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Chase Bank
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{{for|the buildings|Chase Tower (Chicago)|Chase Manhattan Bank Building}}







factoids
| revenue_year = 2018| net_income = US$32.474 billion | net_income_year = 2018| assets = US$2.623 trillion | assets_year = 2018| num_employees = 189,315| num_employees_year = 2016| parent = JPMorgan Chase & Co.weblink}}}}(File:JPMorgan Chase footprint 2010-03.png|270px|thumb|Chase branches in the U.S. in 2010)J.P. Morgan Chase Bank, N.A., doing business as Chase Bank, is a national bank headquartered in Manhattan, New York City, that constitutes the consumer and commercial banking subsidiary of the U.S. multinational banking and financial services holding company, JPMorgan Chase & Co. The bank was known as Chase Manhattan Bank until it merged with J.P. Morgan & Co. in 2000.BOOK, The History of JPMorgan Chase & Co.,weblink JPMorgan Chase & Co., 2008, October 14, 2011, Chase Manhattan Bank was formed by the merger of the Chase National Bank and The Manhattan Company in 1955.WEB, J.P. Morgan Chase & Co., International Directory of Company Histories, St. James Press, 2001,weblink November 4, 2007, The bank merged with Bank One Corporation in 2004 WEB, History of Our Firm,weblink JPMorgan Chase & Co., October 14, 2011, and later acquired the deposits and most assets of The Washington Mutual.Chase offers more than 5,100 branches and 16,000 ATMs nationwide. JPMorgan Chase & Co. has 250,355 employees (as of 2016) and operates in more than 100 countries. JPMorgan Chase & Co. had their assets of $2.49 trillion in 2016.JPMorgan Chase, through its Chase subsidiary, is one of the Big Four banks of the United States.NEWS,weblink Will the banks survive?, Tully, Shawn, February 27, 2009, Fortune Magazine/CNN Money, December 17, 2009, NEWS,weblink Citigroup posts 4th straight loss; Merrill loss widens, October 16, 2008, Associated Press, December 17, 2009, USA Today,

History

{{multiple image| align = right| image1 = AaronBurr.jpg| width1 = 150| alt1 = | caption1 = Aaron Burr, 3rd Vice President of the United States and founder of The Manhattan Company.| image2 = John D. Rockefeller, Jr. (1915).jpg| width2 = 120| alt2 = | caption2 = John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and the Rockefeller family were the largest shareholders of Chase National Bank.| footer = }} From September 1, 1799, to 1955, it was called The Bank of The Manhattan Company (New York); after a 1955 merger with the Chase National Bank (which existed separately from 1877 to 1954) it was called The Chase Manhattan Bank.NEWS, $7.5 Bil. Chase Manhattan Bank Merger Set,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131110171916weblink">weblink November 10, 2013, January 14, 1955, American Banker, November 10, 2013, yes, (File:Chase Tower, Downtown PHX.jpg|thumb|Chase's southwest regional headquarters in Phoenix, Arizona. |356x356px)

The Manhattan Company

Chase traces its history back to the founding of The Manhattan Company by Aaron Burr on September 1, 1799, in a house at 40 Wall Street:}}In 2006, the modern-day Chase bought the retail banking division of the Bank of New York, which then only months later merged with Pittsburgh-based Mellon Financial to form the present-day BNY Mellon.

Chase National Bank

Chase National Bank was formed in 1877 by John Thompson. It was named after former United States Treasury Secretary and Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, although Chase did not have a connection with the bank.The Chase National Bank acquired a number of smaller banks in the 1920s, through its Chase Securities Corporation. In 1926, for instance, it acquired Mechanics and Metals National Bank. (File:The Chase National Bank of the City of New York, Specimen Stock Certificate.jpg|thumb|Specimen Stock Certificate)However, its most significant acquisition was the Equitable Trust Company of New York in 1930, the largest stockholder of which was John D. Rockefeller, Jr.BOOK, David Rockefeller: Memoirs, David, Rockefeller, New York, Random House, October 15, 2002, 978-0-679-40588-7, 124–25, This made Chase the largest bank in America and indeed, in the world.Chase was primarily a wholesale bank, dealing with other prominent financial institutions and major corporate clients, such as General Electric, which had, through its RCA subsidiary, leased prominent space and become a crucial first tenant of Rockefeller Center, rescuing that major project in 1930. The bank is also closely associated with and has financed the oil industry, having longstanding connections with its board of directors to the successor companies of Standard Oil, especially ExxonMobil, which are also Rockefeller holdings.

Merger as Chase Manhattan Bank

(File:Bank of the New York Company.png|thumb|200px|The September 1, 1799-1877 logo)(File:Chase National Bank.png|thumb|200px|The 1877-1955 logo)(File:Chase logo pre historical.jpg|thumb|200px|The 1955–1961 logo)(File:Chase 1962 logo.png|thumb|200px|The 1961–1976 logo)In 1955, Chase National Bank and The Manhattan Company merged to create The Chase Manhattan Bank. As Chase was a much larger bank, it was first intended that Chase acquire the "Bank of Manhattan", as it was nicknamed, but it transpired that Burr's original charter for the Manhattan Company had not only included the clause allowing it to start a bank with surplus funds, but another requiring unanimous consent of shareholders for the bank to be taken over. The deal was therefore structured as a merger by the Bank of the Manhattan Company of Chase National, with John J. McCloy becoming chairman of the merged entity. This avoided the need for unanimous consent by shareholders.For Chase Manhattan Bank's new logo, Chermayeff & Geismar designed a stylized octagon in 1961, which remains part of the bank's logo today.WEB, Chase Manhattan Bank,weblink Chermayeff & Geismar, October 14, 2011, The Chase logo is a stylized representation of the primitive water pipes laid by the Manhattan Company, which were made by nailing together wooden planks.BOOK, Tett, Gillian, Gillian Tett, Fool's Gold: How the Bold Dream of a Small Tribe at J.P. Morgan Was Corrupted by Wall Street Greed and Unleashed a Catastrophe, New York, Free Press, May 12, 2009, 82, 978-1-4165-9857-2, The bank included an asset management business called the Chase Investors Management Corporation.Under McCloy's successor, George Champion, the bank relinquished its antiquated 1799 state charter for a modern one. In 1969, under the leadership of David Rockefeller, the bank became part of a bank holding company, the Chase Manhattan Corporation.

Mergers with Chemical, J.P. Morgan

(File:Chase logo pre merger.png|thumb|The 1976–2005 logo)In August 1995, Chemical Bank of New York and Chase Manhattan Bank announced plans to merge.WEB,weblink Chase, Chemical to Merge, Creating Largest U.S. Bank, Mathews, Jay, 29 August 1995, The Washington Post, The merger was completed in August 1996.WEB,weblink Bank president leaves post in wake of wedding, Pinckney, Barbara, 2 September 1996, www.bizjournals.com, 2019-05-17, Chemical's previous acquisitions included Manufacturers Hanover Corporation, in 1991, and Texas Commerce Bank, in 1987. Although Chemical was the nominal survivor, the merged company retained the Chase name since it was better known (particularly outside the United States).In December 2000, the combined Chase Manhattan completed the acquisition of J.P. Morgan & Co. in one of the largest banking mergers to date. The combined company was renamed JPMorgan Chase. In 2004, the bank acquired Bank One, making Chase the largest credit card issuer in the United States. JPMorgan Chase added Bear Stearns and Washington Mutual to its acquisitions in 2008 and 2009 respectively. After closing nearly 400 overlapping branches of the combined company, less than 10% of its total, Chase will have approximately 5,410 branches in 23 states as of the closing date of the acquisition.NEWS, WaMu lists debt of $8B in bankruptcy,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120412064207weblink">weblink April 12, 2012, Bloomberg News, September 27, 2008, Jef, Feeley, Steven, Church, October 14, 2011, Bloomberg, yes, NEWS,weblink Q&A What former WaMu customers can expect, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 26, 2008, Houston Chronicle, October 14, 2011, According to data from SNL Financial (data as of June 30, 2008), this places Chase third behind Wells Fargo and Bank of America in terms of total U.S. retail bank branches. In October 2010, Chase was named in two lawsuits alleging manipulation of the silver market.WEB,weblink J.P. Morgan, HSBC sued for silver manipulation, MarketWatch, October 27, 2010, David, Benoit, October 14, 2011, The suits allege that by managing giant positions in silver futures and options, the banks influenced the prices of silver on the New York Stock Exchange's Comex Exchange since early 2008.File:Chase Bank Athens OH USA.JPG|thumb|Chase branch located in Athens, OhioAthens, OhioFile:ChaseBankChinatownManhattan.jpg|thumb|Chase bank in Chinatown, ManhattanManhattanFile:Slc utah one center.jpg|thumb|Chase offices and branch in One Utah Center tower in Salt Lake CitySalt Lake City The following is an illustration of the company's major mergers and acquisitions and historical predecessors to 1995 (this is not a comprehensive list):{{clade | style=font-size:90%;line-height:130%Chase Manhattan Bank>Chase Manhattan Bank(merged 1995)|1={{clade
|label1=Chemical Bank(merged 1991)
|1={{clade
|label1=Chemical Bank(merged 1986)
|1={{clade
|1=The Chemical Bank of New York(est. 1823)
|2=Texas Commerce Bank(Formerly Texas National Bank of Commerce)(merged 1864)
}}


|label2=Manufacturers Hanover(merged 1961)
|2={{clade
|1=ManufacturersTrust Company(est. 1905)
|2=Hanover Bank(est. 1873)
}}
}}


|label2=Chase Manhattan Bank(merged 1955)
|2={{clade
|1=Bank of the Manhattan Company(est. 1799)
|2=Chase National Bankof the City of New York(est. 1877)
}}
}}}}

Bank One Corporation

In 2004, JPMorgan Chase merged with Chicago-based Bank One Corp., bringing on board its current chairman and CEO Jamie Dimon as president and COO and designating him as CEO William B. Harrison, Jr.'s successor. Dimon's pay was pegged at 90% of Harrison's. Dimon quickly made his influence felt by embarking on a cost-cutting strategy and replaced former JPMorgan Chase executives in key positions with Bank One executives—many of whom were with Dimon at Citigroup. Dimon became CEO in January 2006 and Chairman in December 2006 after Harrison's resignation.WEB, Touryalai, Halah, 4 Reasons JPMorgan Needs Jamie Dimon As CEO And Chairman Right Now,weblink Forbes, 22 April 2019, en, Bank One Corporation was formed upon the 1998 merger between Banc One of Columbus, Ohio and First Chicago NBD. These two large banking companies were themselves created through the merger of many banks. JPMorgan Chase completed the acquisition of Bank One in Q3 2004. The merger between Bank One and JPMorgan Chase meant that corporate headquarters were now in New York City while the retail bank operations of Chase were consolidated in New York.PRESS RELEASE, JPMorgan Chase, Bank One complete merger, July 1, 2004, JPMorgan Chase,weblink October 14, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160216155756weblink">weblink February 16, 2016, yes, {{failed verification|date=October 2015}}The following is an illustration of Bank One's major mergers and acquisitions and historical predecessors (this is not a comprehensive list):{hide}clade | style=font-size:90%;line-height:130%
|label1= Bank One(merged 1998)
|1= {{clade
|label1=Banc One Corp(merged 1968)
|1={{clade
|1=City National Bank& Trust Company (Columbus, Ohio)
|2=Farmers Saving & Trust Company
{edih}


|label2=First Chicago NBD(merged 1995)
|2={{clade
|1=First Chicago Corp(est. 1863)
|2=NBD Bancorp(Formerly National Bank of Detroit)(est. 1933)
}}


|label3= 
|3=Louisiana's FirstCommerce Corp.
}}
}}

Washington Mutual

On September 25, 2008, JPMorgan Chase bought most banking operations of Washington Mutual from the receivership of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). That night, the Office of Thrift Supervision, in what was by far the largest bank failure in American history, seized Washington Mutual Bank and placed it into receivership. The FDIC sold the bank's assets, secured debt obligations and deposits to JPMorgan Chase Bank, NA for $1.888 billion, which re-opened the bank the following day. As a result of the takeover, Washington Mutual shareholders lost all their equity.NEWS, David, Ellis, Jeanne, Sahadi,weblink JPMorgan buys WaMu, CNN, September 25, 2008, October 14, 2011, Through the acquisition, JPMorgan became owner of the former accounts of Providian Financial, a credit card issuer WaMu acquired in 2005. The company completed the rebranding of Washington Mutual branches to Chase in late 2009.

Other recent acquisitions

In the first-quarter of 2006, Chase purchased Collegiate Funding Services, a portfolio company of private equity firm Lightyear Capital, for $663 million. CFS was used as the foundation for the Chase Student Loans, previously known as Chase Education Finance.NEWS,weblink Chase to Acquire Collegiate Funding Services, Business Wire, December 15, 2005, October 14, 2011, In April of that same year (2006), Chase acquired the Bank of New York Co.'s retail and small business banking network. This gave Chase access to 338 additional branches and 700,000 new customers in New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Indiana.

Controversies

Purchase of Nazi Germany's Reichsmarks during WWII

A press release from the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 2004 announced that many of the new Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) files had become declassified. This declassification enabled the discovery that before and during the early years of World War II, the German government sold a special kind of Reichsmark, known as Rückwanderer [returnee] Marks, to American citizens of German descent. Chase National Bank, along with other businesses, were involved in these transactions. Through Chase, this allowed Nazi sympathizers to purchase Marks with dollars at a discounted rate. Specifically, "The financial houses understood that the German government paid the commissions (to its agents, including Chase) through the sale of discounted, blocked Marks that came mainly from Jews who had fled Germany." In other words, Nazi Germany was able to offer these Marks below face-value because they had been stolen from emigrés fleeing the Nazi regime. Between 1936 and 1941, the Nazis amassed over $20 million, and the businesses enabling these transactions earned $1.2 million in commissions. Of these commissions, over $500,000 went to Chase National Bank and its subagents.These facts were discovered when the FBI began its investigation in October 1940. The purpose of the investigation was to follow German-Americans who had bought the Marks. However, Chase National Bank's executives were never federally prosecuted because Chase's lead attorney threatened to reveal FBI, Army, and Navy "sources and methods" in court (needs reference). Publicly naming the sources and methods could have posed security risks and threatened future intelligence gathering. To avoid such revelations, the executives' violations of the Johnson Act, the Espionage Act, and the Foreign Agents Registration Act were never prosecuted.PRESS RELEASE, National Archives and Records Administration, Thousands of Intelligence Documents Opened under the Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act, May 13, 2004, September 13, 2012,weblink BOOK, Norman, Goda, Timothy, Naftali, Robert, Wolfe, Breitman, Richard, Banking on Hitler: Chase National Bank and the Rückwanderer Mark Scheme, 1936–1941, U.S. Intelligence and the Nazis, Cambridge University Press, April 4, 2005, 173–202,weblink 978-0521617949, September 13, 2013, BOOK, Hawkins, John, The Nazi Hydra in America: Suppressed History of a Century, Glen, Yeadon, Progressive Press, June 1, 2008, Joshua Tree, California, 195, September 13, 2013,weblink

Release of funds for Nazi Germany during WWII

Besides the controversial Rückwanderer Mark Scheme, NARA records also revealed another controversy during the occupation of France by the Nazis. From the late 1930s until June 14, 1941, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) issued an Executive Order freezing German assets, Chase National Bank worked with the Nazi government. The order blocking any access to French accounts in the U.S. by anyone, but especially by the Nazis was issued by Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau Jr., with the approval of FDR. Within hours of the order, Chase unblocked the accounts and the funds were transferred through South America to Nazi Germany.

Refusal to release funds belonging to Jews in Occupied France

US Treasury officials wanted an investigation of French subsidiaries of American banks, such as Chase Bank, J.P. Morgan & Co, National City Corporation, Guaranty Bank, Bankers Trust, and American Express. Of these banks, only Chase and Morgan remained open in France during the Nazi occupation. The Chase branch chief in Paris, France, Carlos Niedermann, told his supervisor in New York that there had been an "expansion of deposits". Also, Niedermann was, "very vigorous in enforcing restrictions against Jewish property, even going so far as to refuse to release funds belonging to Jews in anticipation that a decree with retroactive provisions prohibiting such release might be published in the near future by the occupying Nazi authorities".In 1998, Chase general counsel William McDavid, said that Chase did not have control over Niedermann. Whether that claim was true or not, Chase Manhattan Bank acknowledged seizing about 100 accounts during the Vichy regime. Kenneth McCallion, an attorney, led a lawsuit against Barclays Bank for the illegal seizure of assets during WWII and has since turned his attention toward Chase. The World Jewish Congress (WJC), entered into discussions with Chase and a spokesperson for the WJC said, "Nobody at Chase today is guilty. They were not involved in whatever happened, but they do accept that they have an institutional responsibility." A Chase spokesman said, "This is a moral issue that we take very seriously." Chase general counsel McDavid added, "that Chase intends to compensate Jewish account holders whose assets were illegally plundered". In 1999, the French government formed a commission to report findings to Prime Minister Lionel Jospin. Claire Andrieu, a commission member and history professor at the Sorbonne, said that under the Vichy regime, French banks received visits from Nazi officials but U.S. banks did not. At that time, they did not have to report Jewish accounts, but they did just as the French banks did. She goes on to say that an American ambassador protected the U.S. subsidiaries.NEWS, Siemaszko, Corky, Chase Banked On Nazis - Report, New York Daily News, newsmine.org, December 7, 1998,weblink September 13, 2013, BOOK, Sutton, Anthony C., Chapter Eleven: Wall Street-Nazi Collaboration in World War II, Wall Street And The Rise Of Hitler, Studies in Reformed Theology, 2000, September 13, 2013,weblink 978-1568497266, NEWS, Barclays to Compensate Jews, BBC News, BBC.com, December 17, 1998, September 13, 2013,weblink NEWS, World: Europe US banks gave Jewish money to Nazis,weblink February 3, 1999, BBC News, BBC, September 13, 2013,

Recent controversies

JPMorgan Chase has paid $16 billion in fines, settlements and other litigation expenses from 2011 to 2013. Of the $16 billion JPMorgan Chase has paid, about $8.5 billion were for fines and settlements resulting from illegal actions taken by bank executives, according to Richard Eskow at the Campaign for America's Future, who cited a new report from Joshua Rosner of Graham Fisher & Co.The $16 billion total does not include a recent settlement that calls for JPMorgan Chase to pay $100 million to waive $417 million in claims it had made against clients of the firm MF Global.The U.S. Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control found that JPMorgan had illegally aided dictatorships in Cuba, Sudan, Liberia and Iran, including transferring 32,000 ounces of gold bullion (valued at approximately $20,560,000) to the benefit of a bank in Iran. JPMorgan did not voluntarily self-disclose the Iranian matter to OFAC.Javers, E., "JPMorgan to Pay $88 Million for Violating US Sanctions", CNBC, August 25, 2011.Among its other transgressions, JPMorgan has been found to have:NEWS,weblink JPMorgan Chase Still Going Strong Despite Paying Billions for Long List of Misdeeds, March 26, 2013, WEB,weblink JPMorgan Chase Whale Trades: A Case History of Derivatives RIsks and Abuses, Majority and Minority Staff Report, United States Senate, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Carl Levin, Chairman, John McCain, Ranking Minority Member, March 15, 2013, WEB,weblink JPMorgan Chase Whale Trades: A Case History of Derivatives Risks and Abuses, March 15, 2013, NEWS,weblink The Price of Evil at JPMorgan Chase, March 20, 2013, NEWS,weblink JPMorgan Chase Caught "Misrepresenting" Credit Card Collections; Whistleblower Fired, March 16, 2012,

Targeted account closures

During 2013 and 2014, Chase and other banks received media attention for the practice of canceling the personal and business accounts of hundreds of legal sex workers, citing in some instances the "morality clause" of their account agreement.NEWS, Daniel, James, 'Moral issues' lead banks to refuse porn stars bank accounts and loans,weblink Daily Mail, April 26, 2014, London, May 18, 2013, WEB, Hilton, Perez, EXCLUSIVE! Porn Stars Are Getting The Shaft From Chase Bank! AGAIN!! Accounts Closed For 100s In The Biz?!,weblink Perezhilton.com, April 26, 2014, Later it was discovered that this practice included mortgage accounts and business loans.NEWS, del Castillo, Michael, "Hundreds" of porn stars reportedly blacklisted from Chase Bank,weblink Business Journals, April 26, 2014, Chase canceled the mortgage refinancing process for one individual, that the bank had initiated, whose production company made soft core films like those broadcast on Cinemax.NEWS, Banks to porn stars your money's not welcome,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131029112849weblink">weblink October 29, 2013, NBC News, April 26, 2014, yes, This resulted in a lawsuitWEB, Dotinga, William, Look Who's Talking, Porn Mogul Tells Bank,weblink Courthouse News Service, April 26, 2014, which cited evasive dealings and misleading statements by several Chase executives including Securities Vice President Adam Gelcich, Legal Fair Lending Department Vice President Deb Vincent, and an unnamed executive director and assistant general counsel.NEWS, Hymes, Tom, Chase Sued for Denying Porn King Loan on 'Moral' Grounds,weblink Adult Video News, May 15, 2013, April 26, 2014, File:Chase bank922.jpg|thumb|Chase Bank in Rye, New YorkRye, New YorkIn addition to closing accounts for sex workers, the bank has also been using its "morality clause" to disassociate from other types of businesses.NEWS, Kernes, Mark, JPMorgan Chase Closes Porn Star Accounts, Citing ... 'Ethics'!?! The most ethical thing adult industry members can do is to close any Chase accounts they may have.,weblink Adult Video News, April 26, 2014, Some of these other businesses include medical marijuana dispensaries and any that are "gun related". Another was a woman-owned condom manufacturing company called Lovability Condoms. Company founder Tiffany Gaines was rejected by Chase Paymentech services "as processing sales for adult-oriented products is a prohibited vertical" and was told that it was a "reputational risk" to process payment for condoms. Gaines then started a petition to ask Chase to review and change its policy of classifying condoms as an "adult oriented product". The bank later reversed its decision and invited Gaines to submit an application citing that was already doing business with a "wide variety of merchants, including grocers and drug stores, that sell similar products".NEWS, Kingkade, Tyler, Chase Will Process Payments For Lovability Condoms After All,weblink The Huffington Post, April 26, 2014, March 31, 2014, In 2019 the bank faced growing criticism for its alleged practice of arbitrarily targeting the personal accounts of outspoken online personalities such as Martina Markota and Proud Boys chairman Enrique Tarrio. Although the specific motives behind the closures were not officially disclosed the assumption among many on the right was that they were political in nature.WEB,weblink JPMorgan Chase accused of purging accounts of conservative activists, John Aiden Byrne, New York Post, 2019-05-25, 2019-05-28,

Dakota Access Pipeline

Financial documentsWEB,weblink EnergyTransfer.com - Investor Relations - SEC Filings, governance.energytransfer.com, from Energy Transfer Partners, the pipeline builder for the Dakota Access Pipeline, lists a number of large banking institutions that have provided credit for the project, including JP Morgan Chase. Because of these financial ties, Chase and other banks have been a targetWEB,weblink Environmentalists Target Bankers Behind Pipeline, Hiroko, Tabuchi, November 7, 2016, NYTimes.com, of the Dakota Access Pipeline protests during 2016 and 2017.

Parental leave policy

JPMorgan Chase agreed to pay $5 million to compensate their male employees who did not receive the same paid parental leave as women from 2011 to 2017.WEB,weblink Dad reaches historic paid leave settlement with JPMorgan Chase, Lapin, Tamar, 2019-05-30, New York Post, en, 2019-05-31, In December 2017, the bank "clarified its policy to ensure equal access to men and women looking to be their new child's main caregiver".WEB,weblink Dad sued employer JPMorgan Chase over parental leave pay — and won, www.cbsnews.com, en-US, 2019-05-31, According to the involved attorneys, this is the biggest recorded settlement in a U.S. parental leave discrimination case. JPMorgan agreed to train and monitor to ensure equal parental leave benefits and stated that "its policy was always intended to be gender-neutral".NEWS,weblink JPMorgan Agrees to Record Settlement in Anti-Dad Bias Case, 2019-05-30, 2019-05-31, en,

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, The Chairman: John J. McCloy, the Making of the American Establishment, Bird, Kai, Kai Bird, 1992, Simon & Schuster, New York, 978-0-671-45415-9, 25026508,
  • BOOK, Water for Gotham: A History, Koeppel, Gerard T., Gerard T. Koeppel, 2000, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ, 978-0-691-01139-4, 247735191,weblink
  • BOOK, Memoirs, Rockefeller, David, David Rockefeller, 2002, Random House, New York, 978-0-679-40588-7, 231967677,
  • BOOK, The Chase: The Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A., 1945–1985, Wilson, John Donald, 1986, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Mass, 978-0-87584-134-2, 13581810,

External links

{{Commons category}}
  • {{official website|1=http://www.chase.com/}}
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151105035346weblink">Chase mobile banking
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060830205559weblink">An Evolutionary View of Internationalization: Chase Manhattan Bank, 1917 to 1996. A Financial Institutions Center study (PDF) completed in 2002.
  • About J.P. Morgan Chase
  • Chase Bank Login - Login guide
{{JPMorgan Chase}}

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