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Chevron Corporation
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{{about|the oil company mostly in the Americas|similarly named companies|Chevron (disambiguation){{!}}Chevron}}{{distinguish|Chevrolet}}{{Use American English|date = March 2019}}{{Use mdy dates|date=September 2013}}







factoids
frameless)| image_caption = Chevron's headquarters complex in San Ramon, CaliforniaPublic company>Public{{NYSEDJIA componentS&P 100 component>S&P 500 component}}| ISIN = US1667641005Standard Oil Company of CaliforniaGulf OilHTTP://WWW.CHEVRON.COM/ABOUT/LEADERSHIP/PUBLISHER=CHEVRON.COM, August 9, 2011, | area_served = Worldwide(Chairman#Public corporations and CEO)}}DICHRISTOPHERTITLE=CHEVRON NAMES MICHAEL WIRTH CHAIRMAN AND CEOWEBSITE=MSNBC, 15 February 2018, Oil and gas industry>Oil and gasPetroleum, natural gas and other petrochemicals, #Marketing brands>See Chevron products158.9 billion(2018)}}HTTPS://WWW.SEC.GOV/ARCHIVES/EDGAR/DATA/93410/000009341018000010/CVX12312017-10KDOC.HTM >TITLE=CHEVRON CORPORATION 2017 ANNUAL REPORT (FORM 10-K) PUBLISHER=U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, sec.gov, 15.45 billion}} {{small|(2018)}}14.82 billion}} {{small|(2018)}}253.9 billion}} {{small|(2018)}}154.5 billion}} {{small|(2018)}}(December 2018)}}| subsid = TexacoCaltexSan Ramon, California>San Ramon, California, United StatesCHEVRON CORPORATION - PROFILE PUBLISHER=ZOOMINFO.COM, 24 September 2019, weblinkweblink|ChevronWithTechron.com}} (consumer)}}{{update|inaccurate=y|date=April 2019}}Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation. One of the successor companies of Standard Oil, it is headquartered in San Ramon, California, and active in more than 180 countries. Chevron is engaged in every aspect of the oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy industries, including hydrocarbon exploration and production; refining, marketing and transport; chemicals manufacturing and sales; and power generation. Chevron is one of the world's largest oil companies; {{as of | 2019| lc = y}}, it ranked eleventh in the Fortune 500 list of the top US closely held and public corporations and 28th on the Fortune Global 500 list of the top 500 corporations worldwide.WEB,weblink Chevron, Fortune, en-US, 2017-12-05, NEWS, Chevron, Fortune Global 500, fortune.com, 2014,weblink It was also one of the Seven Sisters that dominated the global petroleum industry from the mid-1940s to the 1970s. Chevron is incorporated in California. WEB, 10-K,weblink 10-K, 1 June 2019, {{harvid, 10-K, 2018, }}Chevron's downstream operations manufacture and sell products such as fuels, lubricants, additives and petrochemicals. The company's most significant areas of operations are the west coast of North America, the U.S. Gulf Coast, Southeast Asia, South Korea and Australia . In 2010, Chevron sold an average of {{convert|3.1|Moilbbl/d}} of refined products like gasoline, diesel and jet fuel.

History

Predecessors

File:Big Oil.svg|thumb|right|Chart of the major energyenergyOne of Chevron's early predecessors, Star Oil, discovered oil at the Pico Canyon Oilfield in the Santa Susana Mountains north of Los Angeles in 1876. The 25 barrels of oil per day well marked the discovery of the Newhall Field, and is considered by geophysicist Marius Vassiliou as the beginning of the modern oil industry in California. Energy analyst Antonia Juhasz has said that while Star Oil's founders were influential in establishing an oil industry in California, Union Mattole Company discovered oil in the state eleven years prior.BOOK, Antonia Juhasz, The Bush Agenda,weblink August 9, 2013, October 6, 2009, HarperCollins, 978-0-06-197761-9, 106–, In September 1879, Charles N. Felton, Lloyd Tevis, George Loomis and others created the Pacific Coast Oil Company, which acquired the assets of Star Oil with $1 million in funding.BOOK, Joshua Karliner, The Corporate Planet: Ecology and Politics in the Age of Globalization,weblink August 8, 2013, 1997, University of California Press, 978-0-87156-434-4, 61–, Pacific Coast Oil became the largest oil interest in California by the time it was acquired by Standard Oil for $761,000 in 1900.BOOK, M. S. Vassiliou, Historical Dictionary of the Petroleum Industry,weblink August 8, 2013, March 2, 2009, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-6288-3, 128–, Pacific Coast operated independently and retained its name until 1906, when it was merged with a Standard Oil subsidiary and it became Standard Oil Company (California) or California Standard.BOOK, M. S. Vassiliou, The A to Z of the Petroleum Industry,weblink August 9, 2013, September 24, 2009, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-7066-6, 128–, BOOK, Toyin Falola, The Politics of the Global Oil Industry: An Introduction,weblink August 9, 2013, January 1, 2005, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-275-98400-7, 33–, Another predecessor, Texas Fuel Company, was founded in 1901 in Beaumont, Texas as an oil equipment vendor by "Buckskin Joe". The founder's nickname came from being harsh and aggressive. Texas Fuel worked closely with Chevron. In 1936 it formed a joint venture with California Standard named Caltex, to drill and produce oil in Saudi Arabia.BOOK, Charles A. S. Hall, Carlos A. Ramírez-Pascualli, The First Half of the Age of Oil: An Exploration of the Work of Colin Campbell and Jean Laherr√®re,weblink August 10, 2013, December 5, 2012, Springer, 978-1-4614-6064-0, 34–, According to energy analyst and activist shareholder Antonia Juhasz,NEWS,weblink Chevron Throws Book at Shareholder Activist (Me), Antonia, Juhasz, Antonia Juhasz, The Huffington Post, September 28, 2010, August 17, 2013, NEWS,weblink Activist Faces Charges in Chevron Meeting Outburst, John, Letzing, The Wall Street Journal, September 29, 2010, August 17, 2013, NEWS,weblink Protesters Disrupt BP's First Shareholder Meeting Since Oil Spill, Environment News Service, April 14, 2011, August 17, 2013, the Texas Fuel Company and California Standard were often referred to as the "terrible twins" for their cutthroat business practices.BOOK, Antonia Juhasz, The Tyranny of Oil: The World's Most Powerful Industry--and What We Must Do to Stop It,weblink August 10, 2013, October 6, 2009, HarperCollins, 978-0-06-198201-9, 71–, The Texas Fuel Company was renamed the Texas Company, and later renamed Texaco.

Formation of the Chevron name

File:Standardgasstation.jpg|thumb|A Chevron station branded under the Standard name in Las Vegas ]]In 1911, the federal government broke Standard Oil into several pieces under the Sherman Antitrust Act. One of those pieces, Standard Oil Co. (California), went on to become Chevron. It became part of the "Seven Sisters", which dominated the world oil industry in the early 20th century. In 1926, the company changed its name to Standard Oil Co. of California (SOCAL).NEWS, Chevron drops the Texaco from its name,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, May 2, 2011, David R., Baker, May 10, 2005, By the terms of the breakup of Standard Oil, at first Standard of California could use the Standard name only within its original geographic area of the Pacific coast states, plus Nevada and Arizona; outside that area, it had to use another name. Today Chevron is the owner of the Standard Oil trademark in 16 states in the western and southeastern U.S. To maintain ownership of the mark, the company owns and operates one Standard-branded Chevron station in each state of the area,WEB,weblink A Not-So-Standard Chevron Station, November 11, 2018, Brian, Lutz, February 18, 2009, although its status in Kentucky is unclear after Chevron withdrew retail sales from Kentucky in July 2010.WEB,weblink Eastern Withdrawal for Chevron, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110708211633weblink">weblink July 8, 2011, mdy-all, The Chevron name came into use for some of its retail products in the 1930s. The name Calso was also used from 1946 to 1955 in states outside its native West Coast territory.WEB,weblink Chevron and Calso, September 20, 2014, WEB,weblink Vintage Calso Gasoline / Standard Oil of California pump, September 20, 2014, Standard Oil Company of California ranked 75th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts.Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p.619In 1933, Saudi Arabia granted California Standard a concession to find oil, which led to the discovery of oil in 1938. In 1948, California Standard discovered the world's largest oil field in Saudi Arabia, Ghawar Field.WEB, The King of Giant Fields,weblink June 5, 2013, California Standard's subsidiary, California-Arabian Standard Oil Company, grew over the years and became the Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO) in 1944. In 1973, the Saudi government began buying into ARAMCO. By 1980, the company was entirely owned by the Saudis, and in 1988, its name was changed to Saudi Arabian Oil Company—Saudi Aramco.WEB,weblink Our History - Aramco Services Company, www.aramcoservices.com, en, 2018-02-12, Standard Oil of California and Gulf Oil merged in 1984, which was the largest merger in history at that time. To comply with U.S. antitrust law, California Standard divested many of Gulf's operating subsidiaries, and sold some Gulf stations and a refinery in the eastern United States. (The refinery is currently owned by Sunoco.) Among the assets sold off were Gulf's retail outlets in Gulf's home market of Pittsburgh, where Chevron lacks a retail presence but does retain a regional headquarters there as of 2013, partially for Marcellus Shale-related drilling.NEWS,weblink Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Chevron acquires Kmart property in Moon for possible regional headquarters - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Mark, Belko, Erich, Schwartzel, May 1, 2013, The same year, Standard Oil of California also took the opportunity to change its legal name to Chevron Corporation, since it had already been using the well-known "Chevron" retail brand name for decades. Chevron would sell the Gulf Oil trademarks for the entire U.S. to Cumberland Farms, the parent company of Gulf Oil LP, in 2010 after Cumberland Farms had a license to the Gulf trademark in the Northeastern United States since 1986.NEWS,weblink Gulf Oil acquires brand rights for entire US, Vermont Business Magazine, January 13, 2010, May 5, 2010, In 1996 Chevron transferred its natural gas gathering, operating and marketing operation to NGC Corporation (later Dynegy) in exchange for a roughly 25% equity stake in NGC.WEB,weblink Chevron Corp, Form 10-Q, Quarterly Report, Filing Date Nov 8, 1996, secdatabase.com, March 24, 2013, In a merger completed February 1, 2000, Illinova Corp. became a wholly owned subsidiary of Dynegy Inc. and Chevron's stake increased up to 28%.WEB,weblink Chevron Corp, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Mar 6, 2000, secdatabase.com, March 24, 2013, However, in May 2007 Chevron sold its stake in the company for approximately $985 million, resulting in a gain of $680 million.WEB,weblink Chevron Corp, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date May 25, 2007, secdatabase.com, March 24, 2013, NEWS, Chevron's Profit Rises 24%, With Help From Its Refineries,weblink The New York Times, Reuters, May 2, 2011, July 28, 2007,

Merger with Texaco and post-merger

On October 15, 2000, Chevron announced acquisition of Texaco in a deal valued at $45 billion, creating the second-largest oil company in the United States and the world's fourth-largest publicly traded oil company with a combined market value of approximately $95 billion.WEB,weblink Chevron Corp, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Oct 16, 2000, secdatabase.com, March 24, 2013, NEWS, Oil giant Chevron buys rival Texaco,weblink BBC News, May 2, 2011, October 16, 2000, NEWS, Chevron to Acquire Texaco,weblink The Street.com, May 2, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121011074739weblink">weblink October 11, 2012, mdy-all, NEWS, The Chevron - Texaco Merger / An oil giant emergers / Shareholders approval of Chevron-Texaco deal creates industy's lates behemoth.,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, May 2, 2011, George, Raine, October 10, 2001, The merged company was named ChevronTexaco. On May 9, 2005, ChevronTexaco announced it would drop the Texaco moniker and return to the Chevron name. Texaco remained as a brand under the Chevron Corporation.WEB,weblink Chevron Corp, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date May 10, 2005, secdatabase.com, March 24, 2013, On October 10, 2001, Texaco purchased General Motors' share in GM Ovonics, which in 2003, was restructured into Cobasys, a 50/50 joint venture between Chevron and Energy Conversion Devices Ovonics. In 2009, both Chevron and Energy Conservation Devices sold their stakes in Cobasys to SB LiMotive Co.{{citation needed|date=March 2013}}(File:Chevrongasstation.jpg|right|thumb|Chevron gas station design used until 2006)In 2005, Chevron purchased Unocal Corporation for $18.4 billion, increasing the company's petroleum and natural gas reserves by about 15%.WEB,weblink Chevron Corp, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Apr 7, 2005, secdatabase.com, March 24, 2013, WEB,weblink Chevron Corp, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Aug 10, 2005, secdatabase.com, March 24, 2013, NEWS, Chevron plans to buy Unocal for $18.4 billion / Deal would bolster East Bay oil giant's strategically located sources of gas, crude,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, May 2, 2011, David R., Baker, April 5, 2005, NEWS, Shareholders Vote in Favor Of Unocal Acquisition,weblink The Washington Post, May 2, 2011, Justin, Blum, August 11, 2005, Because of Unocal's large South East Asian geothermal operations, Chevron became a large producer of geothermal energy.NEWS, Chevron claims energy debate, BBC News, February 19, 2006,weblink December 31, 2009, Chevron and the Los Alamos National Laboratory started a cooperation in 2006 to improve the recovery of hydrocarbons from oil shale by developing a shale oil extraction process named Chevron CRUSH.NEWS
, Green Car Congress
, Chevron and Los Alamos Jointly Research Oil Shale Hydrocarbon Recovery
, September 25, 2006
,weblink
, April 12, 2009,
In 2006, the United States Department of the Interior issued a research, development and demonstration lease for Chevron's demonstration oil shale project on public lands in Colorado's Piceance Basin.
PRESS RELEASE
, Bureau of Land Management
, Interior Department Issues Oil Shale Research, Development and Demonstration Leases for Public Lands in Colorado
, December 15, 2006
,weblink
, April 12, 2009
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090509161636weblink">weblink
, May 9, 2009
, mdy-all
,
In February 2012, Chevron notified the Bureau of Land Management and the Department of Reclamation, Mining and Safety that it intends to divest this lease.
NEWS
, Denver Business Journal
, Chevron leaving Western Slope oil shale project
, February 28, 2012
,weblink
, March 12, 2012,
In July 2010, Chevron ended retail operations in the Mid-Atlantic United States, removing the Chevron and Texaco names from 1,100 stations.WEB,weblink Eastern Withdrawal for Chevron | CSP Daily News / Magazine | Petroleum - CSP Information Group, Inc. - news for convenience & petroleum retailing, Cspnet.com, December 7, 2009, January 10, 2014, In 2011, Chevron acquired Pennsylvania based Atlas Energy Inc. for $3.2 billion in cash and an additional $1.1 billion in existing debt owed by Atlas.WEB,weblink Chevron Corp, Form DFAN14A, Filing Date Nov 9, 2010, secdatabase.com, March 24, 2013, NEWS, Chevron to Buy Atlas Energy for $4.3 Billion,weblink The New York Times, May 2, 2011, Thomas, Kaplan, November 9, 2010, WEB,weblink Chevron Corp, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Feb 24, 2011, secdatabase.com, March 24, 2013, Three months later, Chevron acquired drilling and development rights for another 228,000 acres in the Marcellus Shale from Chief Oil & Gas LLC and Tug Hill, Inc.WEB,weblink Chevron Continues Aggressive Expansion into Marcellus Shale in PA – Buys Leases for Additional 228K Acres from Chief Oil & Gas | Marcellus Drilling News, Marcellusdrilling.com, July 23, 2012, In September 2013, Total S.A. and its joint venture partner agreed to buy Chevron's retail distribution business in Pakistan for an undisclosed amount.NEWS,weblink France's Total snaps up Chevron's Pakistan retail network, Louise Heavens, Reuters, 18 September 2013, In October 2014, Chevron announced that it would sell a 30 percent holding in its Canadian oil shale holdings to Kuwait's state-owned oil company Kuwait Oil Company for a fee of $1.5 billion.Chevron sells stake in Canadian shale field to Kuwait. Reuters, 7 October 2014In 2016, Chevron announced to exit South Africa, where it has had a presence for over a century.NEWS, Payne, Julia, Shabalala, Zandi, Glencore pips Sinopec to buy Chevron's South African assets,weblink 6 October 2017, Reuters, 6 Oct 2017, In April 2019, Chevron announced their intention to acquire Anadarko Petroleum in a deal valued at $33 billion dollars, but decided to focus on other acquisitions shortly afterwards when a deal could not be reached.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Chevron Announces Agreement to Acquire Anadarko, April 12, 2019,

Operations

As of December 31, 2018, Chevron had approximately 48,600 employees (including about 3,600 service station employees). Approximately 24,800 employees (including about 3,300 service station employees), or 51 percent, were employed in U.S. operations.WEB,weblink Chevron Corporation 2018 Annual Report (Form 10-K), U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, In October 2015, Chevron announced that it is cutting up to 7,000 jobs, or 11 percent of its workforce.WEB, Chevron cutting up to 7,000 jobs,weblink CBS, 30 October 2015,

Upstream

Chevron's oil and gas exploration and production operations are primarily in the US, Australia, Nigeria, Angola, Kazakhstan, and the Gulf of Mexico. As of December 31, 2018, the company’s upstream business reported worldwide net production of 2.930 million oil-equivalent barrels per day.WEB,weblink Chevron Corporation 2018 Annual Report (Form 10-K), U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, File:ChevronInWyoming.jpg|thumb|A Chevron gas station in Diamondville, WyomingDiamondville, WyomingIn the United States, the company operates approximately 11,000 oil and natural gas wells in hundreds of fields occupying {{convert|4000000|acre|km2}} across the Permian Basin, located in West Texas and southeastern New Mexico. In 2010, Chevron was the fourth largest producer in the region.NEWS,weblink The Wall Street Journal, Isabel, Ordonez, Chevron Rekindles Old Texas Flame, April 8, 2011, In February 2011, Chevron celebrated the production of its 5 billionth barrel of Permian Basin oil.WEB,weblink Chevron celebrates 5 billion barrels of Permian Basin crude - Mywesttexas.com: Local Newsroom, Mywesttexas.com, February 16, 2011, July 23, 2012, The Gulf of Mexico is where the company's deepest offshore drilling takes place at Tahiti and Blind Faith. It also explores and drills the Marcellus Shale formation under several northeastern US states.Chevron's largest single resource project is the $43 billion Gorgon Gas Project in Australia. It also produces natural gas from Western Australia. The $43 billion project was started in 2010 and was expected to be brought online in 2014.NEWS,weblink Geoffrey, Garrett, Why this love triangle works, August 13, 2011, The Australian, The project includes construction of a 15 million tonne per annum liquefied natural gas plant on Barrow Island, and a domestic gas plant with the capacity to provide 300 terajoules per day to supply gas to Western Australia.NEWS,weblink Chevron's Gorgon project taking shape | Latest Business & Australian Stock market News, Perth Now, February 2, 2011, July 23, 2012, It is also developing the Wheatstone liquefied natural gas development in Western Australia. The foundation phase of the project is estimated to cost $29 billion; it will consist of two LNG processing trains with a combined capacity of 8.9 million tons per annum, a domestic gas plant and associated offshore infrastructure.NEWS,weblink Andrew, Burrell, Chevron's Wheatstone LNG project to generate 6,500 jobs, says Roy Krzywosinski, June 15, 2011, The Australian, In August 2014 a significant gas-condensate discovery at the Lasseter-1 exploration well in WA-274-P in Western Australia, in which Chevron has a 50% interest was announced.NEWS, Higher interim dividend by Santos as oil and gas revenue rises,weblink 21 August 2014, 22 August 2014, Australian News.Net, The company also has an interest in the North West Shelf Venture, equally shared with five other investors including BP, BHP Billiton Petroleum, Shell, Mitsubishi/Mitsui and Woodside.WEB,weblink Participants - NWSSSC, www.nwsssc.com, 2019-05-07, In the onshore and near-offshore regions of the Niger Delta, Chevron operates under a joint venture with the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, operating and holding a 40% interest in 13 concessions in the region. In addition, Chevron operates the Escravos Gas Plant and the Escravos gas-to-liquids plant.WEB,weblink Escravos Gas-to-Liquids Project, Niger Delta, Hydrocarbons Technology, June 15, 2011, July 23, 2012, Chevron has interests in four concessions in Angola, including offshore two concessions in Cabinda province, the Tombua–Landana development and the Mafumeira Norte project, operated by the company. It is also a leading partner in Angola LNG plant.WEB,weblink Chevron Corporation (CVX) Stock Description, Seeking Alpha, December 31, 2009, July 23, 2012, WEB,weblink Angola LNG, Angola Today, July 23, 2012, In Kazakhstan, Chevron participate the Tengiz and Karachaganak projects.NEWS,weblink Chevron Rises To $104 As Kazakhstan Kicks Up Production, Forbes, October 13, 2011, June 23, 2013, In 2010, Chevron became the largest private shareholder in the Caspian Pipeline Consortium pipeline, which transports oil from the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea.NEWS,weblink Caspian Pipeline Consortium: Private Company Information - Businessweek, Investing.businessweek.com, September 20, 2011, July 23, 2012, As of 2013, the Rosebank oil and gas field west of Shetland was being evaluated by Chevron and its partners. Chevron drilled its discovery well there in 2004. Production is expected in 2015 if a decision is made to produce from the field. The geology and weather conditions are challenging.NEWS, Chevron to Spend $770 Million on Remote Projects,weblink July 23, 2013, The New York Times, July 23, 2013, Stanley Reed,

Downstream

Chevron's downstream operations manufacture and sell products such as fuels, lubricants, additives and petrochemicals. The company's most significant areas of operations are the west coast of North America, the U.S. Gulf Coast, Southeast Asia, South Korea, Australia and South Africa. In 2010, Chevron sold an average of {{convert|3.1|Moilbbl/d}} of refined products like gasoline, diesel and jet fuel.WEB,weblink e10vk, Sec.gov, July 23, 2012, The company operates approximately 19,550 retail sites in 84 countries. The company also has interests in 13 power generating assets in the United States and Asia and has gas stations in Western Canada.{{Citation needed|date=July 2013}} Chevron owns the trademark rights to Texaco and Caltex fuel and lubricant products.{{Citation needed|date=July 2013}}In 2010, Chevron processed {{convert|1.9|Moilbbl/d}} of crude oil. It owns and operates three active refineries in the United States (Richmond, CA, El Segundo, CA, Pascagoula, MS). Chevron is the non-operating partner in seven joint venture refineries, located in Australia,NEWS,weblink Bloomberg L.P., James, Paton, Caltex Australia Starts Review of Refineries as Margins Drop, August 22, 2011, Pakistan,NEWS, Tanveer Ahmed,weblink PSO willing to raise stakes in PRL, Daily Times (Pakistan), Daily Times, July 1, 2010, July 23, 2012, Singapore, Thailand, South Korea, and New Zealand.NEWS,weblink Bloomberg L.P., N.Z. Refining Jumps After Valero Said to Plan Bid (Update2), July 24, 2009, Chevron's United States refineries are located in Gulf and Western states. Chevron also owns an asphalt refinery in Perth Amboy, New Jersey; however, since early 2008 that refinery has primarily operated as a terminal.WEB,weblink Refining Crude Oil - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy, Eia.gov, July 23, 2012, Chevron's chemicals business includes 50% ownership in the Chevron Phillips Chemical Company, which manufactures petrochemicals, and the Chevron Oronite Company (which develops, manufactures and sells fuel and lubricant additivesArthur J. Caines, Roger F. Haycock, John E. Hillier (2004) Automotive Lubricants Reference Book ; John Wiley & Sons ; see p70/737)Chevron Chemical produced paraquat.WEB,weblink Paraquat, Chevron Shipping Company, a wholly owned subsidiary, provides the maritime transport operations, marine consulting services and marine risk management services for Chevron Corporation.{{citation needed|date=March 2013}} Chevron ships historically had names beginning with "Chevron", such as Chevron Washington and Chevron South America, or were named after former or serving directors of the company. Samuel Ginn, William E. Crain, Kenneth Derr, Richard Matzke and most notably Condoleezza Rice were among those honored, but the ship named after Rice was subsequently renamed as Altair Voyager.NEWS, Carla, Marinucci, Carla Marinucci, Chevron redubs ship named for Bush aide,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, May 5, 2001, October 13, 2008,

Alternative energy

File:Solarmine1.jpg|right|thumb|Chevron's 500kW Solarmine photovoltaic solar project in Fellows, CaliforniaFellows, CaliforniaChevron's alternative energy operations include geothermal, solar, wind, biofuel, fuel cells, and hydrogen.NEWS,weblink Los Angeles Times, Tiffany, Hsu, Chevron is putting solar technologies to the test, March 22, 2010, July 11, 2013, Chevron has claimed to be the world's largest producer of geothermal energy. The company's geothermal operations are primarily located in Southeast Asia.NEWS,weblink Harnessing the Heat of Indonesia's Volcanoes, Bloomberg Businessweek, July 7, 2011, July 23, 2012, NEWS,weblink Chevron bets on $30B volcanoes beneath rainforest, Financial Post, June 15, 2011, July 23, 2012, WEB,weblink Chevron to expand its geothermal sites in the Philippines, Think GeoEnergy, June 21, 2010, July 23, 2012, Chevron operates geothermal wells in Indonesia providing power to Jakarta and the surrounding area. In the Philippines, Chevron also operates geothermal wells at Tiwi field in Albay province, the Makiling-Banahaw field in Laguna and Quezon provinces.WEB,weblink Aboitiz, Chevron eye more drillings at Tiwi-Makban geothermal fields, July 13, 2009, Business, Philstar.com, Philippines, In 2007, Chevron and the United States Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) started collaboration to develop and produce algae fuel, which could be converted into transportation fuels, such as jet fuel.NEWS,weblink Chevron backs green and slimy answer to biofuel problems - 02 Nov 2007 - News from, BusinessGreen, July 23, 2012, In 2008, Chevron and Weyerhaeuser created Catchlight Energy LLC, which researches the conversion of cellulose-based biomass into biofuels.NEWS,weblink Chevron investigates wood-fired cars - 04 Mar 2008 - News from, BusinessGreen, July 23, 2012, In 2013, the Catchlight plan was downsized due to competition with fossil fuel projects for funds.WEB,weblink Chevron Defies California On Carbon Emissions, April 18, 2013, Bloomberg L.P., September 20, 2014, Between 2006 and 2011, Chevron contributed up to $12 million to a strategic research alliance with the Georgia Institute of Technology to develop cellulosic biofuels and to create a process to convert biomass like wood or switchgrass into fuels.Additionally, Chevron holds a 22% stake in Galveston Bay Biodiesel LP, which produces up to {{convert|110|e6USgal|m3}} of renewable biodiesel fuel a year.NEWS,weblink Chevron forms $12M biofuel research alliance, Bizjournals.com, June 15, 2006, NEWS,weblink BioSelect, Chevron unveil Galveston biodiesel plant, Bizjournals.com, May 29, 2007, In 2010, the Chevron announced a 740 kW photovoltaic demonstration project in Bakersfield, California, called Project Brightfield, for exploring possibilities to use solar power for powering Chevron's facilities. It consists of technologies from seven companies, which Chevron is evaluating for large-scale use.NEWS,weblink USA Today, Jon, Swartz, Big companies aggressively jump into clean tech, May 26, 2011, NEWS,weblink Chevron Testing Solar Technologies, Todd, Woody, The New York Times, May 22, 2010, June 23, 2013, In Fellows, California, Chevron has invested in the 500 kW Solarmine photovoltaic solar project, which supplies daytime power to the Midway-Sunset Oil Field.NEWS,weblink Solar energy powers production of heavy oil in California, Oil & Gas Journal, May 2, 2007, June 23, 2013, {{subscription required, }} In Questa, Chevron has built a 1 MW concentrated photovoltaic plant that comprises 173 solar arrays, which use Fresnel lenses.NEWS,weblink Chevron adds solar power to area mine, United Press International, UPI, February 24, 2010, July 23, 2012, NEWS,weblink Solar farm a sign of things to come, U-T San Diego, April 20, 2011, June 23, 2013, In October 2011, Chevron launched a 29-MW thermal solar-to-steam facility in the Coalinga Field to produce the steam for enhanced oil recovery. As of 2012, the project is the largest of its kind in the world.NEWS, Korosec, Kirsten,weblink Chevron uses solar power to produce more oil, SmartPlanet, October 3, 2011, July 23, 2012, In 2014, Chevron began reducing its investment in renewable energy technologies, reducing headcount and selling alternative energy-related assets.WEB,weblink Chevron Makes It Official With Sale of Renewable-Energy Unit to OpTerra - Businessweek, In 2015, the Shell Canada Quest Energy project was launchedWEB,weblink Shell Canada Energy Quest Project, Canada, Natural Resources, 2016-02-23, www.nrcan.gc.ca, 2019-04-25, of which Chevron Canada Limited holds a 20% share.WEB,weblink Information archivée dans le Web, Government of Canada, Public Services and Procurement Canada, publications.gc.ca, 2019-04-25, The project is based within the Athabasca Oil Sands Project near Fort McMurray, Alberta. It is the world’s first CCS project on a commercial-scale.WEB,weblink Shell Canada Energy Quest Project, Canada, Natural Resources, 2016-02-23, www.nrcan.gc.ca, 2019-04-25,

Corporate affairs

Finance

For the fiscal year 2011, Chevron reported earnings of {{US$}}26.9 billion, with an annual revenue of {{US$}}257.3 billion, an increase of 23.3% over the previous fiscal cycle. Chevron's shares traded at over $105 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at over {{US$}}240 billion.NEWS, AP/ January 27, 2012, 12:21 PM Chevron 4Q profit falls on refinery decline,weblink July 15, 2013, CBS News, January 27, 2012, As of 2018, Chevron is ranked #13 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.WEB,weblink Fortune 500 Companies 2018: Who Made the List, Fortune, en-US, 2018-11-09, {| class="wikitable float-left" style="text-align: right;"!Year!RevenueWEB,weblink Chevron Revenue 2006-2018 {{!, CVX|website=www.macrotrends.net|access-date=2018-10-22}}in mil. USD-$!Net incomeWEB,weblink Chevron Net Income 2006-2018 {{!, CVX|website=www.macrotrends.net|access-date=2018-10-22}}in mil. USD-$!Price per Sharein USD-$!Employees|2005|198,200|14,099|36.10||2006|210,118|17,138|40.85||2007|220,904|18,688|55.02||2008|273,005|23,931|58.21||2009|171,636|10,483|49.89||2010|204,928|19,024|57.67||2011|253,706|26,895|76.91||2012|241,909|26,179|84.71||2013|228,848|21,423|97.88|64,600|2014|211,970|19,241|101.48|64,700|2015|138,477|4,587|84.24|61,500|2016|114,472|−0,497|91.58|55,200|2017|141,722|9,195|106.33|51,900

Headquarters

(File:Downtown Houston1.JPG|thumb|right|Chevron tower in Houston)Chevron's corporate headquarters are located in a 92-acre campus in San Ramon, California. The company moved there from its earlier headquarters at 555 Market Street in San Francisco, California, where it was located since its inception in 1879.NEWS, Raine, George, Ending an era, Chevron abandons S.F. headquarters / Exodus to San Ramon complete,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, September 6, 2001, July 15, 2013, Chevron also operates from office towers in Houston, Texas, where it purchased 1500 Louisiana Street and 1400 Smith Street from former Texas energy giant Enron. Chevron is also planning a new office tower in downtown Houston next to its existing properties at 1600 Louisiana Street.NEWS, Daugherty, Deon, Chevron plans new Houston tower, hiring spree,weblink July 15, 2013, Houston Business Journal, July 8, 2013, The building will stand 50-stories and 832 feet. Upon completion, it will be the fourth tallest building in Houston and the first 50-story building constructed there in nearly 30 years.

Political contributions

Since January 2011 Chevron has contributed almost $15 million on Washington lobbying. On October 7, 2012 Chevron donated $2.5 million to the Republican Congressional Leadership Fund super PAC that is closely tied to former House Speaker John Boehner.NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, Chevron donates $2.5 million to GOP super PAC,

Board of directors

Condoleezza Rice is a former member of the board of directors, and also headed Chevron's committee on public policy until she resigned on January 15, 2001, to become National Security Advisor to President George W. Bush.On September 30, 2009, John Watson, age 52, was elected Chairman of the Board and CEO, effective at the December 31, 2009 retirement of David J. O'Reilly. In September 2017, Chevron announced Watson would retire on February 1, 2018 and Vice Chairman Mike Wirth would be elevated to the role of chairman & CEO.NEWS,weblink Chevron taps Mike Wirth to be next CEO as Watson retires, 2017-09-28, Reuters, 2019-06-10, en,

Niger Delta Partnership Initiative

In 2010 Chevron established the Niger Delta Partnership Initiative (NDPI), a non-profit that works with localorganizations to promote economic growth, reduce HIV transmission rates, and empower women. The Initiative was initially funded with a $50 million grant. An additional $40 million was donated in 2013.NEWS,weblink Chevron to donate $40 million to Niger focused NGO, Reuters, June 11, 2014, 2015-03-16,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402161918weblink">weblink April 2, 2015, dead, NEWS,weblink Chevron, NGO partner to empower indigent women, Daily Independent, June 11, 2014, 2015-03-16, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402175327weblink">weblink April 2, 2015, mdy-all,

Controversies{{anchor|Environmental record}}

Environmental damage in Ecuador

(File:Texaco in Ecuador.jpg|thumb|right|Oil pollution in Lago Agrio, November 2007)Texaco and Gulf Oil began operating in the Oriente region of Ecuador in 1964 as a consortium.Juan Forero "Rain Forest Residents, Texaco Face Off In Ecuador". NPR, April 30, 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2012 Texaco operated the Lago Agrio oil field from 1972 to 1993 and the Ecuador state oil company continued to operate the same oil fields after Texaco left. In 1993, Texaco was found responsible for dumping billions of gallons of toxic waste and they spent $40m cleaning up the area during the 1990s. In 1998, the Ecuadorean government signed an agreement with Texaco accepting the clean-up as complete and absolving Texaco of any further responsibility. That same year, an Ecuadorean scientific team took water and soil samples after Texaco left and found petroleum hydrocarbons at unsafe levels in almost half. The clean up was called "a sham" by critics.{{who|date=March 2015}}In 2003, a class action lawsuit against Chevron was filed in Ecuadorian court for $28 billion by indigenous residents, who accused Texaco of making residents ill and damaging forests and rivers by discharging {{convert|18|e9USgal|m3}} of formation water into the Amazon rainforest without any environmental remediation.Bogumil Terminski "Oil-Induced Displacement and Resettlement: Social Problem and Human Rights Issue". Conflictrecovery.org.Paul Barrett “Top U.S. Law Firms Battle in Chevron's Pollution Case”. Businessweek, January 15, 2013. Retrieved January 17, 2013Patrick Radden Keefe “Reversal of Fortune”. The New Yorker, January 9, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2013.NEWS,weblink Texaco faces $1bn lawsuit, September 20, 2014, October 22, 2003, NEWS,weblink Chevron fined for Amazon pollution by Ecuador court, BBC News, September 20, 2014, February 15, 2011, Chevron said that the company had completed cleanup of the pollution caused by Texaco, that current pollution was the result of activities of the Ecuadorian oil interests, and that the 1998 agreements with the Ecuadorian Government exempted the company from any liabilities.Chevron Corporation 2008 Annual Shareholders' Report.NEWS,weblink 60 Minutes "Amazon Crude", May 3, 2009, CBS News, May 3, 2009, February 16, 2011, NEWS,weblink Chevron annual meeting heats up over Ecuador suit, Associated Press, sify.com, May 31, 2009, In 2011, Ecuadorian residents were awarded $8.6 billion, based on claims of loss of crops and farm animals as well as increased local cancer rates.NEWS, Finally, the polluter is commanded to pay, The Independent, London, February 16, 2011, 2, NEWS,weblink Chevron fined for Amazon pollution by Ecuador court, February 15, 2011, February 15, 2011, BBC News, NEWS,weblink Ecuador court orders Chevron to pay $8 bln -lawyer, February 15, 2011, February 15, 2011, Reuters, The plaintiffs said this would not be enough to make up for the damage caused by the oil company.NEWS,weblink Ecuador plaintiffs say Chevron ruling falls short, February 15, 2011, February 15, 2011, Reuters, The award was later revised to $19 billion on appeals, which was then appealed again to the Ecuadorean National Court of Justice.Chevron fails to block $18 billion Ecuador judgment. Reuters, October 9, 2 . Retrieved January 25, 2013 The action has been called the first time that indigenous people have successfully sued a multinational corporation in the country where the pollution took place.Chevron described the lawsuit as an "extortion scheme" and refused to pay the fine.In November 2013, the international arbitration tribunal issued a partial award in favour of Chevron and its subsidiary, Texaco Petroleum Company. The tribunal has found Chevron is not liable for environmental claims in Ecuador.NEWS, Chevron gets one up on Ecuador,weblink 19 September 2013, EnergyNewsBulletin.net, In March 2014, a United States district court judge ruled that the Ecuadorian plaintiff's lead attorney, Steven Donziger, had used "corrupt means," including "coercion, bribery, money laundering and other misconduct," to obtain the 2011 court verdict in Ecuador. The judge did not rule on the underlying issue of environmental damages. While the US ruling does not affect the decision of the court in Ecuador, it has blocked efforts to collect damages from Chevron in US courts. Donziger has appealed.JOURNAL, Big Victory for Chevron over Claims in Ecuador, New York Times, March 4, 2014, Kraus, Clifford,weblink 2015-03-16, NEWS, U.S. Judge Hands Win to Chevron, Slams Lawyerdate=March 4, 2014,weblink BBC, US judge annuls Ecuador oil ruling against Chevron, 4 Mar. 2014.In April 2015, AmazonWatch released videos reportedly sent from a whistleblower inside Chevron. The videos purportedly show employees and consultants finding petroleum contamination at sites in the Ecuadorean Amazon that the company claimed was cleaned up years earlier. These videos were confirmed as legitimate by Chevron legal counsel.WEB,weblink Letter Showing Chevron Asked for Videos Back, According to the company, the videos show routine testing to establish the perimeter of oil pits. The company further stated that it is not possible to determine from the videos whether the sites shown are the responsibility of Chevron or its former partner, Petroecuador. According to Amazon Watch, the videos contain a map confirming that the sites are Chevron's, and contain footage of interviews with villagers known to live in the area for which Chevron is responsible.WEB,weblink Videos Suggest Cover-up of Amazon pollution - Al Jazeera America, In September 2018, an international tribunal ruled in favor of Chevron Corp finding that Ecuador had violated its obligations under international treaties. The tribunal held that a $9.5 billion pollution judgment by Ecuador’s Supreme Court against Chevron “was procured through fraud, bribery and corruption and was based on claims that had been already settled and released by the Republic of Ecuador years earlier.” Ecuador’s attorney general plans to appeal the tribunal’s ruling saying, “It worries us that the tribunal is asking a country to lift a sentence of one of its courts that was issued as part of a dispute between private parties."NEWS, International tribunal rules in favor of Chevron in Ecuador case,weblink Reuters, September 21, 2018, September 7, 2018, Chevron continues to take oil from the Amazon region at large. El Segundo (CA), Pascagoula (MS), and Richmond (CA) refineries all process Amazonian oil. In 2015 El Segundo was the single largest refiner in the U.S. of Amazon Crude, processing 54,463 barrels per day.WEB, From Well to Wheel: The Social, Environmental, and Climate Costs of Amazon Crude, Amazon Watch,

Oil spills in Angola

In 2006, Chevron's operations in Africa were criticized as environmentally unsound by 130 Nigerian researchers, journalists, and activists.WEB,weblink AfricaResource.com, Chevron, Oil Pollution, and Human Rights, October 30, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061030073539weblink">weblink 2006-10-30, In 2002 Angola demanded $2 million in compensation for oil spills allegedly caused by Chevron, the first time it had fined a multinational corporation operating in its waters.NEWS,weblink Business | Angola fines Chevron for pollution, BBC News, July 1, 2002, February 16, 2011,

U.S. Clean Air Act Settlements

On October 16, 2003, Chevron U.S.A. settled a charge under the Clean Air Act, which reduced harmful air emissions by about 10,000 tons a year.WEB,weblink U.S. Announces Clean Air Agreement with Chevron U.S.A., Environmental Protection Agency, October 16, 2003, September 24, 2013, In San Francisco, Chevron was filed by a consent decree to spend almost $275 million to install and utilize innovative technology to reduce nitrogen and sulfur dioxide emissions at its refineries.WEB,weblink U.S. Announces Clean Air Settlement with Chevron U.S.A., Department of Justice, October 16, 2003, May 6, 2008, In 2000, Chevron paid a $6 million penalty as well as $1 million for environmental improvement projects to settle charges of Clean Air Act violations related to offline loading terminal operations in El Segundo, California. Chevron also had implemented programs that minimized production of hazardous gases, upgraded leak detection and repair procedure, reduced emissions from sulfur recovery plants, and adopted strategies to ensure the proper handling of harmful benzene wastes at refineries. Chevron also spent about $500,000 to install leakless valves and double-sealed pumps at its El Segundo refinery, which could prevent significant emissions of air contaminants.WEB,weblink Chevron Agrees to Record $7 Million Environmental Settlement, Department of Justice, August 11, 2000, May 6, 2008, In 2011, Chevron was recognized by the environmental group Ceres for its efforts to reduce global warming by cutting its own emissions and investing in renewable energy technologies. Soon after, it began reducing its investments in renewables. NEWS,weblink Quest for clean energy / Chevron, PG&E cited for positive steps to combat global warming, Sfgate.com, March 22, 2006, February 16, 2011, David R., Baker,

NiMH battery technology for automobiles

{{More citations needed|date=March 2015}}Cobasys LLC was a supplier of nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, battery control systems, and packaged solutions for automotive applications, uninterruptable power supplies, telecommunications applications, and distributed power generation.Markets Served {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160105153353weblink |date=January 5, 2016 }} Cobasys. Retrieved on 2007-08-06. For 8 years ending in 2009, Cobasys was a 50-50 joint venture between California-based Chevron Corporation and Michigan-based Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (also called ECD Ovonics, ECD, or Ovonics)Cobabsys: Investors {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160105153353weblink |date=January 5, 2016 }} (Corporate website). Cobasys. Retrieved on 2007-08-07.Roberson, J. Supplier Cobasys exploring more hybrid batteries. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101205090036weblink |date=December 5, 2010 }} Detroit Free Press, 2007-03-14. Retrieved on 2007-08-06. The intermediary hierarchy of ownership was that Cobasys LLC was owned by Chevron's subsidiary Chevron Technology Ventures LLC, and ECD Ovonics' subsidiary Ovonic Battery Company.Ovonic Materials Division — NiMH Battery JV Overview {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090522234416weblink |date=May 22, 2009 }} ECD Ovonics. Retrieved on 2007-08-08. Cobasys spent $180 million in funding from Chevron Technology Ventures, and the two owners were unable to agree on further funding of the company. After arbitration between the owners had stalled, a buyer was found. On July 14, 2009, the sale of Cobasys to SB LiMotive Co. Ltd., an electric vehicle battery joint venture between Samsung SDI Co. Ltd. and Robert Bosch GmbH, was announced.Sherry Boschert accused Chevron of limiting access to large NiMH batteries through its stake in Cobasys corporation and control of patent licenses in order to remove a competitor to gasoline. Cobasys filed a patent infringement lawsuit against Panasonic and Toyota over production of the EV-95 battery used in the RAV4 EV.WEB,weblink Archived copy, September 23, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120401133154weblink">weblink April 1, 2012, weblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120401133158weblink|date=April 1, 2012}} The case was settled with each company granting the other a license to its patents.WEB,weblink www.prnewswire.com, In her book, Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that Will Recharge America, published in February 2007, Sherry Boschert argues that large-format NiMH batteries are commercially viable but that Cobasys refuses to sell the batteries or license the technology to small companies or individuals. Boschert argues that Cobasys accepts only very large orders for the batteries. Major automakers showed little interest in placing large orders for large-format NiMH batteries. However, Toyota complained about the difficulty in getting smaller orders of large format NiMH batteries to service the existing 825 RAV-4EVs. Because no other companies were willing to place large orders, Cobasys was not manufacturing or licensing large format NiMH battery technology for automobiles. Boschert concludes that "it's possible that Cobasys (Chevron) is squelching all access to large NiMH batteries through its control of patent licenses in order to remove a competitor to gasoline. Or it's possible that Cobasys simply wants the market for itself and is waiting for a major automaker to start producing plug-in hybrids or electric vehicles."Boschert, S. (2007) Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that Will Recharge America (Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers) {{ISBN|978-0-86571-571-4}} In an interview with The Economist, the ECD Ovonics founder Stan Ovshinsky disagreed, stating "Cobasys isn't preventing anything. Cobasys just needs an infusion of cash. They build a great battery"."WEB, Brigis, Alvis,weblink The Edison of our Age: Stan Ovshinsky and the Future of Energy [Video Interview Part 1], The Energy Roadmap, October 14, 2008, February 16, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180813044217weblink">weblink August 13, 2018, dead, mdy-all, In October 2007, International Acquisitions Services and Innovative Transportation Systems filed suit against Cobasys and its parents for failure to fill an order for large-format NiMH batteries to be used in the electric Innovan.ECD Ovonics 10-Q Quarterly Report {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090728030529weblink |date=July 28, 2009 }} for the period ending March 31, 2008 In August 2008, Mercedes-Benz U.S. International filed suit against Cobasys, on the ground Cobasys did not tender the batteries it agreed to build for Mercedes-Benz's planned hybrid SUV.WEB,weblink Mercedes sues Cobasys over battery deal, Automotive News, September 20, 2014, August 6, 2008, The Mercedes suit was settled for $1.3 million dollars.WEB,weblink Bloomberg - Are you a robot?,

Niger Delta shootings

On May 28, 1998, activists staged a demonstration and took several individuals hostage on a company oil platform in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Nigerian police and soldiers were allegedly flown in with Chevron helicopters.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20031026175409weblink">weblink dead, October 26, 2003, Transcript of Drilling and Killing Documentary, Democracy Now!, February 16, 2011, mdy-all, Soldiers shot at the activists and subsequently two activists (Jola Ogungbeje and Aroleka Irowaninu) died from their wounds. In 2007 U.S. District Judge Susan Illston, allowed a lawsuit brought by victims and victims' families against Chevron to proceed, saying that there may be evidence that Chevron had hired, supervised, and/or provided transportation to Nigerian military forces known for their "general history of committing abuses."NEWS,weblink Chevron can be sued for attacks on Nigerians, U.S. judge rules, Bob, Egelko, August 15, 2007, The San Francisco Chronicle, In December 2008, a federal jury cleared Chevron of all charges brought against them in the case. Chevron had stated that the military intervention was necessary to protect the lives of its workers and considers the jury's decision vindication for the accusations of wrongdoing.WEB,weblink S.F. jury clears Chevron of protest shootings, December 2, 2008, SFGate, September 20, 2014,

UN sanctions

According to US Embassy Cable BAGHDAD 000791 the Iraqi prime minister believed that Chevron was engaged in negotiations to invest in Iran in contravention of UN sanctions. The embassy related that it had no independent confirmation of this claim.NEWS, Ewen MacAskill in Washington,weblink WikiLeaks cables: Chevron discussed oil project with Tehran, claims Iraqi PM | World news, The Guardian, February 16, 2011, London, December 15, 2010, This document was intended to have been kept secret until 2029.NEWS,weblink US embassy cables: Iraqi PM claims US oil company in contact with Iran | Business | guardian.co.uk, Guardian, February 16, 2011, London, December 15, 2010,

Richmond, California refinery

The Richmond refinery paid $540,000 in 1998 for illegally bypassing waste water treatments and failing to notify the public about toxic releases.WEB,weblink CHEVRON RICHMOND REFINERY TO PAY $540,000 ENVIRONMENTAL PENALTY | Newsroom | US EPA, Yosemite.epa.gov, October 15, 1998, February 16, 2011, Overall, Chevron is listed as potentially liable for 95 Superfund sites, with funds set aside by the EPA for clean-up.WEB,weblink Responsible Shopper Profile: Chevron, COOP America,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060621092811weblink">weblink 2006-06-21, {{Unreliable source?|date=March 2015}}A 1989 explosion and fire at the refineryNEWS, EXPLOSION, FIRE AT CHEVRON REFINERY RESTRICT WEST COAST OIL PRODUCTION, The Boston Globe, Boston, April 12, 1989, resulted in a $877,000 OSHA fine for "willfully failing to provide protective equipment for employees." Chevron employees had "repeatedly requested" protective equipment since the early 1980s but the company had refused despite more than 70 fires in the plant since 1984. Elizabeth Dole, the US Secretary of Labor, said: "OSHA's investigation makes clear that Chevron knew of the need for protective equipment and clothing."NEWS, Chevron Fined for Its Failure To Equip Firefighting Workers, The Washington Post, Washington, D.C., September 27, 1989, On March 25, 1999, an explosion and fire at the refinery spread noxious fumes and sent hundreds of Richmond residents to hospitals.NEWS,weblink Huge explosion rocks Richmond oil refinery, March 26, 1999, San Francisco Chronicle, 8 August 2012, On August 6, 2012, a large fire erupted at the refinery.NEWS, Kristin J., Bender, Daniel M., Jimenez, August 6, 2012,weblink Massive fire at Chevron refinery in Richmond fully contained; shelter in place lifted, Contra Costa Times, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130929120500weblink">weblink September 29, 2013, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink Massive fire at Chevron refinery in Richmond fully contained; shelter in place lifted, Bender, Kristin J., Jimenez, Daniel M., August 6, 2012, San Jose Mercury News, August 8, 2012, Initial reports estimated that 11,000 people sought treatment at area hospitals,Jaxon Van Derbeken (August 20, 2012). "Chevron refinery fire a 'close call'". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 21, 2012. and later reports placed the number above 15,000 people.WEB, Chevron to Pay $2 Million for 2012 Refinery Fire in Richmond, CA; 200 Arrested at Protest,weblink Democracy Now!, August 6, 2013, August 6, 2013, It was one year ago when a massive fire at a Chevron refinery in Richmond, California, sent toxic smoke billowing into the air about 10 miles northeast of San Francisco. In the aftermath, more than 15,000 people sought medical treatment for respiratory problems. On Monday, Chevron pleaded no contest to six criminal charges related to the fire and agreed to submit to additional oversight over the next few years and pay $2 million in fines and restitution as part of a plea deal with state and county prosecutors. Two days earlier, thousands of people marched to condemn safety issues at Chevron's plant and to call for renewable alternatives to fossil fuels., The company pleaded no contest to six charges in connection with the fire, and agreed to pay $2 million in fines and restitution.NEWS, Chevron pays $2m fines and pleads no contest to Richmond fire charges,weblink 6 August 2013, Associated Press report appearing in The Guardian, 5 August 2013, Around the same time the settlement was announced, the Richmond city council voted to file suit against Chevron. The reasons for the suit included "a continuation of years of neglect, lax oversight and corporate indifference to necessary safety inspection and repairs."

Oil spill off the coast of Rio de Janeiro

{{Further|Energy in Brazil}}On November 8, 2011, Chevron came under fire by Brazilian authorities for its role in the spill of crude oil off of the southeastern coast of Brazil.NEWS,weblink Chevron Takes Responsibility for Brazil Oil Spill, May Face $51M Fine, Foxnews.com, November 21, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111121144234weblink">weblink 2011-11-21, October 22, 2015, The Brazilian regulators said 416,400 liters of oil leaked over the course of two weeks from undersea rock near the well in the Frade oil project 370 km off the Brazilian coast.NEWS,weblink Chevron takes full responsibility for Brazil oil spill, BBC.co.uk, November 11, 2011, Prosecutors in Brazil initially demanded $10.6bn in the subsequent lawsuit. The National Petroleum Agency (ANP) suspended Chevron's activities in Brazil until it identified the cause of an oil spill off the coast of Rio de Janeiro.NEWS,weblink Chevron faces $10.6bn Brazil legal suit over oil spill, BBC News, On March 16, 2012 the Brazilian Federal Justice prohibited 17 key people (including George Buck and other foreigners) connected to Chevron Brazil from leaving the country without judicial permission because of evident guilt on the 2011 oil spills., December 14, 2011, The National Petroleum Agency later concluded that the spill did not cause significant economic damage, injured no one, and never approached Brazil's coast. Criminal charges were dropped and the lawsuits were settled for a total of $130 million.NEWS,weblink Chevron and Brazil Reach Deal on Oil Spill - NYTimes.com, The New York Times, September 13, 2013, WEB,weblink Chevron to pay $155 million for Brazil oil spill,

KS Endeavor explosion

The KS Endeavor jackup rig exploded on January 16, 2012, while drilling an exploration well for Chevron in the Funiwa field in Nigeria. The explosion resulted in the death of two of the 154 workers on board and a fire that burned for 46 days before the well was sealed on June 18. According to a Reuters news report, workers on the KS Endeavor were ignored by Chevron when they requested evacuation due to concerns of increasing smoke billowing from the drilling borehole. A senior worker said the blowout was triggered by a massive build-up of pressure. A witness said that rig engineers advised Chevron to stop drilling and evacuate staff but Chevron told them to continue with drilling. Expecting an explosion, the rig manager, one of the two that later died, kept the lifeboats at hand and ready for use. A witness reported: "This is the reason so many of us survived because we were all aware that it was going to happen, but just didn't know when."In an email response to Reuters, Chevron said it did not receive requests to evacuate the rig and that staff on board had the right to call a halt to work if they believed conditions were unsafe.NEWS,weblink Reuters, Exclusive: Riggers sought evacuation before deadly Chevron blast, July 11, 2012, NEWS, Upstream (newspaper), Upstream Online, NHST Media Group, Chevron prepares to drill Nigeria relief well,weblink Kathrine, Schmidt, January 17, 2012, January 24, 2012, {{subscription required, }}

Forest Fire in Lawachara National Park, Bangladesh

On June 26, 2008, a forest fire broke out in Lawachara National Park, Bangladesh, while Chevron was carrying out a 3D seismic survey. Chevron stated that it was not conducting activities in the area in which the fire broke out.WEB,weblink Chevron suspends survey after fire in Bangladesh, NEWS,weblink Chevron resumes survey after fire in Bangladesh | Reuters, Reuters, April 29, 2008,

Polish gas exploration

Chevron has experienced protests aimed at the company by local communities in Southern Poland when they started gas exploration in the region. Their complaint is that Chevron didn't provide all of the documents required for gas exploration in Poland, and that the company has not promised to share a percentage of the revenues with the local landholders. The landholders of the region view Chevron's presence in the region negatively since they may be forced to sell their properties at a low cost if gas is discovered in the region. As well, potential environmental disasters are a concern for local farmers. Another of the residents' primary concern is water pollution from the chemicals used in fracking. In response to some of the protests, Chevron has sued some of the protesters from Żurawlów for disrupting their operations.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402160357weblink">weblink dead, April 2, 2015, Blokuj badania ws. ³upków? Chevron pozywa mieszkañców Lubelszczyzny. 'To jest wojna', gazetapl, April 4, 2014, mdy-all, According to gas and oil expert Andrzej Szczesniak, one of the main reasons for the protest is the difference between Polish and American law. In the USA property owners typically receive 15-20% from the income of gas exploration. In Poland, the discovery of gas on private property usually results in a forced sale of the property, with the owner receiving only the prior value of the land and no percentage of the gas revenue. This is the result of outdated, Communist Era laws that are still on the books and which are often exploited by municipal governments if they can get a 'kick back' from a larger company.Polish TVP interview and material about gas exploration in Poland, first broadcast in Wiadomosci, on 7-11-2013WEB,weblink Przez łupki premier Tusk może stracić działkę, September 20, 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150403174306weblink">weblink April 3, 2015, mdy-all,

Argentina agreement and protests

After the 2012 decision of the Argentine government to regain control of the biggest oil company of the country, YPF, the search for foreign investors for exploitation of unconventional oil started. Finally in 2013, YPF and Chevron signed an agreement for the Vaca Muerta oil field, the world's second-largest shale gas deposit. In August 2013, the Congress of Neuquén province approved the agreement, while between 5,000JOURNAL,weblink Protests against Chevron highlight Argentine energy woes - CSMonitor.com, Christian Science Monitor, September 3, 2013, WEB,weblink Página/12 :: Economía :: Balas, gases y represión, September 20, 2014, and 10,000WEB,weblink Masiva marcha en Neuquén en contra del acuerdo por Vaca Muerta, Clarin.com, September 20, 2014, workers, students and indigenous people protested outside the legislature. Police fired rubber bullets, hitting some protesters. Governor Jorge Sapag defended the police actions: "The march was generally peaceful, but about 100 people separated from the rest and attacked the police. The police acted with seriousness and professionalism."WEB,weblink The Argentina Independent - Tag Archive - YPF, September 20, 2014,

Public Eye Lifetime Award

In 2015, Chevron received the Lifetime Award of the Public Eye on Davos for what the sponsors called Chevron's responsibility for environmental disaster in the Amazon.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151104061134weblink">weblink 2015-11-04, Public Eye Awards, publiceye.ch, Public Eye, 2017-03-27, dead, The same group cited the company in 2006 in the category "Environment" for oil soiling in the Amazonas in Ecuador.WEB,weblink The Public Eye Awards 2006 go to Chevron, Disney and Citigroup, 2006-01-25, publiceye.ch, Public Eye, 2017-03-27, A Chevron spokesperson commented that the award was "nothing more than a stunt to distract attention from the fact that the lawsuit against Chevron in Ecuador has been proven to be meritless and the product of unprecedented fraud" and pointed to a U.S. court finding that the plaintiff's lawyers had committed "mail and wire fraud, money laundering, witness tampering and obstruction of justice."WEB,weblink Chevron slams mock award, Pylas, Pan, 2015-01-23, usnews.com, U.S. News and World Report, 2017-03-27, Chevron was responsible for one of the world's worst-ever environmental disasters in the Ecuador rainforest, That controversial RICO case is under appeal and has been criticized by environmental and human rights groupsweblink

Global warming

In a letter Chevron Corp. argued that under current disclosure rules companies are already required to disclose material risks including climate-change risk, during part of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission's consultation process, noting that its "2015 Form 10-K included a significant discussion of the potential risks of additional greenhouse gas emissions regulation following the outcome of the Paris Accord."NEWS, Elena Cherney, Companies Might Have to Disclose Their Carbon-Related Risks; New regulations could require firms to disclose risks tied to climate change,weblink WSJ, September 13, 2016, September 27, 2016, Chevron was found to have contributed 43.35bn tonnes of CO2 equivalent since 1965 in an analysis made by the Climate Accountability Institute.NEWS, Matthew Taylor and Jonathan Watts, Revealed: the 20 firms behind a third of all carbon emissions,weblink The Guardian, October 9, 2019, October 9, 2019,

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Commons category|Chevron Corporation|Chevron (company)}}
  • {{Official website}}
{{Finance links| name = Chevron Corporation | symbol = CVX| sec_cik = 93410 | yahoo = CVX| google = CVX}}{{authority control}}{{Chevron Corporation}}{{Petroleum industry}}{{Dow Jones Industrial Average companies}}

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