzen, Kirchengeschichte, Freiburg, 1988: 20 According to the Acts of the Apostles, the Jerusalem church began at Pentecost with some 120 believers,{{bibleverse||Acts|1:13-15|NIV}} in an "upper room," believed by some to be the Cenacle, where the apostles received the Holy Spirit and emerged from hiding following the death and resurrection of Jesus to preach and spread his message.{{sfn|Vidmar|2005|p=19-20}}Schreck, The Essential Catholic Catechism (1999), p.130Paul's conversion on the Road to Damascus is first recorded in {{bibleverse||Acts|9:13-16}}. Peter baptized the Roman centurion Cornelius, traditionally considered the first Gentile convert to Christianity, in {{bibleverse|Acts||10}}. Based on this, the Antioch church was founded. It is also believed that it was there that the term Christian was coined.{{bibleverse|Acts||11:26}}

Jewish Christianity

After the death of Jesus, "Christianity [...] emerged as a sect of Judaism in Roman Palestine."{{sfn|Burkett|2002|p=3}} The first Christians were all Jews, either by birth or conversion ("proselytes" in Biblical terminology),{{refn|group=note|name="proselyte"|Catholic Encyclopedia: Proselyte: "The English term "proselyte" occurs only in the New Testament where it signifies a convert to the Jewish religion ({{bibleverse||Matthew|23:15|NAB}}; {{bibleverse||Acts|2:11|NAB}}; {{bibleverse-nb||Acts|6:5|NAB}}; etc.), though the same Greek word is commonly used in the Septuagint to designate a foreigner living in Judea. The term seems to have passed from an original local and chiefly political sense, in which it was used as early as 300 BC, to a technical and religious meaning in the Judaism of the New Testament epoch."}} who constituted a Second Temple Jewish sect with an apocalyptic eschatology.

Beliefs and practices

Jewish Christians were fully faithful religious Jews, only differing in their acceptance of Jesus as the resurrected messiah.{{sfn|McGrath|2006|p=174}}{{sfn|Cohen|1987|p=167–168}}{{refn|group=note|According to Shaye J.D. Cohen, Jesus's failure to establish an independent Israel, and his death at the hands of the Romans, caused many Jews to reject him as the Messiah.{{sfn|Cohen|1987|p=168}} Jews at that time were expecting a military leader as a Messiah, such as Bar Kohhba.}} They believed Yahweh to be the only true God,BOOK, G. Bromiley, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, "God", 0-8028-3782-4, Fully Revised, Two: E-J, 1982, Eerdmans Publishing Company, 497–499, the god of Israel, and considered Jesus to be the messiah (Christ), as prophesied in the Jewish scriptures, which they held to be authoritative and sacred. They held faithfully to the Torah,{{refn|group=note|Perhaps also Jewish law which was being formalized at the same time}} including acceptance of Gentile converts based on a version of the Noachide laws.{{refn|group=note|{{bibleverse||Acts|15}} and {{bibleverse||Acts|21}}}} They employed mostly the Septuagint or Targum translations of the Hebrew scriptures.The Book of Acts reports that the early followers continued daily Temple attendance and traditional Jewish home prayer. Other passages in the New Testament gospels reflect a similar observance of traditional Jewish piety such as fasting, reverence for the Torah and observance of Jewish holy days.White (2004), p.127Ehrman (2005), p.187.

The Jerusalem ekklēsia

File:Saint James the Just.jpg|thumb|left|James the Just, whose judgment was adopted in the Apostolic Decree of {{bibleverse||Acts|15:19-29|NRSV}}, "...we should write to them [Gentiles] to abstain only from things polluted by idols and from fornication and from whatever has been strangled and from blood..." (NRSVNRSV{{See also|Historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles}}The New Testament's Acts of the Apostles and Epistle to the Galatians record that an early Jewish Christian community{{refn|group=note|Hurtado: "She refrains from referring to this earliest stage of the "Jesus-community" as early "Christianity" and {{sic|comprised |hide=y|of}} "churches," as the terms carry baggage of later developments of "organized institutions, and of a religion separate from, different from, and hostile to Judaism" (185). So, instead, she renders ekklēsia as "assembly" (quite appropriately in my view, reflecting the quasi-official connotation of the term, often both in the LXX and in wider usage)."}} centered on Jerusalem, and that its leaders included Peter, James, the "brother of Jesus", and John the Apostle.{{bibleverse||Galatians|2:9|NIV}}, {{bibleverse||Acts|1:13|NIV}} Legitimised by Jesus' appearance, Peter was the first leader of the Jerusalem ekklēsia.{{sfn|Pagels|2005|p=45}}{{sfn|Lüdemann|Özen|1996|p=116}} He was soon eclipsed in this leadership by James the Just, "the Brother of the Lord,"{{sfn|Pagels|2005|p=45-46}}{{sfn|Lüdemann|Özen|1996|p=116-117}} which may explain why the early texts contain scarce information about Peter.{{sfn|Lüdemann|Özen|1996|p=116-117}} According to Lüdemann, in the discussions about the strictness of adherence to the Jewish Law, the more conservative faction of James the Just took the overhand over the more liberal position of Peter, who soon lost influence.{{sfn|Lüdemann|Özen|1996|p=116-117}} The Jerusalem community "held a central place among all the churches," as witnessed by Paul's writings.{{sfn|Hurtado|2005|p=160}} The relatives of Jesus were accorded a special position within this community, as displayed by the leadership of James the Just in Jerusalem.{{sfn|Taylor|1993|p=224}}According to a tradition recorded by Eusebius and Epiphanius of Salamis, the Jerusalem church fled to Pella at the outbreak of the Great Jewish Revolt (AD 66–70).Eusebius, Church History 3, 5, 3; Epiphanius, Panarion 29,7,7–8; 30, 2, 7; On Weights and Measures 15. On the flight to Pella see: Bourgel, Jonathan, "The Jewish Christians’ Move from Jerusalem as a pragmatic choice", in: Dan Jaffe (ed), Studies in Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity, (Leyden: Brill, 2010), pp. 107–138 ; P. H. R. van Houwelingen, "Fleeing forward: The departure of Christians from Jerusalem to Pella," Westminster Theological Journal 65 (2003), 181–200.

Emerging Church

Growth of early Christianity

(File:Krist spred 1.jpg|thumb|right|Spread of Christianity in 100 C.E.){{see also|Great Commission|Early centers of Christianity}}The Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples to spread his teachings to all the nations of the world. The most famous version of the Great Commission is in {{bibleref2|Matthew|28:16–20}}, where on a mountain in Galilee Jesus calls on his followers to make disciples of and baptize all nations in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.Christian missionary activity spread Christianity to cities in the predominantly Greek-speaking eastern half of the Roman Empire, and then throughout the Hellenistic world and even beyond the Roman Empire.{{sfn|Vidmar|2005|p=19-20}}Franzen 29{{refn|group=note|Ecclesiastical historian Henry Hart Milman writes that in much of the first three centuries, even in the Latin-dominated western empire: "the Church of Rome, and most, if not all the Churches of the West, were, if we may so speak, Greek religious colonies [see Greek colonies for the background]. Their language was Greek, their organization Greek, their writers Greek, their scriptures Greek; and many vestiges and traditions show that their ritual, their Liturgy, was Greek."WEB,weblink Greek Orthodoxy - From Apostolic Times to the Present Day,, }}Apostles and preachers traveled to Jewish communities around the Mediterranean Sea, and attracted Jewish converts.Bokenkotter, p. 18. Within 10 years of the death of Jesus, apostles had spread Christianity from Jerusalem to Antioch, Ephesus, Corinth, Thessalonica, Cyprus, Crete, Alexandria and Rome.Duffy, p. 3.{{sfn|Vidmar|2005|p=19-20}} Paul was responsible for bringing Christianity to Ephesus, Corinth, Philippi, and Thessalonica."Paul, St" Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005. Over 40 churches were established by 100,Hitchcock, Geography of Religion (2004), p.281Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church (2004), p. 18 most in Asia Minor, such as the seven churches of Asia, and some in Greece and Italy.Early Christian beliefs were proclaimed in kerygma (preaching), some of which are preserved in New Testament scripture. The early Gospel message spread orally, probably originally in Aramaic,{{sfn|Ehrman|2012|pp=87–90}} but almost immediately also in Greek.BOOK, Jaeger, Werner, Early Christianity and Greek Paideia, 1961, Harvard University Press, 9780674220522, 6, 108–09,weblink 26 February 2015, Christian groups and congregations first organized themselves loosely. In Paul's time there were no precisely delineated functions yet for bishops, elders, and deacons.Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.{{refn|groupo=note|Despite its mention of bishops, there is no clear evidence in the New Testament that supports the concepts of dioceses and monepiscopacy, i.e. the rule that all the churches in a geographic area should be ruled by a single bishop. According to Ronald Y. K. Fung, scholars point to evidence that Christian communities such as Rome had many bishops, and that the concept of monepiscopacy was still emerging when Ignatius was urging his tri-partite structure on other churches.Ronald Y.K. Fung as cited in BOOK, John Piper, Wayne Grudem, Recovering Biblical Manhood and Womanhood: A Response to Evangelical Feminism,weblink 28 October 2012, 8 August 2006, Crossway, 978-1-4335-1918-5, 254, }}


Creeds and salvation

The sources for the beliefs of the apostolic community include oral traditions (which included sayings attributed to Jesus, parables and teachings),BOOK, Burkett, Delbert, An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity, 2002, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-00720-7, harv, BOOK, Dunn, James D. G., The Oral Gospel Tradition, 2013, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 978-0-8028-6782-7, harv, the Gospels, the New Testament epistles and possibly lost texts such as the Q sourceHorsley, Richard A., Whoever Hears You Hears Me: Prophets, Performance and Tradition in Q, Horsley, Richard A. and Draper, Jonathan A. (eds.), Trinity Press, 1999, {{ISBN|978-1-56338-272-7}}, "Recent Studies of Oral-Derived Literature and Q", pp. 150–74Dunn, James D. G., Jesus Remembered, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003, {{ISBN|978-0-8028-3931-2}}, "Oral Tradition", pp. 192–210Mournet, Terence C., Oral Tradition and Literary Dependency: Variability and Stability in the Synoptic Tradition and Q, Mohr Siebeck, 2005, {{ISBN|978-3-16-148454-4}}, "A Brief History of the Problem of Oral Tradition", pp. 54–99 and the writings of Papias. The texts contain the earliest Christian creedsBOOK, Cullmann, Oscar, 1949, The Earliest Christian Confessions, J. K. S. Reid, London, Lutterworth, Oscar Cullmann, expressing belief in the risen Jesus, such as {{bibleverse|1|Corinthians|15:3–41}}:Neufeld, p.47
"Come, let us return to the Lord;for he has torn us, that he may heal us;he has struck us down, and he will bind us up.After two days he will revive us;on the third day he will raise us up,that we may live before him."See also {{bibleref2|2 Kings|20:8}}:
"Hezekiah said to Isaiah, “What shall be the sign that the Lord will heal me, and that I shall go up to the house of the Lord on the third day?”"}} [5] and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. [6] Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers and sisters at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have died. [7] Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles.oremus Bible Browser, 1 Corinthians 15:3–15:41}}The creed has been dated by some scholars as originating within the Jerusalem apostolic community no later than the 40s,O' Collins, p.112Hunter, p.100 and by some to less than a decade after Jesus' death,Pannenberg, p.90Cullmann, p.66 while others date it to about 56.BOOK, Perkins, Pheme, 1988, Reading the New Testament: An Introduction (originally published 1978), Mahwah NJ, Paulist Press, 20, 978-0809129393, Pheme Perkins, Other early creeds include {{bibleverse|1|John|4:2}}, {{bibleverse|2|Timothy|2:8}}Bultmann, Theology of the New Testament vol 1, pp. 49, 81 {{bibleverse||Romans|1:3–4}}Pannenberg, pp.118, 283, 367 and {{bibleverse|1|Timothy|3:16}}.


Two fundamentally different Christologies developed in the early Church, namely a "low" or adoptionist Christology, and a "high" or "incarnation Christology."{{sfn|Ehrman|2014|p=125}} The chronology of the development of these early Christologies is a matter of debate within contemporary scholarship.{{sfn|Loke|2017}}{{sfn|Ehrman|2014}}{{sfn|Talbert|2011|p=3-6}}Larry Hurtado, The Origin of “Divine Christology”?The "low Christology" or "adoptionist Christology" is the belief "that God exalted Jesus to be his Son by raising him from the dead,"{{sfn|Ehrman|2014|p=120; 122}} thereby raising him to "divine status."WEB, Ehrman, Bart D., Bart D. Ehrman, Incarnation Christology, Angels, and Paul,weblink The Bart Ehrman Blog, May 2, 2018, February 14, 2013, According to the "evolutionary model"{{sfn|Netland|2001|p=175}} c.q. "evolutionary theories,"{{sfn|Loke|2017|p=3}} the Christological understanding of Christ developed over time,{{sfn|Mack|1995}}{{sfn|Ehrman|2003}}Bart Ehrman, How Jesus became God, Course Guide as witnessed in the Gospels,{{sfn|Ehrman|2014}} with the earliest Christians believing that Jesus was a human who was exalted, c.q. adopted as God's Son,{{sfn|Loke|2017|p=3-4}}{{sfn|Talbert|2011|p=3}} when he was resurrected.Geza Vermez (2008), The Resurrection, p.138-139 Later beliefs shifted the exaltation to his baptism, birth, and subsequently to the idea of his eternal existence, as witnessed in the Gospel of John. This evolutionary model was very influential, and the "low Christology" has long been regarded as the oldest Christology.{{sfn|Bird|2017|p=ix, xi}}{{sfn|Ehrman|2014|p=132}}{{refn|group=note|Ehrman:* "The earliest Christians held exaltation Christologies in which the human being Jesus was made the Son of God—for example, at his resurrection or at his baptism—as we examined in the previous chapter."{{sfn|Ehrman|2014|p=132}}* Here I’ll say something about the oldest Christology, as I understand it. This was what I earlier called a “low” Christology. I may end up in the book describing it as a “Christology from below” or possibly an “exaltation” Christology. Or maybe I’ll call it all three things [...] Along with lots of other scholars, I think this was indeed the earliest Christology.[Bart Ehrman (6 feb 2013), The Earliest Christology}}The other early Christology is "high Christology," which is "the view that Jesus was a pre-existent divine being who became a human, did the Father’s will on earth, and then was taken back up into heaven whence he had originally come,"{{sfn|Ehrman|2014|p=122}} and from where he appeared on earth. According to Hurtado, a proponent of an Early High Christology, the devotion to Jesus as divine originated in early Jewish Christianity, and not later or under the influence of pagan religions and Gentile converts.{{sfn|Hurtado|2005|p=650}} The Pauline letters, which are the earliest Christian writings, already show "a well-developed pattern of Christian devotion [...] already conventionalized and apparently uncontroversial."{{sfn|Hurtado|2005|p=155}}


Early Christianity continued Judaic practices: baptism,WEB,weblink BAPTISM -,, Jewish liturgical, a set of scriptural readings adapted from synagogue practice, use of sacred music in hymns and prayer, and ascetic practices. A novel element was the worship of Jesus as Lord.{{sfn|Dunn|2005}}


Early Christian beliefs regarding baptism probably predate the New Testament writings. It seems certain that numerous Jewish sects and certainly Jesus's disciples practised baptism. John the Baptist had baptized many people, before baptisms took place in the name of Jesus Christ. Paul likened baptism to being buried with Christ in his death.{{refn|group=note|Romans 6:3–4; Colossians 2:12}}

Communal meals and Eucharist

Communal meals originated in the early Church.BOOK, Coveney, John, Food, Morals and Meaning: The Pleasure and Anxiety of Eating, 27 September 2006, Routledge, English, 9781134184484, 74, For the early Christians, the agape signified the importance of fellowship. It was a ritual to celebrate the joy of eating, pleasure and company., BOOK, Burns, Jim, Uncommon Youth Parties, 10 July 2012, Gospel Light Publications, English, 9780830762132, 37, During the days of the Early Church, the believers would all gather together to share what was known as an agape feast, or "love feast." Those who could afford to bring food brought it to the feast and shared it with the other believers., The Eucharist was often a part of the Lovefeast, but between the latter part of the 1st century A.D. and 250 A.D. the two became separate rituals.BOOK, Walls, Jerry L., Collins, Kenneth J., Roman but Not Catholic: What Remains at Stake 500 Years after the Reformation, 17 October 2010, Baker Academic, English, 9781493411740, 169, So strong were the overtones of the Eucharist as a meal of fellowship that in its earliest practice it often took place in concert with the Agape feast. By the latter part of the first century, however, as Andrew McGowan points out, this conjoined communal banquet was separated into "a morning sacramental ritual [and a] prosaic communal supper.", BOOK, Davies, Horton, Bread of Life and Cup of Joy: Newer Ecumenical Perspectives on the Eucharist, 29 January 1999, Wipf & Stock Publishers, English, 9781579102098, 18, Agape (love feast), which ultimately became separate from the Eucharist..., BOOK, Daughrity, Dyron, Roots: Uncovering Why We Do What We Do in Church, 11 August 2016, ACU Press, English, 9780891126010, 77, Around AD 250 the lovefeast and Eucharist seem to separate, leaving the Eucharist to develop outside the context of a shared meal., Thus, in modern times the Lovefeast refers to a Christian ritual meal distinct from the Lord's Supper.{{Citation | place = Oxford | title = Dictionary of the Christian Church | publisher = Oxford University Press | year = 2005 | isbn = 978-0-19-280290-3 | type = article | contribution = agape}}The Eucharist ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|juː|k|ər|ɪ|s|t}}; also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others. According to the New Testament, the rite was instituted by Jesus Christ during the Last Supper; giving his disciples bread and wine during the Passover meal, Jesus commanded his followers to "do this in memory of me" while referring to the bread as "my body" and the cup of wine as "the new covenant in my blood".{{bibleref2|Luke 22:20}}WEB,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, s.v. Eucharist,, 2008-04-10, 2019-05-20, Ignazio Silone, Bread and Wine (1937). Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember both Christ's sacrifice of himself on the cross and his commission of the apostles at the Last Supper.BOOK, A Catechism for the use of people called Methodists, 2000, Methodist Publishing House, Peterborough, England, 978-1858521824, 26,


During the first three centuries of Christianity, the Liturgical ritual was rooted in the Jewish Passover, Siddur, Seder, and synagogue services, including the singing of hymns (especially the Psalms) and reading from the scriptures.WEB,weblink LITURGY -,, Most early Christians did not own a copy of the works that later became the Christian Bible or other church works accepted by some but not canonized, such as the writings of the Apostolic Fathers, or other works today called New Testament apocrypha. Similar to Judaism, much of the original church liturgical services functioned as a means of learning these Scriptures, which initially centered around the Septuagint and the Targums.A final uniformity of liturgical services may have become solidified after the church established a Biblical canon, possibly based on the Apostolic Constitutions and Clementine literature. Clement (d.99) writes that liturgies are "to be celebrated, and not carelessly nor in disorder" but the final uniformity of liturgical services only came later, though the Liturgy of St James is traditionally associated with James the Just.The traditional title is: The Divine Liturgy of James the Holy Apostle and Brother of the Lord; Ante-Nicene Fathers by Philip Schaff in the public domain


At first, Christians continued to worship alongside Jewish believers, but within twenty years of Jesus' death, Sunday (the Lord's Day) was being regarded as the primary day of worship.Davidson, p.115

Paul and the inclusion of Gentiles

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Saint Paul, by El Greco
File:Pope-peter pprubens.jpg|thumb|left|St. Peter, by Rubens ]]


Paul's influence on Christian thinking is said to be more significant than that of any other New Testament author. According to the New Testament, Saul of Tarsus first persecuted the early Jewish Christians, but then converted. He adopted the name Paul and started proselytizing among the Gentiles, adopting the title "Apostle to the Gentiles."Paul was in contact with the early Christian community in Jerusalem, led by James the Just.{{sfn|Mack|1997}} According to Mack, he may have been converted to another early strand of Christianity, with a High Christology.{{sfn|Mack|1997|p=109}} Fragments of their beliefs in an exalted and deified Jesus, what Mack called the "Christ cult," can be found in the writings of Paul.{{sfn|Mack|1997}}{{refn|group=note|According to Mack, "Paul was converted to a Hellenized form of some Jesus movement that had already developed into a Christ cult. [...] Thus his letters serve as documentation for the Christ cult as well."{{sfn|Mack|1988|p=98}}}} Yet, Hurtado notes that Paul valued the linkage with "Jewish Christian circles in Roman Judea," which makes it likely that his Christology was in line with, and indebted to, their views.{{sfn|Hurtado|2005|p=156-157}} Hurtado further notes that "[i]t is widely accepted that the tradition that Paul recites in [Corinthians] 15:1-71 must go back to the Jerusalem Church."{{sfn|Hurtado|2005|p=168}}

Inclusion of Gentiles

File:Broad overview of geography relevant to paul of tarsus.png|thumb|Mediterranean Basin geography relevant to Paul's life, stretching from Jerusalem in the lower right to Rome in the upper left.]]{{See also|Circumcision in the Bible}}Paul was responsible for bringing Christianity to Ephesus, Corinth, Philippi, and Thessalonica. According to Hurtado, "Paul saw Jesus’ resurrection as ushering in the eschatological time foretold by biblical prophets in which the pagan 'Gentile' nations would turn from their idols and embrace the one true God of Israel (e.g., Zechariah 8:20-23), and Paul saw himself as specially called by God to declare God's eschatological acceptance of the Gentiles and summon them to turn to God."[Larry Hurtado (August 17, 2017 ), "Paul, the Pagans’ Apostle" According to Krister Stendahl, the main concern of Paul's writings on Jesus' role, and salvation by faith, is the problem of the inclusion of gentile (Greek) Torah observers into God's covenant.{{sfn|Stendahl|1963}}{{sfn|Dunn|1982|p=n.49}}{{sfn|Finlan|2001|p=2}}Stephen Westerholm (2015), The New Perspective on Paul in Review, Direction, Spring 2015 · Vol. 44 No. 1 · pp. 4–15 The inclusion of Gentiles into early Christianity posed a problem for the Jewish identity of some of the early Christians. Many of the Jewish Christians were fully faithful religious Jews, only differing in their acceptance of Jesus as the Messiah. Observance of the Jewish commands, including circumcision, was regarded as a token of the membership of this covenant, and the early Jewish Christians insisted on keeping those observances.{{sfn|McGrath|2006|p=174}} Gentiles were, by definition, not part of Israel, God's chosen people, and the new converts did not follow all "Jewish Law"{{refn|group=note|Generally understood to mean Mosaic Law as the Halakha was still being formalized at the time}} and refused to be circumcised,Bokenkotter, p. 19. as circumcision was considered repulsive during the period of Hellenization of the Eastern Mediterranean.WEB,weblink CIRCUMCISION -,, JOURNAL, Hodges, Frederick, M., 2001, The Ideal Prepuce in Ancient Greece and Rome: Male Genital Aesthetics and Their Relation to Lipodermos, Circumcision, Foreskin Restoration, and the Kynodesme, The Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 75, Fall 2001, 375–405,weblink PDF, 2007-07-24, 10.1353/bhm.2001.0119, 11568485, Paul objected strongly to the insistence on keeping all of the Jewish commands, considering it a great threat to his doctrine of salvation through faith in Jesus.{{sfn|McGrath|2006|p=174-175}} According to Fredriksen, Paul's opposition to male circumcison for Gentiles is in line with Old Testament predictions that "in the last days the gentile nations would come to the God of Israel, as gentiles (e.g., Zechariah 8:20-23), not as proselytes to Israel."Larry Hurtado (December 4, 2018 ), “When Christians were Jews”: Paula Fredriksen on “The First Generation” For Paul, Gentile male circumcison was therefore an affront to God's intentions. According to Hurtado, "Paul saw himself as what Munck called a salvation-historical figure in his own right," who was "personally and singularly deputized by God to bring about the predicted ingathering (the “fullness”) of the nations (Romans 11:25)."For Paul, Jesus' death and resurrection solved the problem of the exclusion of the gentles from God's covenant,{{sfn|Mack|1997|p=91-92}} since the faithful are redeemed by participation in Jesus' death and rising. In the Jerusalem ekklēsia, from which Paul received the creed of 1 Corinthisnas 15:1-7, the phrase "died for our sins" probably was an apologetic rationale for the death of Jesus as being part of God's plan and purpose, as evidenced in the scriptures. For Paul, it gained a deeper significance, providing "a basis for the salvation of sinful Gentiles apart from the Torah."{{sfn|Hurtado|2005|p=131}} According to Sanders, Paul argued that "those who are baptized into Christ are baptized into his death, and thus they escape the power of sin [...] he died so that the believers may die with him and consequently live with him."E.P. Sanders, Saint Paul, the Apostle, Encyclopedia Britannica] By this participation in Christ's death and rising, "one receives forgiveness for past offences, is liberated from the powers of sin, and receives the Spirit."{{sfn|Charry|1999|p=35-36}} Paul insists that salvation is received by the grace of God; according to Sanders, this insistence is in line with Judaism of ca. 200 NCE until 200 CE, which saw God's covenant with Israel as an act of grace of God. Observance of the Law is needed to maintain the covenant, but the covenant is not earned by observing the Law, but by the grace of God.Jordan Cooper, E.P. Sanders and the New Perspective on PaulThese divergent interpretations have a prominent place in both Paul's writings and in Acts. According to Paul, fourteen years after his conversion he visited the "Pillars of Jerusalem" to compare his Gospel with theirs. According to Paul, in his letter to the Galatians,{{refn|group=note|Four years after the Council of Jerusalem, Paul wrote to the Galatians about the issue, which had become a serious controversy in their region. There was a burgeoning movement of Judaizers in the area that advocated adherence to traditional Mosaic laws, including circumcision. According to McGrath, Paul identified James the Just as the motivating force behind the movement. Paul considered it a great threat to his doctrine of salvation through faith and addressed the issue with great detail in {{bibleref|Galatians|3|NRSV}}.{{sfn|McGrath|2006|p=174-175}}}} they agreed that his mission was to be among the Gentiles. According to Acts, Paul made an argument that circumcision was not a necessary practice, vocally supported by Peter, as documented in {{bibleref|Acts|15|NRSV}}.{{sfn|McGrath|2006|p=174}}McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity (2002), p.37{{refn|group=note|According to 19th-century German theologian F. C. Baur early Christianity was dominated by the conflict between Peter who was law-observant, and Paul who advocated partial or even complete freedom from the law.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}} Scholar James D. G. Dunn has proposed that Peter was the "bridge-man" between the two other prominent leaders: Paul and James the Just. Paul and James were both heavily identified with their own "brands" of Christianity. Peter showed a desire to hold on to his Jewish identity, in contrast with Paul. He simultaneously showed a flexibility towards the desires of the broader Christian community, in contrast to James. Marcion and his followers stated that the polemic against false apostles in Galatians was aimed at Peter, James and John, the "Pillars of the Church", as well as the "false" gospels circulating through the churches at the time. Irenaeus and Tertullian argued against Marcionism's elevation of Paul and stated that Peter and Paul were equals among the apostles. Passages from Galatians were used to show that Paul respected Peter's office and acknowledged a shared faith.Keck (1988).Pelikan (1975). p. 113.}}The inclusion of Gentiles is reflected in Luke-Acts, which is an attempt to answer a theological problem, namely how the Messiah of the Jews came to have an overwhelmingly non-Jewish church; the answer it provides, and its central theme, is that the message of Christ was sent to the Gentiles because the Jews rejected it.{{sfn|Burkett|2002|p=263}}


{{See also|Persecution of Christians in the New Testament|Anti-Christian policies in the Roman Empire|Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire}}Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire occurred sporadically over a period of over two centuries. For most of the first three hundred years of Christian history, Christians were able to live in peace, practice their professions, and rise to positions of responsibility.{{sfn|Moss|2013|p=129}} Sporadic percecution took place as the result of local pagan populations putting pressure on the imperial authorities to take action against the Christians in their midst, who were thought to bring misfortune by their refusal to honour the gods.{{sfn|Croix|2006|pp=105–152}}Only for approximately ten out of the first three hundred years of the church's history were Christians executed due to orders from a Roman emperor.{{sfn|Moss|2013|p=129}} The first persecution of Christians organised by the Roman government took place under the emperor Nero in 64 AD after the Great Fire of Rome.{{sfn|Croix|1963|pp=105–152}} There was no empire-wide persecution of Christians until the reign of Decius in the third century.Martin, D. 2010. "The "Afterlife" of the New Testament and Postmodern Interpretation'' {{Webarchive|url= |date=2016-06-08 }} (lecture transcript {{Webarchive|url= |date=2016-08-12 }}). Yale University. The Edict of Serdica was issued in 311 by the Roman emperor Galerius, officially ending the Diocletianic persecution of Christianity in the East. With the passage in 313 AD of the Edict of Milan, in which the Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Licinius legalised the Christian religion, persecution of Christians by the Roman state ceased.WEB, Persecution in the Early Church,weblink Religion Facts, 2014-03-26,

Development of the Biblical canon

The early Christians likely did not have their own copy of Scriptural and other church works. Much of the original church liturgical services functioned as a means of learning Christian theology later expressed in these works.

Old Testament

The Biblical canon began with the Jewish Scriptures. The Koine Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures, later known as the SeptuagintMcDonald & Sanders, p.72 and often written as "LXX," was the dominant translation.WEB,weblink Swete's Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, p. 112,, 2019-05-20, It arose from Hellenistic Judaism, and included the biblical apocrypha.{{refn|group=note|Jerome (347-420) expressed his preference for adhering strictly to the Hebrew text and canon, but his view held little currency even in his own day. It was not until the Protestant Reformation that substantial numbers of Christians began to reject those books of the Septuagint which are not found in the Jewish Masoretic Text, referring to them as biblical apocrypha. In addition, some New Testament books were also disputed, known as the Antilegomena.}} The first five books, known as the Torah or Pentateuch, were translated mid-3rd century BCE, and the remaining texts were translated in the 2nd century BCE. Eventually, the texts became also available as Aramaic Targums.Perhaps the earliest Christian canon is the Bryennios List, dated to around 100, which was found by Philotheos Bryennios in the Codex Hierosolymitanus. The list is written in Koine Greek, Aramaic and Hebrew.published by J. P. Audet in JTS 1950, v1, pp. 135–154, cited in The Council of Jamnia and the Old Testament Canon {{webarchive |url= |date=February 10, 2007 }}, Robert C. Newman, 1983. In the 2nd century, Melito of Sardis called the Jewish scriptures the "Old Testament"A dictionary of Jewish-Christian relations, Dr. Edward Kessler, Neil Wenborn, Cambridge University Press, 2005, {{ISBN|0-521-82692-6}}, p.316 and also specified an early canon.

New Testament

{{Books of the New Testament}}The New Testament (often compared to the New Covenant) is the second major division of the Christian Bible. It includes the Canonical Gospels, Acts, letters of the Apostles, and Revelation. The original texts were written by various authors, most likely sometime between c. AD 45 and 120 AD,BOOK, Bart D. Ehrman, The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings,weblink 1997, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-508481-8, 8, The New Testament contains twenty-seven books, written in Greek, by fifteen or sixteen different authors, who were addressing other Christian individuals or communities between the years 50 and 120 (see box 1.4). As we will see, it is difficult to know whether any of these books was written by Jesus' own disciples., in Koine Greek, the lingua franca of the eastern part of the Roman Empire, though there is also a minority argument for Aramaic primacy. The name was given by either by Tertullian or Marcion in the 2nd century.McDonald & Sanders p.310 but they were not defined as "canon" until the 4th century.

Early orthodox writings – Apostolic Fathers

The Church Fathers are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. The earliest Church Fathers, within two generations of the Twelve apostles of Christ, are usually called Apostolic Fathers for reportedly knowing and studying under the apostles personally. Important Apostolic Fathers include Clement of Rome (d. AD 99),Durant, Will. Caesar and Christ. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1972 Ignatius of Antioch (d. AD 98 to 117) and Polycarp of Smyrna (AD 69-155). Their writings include the Epistle of Barnabas and the Epistles of Clement. The Didache and Shepherd of Hermas are usually placed among the writings of the Apostolic Fathers although their authors are unknown.Taken as a whole, the collection is notable for its literary simplicity, religious zeal and lack of Hellenistic philosophy or rhetoric. They contain early thoughts on the organisation of the Christian ekklēsia, and witness the development of an early Church structure.In his letter 1 Clement, Clement of Rome calls on the Christians of Corinth to maintain harmony and order. Some see his epistle as an assertion of Rome's authority over the church in Corinth and, by implication, the beginnings of papal supremacy.WEB,weblink CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope St. Clement I,, Clement refers to the leaders of the Corinthian church in his letter as bishops and presbyters interchangeably, and likewise states that the bishops are to lead God's flock by virtue of the chief shepherd (presbyter), Jesus Christ.Ignatius of Antioch advocated the authority of the apostolic episcopacy (bishops).Magnesians 2, 6–7, 13, Trallians 2–3, Smyrnaeans 8–9The Didache (late 1st century)Draper, JA (2006), The Apostolic Fathers: the Didache, Expository Times, Vol.117, No.5, p.178 is an anonymous Jewish-Christian work. It is a pastoral manual dealing with Christian lessons, rituals, and Church organization, parts of which may have constituted the first written catechism, "that reveals more about how Jewish-Christians saw themselves and how they adapted their Judaism for Gentiles than any other book in the Christian Scriptures."Aaron Milavec, p. vii

Split of Early Christianity and Judaism

Split with Judaism

{{See also|Schisms among the Jews|List of events in early Christianity}}There was a slowly growing chasm between Christians and Jews, rather than a sudden split. Even though it is commonly thought that Paul established a Gentile church, it took centuries for a complete break to manifest. However, certain events are perceived as pivotal in the growing rift between Judaism and Christianity.The destruction of Jerusalem and the consequent dispersion of Jews and Jewish Christians from the city (after the Bar Kokhba revolt) ended any pre-eminence of the Jewish-Christian leadership in Jerusalem. Early Christianity grew further apart from Judaism to establish itself as a predominantly Gentile religion, and Antioch became the first Gentile Christian community with stature.Franzen, p.25The Council of Jamnia c. 85 is often stated to have condemned all who claimed the Messiah had already come, and Christianity in particular. However, the formulated prayer in question (birkat ha-minim) is considered by other scholars to be unremarkable in the history of Jewish and Christian relations. There is a paucity of evidence for Jewish persecution of "heretics" in general, or Christians in particular, in the period between 70 and 135. It is probable that the condemnation of Jamnia included many groups, of which the Christians were but one, and did not necessarily mean excommunication. That some of the later church fathers only recommended against synagogue attendance makes it improbable that an anti-Christian prayer was a common part of the synagogue liturgy. Jewish Christians continued to worship in synagogues for centuries.Wylen (1995), p.190.Wright, pp.164-165.File:Nerva Fiscus Iudaicus coin.jpg|thumb|A coin issued by Nerva readsfisci Judaici calumnia sublata,"abolition of (malicious prosecution]] in connection with the Jewish tax"As translated by Molly Whittaker, Jews and Christians: Graeco-Roman Views, (Cambridge University Press, 1984), p. 105.)During the late 1st century, Judaism was a legal religion with the protection of Roman law, worked out in compromise with the Roman state over two centuries. Observant Jews had special rights, including the privilege of abstaining from civic pagan rites. Christians were initially identified with the Jewish religion by the Romans, but as they became more distinct, Christianity became a problem for Roman rulers. Emperor Nerva decreed that Christians did not have to pay the annual tax upon the Jews, effectively recognizing them as distinct from Rabbinic Judaism. This opened the way to Christians being persecuted for disobedience to the emperor as they continued to refuse to worship the state pantheon.From c. 98 onwards a distinction between Christians and Jews in Roman literature becomes apparent. For example, Pliny the Younger postulates that Christians are not Jews since they do not pay the tax, in his letters to Trajan.Wylen, pp.190-192.Dunn, pp.33-34. Christianity was not legalized until the 313 Edict of Milan.

Rejection of Jewish Christianity

Jewish Christians constituted a separate community from the Pauline Christians but maintained a similar faith, differing only in practice. In Christian circles, "Nazarene" later came to be used as a label for those faithful to Jewish law, in particular for a certain sect. These Jewish Christians, originally the central group in Christianity, were not at first declared to be unorthodox but were later excluded and denounced. The Nazarenes, holding to orthodoxy except in their adherence to Jewish law, were not deemed heretical until the dominance of orthodoxy in the 4th century.The Ebionites may have been a splinter group of Nazarenes, with disagreements over Christology and leadership. They were considered by Gentile Christians to have unorthodox beliefs, particularly in relation to their views of Christ and Gentile converts. After the condemnation of the Nazarenes, "Ebionite" was often used as a general pejorative for all related "heresies".Tabor (1998).Esler (2004), pp.157-159.There was a post-Nicene "double rejection" of the Jewish Christians by both Gentile Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism. It is believed that there was no direct confrontation or persecution between Gentile and Judaic Christianity. However, by this time the practice of Judeo-Christianity was diluted both by internal schisms and external pressures. The true end of ancient Jewish Christianity occurred only in the 5th century.{{sfn|Dunn|1991}} Gentile Christianity remained the sole strand of orthodoxy and imposed itself on the previously Jewish Christian sanctuaries, taking full control of those houses of worship by the end of the 5th century.Dauphin (1993). pp. 235, 240–242.{{refn|group=note|name="Jewish Christian groups"|Jewish Virtual Library: "A major difficulty in tracing the growth of Christianity from its beginnings as a Jewish messianic sect, and its relations to the various other normative-Jewish, sectarian-Jewish, and Christian-Jewish groups is presented by the fact that what ultimately became normative Christianity was originally but one among various contending Christian trends. Once the "gentile Christian" trend won out, and the teaching of Paul became accepted as expressing the doctrine of the Church, the Jewish Christian groups were pushed to the margin and ultimately excluded as heretical. Being rejected both by normative Judaism and the Church, they ultimately disappeared. Nevertheless, several Jewish Christian sects (such as the Nazarenes, Ebionites, Elchasaites, and others) existed for some time, and a few of them seem to have endured for several centuries. Some sects saw in Jesus mainly a prophet and not the "Christ," others seem to have believed in him as the Messiah, but did not draw the christological and other conclusions that subsequently became fundamental in the teaching of the Church (the divinity of the Christ, trinitarian conception of the Godhead, abrogation of the Law). After the disappearance of the early Jewish Christian sects and the triumph of gentile Christianity, to become a Christian meant, for a Jew, to apostatize and to leave the Jewish community.{{r|group=web|"JVL"}}}}


{{hidden|1st century timeline| {{disputed|talkpage=Talk:Christianity in the 1st century#Bethlehem|date=March 2019}}Earliest dates must all be considered approximate

See also

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  • JOURNAL, Croix, G. E. M. de Sainte, 1963, G. E. M. de Ste. Croix, Why Were The Early Christians Persecuted?, Past and Present, 26, 1, 6–38, 10.1093/past/26.1.6, harv,
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  • Cullmann, Oscar, The Early Church: Studies in Early Christian History and Theology, ed. A. J. B. Higgins, Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966
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  • Dunn, James D.G., "The Canon Debate," McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002
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  • {{Citation | last =Ehrman | first =Bart | year =2014 | title =How Jesus became God: The Exaltation of a Jewish Preacher from Galilee | publisher =Harper Collins}}
  • {{Citation | last1 =Elwell | first1 =Walter | last2 =Comfort | first2 =Philip Wesley | year =2001 | title =Tyndale Bible Dictionary | publisher =Tyndale House Publishers | isbn =0-8423-7089-7}}
  • {{Citation | last =Finlan | first =Stephen | year =2004 | title =The Background and Content of Paul's Cultic Atonement Metaphors | publisher =Society of Biblical Literature}}
  • {{Citation | last =Grant | first = M. | year =1977 | title =Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels | place =New York | publisher =Scribner's}}
  • Gundry, R.H., Soma in Biblical Theology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976
  • Hunter, Archibald, Works and Words of Jesus (1973)
  • {{Citation | last =Hurtado | first =Larry | year =2005 | title =Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity | publisher =Eerdmans}}
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  • Kremer, Jakob, Die Osterevangelien — Geschichten um Geschichte, Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1977
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  • Ludemann, Gerd, What Really Happened to Jesus? trans. J. Bowden, Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1995
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  • {{Citation | last =Netland | first =Harold | year =2001 | title =Encountering Religious Pluralism: The Challenge to Christian Faith & Mission | publisher =InterVarsity Press}}
  • Neufeld, The Earliest Christian Confessions, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964
  • O' Collins, Gerald, What are They Saying About the Resurrection?, New York: Paulist Press, 1978
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Further reading

  • Bockmuehl, Markus N.A. (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Jesus. Cambridge University Press (2001). {{ISBN|0-521-79678-4}}.
  • Bourgel, Jonathan, From One Identity to Another: The Mother Church of Jerusalem Between the Two Jewish Revolts Against Rome (66-135/6 EC). Paris: Éditions du Cerf, collection Judaïsme ancien et Christianisme primitive, (French). {{ISBN|978-2-204-10068-7}}
  • Brown, Raymond E.: An Introduction to the New Testament ({{ISBN|0-385-24767-2}})
  • Conzelmann, H. and Lindemann A., Interpreting the New Testament. An Introduction to the Principles and Methods of N.T. Exegesis, translated by S.S. Schatzmann, Hendrickson Publishers. Peabody 1988.
  • Dormeyer, Detlev. The New Testament among the Writings of Antiquity (English translation), Sheffield 1998
  • Dunn, James D.G. (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to St. Paul. Cambridge University Press (2003). {{ISBN|0-521-78694-0}}.
  • Dunn, James D.G. Unity and Diversity in the New Testament: An Inquiry into the Character of Earliest Christianity. SCM Press (2006). {{ISBN|0-334-02998-8}}.
  • BOOK, harv, Edwards, Mark, 2009, Catholicity and Heresy in the Early Church, Ashgate,weblink 9780754662914,
  • Freedman, David Noel (Ed). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (2000). {{ISBN|0-8028-2400-5}}.
  • Esler, Philip F. The Early Christian World. Routledge (2004). {{ISBN|0-415-33312-1}}.
  • Mack, Burton L.: Who Wrote the New Testament?, Harper, 1996
  • Keck, Leander E. Paul and His Letters. Fortress Press (1988). {{ISBN|0-8006-2340-1}}.
  • Mills, Watson E. Acts and Pauline Writings. Mercer University Press (1997). {{ISBN|0-86554-512-X}}.
  • Malina, Bruce J.: Windows on the World of Jesus: Time Travel to Ancient Judea. Westminster John Knox Press: Louisville (Kentucky) 1993
  • Malina, Bruce J.: The New Testament World: Insights from Cultural Anthropology. 3rd edition, Westminster John Knox Press Louisville (Kentucky) 2001
  • Malina, Bruce J.: Social Science Commentary on the Gospel of John Augsburg Fortress Publishers: Minneapolis 1998
  • Malina, Bruce J.: Social-Science Commentary on the Synoptic Gospels Augsburg Fortress Publishers: Minneapolis 2003
  • McKechnie, Paul. The First Christian Centuries: Perspectives on the Early Church. Apollos (2001). {{ISBN|0-85111-479-2}}
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav Jan. The Christian Tradition: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600). University of Chicago Press (1975). {{ISBN|0-226-65371-4}}.
  • Stegemann, Ekkehard and Stegemann, Wolfgang: The Jesus Movement: A Social History of Its First Century. Augsburg Fortress Publishers: Minneapolis 1999
  • Stegemann, Wolfgang, The Gospel and the Poor. Fortress Press. Minneapolis 1984 {{ISBN|0-8006-1783-5}}
  • Tabor, James D. "Ancient Judaism: Nazarenes and Ebionites", The Jewish Roman World of Jesus. Department of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (1998).
  • Thiessen, Henry C. Introduction to the New Testament, Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids 1976
  • White, L. Michael. From Jesus to Christianity. HarperCollins (2004). {{ISBN|0-06-052655-6}}.
  • Wilson, Barrie A. "How Jesus Became Christian". St. Martin's Press (2008). {{ISBN|978-0-679-31493-6}}.
  • Wright, N.T. The New Testament and the People of God. Fortress Press (1992). {{ISBN|0-8006-2681-8}}.
  • Zahn, Theodor, Introduction to the New Testament, English translation, Edinburgh, 1910.

External links

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