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Chenab River

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Chenab River
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{{redirect|Chenab|the village in Iran|Chenab, Iran|other article titles containing "Chenab"|Chenab (disambiguation)}}{{redirect|Acesines|the river of that name in Sicily|Alcantara (river)}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2017}}{{Use Indian English|date=April 2017}}







factoids
| name_native = | name_native_lang = | name_other = | name_etymology = | image = | image_size = | image_caption = align=centerbase_width=288pxfloat_width=30pxy=132}}| map_size = | map_caption = Location of the Chenab on a map of the Indus river and its tributaries| pushpin_map = | pushpin_map_size = | pushpin_map_caption= | subdivision_type1 = Country| subdivision_name1 = India, Pakistan| subdivision_type2 = | subdivision_name2 = | subdivision_type3 = | subdivision_name3 = | subdivision_type4 = | subdivision_name4 = | subdivision_type5 = | subdivision_name5 = 960mi|abbr=on}}approx. | width_min = | width_avg = | width_max = | depth_min = | depth_avg = | depth_max = weblink{{Dead link>date=November 2018 fix-attempted=yes }}, ORNL, Retrieved 8 Dec 2016| discharge1_min = 800.6cuft/s|abbr=on}}| discharge1_max = Bara-lacha la>Baralacha La pass| source1_location = India Himachal Pradesh32097751display=inline}}| source1_elevation = | mouth = Confluence with Sutlej to form the Panjnad RiverBahawalpur district, Punjab, Pakistan>Punjab, Pakistan29577141display=inline,title}}| mouth_elevation = | progression = | river_system = | basin_size = | tributaries_left = ACCESSDATE=16 MARCH 2017DATE=26 AUGUST 2013, en, | custom_label = | custom_data = | extra = }}The Chenab River ( {{IAST|cenab}}; }}), known traditionally as the Chandrabhaga River (),{{citation|last1=Handa|first1=O. C.|author2=Omacanda Hāṇḍā|title=Buddhist Art & Antiquities of Himachal Pradesh, Upto 8th Century A.D.|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=6Cqgb9pL3L4C&pg=PA126|year=1994|publisher=Indus Publishing|isbn=978-81-85182-99-5|pages=126–}} is a major river that flows in India and Pakistan, and is one of the 5 major rivers of the Punjab region. It rises in the upper Himalayas in the Lahaul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh state, India, and flows through the Kishtwar, Doda, Ramban, Reasi and Jammu districts of Jammu region in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of Punjab, Pakistan, before flowing into the Indus River near the city of Uch Sharif. The waters of the Chenab were allocated to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty.WEB,weblink River Chenab, 8 Dec 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927024646weblink">weblink 27 September 2007, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Indus Waters Treaty, The World Bank, 8 Dec 2016, The river is formed by the confluence of two rivers, Chandra and Bhaga, at Tandi, 8 km southwest of Kyelang, in the Lahaul and Spiti district in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. The Bhaga river originates from Surya taal lake, which is situated a few kilometers east of the Bara-lacha la pass in the in Himachal Pradesh. The Chandra river originates from glaciers east of the same pass.JOURNAL, Gosal, G.S., 2004, Physical Geography of the Punjab, Center for Sikh and Punjab Studies, University of California, Journal of Punjab Studies, 11, 1, 31, 0971-5223,weblink 2009-08-06,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120608214642weblink">weblink 8 June 2012, yes, This pass also acts as a water-divide between these two rivers.JOURNAL, R. K. Pant, N. R. Phadtare, L. S. Chamyal, Navin Juyal, yes, June 2005, Quaternary deposits in Ladakh and Karakoram Himalaya: A treasure trove of the palaeoclimate records, Current Science, 88, 11, 1789–1798,weblink 2009-08-06, The Chandra river transverses {{convert|115|km|mi|abbr=on}} before the confluence. The Bhaga river transverses through narrow gorges a distance of {{convert|60|km|mi|abbr=on|}} before the confluence at Tandi.Lahaul & Spiti

Name

The Chenab river was called {{IAST2|Asikni}} () in the Rigveda (VIII.20.25, X.75.5). The name meant that it was seen to have dark-coloured waters.{{citation |last=Kapoor |first=Subodh |title=Encyclopaedia of Ancient Indian Geography |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=JggZAQAAIAAJ |year=2002 |publisher=Cosmo Publications |isbn=978-81-7755-298-0 |p=80}}{{sfn|Kaul, Antiquities of the Chenāb Valley in Jammu|2001|p=1}} The term Krishana is also found in the Atharvaveda.{{sfn|Kaul, Antiquities of the Chenāb Valley in Jammu|2001|p=2}} A later form of Askikni was (){{citation needed|date=July 2018}} and the Greek form was - Akesínes; Latinized to Acesines.DGRG, Acesines, {{sfn|Kaul, Antiquities of the Chenāb Valley in Jammu|2001|p=1}}In the Mahabharata, the common name of the river was Chandrabhaga () because the river is formed from the confluence of the Chandra and the Bhaga rivers.{{sfn|Kaul, Antiquities of the Chenāb Valley in Jammu|2001|p=2}} This name was also known to the Ancient Greeks, who Hellenised it in various forms such as Sandrophagos, Sandabaga and Cantabra.{{sfn|Kaul, Antiquities of the Chenāb Valley in Jammu|2001|p=1}} The similarity of Sandrophagos (Σανδροφάγος) to Androphagos (Ἀνδροφάγος), meaning cannibals, or to Alexandrophagos (Ἀλεξανδροφάγος), meaning those who would eat Alexander, likely caused the followers of Alexander to change the name to avoid the evil omen, the more so perhaps on account of the disaster which befell the Macedonian fleet at the turbulent junction of the river with the Hydaspes (modern Jhelum River).The simplification of Chandrabhaga to 'Chenab', with evident Persianate influence, probably occurred in early medieval times and is witnessed in Alberuni.{{citation |last=Kazmi |first=Hasan Askari |title=The makers of medieval Muslim geography: Alberuni |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ggOAAAAAMAAJ |year=1995 |publisher=Renaissance |p=124}}

History

The river was known to Indians in the Vedic periodWEB, Yule, Henry, Arthur Coke, Burnell, William, Crooke, Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words & phrases and of kindred terms, 741,weblinkweblink Chenab River on Encyclopædia Britannica, Retrieved 8 Dec 2016(:wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Chenab|Encyclopædia Britannica article on the Chenab) In 325 BC, Alexander the Great allegedly founded the town of Alexandria on the Indus (present day Uch Sharif or Mithankot or Chacharan in Pakistan) at the confluence of the Indus and the combined stream of Punjab rivers (currently known as the Panjnad River).Alexandria (Uch)

Dams

The river has rich power generation potential in India.{hide}columns-list|colwidth=30em| {edih}File:Old Bridge over river Chenab at Ramban.jpg|thumb|293x293px|Old bridge over Chenab river at Ramban, Jammu and Kashmir, IndiaIndiaFile:CHENAB BRIDGE PROJECT.jpg|thumb|293x293px|Chenab BridgeChenab Bridge

See also

{hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em| {edih}

References

{{Wikisource1911Enc|Chenab}}{{commons category}}{{reflist}}

Bibliography

  • {{citation |last=Kaul |first=P. K. |title=Antiquities of the Chenāb Valley in Jammu: Inscriptions-copper Plates, Sanads, Grants, Firmāns & Letters in Brāhmi-Shārdā-Tākri-Persian & Devnāgri Scripts |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5ZFuAAAAMAAJ |year=2001 |publisher=Eastern Book Linkers |ref={{sfnref|Kaul, Antiquities of the Chenāb Valley in Jammu|2001}}}}
{{Waters of India}}{{Waters of Pakistan}}{{Five rivers of the Punjab}}{{Geo HP}}{{PunjabGeography}}{{Hydrography of Jammu and Kashmir}}{{Waters of South Asia}}{{Authority control}}

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