Chagatai language

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Chagatai language
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{{Refimprove|date=June 2011}}{{Short description|Extinct Turkic language}}{{Redirect|Turki}}

| region = Central Asia| era = 15th to early 20th century| familycolor = AltaicTurkic languages>TurkicCommon Turkic languages>Common TurkicKarluk languages>Karluk| iso2 = chg| iso3 = chg| glotto = chag1247| glottorefname = Chagatai| linglist = chg| extinct = 1921? }}Chagatai (/, {{transl|chg|Čağatāy}}), {{Script|Arab|چەغەتاي|چاغاتاي}}; }}, {{transl|mn|Chagadai}}; , {{transl|ug|Chaghatay}}; is an extinct Turkic language that was once widely spoken in Central Asia and remained the shared literary language there until the early 20th century. Literary Chagatai is the predecessor of the modern Karluk branch of Turkic languages, which includes Uzbek and Uyghur.BOOK, L.A. Grenoble, Language Policy in the Soviet Union,weblink 11 April 2006, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-0-306-48083-6, 149–, Ali-Shir Nava'i was the greatest representative of Chagatai literature.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Robert McHenry, Encyclopædia Britannica, Navā’ī, (Mir) ‘Alī Shīr, 15th, 1993, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc, 8, Chicago, 563, File:Chengde summer palace writings.jpg|thumb|right|300px|Lizheng gate in the Chengde Mountain Resort, the second column from left is Chagatai language written in Perso-Arabic NastaʿlīqNastaʿlīq


The word Chagatai relates to the Chagatai Khanate (1225 –1680s), a descendant empire of the Mongol Empire left to Genghis Khan's second son, Chagatai Khan.BOOK, Vladimir Babak, Demian Vaisman, Aryeh Wasserman, Political Organization in Central Asia and Azerbijan: Sources and Documents,weblink 23 November 2004, Routledge, 978-1-135-77681-7, 343–, Many of the Chagatai Turks and Tatars, who were the speakers of this language, claimed descent from Chagatai Khan.As part of the preparation for the 1924 establishment of the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan, Chagatai was officially renamed "Old Uzbek",BOOK,weblink Language Policy and Language Conflict in Afghanistan and Its Neighbors: The Changing Politics of Language Choice, Schiffman, Harold, Brill Academic, 2011, 978-9004201453, 178–179, BOOK,weblink Law and the Making of the Soviet World: The Red Demiurge, Scott Newton, 20 November 2014, Routledge, 978-1-317-92978-9, 232–, BOOK,weblink Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages, Andrew Dalby, Columbia University Press, 1998, 978-0-231-11568-1, 665–, BOOK,weblink Birth of Tajikistan: National Identity and the Origins of the Republic, Paul Bergne, 29 June 2007, I.B.Tauris, 978-0-85771-091-8, 24, 137, which Edward A. Allworth argued "badly distorted the literary history of the region" and was used to give authors such as Ali-Shir Nava'i an Uzbek identity.BOOK,weblink The Modern Uzbeks: From the Fourteenth Century to the Present: A Cultural History, Allworth, Edward A., Hoover Institution Press, 1990, 978-0817987329, 229–230, BOOK,weblink Aramco World Magazine, Arabian American Oil Company, 1985, 27, It was also referred to as "Turki" or "Sart". In China, it is sometimes called "ancient Uyghur".BOOK,weblink Chinese Lexical Semantics: 14th Workshop, CLSW 2013, Zhengzhou, China, May 10-12, 2013. Revised Selected Papers, Pengyuan Liu, Qi Su, 12 December 2013, Springer, 978-3-642-45185-0, 448–,


(File:Folio from an album, Mir Ali Shir Nawa I, calligrapher, Afghanistan, Herat, late 15th century AD, Chagatai Turkish text in Nastaliq script, ink, gold, color on paper, decoupage - Cincinnati Art Museum - DSC04236.JPG|thumb|right|Late 15th century Chagatai Turkish text in Nastaliq script.)Chagatai belongs to the Karluk branch of the Turkic language family. It is descended from Middle Turkic, which served as a lingua franca in Central Asia, with a strong infusion of Arabic and Persian words and turns of phrase. Its literary form was based on two earlier literary Middle Turkic languages, Karakhanid and Khorezmian. It can be divided into three periods:
  1. Pre-classical Chagatai (1400–1465).
  2. Classical Chagatai (1465–1600).
  3. Post-classical Chagatai (1600–1921).
The first period is a transitional phase characterized by the retention of archaic forms; the second phase starts with the publication of Ali-Shir Nava'i's first Divan and is the highpoint of Chagatai literature, followed by the third phase, which is characterized by two bifurcating developments. One is the preservation of the classical Chagatai language of Nava'i, the other trend is the increasing influence of the dialects of the local spoken languages.

Influence on later Turkic languages

Uzbek and Uyghur are the two modern languages most closely related to Chagatai. Uzbeks regard Chagatai as the origin of their own language and claim Chagatai literature as their own. In 1921 in Uzbekistan, then a part of the Soviet Union, Chagatai was replaced by a literary language based on a local Uzbek dialect. The Berendei, a 12th-century nomadic Turkic people possibly related to the Cumans, seem also to have spoken Chagatai.Ethnologue records the use of the word "Chagatai" in Afghanistan to describe the "Tekke" dialect of Turkmen. Up to and including the eighteenth century, Chagatai was the main literary language in Turkmenistan as well as most of Central Asia. While it had some influence on Turkmen, the two languages belong to different branches of the Turkic language family.


The most famous of the Chagatai poets is Ali-Shir Nava'i, who – among his other works – wrote Muhakamat al-Lughatayn, a detailed comparison of the Chagatai and Persian languages, in which he argued for the superiority of the former for literary purposes. His fame is attested by the fact that Chagatai is sometimes called "Nava'i's language". Among prose works, Timur's biography is written in Chagatai, as is the famous Baburnama (or Tuska Babure) of Babur, the Timurid founder of the Mughal Empire.Important works continued to be written in the Chagatai language into the early twentieth century. Among them are Musa Sayrami's TārÄ«kh-i amniyya (completed 1903) and its revised version TārÄ«kh-i ḥamÄ«di (completed 1908), representing the best sources on the Dungan Revolt (1862–77) in Xinjiang.МОЛЛА МУСА САЙРАМИ: ТА'РИХ-И АМНИЙА (Mulla Musa Sayrami's Tarikh-i amniyya: Preface)], in: "Материалы по истории казахских ханств XV–XVIII веков (Извлечения из персидских и тюркских сочинений)" (Materials for the history of the Kazakh Khanates of the 15–18th cc. (Extracts from Persian and Turkic literary works)), Alma Ata, Nauka Publishers, 1969. {{ru icon}}BOOK, Kim Ho-dong, Ho-dong, Kim, Stanford University Press, 2004, 0-8047-4884-5, Holy war in China: the Muslim rebellion and state in Chinese Central Asia, 1864–1877page=xvi, The following are books written on the Chagatai language by natives and westerners:Bosworth 2001, pp. 299–300.
  • Muḥammad MahdÄ« Khān, Sanglakh.
  • Abel Pavet de Courteille, Dictionnaire turk-oriental (1870).
  • Ármin Vámbéry 1832–1913, Ćagataische Sprachstudien, enthaltend grammatikalischen Umriss, Chrestomathie, und Wörterbuch der ćagataischen Sprache; (1867).
  • Sheykh Suleyman Efendi, ÄŒagataj-Osmanisches Wörterbuch: Verkürzte und mit deutscher Ãœbersetzung versehene Ausgabe (1902).
  • Sheykh Süleymān Efendi, Lughat-ï chaghatay ve turkÄ«-yi 'othmānÄ«.
  • Mirza Muhammad Mehdi Khan Astarabadi, Mabaniul Lughat: Yani Sarf o Nahv e Lughat e Chughatai.WEB,weblink Mabaniul Lughat: Yani Sarf o Nahv e Lughat e Chughatai - Mirza Muhammad Mehdi Khan Astarabadi (Farsi), Internet Archive,
  • Abel Pavet de Courteille, Mirâdj-nâmeh : récit de l'ascension de Mahomet au ciel, composé a.h. 840 (1436/1437), texte turk-oriental, publié pour la première fois d'après le manuscript ouïgour de la Bibliothèque nationale et traduit en français, avec une préf. analytique et historique, des notes, et des extraits du Makhzeni Mir Haïder.WEB,weblink Mirâdj-nâmeh : récit de l'ascension de Mahomet au ciel, composé a.h. 840 (1436/1437), texte turk-oriental, publié pour la première fois d'après le manuscript ouïgour de la Bibliothèque nationale et traduit en français, avec une préf. analytique et historique, des notes, et des extraits du Makhzeni Mir Haïder, Mir, Haïder, Abel, Pavet de Courteille, 1 January 1975, Amsterdam : Philo Press, Internet Archive,
The Qing dynasty commissioned dictionaries on the major languages of China which included Chagatai Turki, such as the Pentaglot Dictionary.Chagatai literature is still studied in modern Turkey and regarded as part of the Turkic heritage.The Chagatai alphabet is based on the Perso-Arabic alphabet and known as Kona Yëziq (old script).




  • Eckmann, János, Chagatay Manual. (Indiana University publications: Uralic and Altaic series ; 60). Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University, 1966. Reprinted edition, Richmond: Curzon Press, 1997, {{ISBN|0-7007-0860-X}}, or {{ISBN|978-0-7007-0860-4}}.
  • Bodrogligeti, András J. E., A Grammar of Chagatay. (Languages of the World: Materials ; 155). München: LINCOM Europa, 2001. (Repr. 2007), {{ISBN|3-89586-563-X}}.
  • Pavet de Courteille, Abel, Dictionnaire Turk-Oriental: Destinée principalement à faciliter la lecture des ouvrages de Bâber, d'Aboul-Gâzi, de Mir Ali-Chir Nevâï, et d'autres ouvrages en langues touraniennes (Eastern Turkish Dictionary: Intended Primarily to Facilitate the Reading of the Works of Babur, Abu'l Ghazi, Mir Ê¿Ali Shir Navaʾi, and Other Works in Turanian Languages). Paris, 1870. Reprinted edition, Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1972, {{ISBN|90-6022-113-3}}. Also available online (Google Books)
  • Erkinov, Aftandil. “Persian-Chaghatay Bilingualism in the Intellectual Circles of Central Asia during the 15th-18th Centuries (the case of poetical anthologies, bayāz)”. International Journal of Central Asian Studies. C.H.Woo (ed.). vol.12, 2008, pp. 57–82 weblink.
  • Cakan, Varis (2011) "Chagatai Turkish and Its Effects on Central Asian Culture", 大阪大学世界言語研究センター論集. 6 P.143-P.158, Osaka University Knowledge Archive.

External links

{{incubator|code=chg}} {{Turkic languages}}{{Authority control}}

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