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{{Distinguish|Chengde}}{{More citations needed|date=May 2013}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2019}}{{stack begin}}

| official_name = 0.1em}}}}| other_name = Chengtu, Ch'eng-tuPrefecture-level city>Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city| image_skyline = Chengdu montage.png| imagesize = Anshun Bridge, Jinli, Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding>Chengdu Panda Base, and Sichuan University.| image_seal = | seal_size = | image_shield = | shield_size = | image_blank_emblem = CHENGDU LOGO.png| blank_emblem_type = Logo of Chengdu| blank_emblem_size = Hibiscus City}}, {{nowrapTurtle City}}frame=yestype=shapestroke-color=#000000|zoom=7}}| image_map1 = Sichuan subdivisions - Chengdu.svg| mapsize1 = | map_caption1 = Location of Chengdu City jurisdiction in Sichuan| pushpin_map = Sichuan#China| pushpin_label_position = left| pushpin_map_caption = Location of the city center in SichuanTianfu Square)30.657104.066type:adm2nd_region:CN-51_source:Gaodedisplay=it}}| subdivision_type = CountryChina>People's Republic of ChinaProvinces of China>Province| subdivision_type2 = | subdivision_name1 = Sichuan| subdivision_name2 = | established_title = Established| established_date = 311 BC| established_title1 = | established_date1 = | established_title2 = | established_date2 = | established_title3 = | established_date3 = | founder = | named_for = | seat_type = Municipal seat| seat = Wuhou DistrictAdministrative divisions of China#County level (3rd)>County-leveldistrict (China)>districts, 5 county-level city, 5 counties of the People's Republic of China>counties| government_footnotes = Sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China>Sub-provincial cityParty Committee Secretary>CPC Party Chief| leader_name = Fan Ruiping| leader_title1 = Mayor| leader_name1 = Luo Qiang| total_type = | unit_pref = | area_footnotes = | area_magnitude = | area_total_km2 = 14378.18 | area_land_km2 = | area_metro_km2 = 4558.4| area_blank1_title = Downtown| area_blank1_km2 = 465.88| elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = 500| elevation_min_m = 378SCRIPT-TITLE=ZH:3-2各市(å·ž)年末常住人口、出生率、死亡率、自然增长率、城镇化率和人口密度(2014å¹´)ACCESS-DATE=2016-03-06ARCHIVE-DATE=1 JULY 2016, | population_as_of = 2014| population_density_km2 = 1003| area_urban_km2 = 1761LAST=COXPUBLISHER=DEMOGRAPHIAISBN=PAGE=22ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180503021711/HTTP://WWW.DEMOGRAPHIA.COM/DB-WORLDUA.PDFDEAD-URL=NO, | population_urban = 11430000| population_urban_footnotes =  (2018)| population_density_urban_km2 = auto| population_metro = 18.1 million| population_density_metro_km2 = autoList of ethnic groups in China>NationalitiesHan Chinese>Han| population_density_blank1_km2 = | population_note = List of postal codes in China>Postal code| postal_code = 610000–611944Telephone numbers in China>(0)}}| footnotes = | image_dot_map = | dot_mapsize = | dot_map_caption = | dot_x = | dot_y = | leader_title2 = | leader_name2 = | leader_title3 = | leader_name3 = | leader_title4 = | leader_name4 = | elevation_max_m = 5364Time in China>China Standard| utc_offset = +8CN-SC-01)Gross domestic product>GDP (nominal) Total (2018)Renminbi>Â¥ 1.534 trillion (United States dollar 231.8 billion)èµ– TITLE=2018年成都市实现地区生产总值15342.77亿元 比上年增长8.0% WEBSITE=封面新闻 ACCESSDATE=28 JANUARY 2019 ARCHIVE-DATE=28 JANUARY 2019, no, Gross domestic product>GDP (nominal) Per Capita (2017)Renminbi>Â¥ 98,011 (United States dollar 14,534)成都统计年鉴-2018 WEBSITE=成都市统计局 ACCESSDATE=28 JANUARY 2019, {{Dead linkbot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}Vehicle registration plates of China>License Plate PrefixGinkgo biloba| blank4_name = Flower| blank4_info = Hibiscus mutabilis| blank5_name = | blank5_info = | blank6_name = | blank6_info = }}

) mi={{IPAc-cmnZh-Chengdu.oggeng.ugr=Cherngdu j=Sing4dou1ci={{IPAc-yueing.ousuz=Zén-tou l="Become a Capital" or "Established Capital" psp=Chengtus=|altname=}}

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{{stack end}}Chengdu (Chinese: 成都; Sichuanese: Cengtu {{IPAc-en|UK|ˌ|t|ʃ|ɛ|ŋ|ˈ|d|uː}}, {{IPAc-en|US|ˌ|t|ʃ|ʌ|ŋ|-}},AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY, Chengdu, 14 April 2019, "Chengdu" {{Webarchive|url= |date=14 April 2019 }} (US) and OXFORD DICTIONARIES, Chengdu, 14 April 2019, MERRIAM-WEBSTER, Chengdu, 14 April 2019, Standard Mandarin: {{IPAc-cmn|AUD|Zh-Chengdu.ogg|ch|eng|2|.|d|u|1}}), formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of the Chinese province of Sichuan. It is one of the three most-populous cities in Western China, the other two being Chongqing and Xi'an. {{As of|2014}}, the administrative area housed 14,427,500 inhabitants, the largest in Sichuan, with an urban population of 10,152,632. At the time of the 2010 census, Chengdu was the fifth-most populous agglomeration in China, with 10,484,996 inhabitants in the built-up area including Xinjin County and Deyang's Guanghan City. Chengdu is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification, according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.WEB, The World According to GaWC 2016,weblink Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Loughborough University, 14 November 2018, 14 November 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 3 May 2017, no, Chengdu is located in central Sichuan. The surrounding Chengdu Plain is known as the "Country of Heaven" ({{zh|s=|hp=Tiānfǔ zhi Guó|links=no}}) and the "Land of Abundance". Its prehistoric settlers included the Sanxingdui culture. The site of Dujiangyan, an ancient irrigation system, is designated as a World Heritage Site. The Jin River flows through the city.Founded by the state of Shu prior to its incorporation into China, Chengdu is unique as a major Chinese settlement that has maintained its name mostly unchanged throughout the imperial, republican, and communist eras. It was the capital of Liu Bei's Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms Era, as well as several other local kingdoms during the Middle Ages.WEB,weblink Chengdu {{!, China|website=Encyclopædia Britannica|language=en|access-date=2019-06-13}} During World War II, refugees from eastern China fleeing from the Japanese settled in Chengdu. After the war, Chengdu's importance as a link between Eastern and Western China expanded, with railways built to Chongqing in 1952, and Kunming and Tibet afterwards. In the 1960s, Chengdu became an important centre of China's national defense industry.Chengdu is now one of the most important economic, financial, commercial, cultural, transportation, and communication centers in Western China. Its economy is diverse, characterized by the machinery, automobile, medicine, food, and information technology industries. Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, a hub of Air China and Sichuan Airlines, is one of the 30 busiest airports in the world, and the Chengdu railway station is one of the six biggest in China. Chengdu also hosts many international companies and more than 12 consulates; more than 270 Fortune 500 companies have established branches in Chengdu.NEWS,weblink Multinationals flock to ‘central hub’ city Chengdu, 2019-04-26, The Telegraph, 2019-06-13, en-GB, 0307-1235, Chengdu is the seat of the Western Theatre Command region of the People's Liberation Army.WEB,weblink Snapshot: China's Western Theater Command, Jamestown, en-US, 2019-06-13, Chengdu will host the Summer Universiade in 2021, an international multi-sport event. It is considered one of the most livable cities in China.NEWS,weblink Inside Chengdu: can China's megacity version of the garden city work?, Kuo, Lily, 2019-02-04, The Guardian, 2019-06-13, en-GB, 0261-3077, WEB,weblink Shanghai Tops New Forbes China Ranking Of Best Cities For Living, Flannery, Russell, Forbes, en, 2019-06-13, Chengdu's culture largely reflects that of its province, Sichuan; in 2011, it was recognized by UNESCO as a city of gastronomy.WEB,weblink Chengdu: UNESCO City of Gastronomy, 26 May 2011, UNESCO, It is associated with the giant panda, a Chinese national symbol, which inhabits the area of Sichuan; the city is home to the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding.{{anchor|Names|Etymology}}


The name Chengdu is attested in sources dating back to shortly after its founding. It has been called the only major city in China to have remained at an unchanged location with an unchanged name throughout the imperial, republican, and communist eras,WEB,weblink Chengdu, the City Whose Name hasn't changed for 2300 years,, 6 January 2011, 6 January 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 1 March 2011, no, although it also had other names, for example it was briefly known as Xijing in the 17th century. The Song-era geographical work A Universal Geography of the Taiping Era states that the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty named his new capital Chengdu after a statement by King Tai of Zhou that a settlement needed "one year to become a town, two to become a city, and three to become a metropolis".{{efn|{{zh|以周太王从梁王止岐山,一年而所居成聚,二年成邑,三年成都,因名之成都。}}}}{{citation |first=Endymion |last=Wilkinson |title=Chinese History: A Manual |publisher=Harvard University Asia Center |date=2000 |p=849}} (The character for cheng }} may mean "turned into" while du }} can mean either a metropolis or a capital.) There are, however, several versions of why the capital had been moved from nearby Pi County and modern scholars sometimes theorize that the name was a transcription of an earlier name into Chinese characters.{{citation needed|date=October 2016}}The present spelling is based on pinyin romanization; its Postal Map romanization was "Chengtu". Its former status as the seat of the Chengdu Prefecture prompted Marco Polo's spellings Sindafu, Sin-din-fu, &c. and the Protestant missionaries' romanization Ching-too Foo.{{sfnp|Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed.|1878|loc=Vol. V, "China"}}Although the official name of the city has remained (almost) constant, the surrounding area has sometimes taken other names, including Yizhou (}}). Chinese nicknames for the city include the {{nowrap|Turtle City}}, variously derived from the old city walls' shape on a map or a legend that Zhang Yi had planned their course by following a turtle's tracks; the {{nowrap|Brocade City}}, a contraction of the earlier "City of the Brocade Official", after an imperial office established under the Western Han; the {{nowrap|Hibiscus City}}, from the hibiscus which King Mengchang of the Later Shu ordered planted upon the city wall during the 10th century.WEB,weblink zh:龟城刘备审阿斗_中华文本库,, zh, 2015-06-29, 2015-12-31, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 3 March 2016, WEB,weblink zh:成都味道 PDF – 综合课件 – 道客巴巴,, 2013-06-02, 2015-12-31, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 12 August 2014, no,


The city logo adopted in 2011 is inspired by the Golden Sun Bird, an ancient artifact unearthed in 2001 from the Jinsha Ruins.WEB,weblink Chengdu Unveils its New City Logo,, 2011-12-30, 2012-02-10,weblink" title="">weblink 31 December 2011, no,


File:Archaeological Site of Jinsha.jpg|thumb|right|The archaeological site of Jinsha is a major discovery in Chengdu in 2001.]]

Early history

Archaeological discoveries at the Sanxingdui and Jinsha sites have established that the area surrounding Chengdu was inhabited over four thousand years ago, in 18–10th century BCE. At the time of China's Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties, it represented a separate ancient bronze-wielding culture which—following its partial sinification—became known to the Chinese as Shu.BOOK, Sage, Steven F., Ancient Sichuan and the unification of China, 1992, State University of New York Press, Albany, 0791410374, 16,weblink 12 May 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 4 October 2013, no, BOOK, Liang, Deng, Martha Avery, Yue Pan, History of China, (:zh:五洲传播出版社, China Intercontinental Press), 2001, 171,weblink 7-5085-1098-4, Liang Deng, 1, In the early {{nowrap|4th century {{sc|bc}}}}, the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty relocated from nearby Pi County, giving his new capital the name Chengdu. Shu was conquered by Qin in 316{{nbsp}}{{sc|bc}} and the settlement re-founded by the Qin general Zhang Yi. (A Chinese legend explains the town's nickname "Turtle City" by claiming Zhang planned the course of his city walls by following a turtle's tracks.) Although he had argued against the invasion, the settlement thrived and the additional resources from Sichuan helped enable the First Emperor of Qin to unify the Warring States which had succeeded the Zhou.

Imperial era

File:Dujiangyan.jpg|thumb|right|The Dujiangyan Irrigation System built in 256 BC still functions today.]]{{multiple image|total_width=300|image1=Holding Shield and Holding Broom tomb doors, 1 of 2, China, unearthed from Lanjia Yard, Pixian County, Sichuan, Eastern Han dynasty, 25-220 AD, stone - Sichuan Provincial Museum - Chengdu, China - DSC04745.jpg|image2=Holding Shield and Holding Broom tomb doors, 2 of 2, China, unearthed from Lanjia Yard, Pixian County, Sichuan, Eastern Han dynasty, 25-220 AD, stone - Sichuan Provincial Museum - Chengdu, China - DSC04747.jpg|footer=Tomb doors from Pi County showing men in hanfu, one with a shield and the other a broom (1st or 2nd century).}}Under the Han, the brocade produced in Chengdu became fashionable and was exported throughout China. A "Brocade Official" ({{zh|labels=no|t=錦官 |p=jǐnguān}}) was established to oversee its quality and supply. After the fall of the Eastern Han, Liu Bei ruled Shu, the southwestern of the Three Kingdoms, from Chengdu. His minister Zhuge Liang called the area the "Land of Abundance". Under the Tang, Chengdu was considered the second most prosperous city in China after Yangzhou.{{efn|{{zh|first=t|t= |s= |l=Yang[zhou] 1[st], Yi[zhou] 2[nd]}}}} Both Li Bai and Du Fu lived in the city. Li Bai praised it as "lying above the empyrean". The city's present Caotang ("Grass Hall") was constructed in 1078 in honor of an earlier, more humble structure of that name erected by Du Fu in 760, the second year of his 4-year stay. The Taoist Qingyang Gong ("Green Goat Temple") was built in the 9th century.Chengdu was the capital of Wang Jian's Former Shu from 907 to 925, when it was conquered by the Later Han. The Later Shu was founded by Meng Zhixiang in 934, with its capital at Chengdu. Its King Mengchang beautified the city by ordering hibiscus to be planted upon the city walls.The Song conquered the city in 965 and used it for the introduction of the first widely used paper money in the world. Su Shi praised it as "the southwestern metropolis". At the fall of the Song, a rebel leader set up a short-lived kingdom known as Great Shu (}}, Dàshǔ). The Mongols sacked Chengdu in 1279 with a general slaughter that Horner estimated at over a million.BOOK,weblink Rising China and Its Postmodern Fate: Memories of Empire in a New Global Context, Charles Horner, 978-0820338781, University of Georgia Press, 2009, During their Yuan dynasty, Marco Polo visited ChengduBOOK, Quian, Jack, Chengdu: A City of Paradise,weblink 2006, AuthorHouse, 978-1-4259-7590-6, 109, BOOK, Mayhew, Bradley, Miller, Korina, English, Alex, South-West China,weblink 2nd, 2002, Lonely Planet, 978-1-86450-370-8, 19, and wrote about the Anshun Bridge or an earlier version of it.{{efn|"Let us now speak of a great Bridge which crosses this River within the city. This bridge is of stone; it is seven paces in width and half a mile in length (the river being that much in width as I told you); and all along its length on either side there are columns of marble to bear the roof, for the bridge is roofed over from end to end with timber, and that all richly painted. And on this bridge there were houses in which a great deal of trade and industry is carried on. But these houses were all of wood merely, and they are put up in the morning and taken down in the evening. Also there stands upon the bridge the Great Kaan's _Comercque_, that is to say, his custom-house, where his toll and tax were levied."{{citation |editor-last=Yule |editor-first=Henry |editor-link=Henry Yule |url= |title=The Travels of Marco Polo, Vol. II |last=Polo |first=Marco |authorlink=Marco Polo |display-authors=0 |editor2=Henri Cordier |display-editors=1 |at=Ch. XLIV |access-date=16 April 2010 |archive-url= |archive-date=24 September 2009 |dead-url=no }}}}At the fall of the Ming, the rebel Zhang Xianzhong established his Great Western Kingdom (}}) with its capital at Chengdu; it lasted only from 1643 to 1646.WEB,weblink Chang Hsien-chung, Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period, Qing Research Portal, Dartmouth College, 15 September 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 7 March 2014, no, Zhang was said to have massacred large number of people in Chengdu and throughout Sichuan. In any case, Chengdu was said to have become a virtual ghost town frequented by tigersBOOK, Yingcong Dai, The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet: Imperial Strategy in the Early Qing, 2009, University of Washington Press, 22–27,weblink 978-0-295-98952-5, and the depopulation of Sichuan necessitated the resettlement of millions of people from other provinces during the Qing dynasty. Following the Columbian Exchange, the Chengdu Plain became one of China's principal sources of tobacco. Pi County was considered to have the highest quality in Sichuan, which was the center of the country's cigar and cigarette production, the rest of the country long continuing to consume snuff instead.{{sfnp|Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed.|1878|loc=Vol. V, "China"}}

Modern era

(File:Huangcenba of Chengdu.jpg|thumb|right|Huangchengba in 1911){{More citations needed section|date=August 2017}}In 1911, Chengdu's branch of the Railway Protection Movement helped trigger the Wuchang Uprising, which led to the Xinhai Revolution that overthrew the Qing dynasty.Cambridge History Vol 11, Part 2:522Cambridge History Vol 11, Part 2:524During World War II, the capital city of China was forced to move inland from Nanjing to Wuhan in 1937 and from Wuhan to Chengdu, then from Chengdu to Chongqing in 1938, as the Kuomintang (KMT) government under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek ultimately retreated to Sichuan to escape from the invading Japanese forces. They brought with them into Sichuan business people, workers, and academics who founded many of the industries and cultural institutions which continue to make Chengdu an important cultural and commercial production center.Chengdu became a military center for the KMT to regroup in the War of Resistance. Chengdu was beyond the reach of the Imperial Japanese ground forces and escort fighter planes. However, the Japanese frequently flew in the then-highly advanced twin-engine long-ranged G3M "Nell" medium bombers to conduct massive aerial bombardments of both civilian and military targets in Chongqing and Chengdu.WEB,weblink Chinese continue to seek justice for Japanese bombings – China,, 2015-12-31,weblink" title="">weblink 20 June 2014, no, The massed formation of the G3M bombers provided heavy firepower against Chinese fighter planes assigned to the defense of Chongqing and Chengdu, which continued to cause problems for the Japanese attacks.WEB,weblink Håkans Aviation page – Sino-Japanese Air War 1939,, 2015-12-31,weblink" title="">weblink 3 March 2016, no, WEB, 5 June 1941 Thousands die in Chungking raid,weblink 5th June 1941: Thousands die in Chungking raid,, 1941-06-05, 2015-12-31,weblink" title="">weblink 8 August 2014, no, However, in late 1940, unbeknownst to the Americans and European allies, the Imperial Japanese appeared in the skies over Chongqing and Chengdu with the world's most advanced fighter plane at the time: the A6M "Zero" fighter that dominated the skies over China against the increasingly obsolete Russian-made Polikarpov I-15/I-153s and I-16s that were the principal fighter planes of the Chinese Nationalist Air Force. This would later prove to be a (wikt:rude awakening|rude awakening) for the Allied forces in the Pacific War following the attack on Pearl Harbor.weblink {{webarchive|url=|date=12 August 2014}} 12 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
One of the first American ace fighter pilots of the war and volunteer for the Chinese Nationalist Air Force, Major Wong Sun-shui (nicknamed "Buffalo" by his comrades) died as a result of battling the Zero fighters in defense of Chengdu on 14 March 1941.WEB,weblink Major 'Buffalo' Wong Sun-Shui,, 2015-12-31,weblink" title="">weblink 8 June 2013, no, WEB,weblink Chinese biplane fighter aces – 'Buffalo' Wong Sun-Shui,, 2015-12-31,weblink" title="">weblink 14 July 2014, no,
(File:40th Bombardment Group Boeing B-29-5-BW Superfortress 42-6281.jpg|thumb|40th Bombardment Group Boeing B-29-5-BW Superfortress 42-6281 "20th Century Unlimited" at Hsinching Airfield (A-1), China, advanced China Base of the 40th Bomb Group after completion of a raid on Anshan, Manchuria. Mission #4, 29 July 1944)In 1944, the American XX Bomber Command launched Operation Matterhorn, an ambitious plan to base B-29 Superfortresses in Chengdu and strategically bomb the Japanese Home Islands.Haulman References Chapter The Superfortress Takes to the Skies {{Webarchive|url= |date=4 January 2016 }} p. 4 The operating base was located in Xinjin Airport in the southwestern part of the Chengdu metropolitan area.Crosby, Jim. Location of China Bomber bases, 1944–45 {{webarchive |url= |date=18 February 2012 }} 18 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine., website created by David Wilhelm in memory of Sgt. Daniel L. Wilhelm, USAAF {{webarchive |url= |date=13 December 2013 }} 13 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved 12 May 2014重返新津机场美国老兵泪光闪烁 {{Webarchive|url= |date=4 January 2016 }} {{zh icon}} Because the operation required a massive airlift of fuel and supplies over the Himalayas, it was not a significant military success, but it did earn Chengdu the distinction of launching the first serious retaliation against the Japanese homeland.United States Strategic bombing survey summary report (Pacific War) {{Webarchive|url= |date=16 May 2008 }}, Washington D.C. 1 July 1946. Page 16.File:PLA Troops entered to Chengdu.jpg|thumb|People's Liberation ArmyPeople's Liberation ArmyDuring the Chinese Civil War, Chengdu was the last city on the Chinese mainland to be held by the Kuomintang. President Chiang Kai-shek and his son Chiang Ching-kuo directed the defense of the city from Chengdu Central Military Academy until 1949, when the city fell into Communist hands. The People's Liberation Army took the city without any resistance after a deal was negotiated between the People's Liberation Army and the commander of the KMT Army guarding the city. On 10 December the remnants of the Nationalist Chinese government evacuated to Taiwan.Cook, Chris Cook. Stevenson, John. [2005] (2005). The Routledge Companion to World History Since 1914. Routledge. {{ISBN|0-415-34584-7}}. p 376.NEWS, Han Cheung, Taiwan in Time: The great retreat,weblink 10 December 2016, Taipei Times, 4 December 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2016, no, The industrial base is very broad, including light and heavy manufacturing, aluminum smelting and chemicals. The textile industry remains important, with cotton and wool milling added to the traditional manufacturing of silk brocade and satin.Chengdu is the headquarters of the Chengdu Military Region. Until the end of the year 2015, due to the revocation of military reform in Chengdu, the West Theater is founded and headquarters was stationed in Chengdu.The Chengdu Tianfu District Great City is a sustainable planned city that will be outside of Central Chengdu, and is expected to be completely built later in the decade.{{When|date=December 2018}} The city is also planned to be self-sustaining, with every residence being a two-minute walk from a park.WEB, Davies, Alex, China Is Building A Huge Eco-City Where No One Will Need To Drive,weblink Business Insider, 27 January 2013, 2 November 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 10 January 2013, no,


The vast plain on which Chengdu is located has an elevation ranging from {{convert|450|to|720|m|abbr=off}}.Northwest Chengdu is bordered by the high and steep Longmen Mountains in the north-west and in the west by the Qionglai Mountains, the elevation of which exceeds {{convert|3000|m|abbr=on}} and includes Miao Jiling ({{convert|5364|m|abbr=on|disp=comma}}) and Xiling Snow Mountain ({{convert|5164|m|abbr=on|disp=comma}}). The western mountainous area is also home to a large primitive forest with abundant biological resources and a giant panda habitat. East of Chengdu stands the low Longquan Mountains and the west bordering area of the hilly land of middle reaches of Min River, an area noted by several converging rivers. Since ancient times, Chengdu has been known as "the Abundant Land" owing to its fertile soil, favorable climate, and novel Dujiangyan Irrigation System.Chengdu is located at the western edge of the Sichuan Basin and sits on the Chengdu Plain; the dominating terrain is plains. The prefecture ranges in latitude from 30° 05' to 31° 26' N, while its longitude ranges from 102° 54' to 104° 53' E, stretching for {{convert|192|km}} from east to west and {{convert|166|km|abbr=on}} south to north, administering {{convert|12390|km2}} of land. Neighbouring prefectures are Deyang (NE), Ziyang (SE), Meishan (S), Ya'an (SW), and the Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture (N). The urban area, with an elevation of {{convert|500|m|sigfig=2|abbr=on}}, features a few rivers, three of them being the Jin, Fu, and Sha Rivers. Outside of the immediate urban area, the topography becomes more complex: to the east lies the Longquan Mountains () and the Penzhong Hills (); to the west lie the Qionglai Mountains, which rise to {{convert|5364|m|abbr=on}} in Dayi County. The lowest point in Chengdu Prefecture, at {{convert|378|m|abbr=on}}, lies in the southeast in Jintang County.


Chengdu has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) and is largely warm with high relative humidity all year. It has four distinct seasons, with moderate rainfall concentrated mainly in the warmer months, and relieved from both sweltering summers and freezing winters. The Qin Mountains (Qinling) to the far north help shield the city from cold Siberian winds in the winter; because of this, the short winter is milder than in the Lower Yangtze. The 24-hour daily mean temperature in January is {{convert|5.6|°C|1}}, and snow is rare but there are a few periods of frost each winter. The summer is hot and humid, but not to the extent of the "Three Furnaces" cities of Chongqing, Wuhan, and Nanjing, all which lie in the Yangtze basin.WEB,weblink zh:为什么重庆、武汉、南京有"三大火炉"之称?weblink" title="">weblink 12 November 2014, dmy-all, The 24-hour daily mean temperature in July and August is around {{convert|25|°C}}, with afternoon highs sometimes reaching {{convert|33|°C}}; sustained heat as found in much of eastern China is rare. Rainfall is common year-round but is the greatest in July and August, with very little of it in the cooler months. Chengdu also has one of the lowest annual sunshine totals nationally, with less sunshine annually than much of Northern Europe, and most days are overcast even if without rain. This is especially so in the winter months, when it is typically interminably grey and dreary, compounding the poor air quality. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 16 percent in December to 38 percent in August, the city receives 1,073 hours of bright sunshine annually. Spring (March–April) tends to be sunnier and warmer in the day than autumn (October–November). The annual mean is {{convert|16.27|°C|1}}, and extremes have ranged from {{convert|−4.6|°C|0}} to {{convert|37.5|°C}}.{{Weather box|metric first=y|single line=y |collapsed = Y|location = Chengdu (Shuangliu District), 1981–2010|Jan high C = 9.4|Feb high C = 11.8|Mar high C = 16.3|Apr high C = 21.9|May high C = 26.6|Jun high C = 28.1|Jul high C = 29.8|Aug high C = 29.6|Sep high C = 25.8|Oct high C = 20.9|Nov high C = 16.3|Dec high C = 10.7|Jan mean C = 5.6|Feb mean C = 7.9|Mar mean C = 11.5|Apr mean C = 16.6|May mean C = 21.3|Jun mean C = 23.8|Jul mean C = 25.4|Aug mean C = 24.9|Sep mean C = 21.6|Oct mean C = 17.2|Nov mean C = 12.4|Dec mean C = 7.1|Jan low C = 2.9|Feb low C = 5.1|Mar low C = 8.1|Apr low C = 12.7|May low C = 17.3|Jun low C = 20.6|Jul low C = 22.2|Aug low C = 21.7|Sep low C = 18.9|Oct low C = 14.8|Nov low C = 9.8|Dec low C = 4.5Jan record low C = −4.6Feb record low C = −2.6Mar record low C = −1.8Apr record low C = 4.0May record low C = 6.3Jun record low C = 14.2Jul record low C = 16.6Aug record low C = 16.0Sep record low C = 12.2Oct record low C = 3.1Nov record low C = 0.2Dec record low C = −4.1|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 8.9|Feb precipitation mm = 12.9|Mar precipitation mm = 22.4|Apr precipitation mm = 47.6|May precipitation mm = 76.9|Jun precipitation mm = 114.3|Jul precipitation mm = 208.1|Aug precipitation mm = 197.2|Sep precipitation mm = 111.0|Oct precipitation mm = 35.5|Nov precipitation mm = 14.8|Dec precipitation mm = 6.1|Jan humidity = 85|Feb humidity = 83|Mar humidity = 81|Apr humidity = 80|May humidity = 77|Jun humidity = 82|Jul humidity = 86|Aug humidity = 86|Sep humidity = 85|Oct humidity = 85|Nov humidity = 84|Dec humidity = 85|unit precipitation days = 0.1 mm|Jan precipitation days = 7.0|Feb precipitation days = 8.5|Mar precipitation days = 10.9|Apr precipitation days = 13.0|May precipitation days = 14.7|Jun precipitation days = 15.2|Jul precipitation days = 17.6|Aug precipitation days = 15.8|Sep precipitation days = 15.6|Oct precipitation days = 13.1|Nov precipitation days = 7.7|Dec precipitation days = 5.2Jan percentsun = 17Feb percentsun = 17Mar percentsun = 23Apr percentsun = 30May percentsun = 29Jun percentsun = 28Jul percentsun = 31Aug percentsun = 38Sep percentsun = 21Oct percentsun = 17Nov percentsun = 18Dec percentsun = 16
|year percentsun= 24| source 1 = China Meteorological Data Service Center
WEB,weblink zh:中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data, China Meteorological Administration, 2018-11-09weblink" title="">weblink 23 September 2017, no, |source 2 = China Meteorological Administration(precipitation days, sunshine hours 1971–2000)}}

Administrative divisions

Chengdu is a sub-provincial cityWEB,weblink zh:中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号, 豆丁网, 1995-02-19, 2014-05-28, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 29 May 2014, which has served as the capital of Sichuan since Chongqing's restoration to provincial status in 1997.WEB, Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions-Sichuan,weblink PRC Central Government Official Website, 2001, 11 May 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 19 June 2014, no, It has direct jurisdiction over 11 districts, 5 county-level cities and 5 counties:{|class="wikitable" style="margin:1em auto 1em auto; width:90%; text-align:center"! colspan="12" |Administrative divisions of Chengdu{{Image label begin|image=Administrative Division Chengdu 2.png|width=630|link=}} {{Image label|x=1250|y=1060|scale=630/2100|text=1}}{{Image label|x=1080|y=960|scale=630/2100|text=2}}{{Image label|x=1160|y=920|scale=630/2100|text=3}}{{Image label|x=1140|y=1050|scale=630/2100|text=4}}{{Image label|x=1270|y=950|scale=630/2100|text=5}}{{Image label|x=1330|y=1050|scale=630/2100|text=Longquanyi}}{{Image label|x=1380|y=840|scale=630/2100|text=Qingbaijiang}}{{Image label|x=1200|y=760|scale=630/2100|text=Xindu}}{{Image label|x=860|y=900|scale=630/2100|text=Wenjiang}}{{Image label|x=1120|y=1260|scale=630/2100|text=Shuangliu}}{{Image label|x=920|y=740|scale=630/2100|text=Pidu}}{{Image label|x=1740|y=880|scale=630/2100|text=JintangCounty}}{{Image label|x=380|y=990|scale=630/2100|text=DayiCounty}}{{Image label|x=520|y=1480|scale=630/2100|text=PujiangCounty}}{{Image label|x=870|y=1250|scale=630/2100|text=XinjinCounty}}{{Image label|x=620|y=470|scale=630/2100|text=Dujiangyan{{small|(city)}}}}{{Image label|x=920|y=370|scale=630/2100|text=Pengzhou{{small|(city)}}}}{{Image label|x=370|y=1290|scale=630/2100|text=Qionglai{{small|(city)}}}}{{Image label|x=590|y=900|scale=630/2100|text=Chongzhou{{small|(city)}}}}{{Image label|x=1600|y=1300|scale=630/2100|text=Jianyang{{small|(city)}}}}{{Image label|x=1500|y=150|scale=680/2100|text=1. Jinjiang}}{{Image label|x=1500|y=210|scale=680/2100|text=2. Qingyang}}{{Image label|x=1500|y=270|scale=680/2100|text=3. Jinniu}}{{Image label|x=1500|y=330|scale=680/2100|text=4. Wuhou}}{{Image label|x=1500|y=390|scale=680/2100|text=5. Chenghua}}{{Image label end}}!! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Division codeWEB, zh-hans,weblink zh:中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码, Ministry of Civil Affairs, Archived copy, 15 October 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2015, no, !! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Division!! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Area in km2!! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Population 2010BOOK, Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China, zh:中国2010年人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料, 2012, China Statistics Print, Beijing, 978-7-5037-6660-2, 1, !! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Seat!! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Postal code!! scope="col" colspan=5 |SubdivisionsBOOK, zh-hans, Ministry of Civil Affairs, zh:《中国民政统计年鉴2014》, August 2014, China Statistics Print, 978-7-5037-7130-9, Ministry of Civil Affairs, !! scope="col" style="width:45px;"|Subdistricts!! scope="col" style="width:45px;"|Towns!! scope="col" style="width:45px;"|Townships!! scope="col" style="width:45px;"|Residential communities!! scope="col" style="width:45px;"|Administrative villages style="font-weight: bold"! 510100 !! ChengduWuhou District>Wuhou 610000 112 205 55 1549 2735! 510104 !! JinjiangShuyuan Subdistrict > style="background:gray;" ! 510105 !! QingyangXinhua West Road Subdistrict > style="background:gray;" ! 510106 !! JinniuFuqin Subdistrict > style="background:gray;" ! 510107 !! WuhouJiangxi Street Subdistrict > style="background:gray;" ! 510108 !! ChenghuaMengzhuiwan Subdistrict > style="background:gray;" ! 510112 !! LongquanyiLongquan Subdistrict, Chengdu>Longquan Subdistrict 610100 4 7(5) 1 65 76! 510113 !! QingbaijiangHongyang Subdistrict >|94! 510114 !! XinduXindu Subdistrict > 128 127! 510115 !! WenjiangLiucheng Subdistrict > 79 35! 510116 !! ShuangliuDongsheng Subdistrict, Shuangliu County>Dongsheng Subdistrict 610200 7 18 style="background:gray;"|116! 510117 !! PiduPitong Subdistrict > 60 139! 510121 !! Jintang Co.Zhaozhen Subdistrict >|185! 510129 !! Dayi Co.Jinyuan Subdistrict >|152! 510131 !! Pujiang Co.Heshan Subdistrict, Pujiang>Heshan Subdistrict 611600 1 7 4 25 107! 510132 !! Xinjin Co.Wujin Subdistrict >|80! 510181 !! DujiangyanGuankou Subdistrict >|197! 510182 !! PengzhouTianpeng, Sichuan>Tianpeng Town 611900 119 style="background:gray;"|251! 510183 !! QionglaiLinqiong Subdistrict >|202! 510184 !! ChongzhouChongyang Subdistrict >|188! 510185 !! JianyangJiancheng Subdistrict >|796{|class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="margin:1em auto 1em auto; width:90%; text-align:center"! colspan="5" |Divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations! English! Chinese! Hanyu Pinyin! Sichuanese Pinyin! Chengdu City! Jinjiang District! Qingyang District! Jinniu District! Wuhou District! Chenghua District! Longquanyi District! Qingbaijiang District! Xindu District! Wenjiang District! Shuangliu District! Pidu District! Jintang County! Dayi County! Pujiang County! Xinjin County! Jianyang! Dujiangyan! Pengzhou! Qionglai! Chongzhou


As of July 2013, the world's largest building in terms of floor area, the New Century Global Centre is located in the city. The {{convert|100|m|ft|adj=mid|-tall}} structure is {{convert|500|by|400|m}} in size with {{convert|1700000|m2|}} of floor area. The centre houses retail outlets, a 14-theater cinema, offices, hotels, a water park with artificial beach and waves and a Mediterranean-style village comprising a large 5-star hotel, a {{convert|164|yd|m}}-long LED screen, a skating rink and a 15,000-spot parking area.WEB, The world's new largest building is four times the size of Vatican City,weblink Quartz, Quartz, 4 July 2013, Roberto A. Ferdman, 3 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 4 July 2013, no, File:Hongzhaobi.jpg|Hongzhaobi, South Renmin Road, ChengduFile:South Renmin Road.jpg|South Renmin Road, ChengduFile:Hongxing Road.jpg|IFS, Hongxing Road, ChengduFile:Zongfu Road Chengdu.jpg|Zongfu Road, Shudu Ave, ChengduFile:S. Renmin Road.jpg|Nijia Qiao, South Renmin Road, ChengduFile:Jiuyanqiao.jpg|Jin River, Shangri-la Hotel ChengduFile:Anshunlang bridge Chengdu.jpg| Anshun bridge, ChengduFile:Sino-Ocean Taikoo Li Chengdu.jpg|Sino-Ocean Taikoo Li ChengduFile: 环球中心 - panoramio (6).jpg |New Century Global Center, Chengdu File: 四川成都天府广场.jpg|Tianfu Square StationFile: Tianfu-Square-2.JPG|Sichuan Science and Technology MuseumFile:Sichuan Library.jpg|Sichuan Library

Ancient fortress wall

{{Unreferenced section|date=July 2013}}The ancient fortress wall of Chengdu, {{convert|10|m}} high and {{convert|11|km|abbr=on}} long, was built during the Qing Empire Era. Surrounding the city, the wall's bottom measures {{convert|10|m|abbr=on}} wide while the top measures {{convert|6|m|abbr=on}} wide, almost equivalent to the width of a street. 8,122 crenels, four octagons and four turrets were built on the wall.Four gates were constructed on all sides of the wall, with hibiscus trees planted outside.


{{Historical populations|type=China8570001583000692291878197328225399862677091950049715977103925311082028514047625|footnote = Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.}According to the 2010 census, the municipality had 14,047,625 inhabitants, of whom 8,311,752 reside in the city, considered as 11 urban and suburban administrative districts. The built-up (or metro) area was home to 10,484,996 inhabitants including the 11 previous districts plus Guanghan City (in Deyang) and Xinjin County being urbanized quickly.WEB,weblink China: Administrative Division of Sìchuān / 四川省 (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts,, 2015-12-31,weblink" title="">weblink 15 December 2014, no, The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, {{As of|2010|lc=y}}, a population of 18.1 million.NEWS,, Justina Crabtree; special to, A tale of megacities: China’s largest metropolises,weblink CNBC, 20 September 2016, slide 7, 8 December 2017,weblink 9 December 2017, no, BOOK, 10.1787/9789264230040-en, OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015, OECD READ edition,weblink Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD, 37, OECD iLibrary, en, 18 April 2015, 2306-9341, 9789264230033, 8 December 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 27 March 2017, no, OECD Urban Policy Reviews, Linked from the OECD here {{Webarchive|url= |date=9 December 2017 }}


{{more citations needed|date=October 2013}}{{travel guide|date=October 2013}}(File:Jingli.jpeg|thumb|right|Jinli historical district of Chengdu)In 2006, China Daily named Chengdu China's 4th-most-livable city.NEWS, Jing, Fu,weblink Beijing drops out of top 10 'best city' list, China Daily, 2006-01-03, 18 October 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 27 October 2007, no,


Some of China's most important literature comes from Chengdu. The city has been home to literary giants, such as Sima Xiangru and Yang Xiong, two masters of Fu, a mixture of descriptive prose and verse during the Han dynasty; Li Bai and Su Shi, the most eminent poets of the Tang and Song dynasties respectively; Yang Shen'an, a famous scholar of the Ming dynasty; and Guo Moruo and Ba Jin, two well-known modern writers. Chang Qu, a historian of Chengdu during the Jin dynasty, compiled the earliest local historical records, the Record of Hua Yang State. Zhao Chongzuo, a poet in Chengdu during the Later Shu Kingdom, edited Among the Flowers, the first anthology of Ci in China's history. Meng Chang, the king of Later Shu, wrote the first couplet for the Spring Festival, which says, "A harvest year accepts celebrations, good festivals foreshadow long springs."

Fine art

During the period of the Five Dynasties, Huang Quan, a painter in Chengdu, initiated the Fine-Brush Flower-and-Bird Painting school with other painters. At that time, "Hanlin Painting Academy" was the earliest royal academy in China.


Chengdu contains official,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 14 December 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 30 September 2018, no, Roman CatholicWEB,weblink Diocese of Chengdu 成都, China, 14 December 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 2 December 2013, no, and Protestant congregations, some of which are underground churches.15 October 1696: The Roman Catholic Church established as Apostolic Vicariate of SzechwanIn 1890, the Methodist Missions of Canada was searching for more stations in Asia. In February 1891, Dr. Virgil Hart, who had been Superintendent of the New York Methodist Mission Society of Central China recommended that Chengtu be its first Mission sight. During the meeting, it was proposed he lead this contingency; having built western hospitals, Boy's and Girl's schools at Missions he established on the Yangtze and Gan Rivers from 1866 – 1888. On 9 May 1891 Dr. Virgil Hart arrived in Chengtu and two weeks later bought a home and had it subdivided into living quarters and a dispensary, for the later arriving Missionary staff to move into.On 24 June 1892, the doors of Chengtu's first Protestant Mission Headquarters were opened with over one thousand people of the community attending. The first Methodist religious service was held the following Sunday with only several attendants. The first western dispensary in Sichuan was opened 3 November 1892 with sixteen patients seeking care. The mission site became so popular that a larger space was secured near Chengtu's East Gate in the spring of 1893. This site is where the city's first Methodist church and hospital were built. These were later raized by rioting Chinese in 1895 and the Mission staff retreated to Chongqing and later Shanghai to escape the marauders. Dr. Virgil Hart traveled to Peking to demand redress and full payment of retribution was collected from Sichuan Viceroy Liu Ping Chang. The mission compound was quickly rebuilt only to be destroyed once more in the riots of 1901. These were rebuilt a third time and later missionaries would relocate and expand the Boys' and Girls' Schools just south of the city, dedicating the Divinity College as Hart College in 1914; a part of the West China Union University, that is now Sichuan University and the West China School of Medicine (Huaxiyida)."Man On A Mission" by Stanley CrawfordThe Methodist Church near the East Gate would be closed by the CCP and became a grain storage facility. It was reopened as a Methodist church in the mid-1980s.In December 2018 the authorities attempted to close a 500-member underground church: "The Early Rain Covenant Church", led by Pastor Wang Yi. Over 100 members of the church were arrested including the pastor and his wife. The church's kindergarten and theological college were raided and the church's media outlets were closed down. Before his arrest, church member Li Yingqiang declared: "Even if we are down to our last five, worship and gatherings will still go on because our faith is real. […] Persecution is a price worth paying for the Lord". Police are said to have told one member that the church had been declared an illegal organisation. Chinese media were banned from reporting the events. Video footage which found its way onto western social media showed arrests and photographs alleged to be of injuries inflicted by the police.WEB,weblink Chinese pastor's wife accused of subversion, held in unknown location, 14 December 2018,weblink 15 December 2018, no, 13 December 2018, WEB,weblink Members of unofficial Chinese church vow to keep meeting, 14 December 2018,weblink 13 December 2018, no, 11 December 2018, WEB,weblink Minitrue: No Reports on Chengdu Church Crackdown – China Digital Times (CDT), 14 December 2018,weblink 14 December 2018, no, From a photo of Ms. Jiang's detention warrant it appears that the authorities have charged the church's leaders with "inciting subversion of state power", which carries a maximum sentence of 15 years.NEWS,weblink Pastor Charged with 'Inciting Subversion' as China Cracks Down on Churches, 15 December 2018,weblink 15 December 2018, no, The New York Times, 13 December 2018, Johnson, Ian,


Wen Weng, administer of Chengdu during the Han dynasty, established the first local public school now named Shishi (literally a stone house) in the world. The school site has not changed for more than 2,000 years, which remains the site of today's Shishi High School.WEB,weblink zh:成都石室中学,, 2013-12-10, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 17 December 2013,


The saying "Shu opera towers above all other performances in the world" reflects the achievement of Sichuan opera and Zaju (an ancient form of comedic drama involving dancing, singing, poetry, and miming). In the city, the first named opera "Bullfighting" was written in the Warring States Period.{{clarify|date=October 2013}} The first detailed recorded opera was staged in the royal court of Shu Kingdom during the Three Kingdom Period. China's first clearly recorded Zaju was also performed in Chengdu. Tombs of witty Han dynasty poets were excavated in Chengdu. And face-changing masks and fire breathing remain hallmarks of the Sichuan opera.


The native language in Chengdu is Sichuanese, otherwise referred as Sichuan dialect. More precisely, "Chengdu Dialect" () is widely used in lieu of "Sichuanese" due to the largely different accents of Sichuanese speakers residing elsewhere.

Culinary art and tea culture

{{See also|Sichuan cuisine}}(File:Teehaus chengdu.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Teahouse in Chengdu)The distinct characteristic of Sichuan cuisine is the use of spicy chilies and peppercorns. Local dishes include Mapo doufu, Chengdu Hot pot, and Dan Dan Mien. Mapo Doufu and Dan Dan Mien contain Sichuan peppers. An articleNEWS, People's Party Animals,weblink 2006-02-08, Los Angeles Times, Don, Lee, by the Los Angeles Times (2006) called Chengdu "China's party city" for its carefree lifestyle. Chengdu has more tea houses and bars than Shanghai despite having less than half the population. Chengdu's tea culture dates back over a thousand years, including its time as the starting point of the Southern Silk Road.Common snacks in Chengdu include noodles, wontons, dumplings, pastries, tangyuan (sweet rice balls), drinks, salads and soups.Chengdu is an officially recognised UNESCO City of Gastronomy.NEWS, Gastronomy – United Nations,weblink 2012-07-30, UNESCO, 30 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 25 June 2012, no,


Tea houses are ubiquitous in the city and range from ornate traditional establishments with bamboo furniture to simple modern tea houses. Teas on offer include jasmine, longjing and biluochun tea. Tea houses are popular venues for playing mahjong. Some larger tea houses offer live entertainment such as Sichuan opera performances.WEB,weblink zh:阳光下最热闹的地方 外地人眼中的成都茶文化, Sina Sichuan, 2011-04-13, 2012-02-09,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2013, yes,

Hot Pot

Hot pot is a traditional Sichuanese food, made by putting vegetables, fish, or meat into a specially-made spiced soup. Chengdu residents eat hot pot often, sometimes inviting friends to go with them to one of the many hot pot restaurants that are widely distributed throughout Chengdu. Hot pot is a typical part of Chengdu residents' daily diet.


(File:麻将.JPG|thumb|right|Mahjong)Mahjong has been an essential part of most local peoples' lives. After every day' s working, people gather their friends in their home or in the tea houses on the street to play Mahjong. On sunny days, local people like to play Mahjong on the sidewalks to enjoy the sunshine and also the time with friends. Almost every person aims to play Mahjong with money.Mahjong is the most popular entertainment choice among locals for several reasons. Chengdu locals have simplified the rules and made it easier to play as compared to, Cantonese Mahjong. Also, Mahjong in Chengdu is a way to meet old friends and to strengthen family relationships. In fact, many business people negotiate deals while playing Mahjong.WEB,weblink Playing Mahjong games, the popular way of relaxation in Chengdu, What', 2011-01-28, 2012-02-09,weblink" title="">weblink 3 January 2012, no, Furthermore, the elderly like to play Mahjong because they believe Mahjong makes them think and prevents dementia.

Rural tourism: Nong Jia Le

Chengdu claims to have first practiced the modern business model of 'Nong Jia Le' (Happy Rural Homes). It refers to the practice of suburban and rural residents converting their houses into restaurants, hotels and entertainment spaces in order to attract city dwellers.Nong Jia Le features different styles and price levels and have been thriving around Chengdu. They provide gateways for city dwellers to escape the city, offer delicious and affordable home-made dishes, and provide mahjong facilities.Some of the most popular ones are located in Sansheng Village east of Chengdu, and Nongke Village in Pidu District (), northwest of Chengdu.

Customs and festivals

Grand Temple Fair

Chengdu's annual Grand Temple Fair is held every year during the Spring Festival (Chinese New Year) in Wuhou Shrine, Jinli, the Culture Park, and several other city parks. The 15-day-long festival showcases both traditional Sichuan folk art and modern fashions of the city. Food stalls on site offer over 100 varieties of freshly made local snacks.

Lantern Festival

Chengdu's annual Lantern Festival is held every year during the Spring Festival in Tazishan Park in the eastern part of Chengdu. Lanterns of different designs and themes are on display with traditional art performances including Sichuan opera, acrobatics shows, and local talk shows.

Dujiangyan Water Releasing Festival

The Dujiangyan Water-Releasing Festival takes place on 5 April each year in Du Jiang Yan, {{convert|58|km|abbr=on}} away from Chengdu. Residents dress up in ancient costumes and read elegies for Li Bing and his sons, in order to honor them for their contribution to the irrigation project they built over 2,000 years ago.

Huanglongxi Fire Dragon Festival

Fire Dragon Festival of HuangLongXi is celebrated from the 2nd to the 15th day of the first lunar month of each new year.The festival originated from South Song dynasty (1127–1279 AD). Celebrations include lighting paper dragons, a lion dance, floating lanterns on the water, and various street activities.

South China Snow and Ice Festival

The South China Snow and Ice Festival takes place from January to March at the Xiling Snow Mountain Ski Resort, {{convert|95|km|0|abbr=off}} west of downtown Chengdu. The festival is popular among locals, especially children, since it rarely snows in Chengdu and people relish the sight of snow. A large variety of snow activities are offered during the festival.

Home of the giant panda

(File:PandaChengdu.JPG|thumb|Pandas at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding)The giant panda, a Chinese national treasure, is one of the rarest animals in the world. The total number is estimated to be 1,500, including those living in the wild, 80 percent of which are in Sichuan Province.{{Citation needed|date=December 2018}}A breeding center for giant pandas called Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding was founded in the north suburbs of Chengdu. It is the only one of its kind in the world that's located in a metropolitan area. In order to better protect wild giant pandas, Chengdu has established nature reserves in Dujiangyan City, Chongzhou City, and Dayi County. Sichuan Wolong Giant Panda Nature Reserve, the biggest of its kind in the world, is only {{convert|130|km|abbr=on}} outside Chengdu. After the Wenchuan earthquake, most of it was moved to Ya'an.The western world came to know giant pandas only after a French missionary named David first encountered this species in Sichuan in 1869.weblink {{webarchive|url=|date=14 December 2013}} 14 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
Now, the somewhat clumsy giant panda is a symbol representing the World Wildlife Fund. They are also a messenger of friendly communication between Chengdu and international cities. Currently, giant pandas are also reared in U.S.A, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Japan, Thailand as well as Mexico.
Chengdu has established the world-renowned breeding and research base for giant pandas, which attracts almost 100,000 visitors each year. Covering tens of hectares with bamboo groves and a native-like habitat, the base is the only one of its kind located in an urban area. A museum is open to the public throughout the year.In 2008, after the release of the American animation movie Kung Fu Panda, DreamWorks CEO Jeffrey Katzenberg and other DreamWorks members visited the city of Chengdu. In addition to seeing live pandas, crew members learned about the local culture. Katzenberg has stated that Kung Fu Panda 2 incorporates many elements of Chengdu in the film. The film's landscape and architecture also found inspiration from those found at Mount Qingcheng, a renowned Taoist mountain. In an interview with Movieline, Berger stated that ‘we never really thought of this as a movie set in China for Americans; it's a movie set in a mythical, universalized China for everyone in the world'.{{Citation needed|date=December 2018}}On 11 January 2012, six captive-bred pandas were released to a "semi-wild" environment in Dujiangyan, Chengdu. Scientists believe that success in the reintroduction project would potentially help save the endangered giant panda. Retired NBA basketball star and animal activist Yao Ming attended the ceremony.{{Citation needed|date=December 2018}}

Main sights

World natural and cultural heritage sites

{{Travel guide|date=October 2013}}

Mount Qingcheng

Mount Qingcheng is amongst the most important centres of Taoism (Daoism) in China. It is situated in the suburbs of Dujiangyan City and connected to downtown Chengdu {{convert|70|km|abbr=on}} away by the Cheng-Guan Expressway.With its peak {{convert|1600|m|abbr=on}} above sea level, Mount Qingcheng enjoys a cool climate, but remains a lush green all year round and surrounded by hills and waterways. Mount Qingcheng's Fujian Temple, Tianshi Cave, and Shizu Hall are some of the existing more well-known Taoist holy sites. Shangqing Temple is noted for an evening phosphorescent glow locally referred to as "holy lights".

Dujiangyan Irrigation System

The Dujiangyan Irrigation System ({{convert|58|km|abbr=on}} away from Chengdu proper) is the oldest existing irrigation project in the world with a history of over 2000 years diverting water without a dam to distribute water and filter sand with an inflow-quantity control. The system was built by Libing and his son. The irrigation system contains prevents floods and droughts throughout the Plain of Chengdu.

Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries

(File:熊猫基地1.JPG|thumb|right|Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries)Covering a total of {{convert|9,245|km2|abbr=on}} over 12 distinct counties and 4 cities, Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries, lie on the transitional alp-canyon belt between the Sichuan Basin and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. It is the largest remaining continuous habitat for giant pandas and home to more than 80 percent of the world's wild giant pandas. Globally speaking, it is also the most abundant temperate zone of greenery. The reserves of the habitat are {{convert|100|–|200|km|mi|abbr=on}} away from Chengdu.The Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries are the most well-known of their kind in the world, with Wolong Nature Reserve, generally considered as the "homeland of pandas". It is a core habitat with unique natural conditions, complicated landforms, and a temperate climate with diverse wildlife. Siguniang Mountain, sometimes called the "Oriental Alpine" is approximately {{convert|230|km|abbr=on}} away from Chengdu, and is composed of four adjacent peaks of the Traversal Mountain Range. Among the four peaks, the fourth and highest stands {{convert|6250|m|abbr=on}} above sea level, and is perpetually covered by snow.

Culture of poetry and the Three Kingdoms

Wuhou Shrine

Wuhou Shrine (Temple of Marquis Wu) is perhaps the most influential museum of Three Kingdoms relics in China. It was built in the Western Jin period (265–316) in the honor of Zhuge Liang, the famous military and political strategist who was Prime Minister of the Shu Han State during the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). The Shrine highlights the Zhuge Liang Memorial Temple and the Hall of Liu Bei (founder of the Shu Han state), along with statues of other historical figures of Shu Han, as well as cultural relics like stone inscriptions and tablets. The Hui Mausoleum of Liu Bei represents a unique pattern of enshrining both the emperor and his subjects in the same temple, a rarity in China.

Du Fu thatched cottage

Du Fu was one of the most noted Tang dynasty poets; during the Lushan-Shi Siming Rebellion, he left Xi'an (then Chang'an) to take refuge in Chengdu. With the help from his friends, the thatched cottage was built along the Huanhua Stream in the west suburbs of Chengdu, where Du Fu spent four years of his life and produced more than 240 now-famous poems. During the Song dynasty, people started to construct gardens and halls on the site of his thatched cottage to honor his life and memory. Currently, a series of memorial buildings representing Du Fu's humble life stand on the river bank, along with a large collection of relics and various editions of his poems.

Ancient Shu civilization

Jinsha Ruins

The Jinsha Ruins are the first significant archeological discovery in China of the 21st century and were selected in 2006 as a "key conservation unit" of the nation. The Jinsha Relics Museum is located in the northwest of Chengdu, about {{convert|5|km|abbr=on}} from downtown. As a theme-park-style museum, it is for the protection, research, and display of Jinsha archaeological relics and findings. The museum covers {{convert|300000|m2|abbr=on}}, and houses relics, exhibitions, and a conservation center.weblink {{webarchive|url=|date=24 September 2012}} 24 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine.

Golden Sun Bird

File:Jinsha sunbird golden foil.jpg|thumb|left|The Golden Sun BirdGolden Sun BirdThe Golden Sun Bird was excavated by archaeologists from the Jinsha Ruins on 25 February 2001. In 2005, it was designated as the official logo of Chinese cultural heritage by the China National Relic Bureau.The round, foil plaque dates back to the ancient Shu people and is 94.2 percent pure gold and extremely thin. It contains four birds around the perimeter, representing the four seasons and directions. The center cutout contains 12 beams of sunlight, representing the 12 months. The exquisite design is remarkable for a 3,000-year-old piece.

Sanxingdui Museum

Situated in the northeast of the state-protected Sanxingdui Site, Sanxingdui Museum is {{convert|40|km|0|abbr=on}} north of Chengdu, covering a total area of {{convert|7,000|m2|abbr=off}}.The main collection highlights the Ancient City of Chengdu, Shu State & its culture, while displaying thousands of valuable relics including earthenware, jade wares, bone objects, gold wares, and bronzes that have been unearthed from Shang dynasty sacrificial sites.

Buddhist and Taoist cultures

Chengdu Daci Monastery

Known as the "Nonpareil Monastery" in China, the Daci Monastery in downtown Chengdu was first built during the Wei and Jin dynasties, with its cultural height during the Tang and Song dynasties. Xuanzang, an eminent Tang dynasty monk, was initiated into monkhood and studied for several years here; during this time, he gave frequent sermons in Daci Monastery.(File:文殊院1.JPG|thumb|right|Wenshu Monastery)

Wenshu Monastery

Also named Xinxiang Monastery, Wenshu Monastery is the best preserved Buddhist temple in Chengdu. Initially built during the Tang dynasty, it has a history dating back 1,300 years. Parts of Xuanzang's skull are held in consecration here (as a relic). The traditional home of scholar Li Wenjing is on the outskirts of the complex.

Baoguang Monastery

Located in Xindu District, Baoguang (meaning divine light) Monastery enjoys a long history and a rich collection of relics. It is believed that it was constructed during the East Han period and has appeared in written records since the Tang dynasty. It was destroyed during the Ming dynasty in the early 16th century. In 1607, the ninth year of the reign of the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty, it was rebuilt.(File:青羊宫1.JPG|thumb|right|Qingyang Taoist Temple)

Qingyang Taoist Temple

Located in the western part of Chengdu, Qingyang Temple ('Green Goat Temple') is not only the largest and oldest Taoist temple in the city, but also the largest Taoist temple in Southwest China. The only existing copy of "Daozang Jiyao", a collection of classic Taoist scriptures, is preserved in the temple.According to history, Qingyang Temple was the place where Lao Tzu preached his famous Dao De Jing to his disciple, Ying Xi.

Featured streets and historic towns

The Wide and Narrow Lanes

The Wide and Narrow Lanes (Kuan Xiangzi and Zhai Xiangzi) were first built during the Qing dynasty for Manchu soldiers. The lanes remained residential until 2003 when the local government turned the area into a mixed-use strip of restaurants, teahouses, bars, avant-garde galleries, and residential houses.Historic architecture has been well preserved in the Wide and Narrow lanes.(File:锦里2.JPG|thumb|right|The night of Jin Li)


Nearby Wuhou Shrine, Jinli is a popular commercial and dining area resembling the style of traditional architecture of western Sichuan. "Jinli" (锦里) is the name of an old street in Chengdu dating from the Han dynasty and means "making perfection more perfect".The ancient Jinli Street was one of the oldest and the most commercialized streets in the history of the Shu state and was well known throughout the country during the Qin, Han and Three Kingdoms periods.Many aspects of the urban life of Chengdu are present in the current-day Jinli area: teahouses, restaurants, bars, theatres, handicraft stores, local snack vendors, and specialty shops.(File:黄龙溪3.JPG|thumb|right|Huanglongxi Historic Town)

Huanglongxi Historic Town

Facing the Jinjiang River to the east and leaning against Muma Mountain to the north, the ancient town of Huanglongxi is approximately {{convert|40|km|0|abbr=on}} southeast of Chengdu. It was a large military stronghold for the ancient Shu Kingdom. The head of the Shu Han State in the Three Kingdoms period was seated in Huanglongxi, and for some time, the general government offices for Renshou, Pengshan, and Huayang counties were also located here.The ancient town has preserved the Qing dynasty architectural style, as seen in the design of its streets, shops, and buildings.

Chunxi Road

Located in the center of downtown Chengdu, Chunxi Road () is a trendy and bustling commercial strip with a long history. It was built in 1924 and was named after a part of the Tao Te Ching.Today, it is one of the most well-known and popular fashion and shopping centers of Chengdu, lined with shopping malls, luxury brand stores, and boutique shops.

Anren Historic Town

Anren Historic Town is located {{convert|39|km|0|abbr=on}} west of Chengdu. It was the hometown of Liu Wencai, a Qing dynasty warlord, landowner and millionaire. His 27 historic mansions have been well preserved and turned into museums. Three old streets built during the Republic of China period are still being used today by residents. Museums in Anren have a rich collection of more of than 8 million pieces of relics and artifacts. A museum dedicated to the memorial of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake was built in 2010.

Luodai Historic Town

Luodai was built, like many historic structures in the area, during the period of the Three Kingdoms. According to legend, the Shu Han emperor Liu Shan dropped his jade belt into a well when he passed through this small town. Thus, the town was named 'lost belt' (). It later evolved into its current name with the same pronunciation, but a different first character.Luodai Historic Town is one of the five major Hakka settlements in China. Three or four hundred years ago, a group of Hakka people moved to Luodai from coastal cities. It has since grown into the largest community for Hakka people.

Du Fu Thatched Cottage

Chinese name ,24 acre, at the western outskirts of Chengdu, adjacent to the Huanhua Xi (Flower Rinsing Creek). Key buildings in the Du Fu Cao Tang Park were constructed in the early 16th century during the Ming dynasty and extensively renovated in 1811 during the Qing dynasty.


File:Chengdu 1989 CIA.jpg|thumb|right|300px|Map of Chengdu showing infrastructures and land use, made by the CIACIAFile:The entrance of Chunxi street Chengdu.jpg|thumb|right|Chunxi RoadChunxi RoadChina's state council has designated Chengdu as the country's western center of logistics, commerce, finance, science and technology, as well as a hub of transportation and communication. It is also an important base for manufacturing and agriculture.According to the World Bank's 2007 survey report on global investment environments, Chengdu was declared "a benchmark city for investment environment in inland China".weblink {{webarchive|url=|date=3 June 2013}} 3 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine.Also based on a research report undertaken by the Nobel economics laureate, Dr. Robert Mundell and the celebrated Chinese economist, Li Yining, published by the State Information Center in 2010, Chengdu has become an "engine" of the Western Development Program, a benchmark city for investment environment in inland China, and a major leader in new urbanization.In 2010, 12 of the Fortune 500 companies, including ANZ Bank, Nippon Steel Corporation, and Electricité de France, have opened offices, branches, or operation centers in Chengdu, the largest number in recent years. Meanwhile, the Fortune 500 companies that have opened offices in Chengdu, including JP Morgan Chase, Henkel, and GE, increased their investment and upgraded the involvement of their branches in Chengdu. By the end of 2010, over 200 Fortune 500 companies had set up branches in Chengdu, ranking it first in terms of the number of Fortune 500 companies in Central and Western China. Of these, 149 are foreign enterprises and 40 are domestic companies.According to the 2010 AmCham China White Paper on the State of American Business in China, Chengdu has become a top investment destination in China.The main industries in Chengdu—including machinery, automobile, medicine, food, and information technology—are supported by numerous large-scale enterprises. In addition, an increasing number of high-tech enterprises from outside Chengdu have also settled down there.Chengdu is becoming one of the favorite cities for investment in Central and Western China.WEB, Chengdu Leading the West (in Chinese),weblink 2009-10-21, 22 October 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 25 October 2009, no, Among the world's 500 largest companies, 133 multinational enterprises have had subsidiaries or branch offices in Chengdu by October 2009. These MNEs include Intel, Cisco, Sony and Toyota that have assembly and manufacturing bases, as well as Motorola, Ericsson, and Microsoft that have R&D centers in Chengdu.,The National Development and Reform Commission has formally approved Chengdu's proposed establishment of a national bio-industry base there. The government of Chengdu has recently unveiled a plan to create a 90-billion-CNY bio pharmaceutical sector by 2012. China's aviation industries have begun construction of a high-tech industrial park in the city that will feature space and aviation technology. The local government plans to attract overseas and domestic companies for service outsourcing and become a well-known service outsourcing base in China and worldwide.

Electronics and IT industries

Chengdu has long been established as a national base for the electronics and IT industries. The first telecom R&D centre was set up by an Indian company called Primetel in 1996 and since then the city has developed as the global centre for the telecom R&D industry. Chengdu's growth accelerated alongside the growth of the telecom services sector in India and China, which together account for over 70 percent of the world telecommunications market. Several key national electronics R&D institutes are located in Chengdu. Chengdu Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone has attracted a variety of multinationals, at least 30 Fortune 500 companies and 12,000 domestic companies, including Intel, IBM, Cisco, Nokia, Motorola, SAP, Siemens, Canon, HP, Xerox, Microsoft, Tieto, NIIT, MediaTek, and Wipro, as well as domestic powerhouses such as Lenovo.WEB, Branches of Fortune 500 Businesses in Chengdu,weblink, 2013-12-10, 2007-10-29, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2008, Dell plans to open its second major China operations center in 2011 in Chengdu as its center in Xiamen expands in 2010.WEB,weblink Dell To Build Flagship Manufacturing and Customer Support Center In Chengdu To Support Western China Growth; Expands Xiamen Operations, Dell, 16 September 2010, 24 September 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 28 September 2010, Intel Capital acquired a strategic stake in Primetel, Chengdu's first foreign technology company in 2001. Intel's Chengdu factory, set up in 2005 is its second in China, after its Shanghai factory, and the first such large-scale foreign investment in the electronics industry in interior mainland China. Intel, the world's largest chipmaker, has invested US$525 million in two assembly and testing facilities in Chengdu. Following the footsteps of Intel, Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation (SMIC), the world's third largest foundry, set up an assembly and testing plant in Chengdu. Intel's rival AMD is likewise set to open an R&D center in this city.In November 2006, IBM signed an agreement with the Chengdu High-Tech Zone to establish a Global Delivery Center, its fourth in China after Dalian, Shanghai and Shenzhen, within the Chengdu Tianfu Software Park. Scheduled to be operational by February 2007, this new center will provide multilingual application development and maintenance services to clients globally in English, Japanese and Chinese, and to the IBM Global Procurement Center, recently located to the southern Chinese city of Shenzhen.WEB, IBM Expands Global Delivery Capabilities to Inland China,weblink IBM Press Room, 2006-11-27, 2009-08-28,weblink" title="">weblink 30 November 2010, no, On 23 March 2008, IBM announced at the "West China Excellent Enterprises CEO Forum" that the southwest working team of IBM Global Business Services is now formally stationed in Chengdu. On 28 May 2008, Zhou Weikun, president of IBM China disclosed that IBM Chengdu would increase its staff number from the present 600 to nearly 1,000 by the end of the year.WEB, zh:IBM 成都分公司,weblink IBM Press Room, zh-hans, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 4 May 2007, WEB, IBM to Further Investment in Chengdu,weblink People's Government of Sichuan Province, 17 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 6 December 2008, no, Over the past few years, Chengdu's economy has flourished rapidly. Chengdu is a major base for communication infrastructure, with one of China's nine top level postal centers and one of six national telecom exchanges hub.In 2009, Chengdu hosted the World Cyber Games Grand Finals (11–15 November). It was the first time China hosted the world's largest computer and video game tournament.WEB, WCG 2009 in Chengdu, China,weblink, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2012, no,

Financial industry

Chengdu is positioning itself to be a financial center for Western China and has attracted a large number of foreign financial institutions, including Citigroup, HSBC, Standard Chartered Bank, JPMorgan Chase, ANZ and MUFG Bank. In 1988, Dr. Joseph Fowler, a British professor of optoelectronics from Cambridge founded Scsi Capital, Asia's first venture capital firm focused on opportunities in the digital age, in Chengdu. Scsi currently manages an active portfolio in excess of CNY 300 billion and has operations in India, Israel, Singapore and USA. Scsi Capital is the world's largest private equity investor and fund of funds in the photovoltaic, compound semiconductor, multilayer cmos, ceramic packaging, display and advanced materials sector.Historically, Chengdu has marked its name in the history of financial innovation. The world's first paper currency 'Jiao Zi' was seen in Chengdu in the year 1023, during the Song dynasty.Now, Chengdu is not only the gateway of Western China for foreign financial institutions, but also a booming town for Chinese domestic financial firms. The Chinese monetary authority, People's Bank of China (China's central bank), set its southwest China headquarters in Chengdu City. In addition, almost all domestic banks and securities brokerage firms located their regional headquarters or branches in Chengdu. At the same time, the local financial firms of Chengdu are strengthening their presences nationally, notably, Huaxi Securities, Sinolink Securities and Bank of Chengdu. Moreover, on top of banks and brokerage firms, the flourish of local economy lured more and more financial service firms to the city to capitalise on the economic growth. Grant Thornton, KPMG, PWC and Ernst & Young are the four global accountants and business advisers with West China head offices in the city.It is expected that by 2012, value-added financial services will make up 14 percent of the added-value service industry and 7 percent of the regional GDP. By 2015, those figures are expected to grow to 18 percent and 9 percent respectively.

Modern logistic industry

Because of its logistic infrastructure, professional network, and resources in science, technology, and communication, Chengdu has become home to 43 foreign-funded logistic enterprises, including UPS, TNT, DHL, and Maersk, as well as a number of well-known domestic logistic enterprises including COSCO, CSCL, SINOTRANS, CRE, Transfar Group, South Logistic Group, YCH, and STO. By 2012, the logistic industry in Chengdu will realize a value added of RMB 50 billion, with an average annual growth exceeding 18 percent. Ten new international direct flights will be in service; five railways for five-scheduled block container trains will be put into operation; and 50 large logistic enterprises are expected to have annual operation revenue exceeding RMB 100 million.

Modern business and trade

Chengdu is the largest trade center in western China with a market covering all of Sichuan province, exerting influence on a population of 250 million in six provinces, cities, and districts in western China. Chengdu ranks first among cities in western China in terms of the scale of foreign investment in commerce and trade. Out of the 40 World Top 250 retail enterprises based in China, 15 have opened branches in Chengdu. In downtown Chengdu, there are 71 department stores whose business area exceeds 10,000 sq. m, with the total business area reaching 2,600,000 sq. m. By 2012, total retail sales of consumer goods in Chengdu will exceed RMB 300 billion, up 18 percent annually on average; the total wholesales will exceed RMB 400 billion, with an annual increase of 25 percent. Total retail sales of the catering industry will exceed RMB 60 billion, up 20 percent annually; and the total exports and imports of Chengdu will be above US$35 billion, increasing 30 percent annually.

Convention and exhibition industry

Boasting the claim as "China’s Famous Exhibition City", Chengdu takes the lead in central and western China for its scale of convention economy. It has become one of the five largest convention and exhibition cities in China. In 2010, direct revenue from the convention and exhibition industry was RMB 3.2 billion, with a year-on-year growth of 26.9 percent. The growth reached a historical high.More than 13.2 million people have come to Chengdu to participate in conventions and exhibitions from foreign countries and other parts of China. Numerous convention and exhibition companies have invested in Chengdu such as the UK-based Reed Exhibition, as well as domestic companies such as the Chinese European Art Center, Sanlian Exhibition, and Eastpo International Expo.

Software and service outsourcing industry

Chengdu is one of the first service outsourcing bases in China. More than 150,000 people in Chengdu are engaged in software-related work. Among the Top 10 service outsourcing enterprises in the world, Accenture, IBM, and Wipro are based in Chengdu. In addition, 20 international enterprises including Motorola, Ubi Soft Entertainment, and Agilent, have set up internal shared service centers or R&D centers in Chengdu. Maersk Global Document Processing Center and Logistic Processing Sub-center, DHL Chengdu Service Center, Financial Accounting Center for DHL China, and Siemens Global IT Operation Center will be put into operation. In 2010, offshore service outsourcing in Chengdu realized a registered contract value of US$336 million, 99 percent higher than the previous year.

New energy industry

Chengdu is the "National High-Tech Industry Base for New Energy Industry", as approved by the National Development and Reform Commission. Leading enterprises are operating in Chengdu and providing research and technology support such as Tianwei New Energy Holding Co., Ltd., Sichuan Sanzhou Special Steel Tube Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Tianma Bearing Co., Ltd., and key research institutions such as the Nuclear Power Institute of China, Southwestern Institute of Physics, Southwest Electric Power Design Institute.In 2010, the new energy enterprises above realized 31.1 billion RMB in revenue from main operations, 43.2 percent more than the previous year. Chengdu ranked first again in the list of China's 15 "Cities with Highest Investment Value for New Energies" released at the beginning of 2011, and Shuangliu County under its jurisdiction entered "2010 China's Top 100 Counties of New Energies". By 2012, Chengdu's new energy industry will realize an investment over 20 billion RMB and sales revenue of 50 billion RMB.

Electronics and information industry

Chengdu is home to the most competitive IT industry cluster in western China, an important integrated circuit industry base in China, and one of the five major national software industry bases.Manufacturing chains are already formed in integrated circuits, optoelectronics displays, digital video & audio, optical communication products, and original-equipment products of electronic terminals, represented by such companies as IBM, Intel, Texas Instruments, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia, Ericsson, Dell, Lenovo, Foxconn, Compal, Wistron, and others.

Automobile industry

Chengdu has built a comprehensive automobile industry system, and preliminarily formed a system integrated with trade, exhibitions, entertainment, R&D, and manufacturing of spare parts and whole vehicles (e.g., sedans, coaches, sport utility vehicles, trucks, special vehicles). There are whole vehicle makers, such as Dongfeng-PSA (Peugeot-Citroën), Volvo, FAW-Volkswagen, FAW-Toyota, Yema, and Sinotruk Wangpai, as well as nearly 200 core parts makers covering German, Japanese, and other lines of vehicles.In 2011, Volvo announced that its first manufacturing base in China with an investment of RMB 5.4 billion was to be built in Chengdu. By 2015, the automobile production capacity of Chengdu's Comprehensive Function Zone of Automobile Industry is expected to reach 700,000 vehicles and 1.25 million in 2020.

Modern agriculture

Chengdu enjoys favorable agricultural conditions and rich natural resources. It is an important base for high-quality agricultural products. A national commercial grain and edible oil production base, the vegetable and food supply base as well as the key agricultural products processing center and the logistics distribution center of western China are located in Chengdu.

Defence industry

Located within the city limits is the Chengdu Aircraft Company which produces the recently declassified J-10 Vigorous Dragon combat aircraft as well as the JF-17 Thunder, in a joint collaborative effort with Pakistan Air Force. Chengdu Aircraft Company is also currently developing the J-20 Black Eagle stealth fighter. The company is one of the major manufacturers of Chinese Military aviation technology.


The Chengdu Statistics Bureau reports that the total investment in fixed assets in 2008 was 301.29 billion yuan (US$43.38 billion). Domestic investment was 180.52 billion yuan (US$26 billion), an increase of 23.5 percent from 2007. The total amount of foreign direct investment reached US$2.25 billion, an increase of 97.3 percent from 2007.

Industrial zones

Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone
Chengdu Export Processing Zone
Chengdu Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
Chengdu National Cross-Strait Technology Industry Development Park
This was established in 1992 as the Chengdu Taiwanese Investment Zone.WEB,weblink Welcome to Invest Chengdu!,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 3 June 2013, yes,

Real estate

In 1988, The Implementation Plan for a Gradual Housing System Reform in Cities and Towns marked the beginning of overall housing reform in urban areas of China. More than 20 real estate companies set up in Chengdu, which was the first step for Chengdu's real estate development. The comprehensive Funan River renovation project in the 1990s had been another step towards promoting Chengdu environmental development. In 1992, Singapore capitals brought into Chengdu helped constructing Jinxiu Garden (), which was the first elite residential area. Its advertisement was "Driving Volkswagen, Living in Jinxiu Garden.". In 1992, the first real estate management service company set up in Chengdu.Chengdu started the Five Main Roads & One Bridge project in 1997. Three of the roads supported the east part of the city, the other two led to the south. It established the foundation of the Eastern and Southern sub-centers of Chengdu. The two major sub-centers determined people's eastward and southward living trends. Large numbers of buildings appeared around the east and south of the 2nd Ring Road. The Shahe River renovation project together with Jin River project also set off a fashion for people living by the two rivers. It was said that the map of Chengdu should update every three months.WEB,weblink Real estate changes Chengdu, Chengdu Business Newspaper, 2008-12-23, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 22 October 2016, In 2000, dozens of commercial real estate projects also appeared.WEB,weblink Zhang Zhiying, 30-year history of Chengdu real estate market, Shanghai Real Estate vol.7, 2008, 14, 6 February 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 4 January 2016, no, While promoting the real estate market, the Chinese government encouraged citizens to buy their own houses by providing considerable subsidies. Houses were included in commodities.In 2013, Chengdu along with Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou were regarded as the Tier One Cities in terms of real estate market in mainland China.



(File:Shuangliuairport1.jpg|thumb|right|Terminal 1, Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport)Chengdu is served by the Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport located in Shuangliu County {{convert|16|km|abbr=on}} southwest of downtown. Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport is the busiest airport in Central and Western China and the {{citation needed span|nation's 5th-busiest airport, with a total passenger traffic of 42.2 million in 2015|date=August 2018}}. Shuangliu Airport is one of the two core hubs for Air China, together with Beijing, as well as the main hub and headquarters for Sichuan Airlines. Chengdu Airlines, China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Shenzhen Airlines, Lucky Air and Tibet Airlines also have bases at Shuangliu Airport.Chengdu airport is also a 144-hour visa-free transit airport for foreigners from many countries (Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, United States, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Brunei, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar).The airport has two runways and is capable of landing the Airbus A-380, currently the largest passenger aircraft in operation. Chengdu is the fourth city in China with two commercial-use runways, after Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. On 26 May 2009, Air China, Chengdu City Government and Sichuan Airport Group signed an agreement to improve the infrastructure of the airport and increase the number of direct international flights to and from Chengdu. The objective is to increase passenger traffic to more than 40 million by 2015, making Chengdu Airport the fourth-largest international hub in China, after Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, top 30 largest airports in the world.WEB,weblink Agreement to build an airport hub in Chengdu, 2009-05-26, People's Net, 28 May 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 7 February 2011, no, WEB,weblink Chengdu airport, 2009-05-26, Sina, 28 May 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2011, no, Chengdu has already begun building a second international airport, the Chengdu Tianfu International Airport, which will have six runways and a capacity to handle between 80 and 90 million passengers per year.


Chengdu is the primary railway hub city and rail administrative center in southwestern China. The Chengdu Railway Bureau manages the railway system of Sichuan Province, Chongqing City, Guizhou Province and Yunnan Province. Chengdu has four main freight railway stations. Among them, the Chengdu North Marshalling Station is one of the largest marshalling stations in Asia.WEB,weblink Chengdu city info southwest china, 2010-03-05,weblink" title="">weblink 21 July 2011, no, Since April 2013, companies are able to ship goods three times a week (initially only once a week)WEB,weblink Poland-China cargo train a success, 2013-06-03,,weblink" title="">weblink 3 December 2013, yes, 2013-12-10, to Europe on trains originating from Chengdu Qingbaijiang Station bound for Łódź, Poland. It is the first express cargo train linking China and Europe, taking 12 days to complete the full journey.There are three major passenger stations servicing Chengdu: Chengdu Railway Station (commonly referred to as the "North Station"), Chengdu South Railway Station (ChengduNan) and Chengdu East Railway Station (ChengduDong). In addition, Chengdu West Railway Station is scheduled to open by 2030.WEB,weblink 成都火车西站 设计方案通过审查,,weblink" title="">weblink 20 December 2018, no, 2018-12-19, Chengdu is the terminus of the Baoji-Chengdu railway, the Chengdu-Chongqing railway, the Chengdu-Kunming railway, the Chengdu-Dazhou railway, the Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu high-speed railway, the Chengdu-Lanzhou railway, the Xi'an-Chengdu high-speed railway, the Chengdu-Guiyang high-speed railway, and the Chengdu-Dujiangyan high-speed railway.The Chengdu–Dujiangyan high-speed railway is a high-speed rail line connecting Chengdu with the satellite city of Dujiangyan and the Mountain Qingcheng World Heritage Site. The line is {{convert|65|km|abbr=on}} in length with 15 stations. CRH1 train sets on the line reach a maximum speed of {{convert|220|km/h|abbr=on}} and complete the full trip in 30 minutes. The line was built in 18 months and entered operation on 12 May 2010.WEB,weblink 2010-05-12, Xinmin Evening News, zh:四川建首条城际快客 连通成都和都江堰, 2014-05-12,

Metropolitan expressways

Chengdu's transport network is well developed, and Chengdu serves as the starting point for many national highways, with major routes going from Sichuan–Shanxi, Sichuan–Tibet, and Sichuan–Yunnan.Several major road projects have been constructed: a {{convert|15|km|abbr=on}} tunnel from Shuangliu Taiping to Jianyang Sancha Lake; alteration of the National Expressway 321, from Jiangyang to Longquanyi. There will also be a road that connects Longquan Town to Longquan Lake; it is connected to the Chengdu–Jianyang Expressway and hence shorten the journey by {{convert|10|km|abbr=on}}. By the end of 2008, there are ten expressways, connecting the centre of Chengdu to its suburbs. The expressways are Chenglin Expressway, extensions of Guanghua Avenue, Shawan Line, and an expressway from Chengdu to Heilongtan.The toll-free Chengjin Expressway in the east of Chengdu is {{convert|38.7|km|abbr=on}} long. After it opens to the public, it will take only about half an hour to drive from central Chengdu to Jintang, half the time of the current journey.The expressway between Chengdu to Heilongtan (Chengdu section), going to the south of the city, is {{convert|42|km|abbr=on}} long. It is also toll-free and a journey from downtown Chengdu to Heilongtan will only take half an hour.The extension of Guanghua Avenue, going towards the west of the city. It make the journey time from Chongzhou City to Sanhuan Road to less than half an hour.The extension of Shawan Road going north is designed for travel at {{convert|60|km/h|abbr=on}}. After it is connected to the expressways Pixian–Dujiangyan and Pixian–Pengzhou, it will take only 30 minutes to go from Chengdu to Pengzhou.


There are many major intercity bus stations in Chengdu, and they serve different destinations.Chadianzi (): Hongyuan, Jiuzhaigou, Rilong Town, Ruo Ergai, Songpan County, Wolong and LangzhongXinnanmen (: Daocheng, Emei Shan, Jiǔzhàigōu, Kangding, Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Ya'an and LeshanWuguiqiao (): ChongqingJinsha (): Qionglai, Pi County and Huayang ()Chengdu East railway Station


  • National Highway G5 Beijing-Kunming
  • National Highway G42 Shanghai-Chengdu
  • National Highway G76 Xiamen-Chengdu
  • National Highway G93 Chengdu-Chongqing Region Circle
  • National Highway G4201 Chengdu 1st Circle
  • National Highway G4202 Chengdu 2nd Circle

Chengdu Metro

File:Luomashi Station of Chengdu Metro.jpg|thumb|Luomashi StationLuomashi StationThe Chengdu Metro officially opened on 1 October 2010.WEB,weblink Chengdu Metro Company website,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 20 November 2010, no, Line 1 runs from Shengxian Lake to Guangdu (south-north). Line 2 opened on September 2012. Line 3 opened on July 2016. Line 4 opened on December 2015. Line 10 connects to the international and the domestic airport.WEB,weblink zh:我国中西部地区第一条地铁开通_新闻中心_新浪网,, 2010-09-28, 2011-03-15, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 14 November 2011, no, There are currently over {{convert|350|km|abbr=on}} of subway lines under construction in Chengdu.NEWS,weblink zh:9元穿越成都东西 成都地铁四号线二期开通试运营-新华网, 2018-04-18, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 7 June 2017, no, Future plans call for more than twenty lines.


Bus transit is the most important mode of public transport in Chengdu. There are more than 400 bus lines in Chengdu with nearly 12,000 buses in total. In addition, the Chengdu BRT offers services on the Second Ring Road Elevated Road. Bus cards are available that permit free bus changes for three hours.File:Chengdu Bus Rapid Transit.jpg|thumb|Chengdu BRTChengdu BRT

River transport

Historically, the Jin River was used for boat traffic in and out of Chengdu. However, due to the size of the river itself and the reduced water depth over time, the Brocade River is no longer capable of carrying any type of water traffic. Therefore, Chengdu has no direct access to the Yangtze River or any other larger river. However, to ensure that Chengdu's goods have access to the river efficiently, inland port cities of Yibin and Luzhou—both of which are reachable from Chengdu within hours by expressways—on the Yangtze have commenced large-scale port infrastructure development. As materials and equipment for the rebuilding of northern Sichuan are sent in from the East Coast to Sichuan, these ports will see significant increases in throughput.


Chengdu is home to the greatest number of universities and research institutes in Southwestern China. It has 49 colleges and universities, including University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Sichuan University, and Southwestern University of Finance and Economics. In 2010, over 140,000 students graduated from the colleges and universities, more than half of them majored in IT, finance, economics, business management, or foreign languages studies.

Colleges and universities

(File:Scuhuaxi.jpg|thumb|West China Medical Center of Sichuan University)Chengdu is the center of higher education and scientific research in Southwest China. Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

International schools

Major secondary schools


The United States Consulate General at Chengdu opened on 16 October 1985. It was the first foreign consulate in west-central China since 1949. Currently Fourteen countries have consulates in Chengdu. The United Kingdom also has a visa application center in Chengdu.{|border="1" cellpadding="2" style="margin:0 0 1em 1em; background:#fff; border:1px #aaa solid; border-collapse:collapse; font-size:90%;"! style="width:280px; background:#f9f9f9;"|Consulate! style="width:50px; background:#f9f9f9;"|year! style="width:175px; background:#f9f9f9;"|Consular DistrictUS}} United States Consulate General Chengdu|1986Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou/Tibet Autonomous Region>Tibet ARDEU}} Germany Consulate General Chengdu|2003|Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/GuizhouROK}} Republic of Korea Consulate General Chengdu|2004|Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/GuizhouTHA}} Thailand Consulate General Chengdu|2004|Sichuan/ChongqingFRA}} France Consulate General Chengdu|2005|Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/GuizhouSIN}} Singapore Consulate General Chengdu|2006|Sichuan/Chongqing/ShaanxiPAK}} Pakistan Consulate General Chengdu|2007|Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/GuizhouAUS}} Australia Consulate General Chengdu|2013|Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/GuizhouSri Lanka}} Sri Lanka Consulate General Chengdu |2013|Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/GuizhouISR}} Israel Consulate General Chengdu|2014|Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/GuizhouNZL}} New Zealand Consulate General Chengdu|2014|Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/GuizhouPOL}} Poland Consulate General Chengdu|2015|Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/GuizhouCZE}} Czech Consulate General Chengdu|2015|Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/GuizhouSwitzerland}} Swiss Consulate General Chengdu |2017 |Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/GuizhouAustria}} Austrian Consulate General Chengdu |2018 |Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou



Football is a popular sport in Chengdu. Chengdu Tiancheng, Chengdu's football team, played in the 42,000-seat Chengdu Sports Stadium in the Chinese League One. The club was founded on 26 February 1996 and was formerly known as Chengdu Wuniu (Five Bulls) named after their first sponsor, the Wuniu (Five Bulls) Cigarette Company. The English professional football club, Sheffield United F.C., took over the club on 11 December 2005.WEB,weblink Hongkong 2008/09,, 2009-09-24, 2015-12-31,weblink" title="">weblink 11 November 2013, no, The club was later promoted into the China Super League until they were embroiled in a match-fixing scandal in 2009. Punished with relegation the owners eventually sold their majority on 9 December 2010 to Hung Fu Enterprise Co., Ltd and Scarborough Development (China) Co., Ltd.weblink {{webarchive|url=|date=3 December 2013}} 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.WEB,weblink zh:英投资方决定成都谢菲联不出售 尽快解决欠薪稳军心_国内足球-中超_新浪竞技风暴_新浪网,, 2015-12-31, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 29 October 2013, no, On 23 May 2013 the Tiancheng Investment Group announced the acquisition of the club.WEB,weblink zh:成足更名天诚谢菲联 短期内回中超3年内进亚冠-搜狐体育,, 2010-09-09, 2015-12-31, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2 December 2013, no, Chengdu Longquanyi Football Stadium was one of the four venues which hosted the 2004 AFC Asian Cup. Chengdu, along with Shanghai, Hangzhou, Tianjin and Wuhan, hosted the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup.


Chengdu is the hometown of Grand Slam champions Zheng Jie and Yan Zi, who won the women's double championships at both the Australian Open and Wimbledon in 2006, and Li Na who won the 2011 French Open and 2014 Australian Open, has led to increased interest in tennis in Chengdu. Over 700 standard tennis courts have been built in the city in the past 10 years (2006–2016), and the registered membership for the Chengdu Tennis Association have grown to over 10,000 from the original 2,000 in the 1980s.WEB,weblink zh:成都网球协会,, 2013-12-10, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 5 January 2012, no, Thanks to the boom the country has now 30,000 tennis courts and an estimated 14 million people in China regularly playing tennis, up from 1 million when the sport returned to the Olympics in 1988, according to the WTA Tour. The Chinese government is aiming to increase that by 15 percent every year. The nation's tennis market has reached $4 billion annually, according to Tom Cannon, a professor and sports finance expert at the University of Liverpool Management School in England.The women's tour upgraded the China Open in Beijing to become the only combined event with the men's tour in Asia. Played at the Beijing Olympic Tennis Center with combined prize money of $6.6 million and a main stadium that holds 10,000 spectators, the China Open is now one of the WTA's top four tournaments. The ATP's other flagship tournament in Asia is the $8.1 million Shanghai Masters.Chengdu is now part of an elite group of cities to host an ATP (Association of Tennis Professionals) Champions Tour tournament, along with London, Zürich, São Paulo and Delray Beach. Chengdu Open, an ATP Championships Tour starting in 2009, have successfully invited star players including Pete Sampras, Marat Safin, Carlos Moya, Tomas Enqvist, and Mark Philippoussis.WEB,weblink ja:最適な水~水素水を作る整水器、軟水を作る業務用軟水器~ | 軟水を作る業務用軟水器、水素水を作る整水器について,, 2013-12-10, Japanese, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 19 January 2012, no,


Chengdu is represented in the Overwatch League by the Chengdu Hunters. They play as part of the League's Pacific Division. The Hunters are also the first major eSports team to represent Chengdu.

Multi-sport events

Chengdu will host the 2021 Summer Universiade, it will take place from 8–19 August 2021. The city will also host the 2025 World Games.

Major sports venues

The Chengdu Sports Centre is located in downtown Chengdu, covering {{convert|140|acres|0|abbr=on}} and has 42,000 seats. As one of the landmarks of Chengdu, it is the first large multi-purpose venue in Chengdu that can accommodate sports competitions, trainings, social activities, and performances. It is the home stadium of the Chengdu Blades, Chengdu's football team. The stadium hosted the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup.The Sichuan International Tennis Center, located {{convert|16|km|0|abbr=on}} away from Chengdu's Shuangliu International Airport, covers an area of {{convert|250,000|m2|abbr=off}}. It is the largest tennis center in southwest China and the fourth tennis center in China meeting ATP competition standards, after Beijing, Shanghai and Nanjing. This center is equipped with 36 standard tennis courts and 11,000 seats. Since 2016, the Chengdu Open, an ATP Championship Tour tournament, is held here annually.The Chengdu Goldenport Circuit is a motorsport racetrack that has hosted the A1 Grand Prix, Formula V6 Asia, China Formula 4 Championship and China GT Championship.

International Relations

{{col-begin}}{{col-2}}Chengdu is twinned with:WEB, Chendu Sister and partner cities,weblink 19 June 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 19 June 2018, no, WEB, Chengdu Partnerships (Chengdu Government Website),weblink 19 June 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 22 June 2018, no, Chengdu also has friendly relationships or partnerships with:
  • {{flagdeco|AUS}} Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • {{flagdeco|US}} Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • {{flagdeco|Azerbaijan}} Baku, Azerbaijan
  • {{flagdeco|Turkey}} BeyoÄŸlu, Istanbul, TurkeyWEB, Beyoglu Municipality Started collaborations with city of Chengdu,weblink 21 June 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 18 October 2017, no,
  • {{flagdeco|AUS}} City of Gold Coast, Queensland, AustraliaWEB, City of Gold Coast sister city and international partnerships,weblink 21 June 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 22 June 2018, no,
  • {{flagdeco|Sweden}} Dalarna, Sweden WEB, Chengdu and Dalarna friendly relationships,weblink 19 June 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 22 June 2018, no,
  • {{flagdeco|Morocco}} Fez, Morocco
  • {{flagdeco|Italy}} Milan, Lombardy, Italy
  • {{flagdeco|Russia}} Saint Petersburg, Russia
  • {{flagdeco|Estonia}} Tallinn, Estonia
  • {{flagdeco|ESP}} Valencia, Spain NEWS, Chengdu finds partners in like-minded cities, The Telegraph,weblink Li Fusheng, 22 June 2017, 17 June 2018,weblink 22 June 2018, no,

See also







Further reading

External links

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