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Central Park
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{{about|the public park in New York City}}{{good article}}{{short description|Large public park in Manhattan, New York, United States}}{{Use mdy dates|date=July 2019}}







factoids
frame=yesframe-align=centerframe-height=300frame-lat=40.782type=shapestroke-width=1title=Central Park}}| map_width =| map_caption = Interactive map showing location of Central Park40567355region:US-NY|display=inline,title}}| created = 1857–1876New York City Department of Parks and Recreation>NYC Parks| operator = Central Park Conservancy9}}| open = 6 a.m. to 1 a.m.Central Park#Public transport>Subway and bus; see below| embedded =







factoids
NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC INVENTORY – NOMINATION FORM FOR FEDERAL PROPERTIES: CENTRAL PARK PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE REF={{SFNREF1966, }}| refnum = 66000538
}}
}}Central Park is an urban park in Manhattan, New York City, located between the Upper West Side and the Upper East Side. Central Park is the most visited urban park in the United States, with an estimated 37–38 million visitors annually, and one of the most filmed locations in the world. In terms of area, Central Park is the fifth largest park in New York City, covering {{convert|843|acre|ha}}.Central Park was first approved in 1853 as a {{convert|778|acre|ha|adj=on}} park. In 1857, landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted and architect/landscape designer Calvert Vaux won a design competition to construct the park with a plan they titled the "Greensward Plan". Construction began the same year, and the park's first areas were opened to the public in late 1858. Additional land at the northern end of Central Park was purchased in 1859, and the park was completed in 1876. After a period of decline in the early 20th century, New York City parks commissioner Robert Moses started a program to clean up Central Park. Another decline in the late 20th century spurred the creation of the Central Park Conservancy in 1980, which refurbished many parts of the park during the 1980s and 1990s.Main attractions of the park include landscapes such as the Ramble and Lake, Hallett Nature Sanctuary, the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir, and Sheep Meadow; amusement attractions such as Wollman Rink, Central Park Carousel, and the Central Park Zoo; formal spaces such as the Central Park Mall and Bethesda Terrace; and the Delacorte Theater, which hosts Shakespeare in the Park programs in the summertime. The park also has sports facilities, including the North Meadow Recreation Center, basketball courts, baseball fields, and soccer fields.Central Park was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1963 and as a New York City scenic landmark in 1974. The park is owned by New York City Department of Parks and Recreation (NYC Parks), but has been managed by the Central Park Conservancy since 1998, under contract with the municipal government in a public-private partnership. The Conservancy, a non-profit organization, contributes 75 percent of Central Park's $65 million annual budget and is responsible for all basic care of the park.

Description

{{anchor|Geography|Design and layout}}{{Central Park map||zoom=13|width=300|height=300}}Central Park is bordered on the north by Central Park North (110th Street) and the neighborhood of Harlem; on the south by Central Park South (59th Street) and Midtown Manhattan; on the west by Central Park West (Eighth Avenue) and the Upper West Side; and on the east by Fifth Avenue and the Upper East Side. It measures {{convert|2.5|mi|km}} long and {{convert|0.5|mi|km}} wide with a total perimeter of about {{convert|6|mi|km}}.WEB,weblink Central Park Running Map, 2014, centralparknyc.org, Central Park Conservancy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181123062243weblink">weblink November 23, 2018, April 1, 2019, dead,

Design and layout

Central Park is roughly divided into thirds. From north to south, they are the "North End", north of the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir; "Mid-Park", between the reservoir to the north and the Lake and Conservatory Water to the south; and "South End", south of the Lake and Conservatory Water.WEB,weblink Central Park Map, 2014, centralparknyc.org, Central Park Conservancy, April 1, 2019, The park contains five visitor centers: Charles A. Dana Discovery Center, Belvedere Castle, Chess & Checkers House, the Dairy, and Columbus Circle.WEB, Central Park Conservancy—Official Central Park Tours, NYCgo.com,weblink April 23, 2019, WEB, Central Park Conservancy, Visitor Centers, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, February 26, 2018,weblink April 23, 2019, While planting and land form in much of the park appear natural, it was almost entirely landscaped during the 1850s and 1860s. The park contains seven lakes and ponds that have been created artificially by damming natural seeps and flows. There are several wooded sections, in addition to lawns, the "meadows", and many minor grassy areas. In addition, there are 21 children's playgrounds,WEB, Central Park Playgrounds : NYC Parks, New York City Department of Parks & Recreation, June 26, 1939,weblink April 13, 2019, as well as {{convert|6.1|mi|km}} of drives, located within the boundaries of Central Park.WEB,weblink Running, February 12, 2015, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 13, 2019, Central Park is the fifth-largest park in New York City, behind Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Van Cortlandt Park, the Staten Island Greenbelt, and Pelham Bay Park.NEWS,weblink Surveying Effort Alters Sizes of Some New York Parks, Foderaro, Lisa W, May 31, 2013, The New York Times, June 7, 2018, en-US, 0362-4331, Central Park is located on {{convert|843|acre|km2 mi2}} of land,WEB,weblink About Us, Central Park Conservancy, 2014, March 25, 2014, WEB, Frequently Asked Questions,weblink New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, February 1, 2017, making it larger than two of the world's smallest nations, Monaco and Vatican City.See:
  • WEB, Lee, Matthew, Infographic: Central Park is bigger than Monaco, Metro US, August 7, 2015,weblink May 18, 2019,
  • WEB, These maps show just how big Central Park really is, Time Out New York, August 7, 2015,weblink May 18, 2019, Central Park constitutes its own United States census tract, numbered 143. According to American Community Survey 5-year estimates, the park's population in 2017 was four people, all female, with a median age of 19.8 years.WEB,weblink Census Tract 143, New York, NY, U.S. Census Bureau, July 11, 2006, Though the 2010 United States Census counted 25 residents within census tract 143, park officials have rejected the claim of anyone permanently living there.NEWS,weblink Census Apparently Did Check Behind Every Tree, Feuer, Alan, March 25, 2011, The New York Times, April 11, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331,

Visitors

Central Park is the most visited urban park in the United StatesWEB,weblink America's Most Visited City Parks, June 2006, The Trust for Public Land,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060725034722weblink">weblink July 25, 2006, July 11, 2006,
and one of the most visited tourist attractions worldwide,WEB, The World's Most-visited Tourist Attractions, November 10, 2017, Travel + Leisure,weblink May 18, 2019, with 42 million visitors in 2016.WEB, Van Buren, Alex, 12 Secrets of New York's Central Park, Smithsonian, January 27, 2016,weblink May 18, 2019, However, the number of unique visitors is much lower; a Central Park Conservancy report conducted {{As of|2011|alt=in 2011}} showed that the park was visited by 8–9 million unique people per year with 37–38 million visits between them.WEB,weblink Report On The Public Use Of Central Park, April 2011, centralparknyc.org, Central Park Conservancy, April 1, 2019, {{rp|9}} This still represents an increase from the 25 million visitors recorded in 2009, and the 12.3 million visitors estimated in 1973.{{rp|12}}
The number of tourists as a proportion of total visitors is much lower: in 2009, one-fifth of the 25 million park visitors recorded that year were estimated to be tourists. The 2011 Conservancy report gave a similar ratio of park usage: only 14% of visits are by people visiting Central Park for the first time. According to the report, nearly two-thirds of visitors are regular park users who enter the park at least once weekly, and about 70% of visitors live in New York City. Moreover, peak visitation occurred during summer weekends, and most visitors used the park for passive recreational activities such as walking or sightseeing, as opposed to active sports.{{rp|9}}{{clear}}{{wide image|26 - New York - Octobre 2008.jpg|900px|Panoramic view of Central Park from Rockefeller Center}}{{wide image|Centralpark fg01.jpg|900px|Central Park in 2004}}

Governance

The park is maintained by the Central Park Conservancy, a private, not-for-profit organization that manages the park under a contract with NYC Parks, in which the president of the Conservancy is ex officio Administrator of Central Park. The conservancy employs 80% of maintenance and operations staff in the park. It effectively oversees the work of both the private and public employees under the authority of the publicly appointed Central Park administrator, who reports to the parks commissioner and the conservancy's president.WEB,weblink About the Central Park Conservancy, Central Park Conservancy, July 15, 2010, The Central Park Conservancy was founded in 1980 as a nonprofit organization with a citizen board to assist with the city's initiatives to clean up and rehabilitate the park. The Conservancy took over the park's management duties from NYC Parks in 1998, though NYC Parks retained ownership of Central Park. The Conservancy also provides maintenance support and staff training programs for other public parks in New York City, and has assisted with the development of new parks such as the High Line and Brooklyn Bridge Park.WEB,weblink The Central Park Effect: Assessing the Value of Central Park's Contribution to New York City's Economy, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 16, 2019, {{rp|45–46}}Central Park is patrolled by its own New York City Police Department precinct, the 22nd (Central Park) Precinct,{{Efn|Officially, the precinct is known as the 22nd Precinct. However, it is publicly referred to as the Central Park Precinct, making it one of the few unnumbered NYPD precincts in New York City.NEWS,weblink New York Has 77 Police Precincts. Why Do Their Numbers Go Higher?, Gorce, Tammy La, 2017-03-17, The New York Times, 2019-09-04, en-US, 0362-4331, }} located at the 86th Street transverse. The precinct employs both regular police and auxiliary officers.WEB,weblink NYPD – Central Park Precinct, www.nyc.gov, New York City Police Department, October 3, 2016, The 22nd Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 87.2% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct saw 0 murders, 3 rapes, 13 robberies, 4 felony assaults, 0 burglaries, 27 grand larcenies, and 0 grand larcenies auto in 2018.WEB,weblink 22nd Precinct CompStat Report, www.nyc.gov, New York City Police Department, July 22, 2018, The citywide New York City Parks Enforcement Patrol also patrols Central Park, and the Central Park Conservancy sometimes hires seasonal Parks Enforcement Patrol officers to protect certain features such as the Conservatory Garden.WEB, Croft, Geoffrey, City must PEP up and hire more park patrol officers, New York Daily News, September 2, 2009,weblink April 16, 2019, There is a free, all-volunteer medical emergency service, the Central Park Medical Unit, that operates within Central Park. The Central Park Medical Unit operates a rapid-response patrol with bicycles, ambulances, and an all-terrain vehicle. Before the unit was established in 1975, it would often take over 30 minutes for the New York City Fire Department Bureau of EMS to respond to incidents in the park.WEB, Santora, Marc, Cruising the Park, Finding Trouble, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, August 20, 2005,weblink April 16, 2019,

History

(File:Central Park Bolt.jpg|thumb|Randel's surveying bolt)

Planning

Between 1821 and 1855, New York City nearly quadrupled in population. As the city expanded northward up Manhattan Island, people were drawn to the few existing open spaces, mainly cemeteries, for passive recreation. These were seen as escapes from the noise and chaotic life in the city, which at the time was composed mostly of Lower Manhattan.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=23, 25}} The Commissioners' Plan of 1811, the outline for Manhattan's modern street grid, included several smaller open spaces but not Central Park.{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|page=9}} As such, John Randel Jr. had surveyed the grounds for the construction of intersections within the modern-day park site. The only remaining surveying bolt from his survey is embedded in a rock located north of the present Dairy and the 66th Street transverse, marking the location where West 65th Street would have intersected Sixth Avenue.BOOK, Frederick Law Olmsted, Todd, John Emerson, 1982, Twayne Publishers: Twayne's World Leader Series, Boston, 73, WEB,weblink Unearthing the City Grid That Would Have Been in Central Park, The New Yorker, March 28, 2019,

Site

File:Map of Seneca Village.jpg|thumb|Map of the former Seneca Village from Viele's survey for Central Park]]By the 1840s, members of the city's elite were publicly calling for the construction of a new large park in Manhattan. At the time, Manhattan's seventeen squares comprised a combined {{Convert|165|acre|ha|abbr=}} of land, the largest of which was the {{Convert|10|acre|ha|abbr=|adj=on}} Battery Park at Manhattan island's southern tip.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=18–19}} These plans were endorsed by New York Evening Post editor William Cullen Bryant,{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|pages=11–12}}WEB,weblink 12 Secrets of New York's Central Park, Van Buren, Alex, Travel + Leisure, January 27, 2016, Smithsonian, March 28, 2019, as well as Andrew Jackson Downing, one of the first American landscape designers.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pp=15, 29–30}}JOURNAL, Downing, Andrew, 1848, A Talk about Public Parks and Gardens, Horticulturalist, and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste, One of the first sites considered was Jones's Wood, a {{Convert|160|acre|ha|abbr=|adj=on}} tract of land between 66th and 75th Streets on the Upper East Side. The acquisition was controversial because of its location, small size, and the fact that it would require the acquisition of wealthy families' land.BOOK,weblink Documents of the Assembly of the State of New York, New York (State). Legislature. Assembly, 1911, 451–458, March 28, 2019, v. 29, {{Rp|451–453}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Taylor|2009|p=258}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Berman|2003|p=17}} A bill to acquire Jones's Wood was invalidated as unconstitutional,{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|page=45}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Taylor|2009|page=259}} and attention turned to a second site: a {{convert|750|acre|ha|adj=on}} area labeled "Central Park", bounded by 59th and 106th Streets between Fifth and Eighth Avenues.JOURNAL, 1851, First Annual Report, Board of Commissioners of Central Park, Croton Aqueduct Board president Nicholas Dean, who proposed the Central Park site, chose it because the Croton Aqueduct's {{Convert|35|acre|ha|abbr=|adj=on}}, {{Convert|150|e6gal|e6L|abbr=|adj=on}} reservoir would be in the geographical center.{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|pages=12, 14}} In July 1853, the New York State Legislature passed the Central Park Act, authorizing the purchase of the present-day site of Central Park.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|page=16}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=51–53}}The board of land commissioners started conducting property assessments on more than 34,000 lots in and near Central Park, and completed their land assessments by July 1855. While these property assessments were ongoing, proposals to downsize Central Park were passed, but then vetoed by mayor Fernando Wood.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=55–56}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Taylor|2009|pages=261–262}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|page=17}} At the time, the site was occupied by free black people and Irish immigrants who had developed a property-owning community there since 1825.NEWS,weblink Uncovering the Ruins of an Early Black Settlement in New York, Williams, Keith, February 7, 2018, The New York Times, March 31, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, WEB,weblink A look at Seneca Village, the early black settlement obliterated by the creation of Central Park, Blakinger, Keri, May 17, 2016, New York Daily News, March 31, 2019, Most of the Central Park site's residents lived in small villages, such as Pigtown;{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=73–74}}JOURNAL, 1903, Rines, George Edwin, Central City – Central Park,weblink The Americana Company, 4, The Encyclopedia Americana, Beach, Frederick Converse, Seneca Village;NEWS,weblink A Village Dies, A Park Is Born, Martin, Douglas, January 31, 1997, The New York Times, April 11, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, or in the school and convent at Mount St. Vincent's Academy.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=89–90}} Clearing began shortly after the Central Park land commission's report was released in October 1855,{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=81–83}}NEWS,weblink The Central Park—The Assessment Completed, October 4, 1855, The New York Times, April 1, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, and approximately 1,600 residents were evicted under eminent domain."Seneca Village". MAAP: Mapping the African American Past. Columbia University.{{harvnb|ps=.|Berman|2003|page=19}} Though park supporters claimed that Central Park would only cost $1.7 million,{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=46–47}} the total cost of the land ended up being $7.39 million, more than the price that the United States paid for Alaska a few years afterward.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|page=17}}BOOK,weblink Bridges of Central Park, Reed, Henry Hope, McGee, Robert M., Mipaas, Esther, 1990, Greensward Foundation, 978-0-93131-106-2, en,

Design contest

In June 1856, Fernando Wood appointed a "consulting board" of seven people, headed by author Washington Irving. The consulting board was organized purportedly to inspire public confidence in the proposed park.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=96–97}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|page=18}} Wood hired military engineer Egbert Ludovicus Viele as the chief engineer of the park, tasking Viele with doing a topographical survey of the site.{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|page=18}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Berman|2003|page=21}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=100–101}}NEWS,weblink General Egbert E. Viele, April 23, 1902, Brooklyn Daily Eagle, March 30, 2019, 3, Brooklyn Public Library; newspapers.com {{open access, }} The following April, the state legislature passed a bill to authorize the appointment of a bipartisan group of four Democratic and seven Republican commissioners,{{harvnb|ps=.|Berman|2003|page=20}} who exclusively controlled the planning and construction process.WEB,weblink 1858 Central Park Commissioners Annual Report, 1858, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, January 13, 2017, {{rp|PDF pp. 8–12}}BOOK,weblink First-thirtieth Annual Report ... 1896-1925 to the Legislature of the State of New York ..., 1911, Annual Report, 474, March 31, 2019, {{Rp|474}}NEWS,weblink The Central Park; Report of the Commissioners of the Central Park in Reply to the Inquiries of the State Senate, March 13, 1860, The New York Times, April 4, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, Though Viele had already devised a plan for the park, the commissioners disregarded his plan and retained him only to complete the topographical surveys.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=102–103}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|page=20}} The Central Park commission started a landscape design contest in April 1857, shortly after Olmsted had been hired as park superintendent.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=24–25}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=111–112}}WEB,weblink The Design Competition, CentralParkHistory.com, October 20, 2014, Thirty-three firms or organizations filed official plans.{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|page=21}} The applications were required to contain extremely detailed specifications, as mandated by the board.{{rp|PDF pp. 29–30}}In April 1858, the park commissioners selected Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux's "Greensward Plan" as the winning design.NEWS,weblink The Central Park Plans, April 30, 1858, The New York Times, April 1, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, {{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=117–120}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|pages=23–24}} Three other plans were designated as runners-up and featured in a city exhibit.NEWS,weblink The Central Park; Exhibition of the Unsuccessful Plans for the Central Park, May 13, 1858, The New York Times, April 1, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, Unlike many of the other designs, which effectively integrated Central Park with the surrounding city, Olmsted and Vaux's proposal introduced clear separations with four sunken transverse roadways.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=130–135}} The plan eschewed symmetry, instead opting for a more picturesque design. It was influenced by the pastoral ideals of landscaped cemeteries such as Mount Auburn in Cambridge, Massachusetts and Green-Wood in Brooklyn.{{harvnb|ps=.|Taylor|2009|page=266}} According to Olmsted, the park was "of great importance as the first real Park made in this country—a democratic development of the highest significance...", a view probably inspired by his various trips to Europe during 1850.{{harvnb|ps=.|Taylor|2009|pages=267–268}}NEWS,weblink Olmsted letter to Parke Godwin August 1, 1858, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape, January 19, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120308073912weblink">weblink March 8, 2012, dead, The radically naturalistic park design taught Americans a new sensibility in park environments and urban planning.Andrew Menard, "The Enlarged Freedom of Frederick Law Olmsted," New England Quarterly (2010) 83#3 pp. 508–538 in JSTOREugene P. Moehring, "Frederick Law Olmsted and the Central Park 'Revolution'" Halcyon: A Journal of the Humanities (1985) 7#1 pp. 59–75.{{Wide image|1868 Vaux ^ Olmstead Map of Central Park, New York City - Geographicus - CentralPark-CentralPark-1869.jpg|800px|Modified Greensward Plan, 1868}}

Construction

Multiple people were involved in creating the final design of Central Park. While Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux were the primary designers, they were assisted by board member Andrew Haswell Green, as well as architect Jacob Wrey Mould, master gardener Ignaz Anton Pilat, and engineer George E. Waring, Jr..{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|page=51}}WEB,weblink The Architecture and Development of New York City, Andrew S., Dolkart, October 20, 2014, Olmsted was responsible for the overall plan, while Vaux designed some of the finer details. Mould, who frequently worked with Vaux, designed the Central Park Esplanade and the Tavern on the Green restaurant building.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|page=52}} Pilat was the chief landscape architect for Central Park, and was primarily responsible with the import and placement of plants within the park.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=170–172}} A "corps" of construction engineers and foremen, managed by superintending engineer William H. Grant, were tasked with the measuring and constructing architectural features such as paths, roads, and buildings.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=159–160}}NEWS,weblink William H. Grant, C.E, October 12, 1896, The New York Times, March 30, 2019, 5, Newspapers.com {{open access, }} Waring was one of the engineers working under Grant's leadership, and was in charge of land drainage.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=163–165}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|pages=40–41}}Central Park was difficult to construct because of the generally rocky and swampy landscape.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=57–58}} Around {{Convert|5|e6ft3|m3|abbr=}} of soil and rocks had to be transported out of the park, and more gunpowder was used to clear the area than was used at the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|page=150}} More than {{convert|18500|yd3|m3}} of topsoil were transported from Long Island and New Jersey, because the original soil was neither fertile nor sufficiently substantial to sustain the flora specified in the Greensward Plan. Modern steam-powered equipment and custom tree-moving machines augmented the work of unskilled laborers. In total, over 20,000 individuals helped construct Central Park. Because of extreme precautions taken to minimize collateral damage, only five laborers died during the entire construction process.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=166–167}}During the development of Central Park, superintendent Olmsted hired several dozen mounted police officers, which were referred to as "keepers". There were two classes: park keepers and gate keepers.WEB,weblink 1865 Central Park Commissioners Annual Report, 1865, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, January 13, 2017, {{rp|20–21 (PDF pp. 19–20)}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Taylor|2009|pages=288–289}} The mounted police were viewed favorably by park patrons, and were later incorporated into a permanent patrol. However, the regulations themselves were sometimes strict. For instance, prohibited actions included games of chance, speech-making, large congregations such as picnics, or picking flowers or other parts of plants.{{harvnb|ps=.|Berman|2003|page=41}}NEWS,weblink Ordinances of the Central Park, June 5, 1870, New York Herald, March 30, 2019, 12, Newspapers.com {{open access, }} However, these ordinances were effective: by 1866, there were nearly eight million visits to the park and only 110 arrests.BOOK, Homberger, Eric, The historical atlas of New York City : a visual celebration of nearly 400 years of New York City's history, H. Holt and Co, New York, 1994, 978-0-8050-2649-8, 30473980, 88–89,

Late 1850s

(File:The Lake Central Park.jpg|upright=1.1|thumb|The Lake, one of the first features of Central Park to be completed)In late August 1857, workers began building fences, clearing vegetation, draining the land, and leveling uneven terrain.WEB,weblink 1858 Central Park Commissioners Annual Report, 1858, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, January 13, 2017, {{rp|PDF pp. 31–35}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=161–162}} By the following month, chief engineer Viele reported that the project employed nearly 700 workers.{{rp|PDF pp. 31–35}} Olmsted employed workers using day labor, hiring men directly without any contracts and paying them by the day. Many of the laborers were Irish immigrants or first-or-second generation Irish Americans, though there were some Germans and Italians as well;{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=173–175}} however, there were no black or female laborers.{{harvnb|ps=.|Taylor|2009|pages=282–283}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=176–177}} The workers were often underpaid,NEWS,weblink New York City; Dr Charles Mackay, on English Songs and Song-Writers, December 11, 1857, The New York Times, April 7, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, and workers would often take jobs at other construction projects to supplement their salary.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=178–179}} A pattern of seasonal hiring was established, wherein more workers would be hired, and paid at higher rates, during the summers.For several months, the park commissioners faced funding issues,BOOK,weblink First-thirtieth Annual Report ... 1896-1925 to the Legislature of the State of New York ..., 1911, Annual Report, 474, March 31, 2019, {{Rp|477}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=151–152}} and a dedicated work force and funding stream was not secured until June 1858.{{Rp|477}} The re-landscaped Reservoir was the only part of the park that the commissioners were not responsible for constructing; instead, the Reservoir would be built by the Croton Aqueduct board. Work on the Reservoir started in April 1858.{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|pages=47–48}} The first major work in Central Park involved grading the driveways and draining the land in the park's southern section.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|page=31}}NEWS,weblink The Central Park; Progress of the Work—Its Present Condition, and the Prospects of its being Opened to the Public, November 11, 1858, The New York Times, April 2, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, The Lake in Central Park's southwestern section was the first feature to open to the public, in December 1858,{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=32–33}} followed by the Ramble in June 1859.WEB,weblink 1859 Central Park Commissioners Annual Report, 1859, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, January 13, 2017, {{rp|10 (PDF p. 11)}} The same year, the New York State Legislature authorized the purchase of an additional {{convert|65|acre|m2}} at the northern end of Central Park, from 106th to 110th Streets.{{rp|23 (PDF p. 25)}} The southern section of Central Park below 79th Street was mostly completed by 1860.NEWS,weblink Central Park Matters; Plan of Work for the Year, May 1, 1860, The New York Times, April 4, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, The park commissioners reported in June 1860 that $4 million had been spent on the construction to date.NEWS,weblink The Central Park Investigation; Examination of Mr. Olmsted, June 28, 1860, The New York Times, April 9, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, As a result of the sharply rising costs of construction, the commissioners eliminated or downsized several features in the Greensward Plan.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=184–186}} Based on claims of cost mismanagement, the New York State Senate commissioned the Swiss engineer Julius Kellersberger to write a report on the park.NEWS,weblink The Central Park Investigation; Expenses and General Management, November 23, 1860, The New York Times, April 9, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, Kellersberger's report, submitted in 1861, stated that the commission's management of the park was a "triumphant success".{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=188–189}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|pages=37–38}}{{wide image|Annual report of the Board of Commissioners of the Central Park (1858) (18246225410).jpg|800px|Map of improvements underway by 1858|align-cap=center}}

1860s

File:Central Park 1862 crop.jpg|thumb|Bethesda Terrace under construction in 1862]]Olmsted often clashed with the park commissioners, notably with chief commissioner Green.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=64–65}} Olmsted resigned in June 1862, and Green was appointed to Olmsted's position.NEWS,weblink Andrew H. Green and Central Park, October 10, 1897, The New York Times, April 2, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, {{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=190–192}} Vaux would also resign by early 1863 because of what he saw as pressure from Green.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|page=69}} As superintendent of the park, Green accelerated construction, despite having little experience in architecture. He implemented a style of micromanagement, keeping records of the smallest transactions in an effort to reduce costs.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=193–195}} Green also finalized the negotiations to purchase the northernmost 65 acres of the park, which was later converted into a "rugged" woodland and the Harlem Meer lake.When the American Civil War started in 1861, the park commissioners decided to continue building Central Park, since significant parts of the park had already been built.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|page=46}} Only three major structures were completed during the Civil War: the Music Stand and the Casino restaurant, both demolished, as well as Bethesda Terrace and Fountain.{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|pages=58–59}} By late 1861, the park south of 72nd Street had been completed, except for various fences.WEB,weblink 1861 Central Park Commissioners Annual Report, 1861, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, January 13, 2017, {{rp|16 (PDF p. 19)}} Work had started on the northern section of the park, but was complicated by a need to preserve the historic McGowan's Pass.WEB,weblink 1864 Central Park Commissioners Annual Report, 1864, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, January 13, 2017, {{rp|7–8 (PDF pp. 9–10)}}During this period Central Park started to gain popularity. One of the main attractions in the park's early years was the introduction of the "Carriage Parade", a daily display of horse-drawn carriages that traversed the park.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|page=222}}BOOK,weblink Incredible New York: High Life and Low Life from 1850 to 1950, Morris, L.R., Syracuse University Press, 1996, 978-0-8156-0334-4, 95, April 4, 2019, Park patronage grew steadily: by 1867, Central Park accommodated nearly 3 million pedestrians, 85,000 horses, and 1.38 million vehicles annually. The park had activities for New Yorkers of all social classes. While the wealthy could ride horses on bridle paths or travel in horse-drawn carriages, almost everyone was able to participate in sports such as ice-skating or rowing, or listen to concerts at the Mall's bandstand.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|page=47}}Olmsted and Vaux were re-hired to their positions in mid-1865.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|page=71}} After they were re-hired, several structures were erected in Central Park, including the Children's District, the original Ballplayers House, and the Dairy in the southern part of Central Park. Belvedere Castle, Harlem Meer, and structures on Conservatory Water and the Lake also commenced construction.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|page=74}}

1870–1876: completion

(File:The Pennsylvania railroad- its origin, construction, condition, and connections. Embracing historical, descriptive, and statistical notices of cities, towns, villages, stations, industries, and (14573460329).jpg|thumb|Gentry in the new park, {{circa}} 1870)The Tammany Hall political machine, which was the largest political force in New York at the time, was in control of Central Park for a brief period beginning in April 1870.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|page=77}} A new charter created by Tammany boss William M. Tweed abolished the old 11-member commission and replaced it with a five-man commission composed of Green and four other Tammany-connected figures.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|page=263}} Subsequently, Olmsted and Vaux resigned from the project again in November 1870. After Tweed's embezzlement was publicly revealed in 1871, leading to his imprisonment, Olmsted and Vaux were re-hired, and the Central Park commission appointed new members who were mostly in favor of Olmsted.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=78–79}}One of the areas that remained relatively untouched was the underdeveloped western side of Central Park, though some large structures would be erected in the park's remaining empty plots.NEWS,weblink Central Park Improvement, August 25, 1872, The New York Times, April 9, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, By 1872, Manhattan Square had been reserved for the American Museum of Natural History, founded three years before at the Arsenal. A corresponding area on the East Side, originally intended as a playground, would later become the Metropolitan Museum of Art.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=86–87}} In the final years of Central Park's construction, Vaux and Mould designed several structures for Central Park. The park's sheepfold (now Tavern on the Green) and Ladies' Meadow were designed by Mould in 1870–1871, followed by the administrative offices on the 86th Street transverse in 1872.{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|page=60}} Even though Olmsted and Vaux's partnership was dissolved by the end of 1872,{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|page=280}} the park was not officially completed until 1876.{{harvnb|ps=.|Taylor|2009|page=292}}

Late 19th and early 20th centuries: first decline

File:Belvedere Castle, Central Park.jpg|thumb|Belvedere CastleBelvedere CastleBy the 1870s, the park's patronage increasingly came to include the middle and working class, and strict regulations were gradually eased, such as those against public gatherings.{{harvnb|ps=.|Berman|2003|page=81}} Because of the heightened visitor count, neglect from the Tammany administration, and budget cuts demanded by taxpayers, the maintenance expense for Central Park had reached a nadir by 1879.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=281–283}} Olmsted blamed politicians, real estate owners and park workers for Central Park's decline, though the high maintenance expense was also a factor in the decline.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=264–266}} By the 1890s, the park faced several new challenges: cars were becoming commonplace, and people were beginning to see the park as a recreational attraction, with the proliferation of amusements and refreshment stands.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=84–85}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=315–317}} The 1904 opening of the New York City Subway displaced Central Park as the city's predominant leisure destination, as New Yorkers could travel to further-away destinations such as Coney Island beaches or Broadway theaters for a five-cent fare.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=386–387}}The late 19th century saw the appointment of landscape architect Samuel Parsons to the position of New York City parks superintendent. Parsons, an onetime apprentice of Calvert Vaux,{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=89–90}} helped restore the nurseries of Central Park in 1886.NEWS,weblink Renewing Central Park; Detective Management of the Trees and Shrubbery to Be Remedied, October 10, 1886, The New York Times, April 9, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, Parsons closely followed Olmsted's original vision for the park, restoring Central Park's trees while blocking the placement of several large statues in the park.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=91–93}} Under Parsons's leadership, two circles (now Duke Ellington and Frederick Douglass Circles) were constructed at the northern corners of the park.NEWS,weblink New Central Park Plaza, July 15, 1888, The New York Times, April 14, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, {{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=294–295}} He was removed in May 1911 following a lengthy dispute over whether an expense to resoil the park was unnecessary.NEWS,weblink Samuel Parsons Dismissed, May 12, 1911, Brooklyn Daily Eagle, March 30, 2019, 20, Brooklyn Public Library; newspapers.com {{open access, }} A succession of Tammany-affiliated Democratic mayors were indifferent toward Central Park.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=99–100}}(File:Flickr - …trialsanderrors - Lower end of mall, Central Park, New York City, 1901.jpg|thumb|left|Lower end of mall in 1901)Several park advocacy groups were formed in the early 20th century. The citywide Parks and Playground Association, as well as a consortium of multiple Central Park civic groups operating under the Parks Conservation Association, were formed in the 1900s and 1910s to preserve the park's character.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=115–116}} The associations advocated against such changes as the construction of a library,NEWS,weblink To Oppose Library in Central Park, June 1, 1912, The New York Times, April 11, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, a sports stadium,NEWS,weblink To Oppose Stadium in Central Park, December 16, 1919, The New York Times, April 11, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, a cultural center,NEWS,weblink Resist Plan to Rob Park of 41.2 Acres, November 28, 1923, The New York Times, April 11, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, and an underground parking lot in Central Park.NEWS,weblink Objects to a Park Garage, January 7, 1927, The New York Times, April 11, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, A third group. the Central Park Association, was created in 1926. The Central Park Association and the Parks and Playgrounds Association were merged into the Park Association of New York City two years later.NEWS,weblink Park Bodies Merge In New Association To Speed City Plans, May 14, 1928, The New York Times, April 11, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, The Heckscher Playground—named after philanthropist August Heckscher, who donated the play equipment—opened near the southern end of Central Park in 1926,WEB,weblink To Raise $3,000,000 For Central Park, June 22, 1926, The New York Times, 0362-4331, April 22, 2019, {{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=395–397}} and quickly became popular with poor immigrant families. The following year, mayor Walker commissioned Herman W. Merkel, a landscape designer to create a plan to improve Central Park. Merkel's plans would combat vandalism and plant destruction, as well as rehabilitate paths and add eight new playgrounds, at a cost of $1 million.NEWS,weblink New Central Park Outlined in Plans, December 20, 1927, New York Daily News, March 30, 2019, 215, Newspapers.com {{open access, }}WEB,weblink 1927 Manhattan Borough Parks Department Annual Report, Herrick, Walter, January 5, 1928, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, January 13, 2017, {{rp|6–7 (PDF pp. 5–6)}} One of the suggested modifications, underground irrigation pipes, was installed soon after Merkel's report was submitted.NEWS,weblink Favors Irrigation For Central Park, March 29, 1927, The New York Times, April 9, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, The other improvements outlined in the report, such as fences to mitigate plant destruction, were postponed due to the Great Depression.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=101–102}}

1930s to 1950s: Moses rehabilitation

(File:Horseback riding in Central Park, New York City, May, 1940.jpg|thumb|Central Park in May 1940)In 1934, Republican Fiorello La Guardia was elected mayor of New York City, and he unified the five park-related departments then in existence. Newly appointed city parks commissioner Robert Moses was given the task of cleaning up the park, and he summarily fired many of the Tammany-era staff.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=103–105}} At the time, the lawns were filled with weeds and dust patches, while many trees were dying or already dead. Monuments had been vandalized, equipment and walkways were broken, and ironwork was rusted.POWER BROKER, {{rp|334}} Moses biographer Robert Caro later said, "The once beautiful Mall looked like a scene of a wild party the morning after. Benches lay on their backs, their legs jabbing at the sky..."{{rp|334}}During the following year, the city's parks department replanted lawns and flowers, replaced dead trees and bushes, sandblasted walls, repaired roads and bridges, and restored statues.BOOK, New York 1930, Stern, Robert A.M., Gregory Gilmartin, Thomas Mellins, Rizzoli New York, 1987, 978-0-8478-3096-1, 710, {{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=106–109}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=450–451}} The park menagerie and Arsenal was transformed into the modern Central Park Zoo, and a rat extermination program was instituted within the zoo. Another dramatic change was Moses's removal of the "Hoover valley" shantytown at the north end of Turtle Pond, which became the {{convert|30|acre||abbr=|adj=on}} Great Lawn. The western part of the Pond at the park's southeast corner became an ice skating rink called Wollman Rink, roads were improved or widened,{{rp|984}} and twenty-one playgrounds were added. These projects were paid for using funds from the New Deal program, as well as donations from the public.WEB,weblink Planting the Seeds for the "Great Lawn", Centralparkhistory.com, October 20, 2014, To make way for the Tavern on the Green restaurant, Moses evicted the sheep from Sheep Meadow.{{rp|984}}NEWS,weblink Central Park's Sheep Join the Fold in Prospect Park, March 18, 1934, The New York Times, April 9, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, The 1940s and 1950s saw additional renovations, among them a restoration of the Harlem Meer completed in 1943,NEWS,weblink Central Park Section Reopened to the Public, December 8, 1943, The New York Times, April 11, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, as well as a new boathouse completed in 1954.NEWS,weblink New $305,000 Boathouse at Central Park Lake Will Be Opened Today, March 12, 1954, The New York Times, April 16, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, WEB,weblink Central Park Highlights, June 26, 1939, Loeb Boat House : NYC Parks, April 16, 2019, WEB,weblink Loeb Boathouse, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 16, 2019, Moses also started constructing several other recreational features in Central Park, such as playgrounds and ballfields.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=110–111}} One of the more controversial projects proposed during this time was a 1956 dispute over a parking lot for Tavern in the Green. The controversy placed Moses, an urban planner known for displacing families for other large projects around the city, against a group of mothers who frequented a wooded hollow at the site of a parking lot.NEWS,weblink Parking Lot Foes Routed By Moses, Schumach, Murray, April 25, 1956, The New York Times, April 11, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, Despite opposition from the parents, Moses approved the destruction of part of the hollow. Demolition work commenced after Central Park was closed for the night, and was only halted after a threat of a lawsuit.NEWS,weblink Court Stops Job In Central Park, April 27, 1956, The New York Times, April 11, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331,

1960s and 1970s: "Events Era" and second decline

Moses left his position in May 1960. No park commissioner since Moses was able to exercise the same degree of power, nor did NYC Parks remain as stable a position in the aftermath of his departure, with eight commissioners holding the office in the twenty years following.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=112–113}} The city was experiencing economic and social changes, with some residents leaving the city and moving to the suburbs.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|page=476}}WEB,weblink The History of Central Park, August 18, 2009, Centralparknyc.org, December 20, 2012, Interest in the landscape of Central Park had long since declined, and the park was now mostly being used for recreation.NEWS,weblink Manhattan's Changing, Gregg, John, April 29, 1962, New York Daily News, March 30, 2019, 52, Newspapers.com {{open access, }} Several unrealized additions were proposed for Central Park in that decade, such as a public housing development,NEWS,weblink Housing Plan for Central Park; Scored as 'Absurd' and 'Outrage', May 7, 1964, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, a golf course,NEWS,weblink Golf in Central Park Is Rejected by Morris, November 19, 1964, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, and a "revolving world's fair".NEWS,weblink A 'Revolving World's Fair' In Central Park Proposed, October 20, 1966, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, The 1960s also marked the beginning of an "Events Era" in Central Park that reflected the widespread cultural and political trends of the period.BOOK,weblink Saving Central Park: A History and a Memoir, Rogers, E.B., Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2018, 978-1-5247-3356-8, 20, April 18, 2019, The Public Theater's annual Shakespeare in the Park festival was settled in the Delacorte Theater,NEWS,weblink Papp Altering Central Park Theater, Calta, Louis, May 20, 1971, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, and summer performances were instituted on the Sheep Meadow and the Great Lawn by the New York Philharmonic Orchestra and the Metropolitan Opera.{{Refn|See, for example:
  • WEB, Strongin, Theodore, Concert in Park Heard by 73,500, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, August 18, 1965,weblink April 18, 2019,
  • WEB, Wilson, John S., Barbra Streisand's Free Sing-In Jams Sheep Meadow in the Park, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, June 18, 1967,weblink April 18, 2019, }} During the late 1960s, the park became the venue for rallies and cultural events such as the "love-ins" and "be-ins" of the period.WEB,weblink CentralParkHistory.com, December 24, 1999, CentralParkHistory.com, April 18, 2019, {{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|page=489}}
By the mid-1970s, however, managerial neglect was taking a toll on the park's condition. A 1973 report noted that the park suffered from severe erosion and tree decay, and that individual structures were being vandalized or neglected.NEWS,weblink Central Park Condition Decried, Hudson, Edward, June 8, 1973, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, The Central Park Community Fund was subsequently created based on the recommendation of a report from a Columbia University professor.NEWS,weblink Central Park Called Badly Managed;, Gerston, Jill, November 20, 1974, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, The Fund then commissioned a study of the park's management and suggested the appointment of both a NYC Parks administrator and a board of citizens.NEWS,weblink Special Management Plan Urged To Combat Central Park's Decay, Maitland, Leslie, November 12, 1978, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, In 1979, Parks Commissioner Gordon Davis established the Office of Central Park Administrator and appointed Elizabeth Barlow, the executive director of the Central Park Task Force, to the position.NEWS,weblink New Central Park Overseer, Dembart, Lee, February 28, 1979, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, NEWS, The Greening of Central Park, Slagle, Alton, February 6, 1983, New York Daily News, 7, 55, Newspapers.com {{open access, }} The Central Park Conservancy, a nonprofit organization with a citizen board, was founded the following year.NEWS,weblink Mayor Koch Sets Up Conservancy for Central Park, Glueck, Grace, December 14, 1980, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, NEWS,weblink Central Park gets its own fund-raisers, December 18, 1980, New York Daily News, March 30, 2019, 181, Newspapers.com {{open access, }}

1970s to 2000s: restoration

{{multiple image|direction=vertical|align=right|width=250caption1=The Great Lawn before renovations in the late 1970scaption2=The Great Lawn after renovations in the 1980s}}Under the leadership of the Central Park Conservancy, the park's reclamation began by addressing needs that could not be met within NYC Parks' existing resources. The Conservancy hired interns and a small restoration staff to reconstruct and repair unique rustic features, undertaking horticultural projects, and removing graffiti under the broken windows theory, which advocated removing visible signs of decay.NEWS,weblink Pruning Central Park, Larkin, Kathy, May 6, 1983, New York Daily News, March 30, 2019, 69, Newspapers.com {{open access, }} The first structure to be renovated was the Dairy, which reopened as the park's first visitor center in 1979.NEWS,weblink 1870 Dairy In the Park Reopening, November 16, 1979, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, The Sheep Meadow, which reopened the following year, was the first landscape to be restored.NEWS,weblink Central Park's Sheep Meadow, Where the Grass Is Greener, Is Reopened, September 25, 1980, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, Bethesda Terrace and Fountain, the USS Maine National Monument, and the Bow Bridge were also rehabilitated.Murphy and Ottavino 1986 and JOURNAL, Champe, Peter, Rabinowitz, Mark, 1999, Restoring the Minton Tile Ceiling, Bethesda Terrace Arcade, Central Park, New York City, APT Bulletin, 30, 2–3, 11–16, 10.2307/1504635, 1504635, NEWS,weblink 10-Year Restoration Planned for Central Park, Carmody, Deirdre, October 14, 1981, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, By then, the Conservancy was engaged in design efforts and long-term restoration planning,NEWS,weblink Central Park Renews Its Details and Vistas in a Burst of Repairs, Carmody, Deirdre, October 13, 1984, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, and in 1981, Davis and Barlow announced a 10-year, $100 million "Central Park Management and Restoration Plan". The long-closed Belvedere Castle was renovated and reopened in 1983,NEWS,weblink New York Day by Day; Crown for a Castle, Johnston, Laurie, September 21, 1983, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, Anderson, Susan Heller, en-US, 0362-4331, NEWS,weblink Thanks for the facelift, La Rosa, Paul, September 22, 1983, New York Daily News, March 30, 2019, 158, Newspapers.com {{open access, }} and the Central Park Zoo was closed for a total reconstruction the same year. In an effort to reduce the maintenance effort for Central Park, certain large gatherings such as free concerts were banned within Central Park.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=518–519}}On completion of the planning stage in 1985, the Conservancy launched its first capital campaign and mapped out a 15-year restoration plan.NEWS,weblink The City Unveils a Blueprint for Renovating Central Park, Carmody, Deirdre, April 28, 1985, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, Over the next several years, the campaign restored landmarks in the southern part of the park, such as Grand Army Plaza,WEB,weblink Review/Architecture; A Restored Grand Army Plaza, With a New Coat for the General, Goldberger, Paul, June 28, 1990, The New York Times, April 14, 2010, en-US, 0362-4331, Conservatory Garden,NEWS,weblink Garden in Central Park Is Reborn After Neglect, Lyall, Sarah, June 11, 1987, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, and the police station at the 86th Street transverse.NEWS,weblink Streetscapes: The Central Park Stable; For a Police Station, Restoration of an 1870 Jewel, Gray, Christopher, September 4, 1988, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, Real estate developer Donald Trump renovated the Wollman Rink in 1987 after plans to renovate the rink were repeatedly delayed.NEWS,weblink Trump to Run 2 Ice-Skating Rinks in Central Park, Anderson, Susan Heller, October 15, 1987, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, The following year, the Zoo reopened after a $35 million, four-year renovation.NEWS, The Zoo Crew, Faye Kaplan, Lisa, August 18, 1988, White Plains Journal-News, 23, 24, Newspapers.com {{open access, }}Improvements to the northern end of the park began in 1989.NEWS,weblink Neighborhood Report: Central Park; A Rebirth For Upper Park, Howe, Marvine, October 31, 1993, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, A $51 million capital campaign, announced in 1993,NEWS,weblink Streetscapes: Central Park; Restoration Recalls the 1930's Battle of the Ballfields, Gray, Christopher, May 16, 1993, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, resulted in the restoration of bridle trails,NEWS,weblink Streetscapes/Central Park's Bridle Paths; The Challenge of Restoring Long-Neglected Trails, Gray, Christopher, January 2, 1994, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, the Mall,WEB,weblink Urban Park Management and the Central Park Conservancy, April 16, 2014, Central Park Conservancy, April 19, 2019, {{Rp|22}} the Harlem Meer,NEWS,weblink A Nature Center Blooms in Central Park Woodlands, Kennedy, Shawn G, May 9, 1993, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, and the North Woods, as well as the construction of the Dana Discovery Center on the Harlem Meer. This was followed by the Conservancy's overhaul of the {{convert|55|acres|abbr=off}} near the Great Lawn and Turtle Pond, which was completed in 1997.NEWS,weblink City Emerald; Great Lawn Reopens. Will Its Fans Love It to Death?, Martin, Douglas, October 9, 1997, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, During the mid-1990s, the Conservancy hired additional volunteers and implemented a zone-based system of management throughout the park. The Conservancy assumed much of the park's operations in early 1998.NEWS,weblink Private Group Signs Central Park Deal To Be Its Manager, Martin, Douglas, February 12, 1998, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, Renovations continued through the first decade of the 21st century, and a project to restore the Pond was commenced in 2000.NEWS,weblink Neighborhood Report: Central Park; Fish Must Find New Homes As Pond Gets a Makeover, Lee, Denny, September 3, 2000, The New York Times, April 19, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, Four years later, the Conservancy replaced a chain-link fence with a replica of the original cast-iron fence that surrounded the Reservoir.NEWS,weblink Streetscapes/The Central Park Reservoir; A Good Fence Makes The Neighbors Feel Good, Gray, Christopher, June 20, 2004, The New York Times, April 19, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, In addition, it started refurbishing the ceiling tiles of the Bethesda Arcade,NEWS,weblink Restoring Vaux's Vision, One Tile at a Time, Mooney, Jake, July 16, 2006, The New York Times, April 19, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, which was completed in 2007.WEB,weblink Central Park's Bethesda Terrace Arcade Reopens, March 2, 2007, www.nycgovparks.org, April 19, 2019, Soon after, the Central Park Conservancy started restoring the Ramble and Lake,WEB,weblink Behind the Dam, One Fierce Holdout, Dunlap, David W, July 18, 2008, City Room, en-US, April 19, 2019, in a project that was completed in 2012.{{Rp|56}} Bank Rock Bridge was restored,WEB,weblink Oak Bridge at Bank Rock Bay, Central Park Conservancy, February 12, 2015, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, October 12, 2017, WEB,weblink An Old Bridge, Reconstructed, Is Unveiled in Central Park, Lee, Jennifer 8, September 30, 2009, City Room, en-US, April 19, 2019, and the Gill, which empties into the lake, was reconstructed to approximate its dramatic original form.WEB,weblink Central Park Conservancy Announces The Campaign For Central Park, Central Park Conservancy, 2006, April 20, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071003070133weblink">weblink October 3, 2007, dead, The final feature to be restored was the East Meadow, which was rehabilitated in 2011.WEB,weblink Conservancy Marks Milestone in Restoring Central Park, Foderaro, Lisa W, September 20, 2011, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, April 13, 2019,

2010s to present

Legislation was proposed in October 2014 to conduct a study to make the park car-free during the following summer.WEB, Dutes, Sheldon, Cars May Be Banned From Central Park, NBC New York, October 8, 2014,weblink September 12, 2019, In 2015, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced the permanent closure of West and East Drives north of 72nd Street to vehicular traffic as it was proven that closing the roads did not adversely impact traffic.WEB,weblink Central Park, Prospect Park loops to be closed to traffic on weekdays, June 18, 2015, 7 Online, June 22, 2016, Subsequently, in June 2018, the remaining drives south of 72nd Street were closed to vehicular traffic.WEB,weblink At last, Central Park is permanently car-free, Walker, Ameena, June 27, 2018, Curbed NY, October 6, 2018, WEB,weblink Central Park goes car-free as traffic ban takes effect, June 26, 2018, ABC7 New York, October 6, 2018, Several renovation projects continued through the park in the late 2010s. Belvedere Castle was closed in 2018 for an extensive renovation, reopening in June 2019.WEB, Central Park's Castle Gets a $12 Million Fairy-Tale Makeover, The New York Times, July 12, 2019,weblink en-US, 0362-4331, July 1, 2019, WEB,weblink Central Park's Belvedere Castle will reopen June 28, Rosenberg, Zoe, June 18, 2019, Curbed NY, June 19, 2019, WEB,weblink Central Park's Belvedere Castle Reopening After Restoration, June 18, 2019, Gothamist, June 19, 2019,weblink June 18, 2019, dead, Also in 2018, it was announced that Lasker Rink would be closed for a three-year, $150 million renovation.WEB,weblink Central Park's Lasker pool and ice rink set for $150 million makeover, Durkin, Erin, July 18, 2018, New York Daily News, April 17, 2019, Later in 2018, it was announced that the Delacorte Theater would also be closed from 2020 to 2022 for a $110 million rebuild.NEWS,weblink A Restoration for Shakespeare's Home in Central Park, Pogrebin, Robin, October 31, 2018, The New York Times, April 19, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, The Central Park Conservancy later revealed that Lasker Rink's complete reconstruction would take place between 2021 and 2024.WEB,weblink $110 Million to Fix Central Park Section Far From 'Billionaire's Row', September 18, 2019, The New York Times, September 19, 2019, WEB,weblink Central Park's $150M redesign focuses on north end improvements, Cohen, Li Yakira, September 18, 2019, AM New York, Newsday, September 19, 2019, WEB,weblink Central Park to get new, improved pool and ice-skating rink, Glasser-Baker, Becca, September 18, 2019, Metro US, September 19, 2019,

{{anchor|Natural features}} Landscape features

Geology

(File:Rat rock east face Feb jeh.jpg|thumb|East side of Rat Rock)There are four different types of bedrock in Manhattan. In Central Park, Manhattan schist and Hartland schist, which are both metamorphosed sedimentary rock, are exposed in various outcroppings. The other two types, Fordham gneiss (an older deeper layer) and Inwood marble (metamorphosed limestone which overlays the gneiss), do not surface in the park.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=220–221}}BOOK,weblink City at the Water's Edge: A Natural History of New York, McCully, B., Rutgers University Press, 2006, 978-0-8135-4010-8, 6, April 15, 2019, WEB,weblink Geology of Central Park – From Rocks to Ice, Merguerian, Charles, Merguerian, Mickey, 2004, Stony Brook University (SUNY) Department of Geosciences, April 15, 2019, {{Rp|1}} Fordham gneiss, which consists of metamorphosed igneous rocks, was formed a billion years ago, during the Grenville orogeny that occurred during the creation of an ancient super-continent. Manhattan schist and Hartland schist were formed in the Iapetus Ocean during the Taconic orogeny in the Paleozoic era, about 450 million years ago, when the tectonic plates started to merge to form the supercontinent Pangaea.WEB,weblink Deformational History Of The Manhattan Rocks And Its Relationship With The State Of In-Situ Stress In The New York City Area, New York, March 25, 2004, gsa.confex.com, April 15, 2019, Cameron's Line, a fault zone that traverses Central Park on an east-west axis, divides the outcroppings of Hartland schist to the south and Manhattan schist to the north.{{Rp|7–8}}Various glaciers have covered the area of Central Park in the past, with the most recent being the Wisconsin glacier which receded about 12,000 years ago. Evidence of past glaciers can be seen throughout the park in the form of glacial erratics (large boulders dropped by the receding glacier) and north-south glacial striations visible on stone outcroppings.NEWS,weblink How the Ice Age Shaped New York, Broad, William J, June 5, 2018, The New York Times, April 15, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, WEB,weblink Geological History of NYC Parks : NYC Parks, www.nycgovparks.org, April 15, 2019, Alignments of glacial erratics, called "boulder trains", are also present throughout Central Park.NEWS,weblink The Very Cold Case of the Glacier, Collins, Glenn, September 14, 2005, The New York Times, April 15, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, The most notable of these outcroppings is Rat Rock (also known as Umpire Rock), a circular outcropping at the southwestern corner of the park.BOOK, Sherman, John, Stone Crusade: A Historical Guide to Bouldering in America, The Mountaineers Books,weblink 226–228, 1994, 978-0-930410-62-9, It measures {{convert|55|ft|m}} wide and {{convert|15|ft|m}} tall with different east, west, and north faces.WEB,weblink The Zen of the Rock, Bleyer, Jennifer, October 7, 2007, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, April 19, 2019, Boulderers sometimes congregate there, but the quality of the stone is poor, and the climbs present so little challenge that it has been called "one of America's most pathetic boulders". A single glacial pothole with yellow clay also exists near the southwest corner of the park.{{Rp|18}}{{harvnb|Kinkead|1990|ps=.|page=224}}The underground geology of Central Park has been altered by the construction of several New York City Subway lines underneath it. In addition, New York City Water Tunnel No. 3 is being built under the park, some {{Convert|700|ft|m|abbr=}} underground. Excavations for the latter project have uncovered pegmatite, feldspar, quartz, biotite, and several metals.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=225–226}}

{{Anchor|Wooded areas|Lawns}}Wooded areas and lawns

(File:2886-Central Park-The Ramble.JPG|thumb|Wooded area of the Ramble)There are three wooded areas in Central Park: North Woods, the Ramble, and Hallett Nature Sanctuary.BOOK,weblink Landscape Management and Restoration Program for the Woodlands of Central Park, Andropogon Associates, Ltd., April 23, 2019, Issuu, {{Rp|2–3}} North Woods is the largest of the woodlands, and is located at the lightly-used northwestern corner of Central Park.HIDDEN WATERS NYC, {{rp|The Loch}}WEB,weblink 20 hidden gems of Central Park, Plitt, Amy, July 1, 2017, Curbed NY, March 1, 2019, WEB,weblink North Woods, February 12, 2015, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 23, 2019, It covers about {{Convert|90|acre|ha|abbr=}} adjacent to North Meadow.{{Rp|37–38}} The name sometimes also applies to other attractions in the park's northern end; if these adjacent features are included, the area of North Woods can be {{Convert|200|acre|ha|abbr=}}. North Woods contains the {{Convert|55|acre|ha|abbr=|adj=on}} Ravine, a forest with deciduous trees on its northwestern slope, as well as the Loch, a small stream that winds through North Woods diagonally.{{Rp|39}}WEB,weblink Forever Wild : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, New York City Department of Parks & Recreation, April 23, 2019, The Ramble is located in the southern third of the park next to the Lake.{{Rp|44–45}}WEB,weblink The Ramble, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 21, 2019, Covering {{Convert|36|to|38|acre|ha|1|abbr=}}, it contains a series of winding paths. The area contains a diverse selection of vegetation and other flora, which attracts a plethora of birds.WEB,weblink Bird-Watchers in Central Park Flock to the Ramble, Kilgannon, Corey, May 7, 2011, The New York Times, April 21, 2019, {{Rp|44–45}}WEB,weblink In Central Park, an Uneasy Coexistence Grows Uneasier, Foderaro, Lisa W, September 14, 2012, The New York Times, April 21, 2019, At least 250 species of birds have been spotted in the Ramble over the years. Historically, the Ramble was also known as a place for private homosexual encounters due to its seclusion.The Hallett Nature Sanctuary is located at the southeastern corner of Central Park.{{Rp|48–49}} It is the smallest wooded area at {{Convert|4|acre|ha|abbr=}}WEB,weblink Hallett Nature Sanctuary, February 12, 2015, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 23, 2019, Originally known as the Promontory, it was renamed after civic activist and birder George Hervey Hallett Jr. in 1986.NEWS,weblink New York Day by Day; In Honor of a Civic Leader, Anderson, Susan Heller, July 1, 1986, The New York Times, April 23, 2019, Dunlap, David W., en-US, 0362-4331, The Hallett Sanctuary was closed to the public from 1934 to 2016, when it was reopened during the midday.NEWS,weblink A Secret Section of Central Park Reopens, Barron, James, May 10, 2016, The New York Times, April 23, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, The Central Park Conservancy also classifies its remaining green space into four types of lawns, labeled alphabetically based on usage and amount of maintenance needed. There are seven high-priority "A Lawns", collectively covering {{convert|65|acre|ha}}, that are heavily used: Sheep Meadow, Great Lawn, North Meadow, East Meadow, Conservatory Garden, Heckscher Ballfields, and the Lawn Bowling and Croquet Greens near Sheep Meadow. These are permanently surrounded by fences, are heavily maintained, and are closed during the off-season. Another 16 lawns, covering {{convert|37|acre|ha}}, are classed as "B Lawns" and are fenced off only during off-seasons, while an additional {{convert|69|acre|ha}} are "C Lawns" and are only occasionally fenced off. The lowest-prioritized type of turf, "D Lawns", cover {{convert|162|acre|ha}} and are open year-round with minimal barriers or access restrictions.WEB,weblink Turf Care Handbook, 2016, Central Park Conservancy, May 2, 2019, {{Rp|34–37 (PDF pp. 19–20)}}

Watercourses

{{multiple image|align=right|direction=vertical|width=250caption1=The Harlem Meercaption2=The Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoircaption3=Loeb Boathouse Cafe}}Central Park is home to eight bodies of water: the Harlem Meer; the Loch; the Pool; the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir; the Turtle Pond; the Lake; Conservatory Water; and the Pond.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|page=35}} The northernmost lake, Harlem Meer, is located near the northeastern corner of the park and covers nearly {{convert|11|acre}}.WEB,weblink Harlem Meer, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 4, 2019, Located in a wooded area of oak, cypress, and beech trees, it was named after Harlem, one of Manhattan's first suburban communities, and was built after the completion of the southern portion of the park. Harlem Meer also allows visitors to fish on a catch and release basis. Harlem Meer is fed by two interconnected water features: The Pool, a pond within the North Woods fed by drinking water,WEB, Central Park Conservancy, The Pool, The Official Website of Central Park NYC,weblink July 14, 2019, and the Loch, a small stream with three cascades that winds through the North Woods.WEB, Central Park Conservancy, The Loch, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, February 12, 2015,weblink July 14, 2019, These are all adapted from a single watercourse called Montayne's Rivulet, originally fed from a natural spring but later replenished by the city's water system.NEWS,weblink Scenes From a Wild Youth – Streetscapes/Central Park, Gray, Christopher, May 26, 2011, The New York Times, April 4, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, {{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|page=48}}South of Harlem Meer and the Pool is Central Park's largest lake, the Central Park Reservoir, which has been known as Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir since 1994.WEB, Cardwell, Diane, Central Park Reservoir Fountain Returns to Life, City Room, July 30, 2007,weblink April 19, 2019, It was constructed between 1858 and 1862. Covering an area of {{convert|106|acre}} between 86th and 96th Streets, the reservoir reaches a depth of more than {{convert|40|ft}} in places and contains about {{convert|1|e9usgal|e9l|abbr=off|sp=us}} of water.WEB, Central Park Conservancy, Reservoir, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, February 12, 2015,weblink April 19, 2019, The Onassis Reservoir was formerly occupied by the site of a rectangular-shaped Croton Aqueduct storage reservoir. It was re-landscaped for a more natural look when Central Park was built. Because the original Croton reservoir stretched between Fifth and Seventh Avenue, East Drive near the Onassis Reservoir was built as a straight path, with little clearance between the reservoir to the west and Fifth Avenue to the east.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|page=50}}The Turtle Pond, a man-made pond, is located at the southern edge of the Great Lawn. The pond was originally part of the Croton receiving reservoir, but most of that watercourse was infilled in 1937.WEB,weblink Turtle Pond, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 4, 2019, The Lake, south of the 79th Street transverse, covers nearly {{convert|18|acre}}.WEB,weblink The Lake, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 4, 2019, Originally, it was part of the Sawkill Creek, which flowed near the American Museum of Natural History.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=36–37}} The Lake was among the first features to be completed, opening to skaters in December 1858. It was intended to accommodate boats in the summer and ice skaters in winter. The Loeb Boathouse, located on the eastern shore of the Lake, rents out rowboats, kayaks, and gondolas, and also houses a restaurant.Directly east of the Lake is Conservatory Water, located on the site of an unbuilt formal garden.WEB,weblink Conservatory Water, March 20, 2019, Your Complete Guide to New York City's Central Park, April 4, 2019, The shore of Conservatory Water contains the Kerbs Memorial Boathouse, where patrons can rent and navigate model boats.WEB,weblink Conservatory Water, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 16, 2019, WEB,weblink Jeanne E. Kerbs : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, Central Park Monuments, April 16, 2019, In the southeast corner is the Pond, with an area of {{convert|3.5|acre}}. The Pond is located near one of the busiest entrances to Central Park but still provides an atmosphere of calm and solitude.WEB,weblink The Pond, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 4, 2019, The Pond was adapted from part of the former DeVoor's Mill Stream, which used to flow into the East River at the modern-day neighborhood of Turtle Bay.NEWS,weblink Tracing the Waterways Beneath the Sidewalks of New York, Dwyer, Jim, May 11, 2017, The New York Times, April 4, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331,

Wildlife

Central Park is known for its biodiversity. A 2013 survey of park species by William E. Macaulay Honors College found 571 total species,NEWS,weblink Canvassing Central Park and Finding New Tenants, Foderaro, Lisa W, August 27, 2013, The New York Times, April 16, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, WEB,weblink 2013 Macaulay Honors College Central Park BioBlitz, September 22, 2014, iNaturalist.org, April 16, 2019, WEB,weblink 2013 Central Park BioBlitz Results Highlights – BioBlitz, September 22, 2014, Macaulay Honors College, City University of New York, April 16, 2019, including 173 species that were not previously known to live there.WEB,weblink Roll Call in the Ramble, Bonanos, Christopher, September 30, 2013, NYMag.com, April 16, 2019,

Flora

File:IMG 1527Dogwood.JPG|thumb|Bracts of flowering dogwood, an understoryunderstory{{As of|2011||df=|since=}}, Central Park had more than 20,000 trees,NEWS,weblink 2 Enthusiasts Compose Map of Central Park Trees, Robbins, Liz, May 30, 2011, The New York Times, April 16, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, WEB,weblink Mapping (Almost) Every Tree In Central Park, July 7, 2011, NPR.org, April 16, 2019, WEB,weblink Tree Guide, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 16, 2019, representing a decrease from the 26,000 trees that were located in the park in 1993.NEWS,weblink Answers to Questions About New York, Pollak, Michael, January 11, 2013, The New York Times, April 16, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, The majority of the trees are native to New York City, but there are several clusters of non-native species.BOOK,weblink New York City Trees: A Field Guide for the Metropolitan Area, Barnard, E.S., Columbia University Press, 2002, 978-0-231-12835-3, City of New York. Parks & recreation, 32–35, April 16, 2019, With few exceptions, the trees in Central Park were mostly planted or placed manually. Over four million trees, shrubs, and plants representing approximately 1,500 species were planted or imported to the park. In Central Park's earliest years, two plant nurseries were maintained within the park boundaries: a demolished nursery near the Arsenal, as well as the still-extant Conservatory Garden.{{harvnb|ps=.|Kinkead|1990|pages=55–56}} Central Park Conservancy later took over regular maintenance of the park's flora, allocating gardeners to one of 49 "zones" for maintenance purposes.WEB,weblink Zone Management in Central Park, December 26, 2016, Zone Management in Central Park, Central Park Conservancy, April 16, 2019, Central Park contains ten "great tree" clusters that are specially recognized by NYC Parks. These include four individual American Elms and one American Elm grove; the 600 pine trees in the Arthur Ross Pinetum; a Black Tupelo in the Ramble; 35 Yoshino Cherries on the east side of the Onassis Reservoir; one of the park's oldest London Plane trees at 96th Street; and an Evodia at Heckscher Playground.WEB,weblink Central Park Great Trees : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, New York City Department of Parks & Recreation, April 16, 2019, The American Elms in Central Park are the largest remaining stands in the northeastern U.S., protected by their isolation from the Dutch elm disease that devastated the tree throughout its native range. There are also several "tree walks" that run through Central Park.

Fauna

File:Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis Full Body 1880px.jpg|thumb|alt=Central Park is frequented by various migratory birds during their spring and fall migration on the Atlantic Flyway, though it has a smaller bird population than larger parks such as Van Cortlandt Park.BOOK,weblink Urban Ornithology: 150 Years of Birds in New York City, Buckley, P.A., Sedwitz, W., Norse, W.J., Kieran, J., Cornell University Press, 2018, 978-1-5017-1962-2, April 16, 2019, {{Rp|35}} The first official list of birds observed in Central Park, numbering 235 species, was published in Forest and Stream in 1886 by Augustus G. Paine Jr. and Lewis B. Woodruff.JOURNAL, June 10, 1886, List of birds of Central Park, Forest and Stream, XXVI, 20, 386–387, The Forest and Stream Publishing Company, New York, JOURNAL, Eugene, Kinkead, August 26, 1974, The Birds of Central Park, The New Yorker, XXVI, 20, 78, New York,weblink Overall, a total of 303 bird species have been seen in the park since the first official list of records was published,{{Rp|35}} including an estimated 200 species every season.WEB,weblink The Insider's Guide to Birding in Central Park, New York City, June 2, 2017, Audubon, April 16, 2019, However, no single group is responsible for tracking Central Park's bird species.{{Rp|34}} Some of the more famous birds include a male red-tailed hawk called Pale Male, who made his perch on an apartment building overlooking Central Park in 1991.WEB,weblink Reprise: The Fifth Avenue Ballad of Pale Male and Lola, Lueck, Thomas J, April 1, 2008, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, April 16, 2019, WEB,weblink Spying On The World's Most Famous Hawk: Pale Male, Croke, Vicki, November 6, 2014, WBUR's The Wild Life, April 16, 2019, More infamously, Eugene Schieffelin released 100 imported European starlings in Central Park in 1890–1891, which led to them becoming an invasive species in North America.WEB,weblink The Invasive Species We Can Blame On Shakespeare, Zielinski, Sarah, October 4, 2011, Smithsonian, April 16, 2019, WEB,weblink All the Birds from Shakespeare in Central Park!, June 9, 2016, JSTOR Daily, April 16, 2019, Central Park has about ten species of mammals as of 2013. Bats, a nocturnal order, have been found in dark crevices in Central Park.WEB,weblink Biology in the Big Apple: Surveying the Wildlife of Central Park, September 28, 2013, Scientific American Blog Network, April 16, 2019, Raccoons have become extremely common in the park, prompting the Parks Department to post rabies advisories.NEWS,weblink Raccoons in Central Park Draw Crowds, and Warnings to Stay Away, Nir, Sarah Maslin, November 13, 2016, The New York Times, April 16, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, Eastern gray squirrels and Virginia opossums also live in the park, and though Eastern chipmunks are not commonly sighted in Central Park, they also inhabit the park boundaries.WEB,weblink Answers About Central Park Wildlife, Part 3, Winn, Marie, July 25, 2008, City Room, The New York Times, en-US, April 16, 2019, There are also 223 invertebrate species in Central Park. One of them is Nannarrup hoffmani, a centipede species discovered in Central Park in 2002; it is one of the smallest centipedes in the world at about {{convert|0.4|in|mm}} long.NEWS,weblink A New Kind of New Yorker, One With 82 Legs, Stewart, Barbara, July 24, 2002, The New York Times, April 16, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, Another, more prevalent species is the Asian long-horned beetle, an invasive species that has infected trees in Long Island and Manhattan, including in Central Park.WEB,weblink The Daily Plant : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, New York City Department of Parks & Recreation, April 16, 2019, WEB,weblink Beetles infest 2 trees in Central Park, February 17, 2002, November 14, 2014, The Baltimore Sun, Turtles and fish also live in Central Park. Most of the turtles live in Turtle Pond, and many of these are former pets that were released into the park. The fish are scattered more widely, but they include several freshwater species,WEB,weblink Central Park Lake, November 7, 2014, NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation, April 17, 2019, such as snakehead, an invasive species.WEB,weblink In Central Park, Hunt for an Intruder, the Snakehead Fish, Is On, Santora, Marc, April 30, 2013, City Room, en-US, April 17, 2019, While fishing is allowed in the Lake, Pond, and Harlem Meer, it is only permitted under a catch and release basis.WEB,weblink Catch-and-Release Fishing, April 1, 2015, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 17, 2019,

Landmarks and structures

Plazas and entrances

File:USS Maine (ACR-1) Monument Columbus Circle NYC.JPG|thumb|upright|The USS Maine National Monument ]]Central Park is shaped like a rectangle. Most of Central Park is encircled with a {{convert|29025|ft|m|adj=mid|-long}}, {{convert|3|ft|10|in|cm|adj=mid|-high}} stone wall. Initially, the park contained eighteen gates, all of which were unnamed.{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|page=49}} In April 1862, the Central Park commissioners adopted a proposal to name each gate with "the vocations to which this city owes its metropolitan character", such as miners, scholars, artists, or hunters.NEWS, Pollak, Michael, What Is Jamaica, Queens, Named After?, The New York Times, July 6, 2014,weblink April 21, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, Central Park later grew to contain twenty named gates.{hide}efn|1=There are eight named gates on Fifth Avenue:
  • East 110th Street/Duke Ellington Circle – Pioneers' Gate; East 102nd Street – Girls' Gate; East 96th Street – Woodman's Gate; East 90th Street –Engineers' Gate; East 79th Street – Miners' Gate; East 72nd Street – Inventors' Gate; East 64th Street – Children's Gate; East 60th Street – Scholars' Gate
Three named gates on Central Park South:
  • Sixth Avenue – Artists' Gate; Seventh Avenue – Artisans' Gate; Columbus Circle – Merchant's Gate
Seven named gates on Central Park West:
  • West 72nd Street – Women's Gate; West 77th Street – Naturalists' Gate; West 81st Street – Hunters' Gate; West 85th Street – Mariners' Gate; West 96th Street – Gate of all Saints; West 100th Street – Boys' Gate; West 106th Street – Strangers' Gate
Two named gates on Central Park North:
  • Adam Clayton Powell Boulevard – Warriors' Gate; Lenox Avenue – Farmers' Gate{edih} There are four circles or plazas at the corners of Central Park.WEB,weblink Named Gates, February 12, 2015, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 2, 2019,
Columbus Circle is a circular plaza at the southwestern corner, at the junction of Central Park West/Eighth Avenue, Broadway, and 59th Street (Central Park South).WEB,weblink Central Park Highlights, June 26, 1939, Columbus Circle : NYC Parks, April 2, 2019, Built in the 1860s, it contains the Merchant's Gate entrance into the park. Columbus Circle's largest feature is the column of Christopher Columbus that is located in the middle, which was erected in 1892NEWS,weblink The Voyager In Marble, October 13, 1892, The New York Times, October 13, 2017, en-US, 0362-4331, and was the subject of controversies in the 2010s.NEWS,weblink Elected officials call for removal of Christopher Columbus statue near Central Park, Rosenberg, Zoe, August 23, 2017, Curbed NY, October 15, 2017, NEWS,weblink Columbus Day Parade Organizers Fight To Keep Statue In Columbus Circle, August 30, 2017, CBS New York, October 15, 2017, en, The 1913 USS Maine National Monument is located just outside the park entrance.NEWS,weblink Monument To Maine Heroes Ready For Unveiling, May 25, 1913, The New York Times, October 14, 2017, en-US, 0362-4331, Grand Army Plaza is a square plaza at the southeastern corner, at the junction with Fifth Avenue and 59th Street. Its largest feature is the Pulitzer Fountain, which was completed in 1916 along with the plaza itself.WEB,weblink Grand Army Plaza Monuments, June 26, 1939, Pulitzer Fountain : NYC Parks, April 2, 2019, Grand Army Plaza also contains the William Tecumseh Sherman statue, dedicated in 1903.WEB,weblink Grand Army Plaza Monuments – William Tecumseh Sherman : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, New York City Department of Parks & Recreation, April 2, 2019, Duke Ellington Circle is a circular plaza at the northeastern corner, at the junction with Fifth Avenue and Central Park North/110th Street. It contains the Duke Ellington Memorial, dedicated in 1997.WEB,weblink Duke Ellington Memorial : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, Central Park Monuments, April 2, 2019, Duke Ellington Circle is adjacent to the Pioneers' Gate.Frederick Douglass Circle is a circular plaza at the northwestern corner, at the junction with Central Park West/Eighth Avenue and Central Park North/110th Street. It contains the Frederick Douglass Memorial, dedicated in 2010.WEB,weblink Frederick Douglass Memorial : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, Central Park Monuments, April 2, 2019,

{{anchor|Visitor attractions|Points of interest|Attractions}}Notable structures

File:Central Park New York City New York 23 cropped.jpg|thumb|Ornamental bridge ]]The Dana Discovery Center is located at the northeast section of the park, on the shore of the Harlem Meer. Nearby is Blockhouse No. 1, the oldest extant structure to be built in Central Park, which was erected as part of Fort Clinton during the War of 1812.WEB,weblink The Blockhouse – Historical Sign, April 23, 2008, nycgovparks.org,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080423092000weblink">weblink April 23, 2008, dead, March 1, 2019, An ice-skating rink, Lasker Rink, is located above the Loch near Fifth Avenue and 107th Street. The park's only formal garden, the Conservatory Garden, is located two blocks south.WEB,weblink Conservatory Garden, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 2, 2019, The North Meadow Recreation Center and tennis courts, as well as the East Meadow, are located between the Loch to the north and the reservoir to the south.WEB,weblink North Meadow Recreation Center, February 12, 2015, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 4, 2019, The North Woods takes up the rest of the northern third of the park. The areas in the northern section of the park were developed later than the southern section, and are not as heavily used, so there are also several unnamed features.{{Rp|37}}The area between the 86th and 96th Street transverses is mostly occupied by the Onassis Reservoir. Directly south of the Reservoir is the Great Lawn and Turtle Pond. The Lawn is bordered by the Metropolitan Museum of Art to the east, Turtle Pond to the south, and Summit Rock to the west. Summit Rock, the highest point in Central Park at {{convert|137.5|ft|m}},{{harvnb|ps=.|Berman|2003|page=29}}WEB,weblink Central Park Highlights, June 26, 1939, Vista Rock & Tunnel : NYC Parks, April 4, 2019, abuts Diana Ross Playground to the south and the Seneca Village site, occupied by the Mariners Gate playground, to the north. Turtle Pond's western shore contains Belvedere Castle, Delacorte Theater, and the Shakespeare Garden and Marionette Theatre. The section between the 79th Street transverse and Terrace Drive at 72nd Street contains three main natural features: the forested Ramble, the L-shaped Lake, and Conservatory Water. Cherry Hill is located to the south of the Lake, while Cedar Hill is located to the east.File:Bethesda Fountain, Central Park, New York, USA-1Aug2010.jpg|thumb|left|Bethesda Terrace and FountainBethesda Terrace and FountainThe southernmost part of Central Park, below Terrace Drive, contains several children's attractions as well as the flagship features of the park. It contains many of the structures built in Central Park's initial stage of construction, which are designed in the Victorian Gothic style. Directly facing the southeastern shore of the Lake is a bi-level hall called Bethesda Terrace, which contains an elaborate fountain on its lower level.WEB,weblink Bethesda Terrace : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, Central Park Monuments, April 10, 2019, Bethesda Terrace connects to Central Park Mall, a landscaped walkway and the only formal feature in the Greensward Plan.{{harvnb|ps=.|Central Park Landmark Designation|1974|p=7 (PDF p. 8)}} Near the southwestern shore of the Lake is Strawberry Fields, a memorial to John Lennon who was killed nearby;WEB,weblink Strawberry Fields, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 10, 2019, Sheep Meadow, a lawn originally intended for use as a parade ground;WEB,weblink Sheep Meadow : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, Central Park Highlights, April 10, 2019, and Tavern on the Green, a restaurant. The southern border of Central Park contains the "Children's District",WEB,weblink Central Park Highlights, June 26, 1939, The Carousel : NYC Parks, April 10, 2019, an area that includes August Heckscher Playground, the Central Park Carousel, the Ballplayers House, and the Chess and Checkers House. Wollman Rink/Victorian Gardens, the Central Park Zoo and Children's Zoo, the NYC Parks headquarters at the Arsenal, and the Pond and Hallett Nature Sanctuary are located nearby.There are 21 children's playgrounds in Central Park. The largest, at {{convert|3|acre|m2}}, is Heckscher Playground.WEB, Central Park Playgrounds : NYC Parks, New York City Department of Parks & Recreation, June 26, 1939,weblink August 31, 2019, Central Park also includes 36 ornamental bridges, no two of which are alike.Henry Hope Reed, Robert M. McGee and Esther Mipaas. The Bridges of Central Park. (Greensward Foundation) 1990.{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|pages=45–46}} Additionally, "rustic shelters" and other "rustic" structures were originally spread out through the park. Although most have been demolished over the years, several have been restored.NEWS,weblink New York Day by Day; Central Park Shelter, Johnston, Laurie, August 13, 1983, The New York Times, April 19, 2019, Anderson, Susan Heller, en-US, 0362-4331, WEB,weblink The Story Behind Central Park's Rustic Architecture, Central Park Conservancy, www.centralparknyc.org, en, April 19, 2019, The park also contains around 9,500 benches in three styles, of which nearly half have small engraved tablets of some kind, installed as part of Central Park's "Adopt-a-Bench" program. These engravings typically contain short personalized messages and can be installed for at least $10,000 apiece. "Handmade rustic benches" can cost more than half a million dollars and are only granted when the honoree underwrites a major park project.NEWS,weblink 4,223 Central Park Benches With Stories to Tell, Kleinfield, N. R, June 17, 2016, The New York Times, May 14, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, WEB,weblink For $10,000 You Can Share Your Story On A Bench In Central Park, June 29, 2016, CBS News, en, May 14, 2019, {{wide image|NYC Turtlepond.jpg|600px|Delacorte Theater, Great Lawn and Turtle Pond, from Belvedere Castle}}

Art and monuments

Sculptures

File:Central Park New York May 2017 004.jpg|thumb|upright=0.6|Cleopatra's Needle, the park's oldest manmade structure]]Twenty-nine sculptures have been erected within Central Park's boundaries over the years.WEB,weblink The Lives Behind the Statues and Monuments of Central Park, September 19, 2012, MetroFocus, en-US, April 15, 2019, BOOK, The statues of Central Park, Astrom, Catarina, Hatherleigh Press, 2018, 978-1-57826-541-1, Hobart, New York, 869904770, WEB,weblink Central Park Monuments : NYC Parks, www.nycgovparks.org, April 15, 2019, Most of the sculptures were not part of the Greensward Plan, but nevertheless included to placate wealthy donors when appreciation of art increased in the late 19th century.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=329–331}}{{harvnb|ps=.|Heckscher|2008|pages=68–69}} Though Vaux and Mould had proposed 26 statues in the Terrace in 1862, these were eliminated because they were too expensive. More sculptures were added through the late 19th century, and by 1890s, there were 24 sculptures in the park.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|page=332}}Many of these sculptures are busts of authors and poets, located in an area known as Literary Walk, adjacent to the Central Park Mall.{{harvnb|ps=.|Berman|2003|page=59}}WEB,weblink The Mall and Literary Walk, Central Park Conservancy, www.centralparknyc.org, en, April 15, 2019, Another cluster of sculptures, located around the Zoo and Conservancy Water, are statues of characters from children's stories. A third sculpture grouping primarily depicts "subjects in nature" such as animals and hunters.Several of the park's sculptures stand out due to their geography and topography. Alice in Wonderland Margaret Delacorte Memorial (1959), a sculpture of Alice by sculptor José de Creeft, landscape architect Hideo Sasaki, and designer Ferando Texidor, is located at Conservatory Water.WEB,weblink Alice in Wonderland : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, Central Park Monuments, April 15, 2019, Angel of the Waters (1873), by Emma Stebbins, is the centerpiece of Bethesda Fountain and the first large public sculpture commission for an American woman,WEB,weblink Bethesda Fountain : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, Central Park Monuments, April 15, 2019, as well as the only statue included in the original park design. Balto (1925), a statue of Balto, the sled dog who became famous during the 1925 serum run to Nome, is located near East Drive and East 66th Street.WEB,weblink Central Park Monuments, June 26, 1939, Balto : NYC Parks, April 15, 2019, King Jagiello Monument (1939, installed 1945), a bronze monument, is located at the east end of Turtle Pond.WEB,weblink Central Park Highlights, June 26, 1939, King Jagiello Monument : NYC Parks, April 15, 2019, Additionally, an unnamed sculpture of Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, to be installed at the Mall in 2020, will be the first statue in the city to depict real women.WEB, Kolodny, Sarah, First Statue of Real Women to Debut in Central Park in 2020, NBC New York, July 24, 2018,weblink April 21, 2019, WEB, Central Park's first-ever female statue is coming in 2020, Time Out New York, July 24, 2018,weblink April 21, 2019,

Structures and exhibitions

File:CentralPark 04.JPG|thumb|Close up of Strawberry Fields ]]Cleopatra's Needle, a red granite obelisk west of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, is the oldest manmade structure in Central Park.WEB,weblink Obelisk, February 12, 2015, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 15, 2019, The needle in Central Park is one of three Cleopatra's Needles that were originally erected at the Temple of Ra in Heliopolis in Ancient Egypt around 1450 BC by the Pharaoh Thutmose III.WEB,weblink Cleopatra's Needle: The Story Behind the Obelisks, Sullivan, Kerry, Ancient Origins, March 19, 2019, The hieroglyphs were inscribed about two hundred years later by Pharaoh Rameses II to glorify his military victories. The needles are so named because they were later moved to in front of the Caesarium in Alexandria, a temple originally built by Cleopatra VII of Egypt in honor of Mark Antony.Frank Leslie's New York journal, Volumes 1–2 p. 292 The needle in Central Park arrived in 1880 and was dedicated the following year.WEB,weblink How Cleopatra's Needle got to Central Park, Briquelet, Kate, June 15, 2014, New York Post, en, April 15, 2019, The Strawberry Fields memorial, near Central Park West and 72nd Street, is a memorial commemorating John Lennon, who was killed outside the nearby Dakota apartment building. The city dedicated Strawberry Fields in Lennon's honor in April 1981,WEB, The City; Central Park Section To Honor Lennon, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, April 17, 1981,weblink April 14, 2019, and the memorial was completely rebuilt and rededicated on what would have been Lennon's 45th birthday, October 9, 1985.WEB, Dowd, Maureen, Strawberry Fields 'Garden Of Peace' Opens Today, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, October 9, 1985,weblink April 14, 2019, Countries from all around the world contributed trees, and Italy donated the "Imagine" mosaic in the center of the memorial. It has since become the site of impromptu memorial gatherings for other notables.WEB, Central Park Conservancy, Strawberry Fields, The Official Website of Central Park NYC,weblink August 31, 2019, WEB,weblink Imagine : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, Central Park Monuments, April 15, 2019, For sixteen days in 2005, Central Park was the setting for Christo and Jeanne-Claude's installation The Gates,Christo and Jeanne-Claude, The Gates: Central Park, New York City, 1979–2005, {{ISBN|3-8228-4242-7}}WEB,weblink The Gates, Project for Central Park, New York City. Drawing in 2 parts, December 1, 2002, Guggenheim, April 15, 2019, an exhibition that had been planned since 1979. Although the project was the subject of mixed reactions, it was nevertheless a major attraction for the park while it was open, drawing over a million people.WEB,weblink Central Park's 'Gates' to close this weekend, February 25, 2005, CNN, live, April 15, 2019,

Restaurants

Central Park is home to two indoor restaurants. The Tavern on the Green is located on the park's grounds at Central Park West and West 67th Street. Originally built in 1870 as a sheepfold for the sheep that grazed Sheep Meadow, it was renovated in 1934 and turned into a restaurant.{{rp|984}} The Tavern on the Green was renovated and expanded in 1974.NEWS,weblink Tavern deal not Crystal Clear, Steve Cuozzo, Cuozzo, Steve, January 31, 2011, New York Post, February 1, 2011, It was closed in 2009 and reopened after a five-year renovation.NEWS,weblink Tavern on the Green to open April 24 for dinner; to add brunch, lunch in May, New York Daily News, The Loeb Boathouse restaurant is the other indoor restaurant in Central Park. It is located at the Loeb Boathouse, on the Lake near Fifth Avenue between East 74th and 75th Streets. Though the boathouse was constructed in 1954, the restaurant itself opened in 1983.WEB,weblink 40 Seat Restaurant to Open in Loeb Boathouse, Carmody, Deirdre, January 9, 1983, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, April 17, 2019,

Activities

Tours

In the late 19th century, West and East Drives was a popular place for carriage rides, though only 5 percent of the city was able to afford the carriage. One of the main attractions in the park's early years was the introduction of the "Carriage Parade", a daily display of horse-drawn carriages that traversed the park. The introduction of the automobile caused the carriage industry to die out by World War I,{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=400–401}} though the carriage-horse tradition was revived in 1935.WEB, Jessica, Bennett, Should Carriage Horses Be Banned?, Newsweek, September 25, 2007,weblink April 21, 2019, The carriages have become a symbolic institution of the city; for instance, in a much-publicized event after the September 11 attacks, mayor Rudy Giuliani went to the stables to ask the drivers to go back to work to help return a sense of normality.(File:New York. Central Park. Carriage (4249565692).jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|Horsedrawn carriage by the park)Some activists, celebrities, and politicians have questioned the ethics of the carriage-horse industry and called for it to end.NEWS,weblink Bill Could Halt New York Carriage Horses, Richburg, Keith B., The Washington Post, December 17, 2007, August 23, 2008, The history of accidents involving spooked horses came under scrutiny in the 2000s and 2010s after reports of horses collapsing and even dying.WEB, Durkin, Erin, Central Park carriage horse collapses, prompts NYCLASS to demand investigation, New York Daily News, February 27, 2017,weblink April 21, 2019, WEB, Grove, Lloyd, Can PETA Stop Horse-Drawn Carriages in Central Park? – New York Magazine, New York Magazine, January 31, 2008,weblink April 21, 2019, Supporters of the trade say it needs to be reformed rather than be shut down.See, for example:
  • WEB, Horse Pucky, The New York Sun,weblink November 30, 2007, April 21, 2019, Some replacements have been proposed for the carriage horses, including electric vintage cars.WEB,weblink Central Park Conservancy says cars are poor alternative to horses, New York Daily News, WEB, Old school cars could replace Central park horse carriages, New York Post, April 17, 2014,weblink June 24, 2019, Mayor Bill de Blasio, in his 2013 mayoral campaign, pledged to eliminate horse carriage tours if he was elected,WEB, Animal Rights Becomes Surprise Topic in New York Mayoral Race, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, April 13, 2013,weblink April 13, 2019, but {{as of|August 2018|lc=y}}, had only succeeded in relocating the carriage pick-up areas.WEB, In His 5th Year as Mayor, de Blasio Finally Acts on Horse-Carriage Pledge, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, August 30, 2018,weblink April 13, 2019,
Pedicabs operate mostly in the southern part of the park, as horse carriages do. Such vehicles have offered visitors a more dynamic way in which to view the park.WEB, Central Park Pedicab Tours, Your Complete Guide to New York City's Central Park,weblink April 13, 2019, However, they have also been criticized: there have been reports of pedicab drivers charging exorbitant fares of several hundred dollars,WEB, Pedicab riders shocked by bills topping $200, $400, even $600, ABC7 New York, January 19, 2018,weblink June 1, 2019, WEB,weblink Five Ways to Avoid Getting Scammed by an Unscrupulous Pedicab Driver, Peters, Justin, July 16, 2013, Slate Magazine, en, April 13, 2019, and mayor de Blasio has proposed restricting pedicabs below 85th Street in order to eliminate competition for the carriage horses.WEB,weblink De Blasio strikes deal to cut number of horse-carriage drivers, Gartl, Michael, January 18, 2016, New York Post, en, April 13, 2019,

Recreation

The park's drives, which are {{convert|6.1|mi|km}} long, are heavily used by runners, joggers, pedestrians, bicyclists, and inline skaters. The park drives contain protected bike lanesWEB,weblink NYC DOT – Bicycle Maps, 2019, Government of New York City, nyc.gov, New York City Department of Transportation, May 14, 2019, and are used as the home course for the racing series of the Century Road Club Association, a USA Cycling-sanctioned amateur cycling club.WEB,weblink Racing, Century Road Club Association,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160116152118weblink">weblink January 16, 2016, dead, January 9, 2016, Professional running is also popular: the New York Road Runners designated a {{Convert|5|mi|km|abbr=|adj=on}} running loop within Central Park,WEB,weblink Central Park, NYRR Running Routes, en-US, April 19, 2019, while the New York City Marathon course utilizes several miles of drives within Central Park and finishes outside Tavern on the Green.WEB,weblink The Course, August 6, 2014, TCS New York City Marathon, en, April 19, 2019, There are 26 baseball fields in Central Park: eight on the Great Lawn, six at Heckscher Ballfields near Columbus Circle, and twelve in the North Meadow.WEB,weblink Central Park Baseball Fields : NYC Parks, www.nycgovparks.org, April 17, 2019, WEB,weblink Baseball, February 12, 2015, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 17, 2019, WEB,weblink Field and Court Usage Report for Central Park : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, New York City Department of Parks & Recreation, April 17, 2019, Twelve tennis courts, six non-regulation soccer fields (which overlap with the North Meadow ballfields), four basketball courts, and a recreation center are also located in the North Meadow.WEB,weblink North Meadow, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 17, 2019, An additional soccer field and four basketball courts are located at Great Lawn. In addition, there are four volleyball courts in the southern part of the park.WEB,weblink Central Park Volleyball Courts : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, New York City Department of Parks & Recreation, April 17, 2019, Central Park has two ice skating rinks, Wollman Rink in the southern part and Lasker Rink in the northern part.WEB, Central Park Conservancy, Ice Skating, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, February 12, 2015,weblink August 31, 2019, During summer, the former is the site of Victorian Gardens seasonal amusement park,WEB,weblink Victorian Gardens Amusement Park, February 12, 2015, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 17, 2019, and the latter converts to an outdoor swimming pool.WEB,weblink Central Park Outdoor Pools : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, New York City Department of Parks & Recreation, April 17, 2019, WEB,weblink Lasker Rink and Pool, February 12, 2015, The Official Website of Central Park NYC, Central Park Conservancy, April 17, 2019, Central Park's glaciated rock outcroppings attract climbers, especially boulderers. The two most renowned spots for boulderers are Rat Rock and Cat Rock; others include Dog Rock, Duck Rock, Rock N' Roll Rock, and Beaver Rock, near the south end of the park.WEB, Wren, Christopher S., A Summit in Central Park, The New York Times, July 21, 1999,weblink April 21, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331,

Concerts and performances

File:SS Venue and Crowd.JPG|thumb|upright=1.1|SummerstageSummerstageCentral Park has been the site of concerts almost since its inception. Originally, concerts were hosted in the Ramble, but they then soon moved to Concert Ground next to Central Park Mall.WEB,weblink History of Concerts in Parks : NYC Parks, www.nycgovparks.org, April 19, 2019, The weekend concerts hosted in the Mall drew tens of thousands of visitors from all social classes.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=225–227}} Since 1923, concerts have been held in Naumburg Bandshell, a bandshell of Indiana limestone located on the Mall.NEWS,weblink Streetscapes: The Naumburg Bandshell; Everyone but the Donor's Family Wants It Gone, Gray, Christopher, February 19, 1989, The New York Times, April 19, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, Named for banker Elkan Naumburg, who funded its construction, the bandshell has deteriorated over the years but has never been fully restored.NEWS,weblink Gold Touches Up Sullied Band Shell in Central Park, Gregory, Kia, June 24, 2014, The New York Times, April 19, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, Central Park has been the birthplace of other arts groups dedicated to performing in the park.WEB,weblink Concerts, Central Park Conservancy, www.centralparknyc.org, en, April 19, 2019, These include Central Park Brass, which performs concert series,NEWS,weblink Arts Briefing, Gelder, Lawrence Van, June 9, 2004, The New York Times, April 19, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, and the New York Classical Theatre, which produces an annual series of plays.NEWS,weblink Free Shows to See in New York This Summer, Piepenburg, Erik, July 14, 2017, The New York Times, April 19, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, In addition. the oldest free classical music concert series in the United States—the Naumburg Orchestral Concerts, founded in 1905—presents concerts in the Naumburg Bandshell.Each summer, there are several events happening in the park. The Public Theater presents free open-air theatre productions, such as Shakespeare in the Park, in the Delacorte Theater.NEWS,weblink Shakespeare in the Park, Lee, A. C, May 31, 2013, The New York Times, April 19, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, WEB,weblink The complete guide to Shakespeare in the Park in NYC, Time Out New York, en, April 19, 2019, City Parks Foundation also offers Central Park Summerstage, a series of free performances including music, dance, spoken word, and film presentations, often featuring famous performers.WEB,weblink Your guide to SummerStage 2019, Time Out New York, en, April 19, 2019, Additionally, the New York Philharmonic gives an open-air concert on the Great Lawn yearly during the summer, and from 1967 until 2007, the Metropolitan Opera presented two operas in concert each year.WEB, Gretschel, Johanna, Jenny Simpson Aims For Sixth Title, Course Record At 5th Avenue Mile, FloTrack, October 5, 2017,weblink October 12, 2017, Every August since 2003, the Central Park Conservancy has also hosted the Central Park Film Festival, a series of free film screenings.WEB,weblink Here's the schedule for Central Park Movie Nights 2018, www.metro.us, 2019-08-01,

Transportation

Central Park incorporates a system of pedestrian walkways, scenic drives, bridle paths, and transverse roads to aid traffic circulation.{{harvnb|ps=.|Central Park Landmark Designation|1974|p=6 (PDF p. 7)}} Furthermore, it is easily accessible via several subway stations and bus routes.

Public transport

File:5 Av Subway Station entrance.jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|Entrance to the Fifth Avenue–59th Street subway station just outside Central Park]]The New York City Subway's IND Eighth Avenue Line ({{NYCS trains|Eighth center}}) runs along the western edge of the park. While most of the Eighth Avenue Line stations on Central Park West serve only the local {{NYCS trains|Eighth center local day|time=nolink}}, the 59th Street–Columbus Circle station is also served by the express {{NYCS trains|Eighth center express|time=nolink}} as well as the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line ({{NYCS trains|Broadway-Seventh local day}}). In addition, the IRT Lenox Avenue Line ({{NYCS trains|Lenox south}}) has a station at Central Park North. From there the line curves southwest under the park, and heads west under 104th Street. On the southeastern corner of the park, the BMT Broadway Line ({{NYCS trains|Broadway 60th}}) has a station at Fifth Avenue and 59th Street. The 63rd Street lines ({{NYCS trains|63rd Lexington header}}) pass underneath without stopping,{{NYCS const|map}} and the line contains a single ventilation shaft within the park, west of Fifth Avenue and 63rd Street.Various bus routes pass through Central Park or stop along its boundaries. The M10 bus stops along Central Park West, while the M5 and part of the M7 runs along Central Park South, and the {{NYC bus link|M2|M3|M4|prose=y}} run along Central Park North. The M1, M2, M3, and M4 run southbound along Fifth Avenue with corresponding northbound bus service on Madison Avenue. In addition, the {{NYC bus link|M66|M72|M79 SBS}} (Select Bus Service), {{NYC bus link|M86 SBS|M96|M106|prose=y}} buses use the transverse roads across Central Park. The {{NYC bus link|M12|M20|M104|prose=y}} only serve Columbus Circle on the south end of the park, and the {{NYC bus link|M31|M57|prose=y}} run on 57th Street two blocks from the park's south end, but do not actually stop on the boundaries of the park itself.NYC BUS MAP, M, Some of the buses running on the edge of Central Park replaced former streetcar routes that used to travel across Manhattan.{{efn|For a full listing of streetcar routes, see List of streetcar lines in Manhattan.}} These streetcar routes included the Sixth Avenue line, which became the M5, and the Eighth Avenue line, which became the M10.BOOK,weblink Manhattan's Lost Streetcars, Meyers, S.L., Arcadia, 2005, 978-0-7385-3884-6, Images of rail, May 18, 2019, {{Rp|32}} However, only one streetcar line actually traversed Central Park: the 86th Street Crosstown Line, the predecessor to the M86 bus.{{Rp|65}}

Transverse roads

(File:CP Transverse Rd 1 west arches cloudy early spring jeh.jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|66th Street transverse)Central Park contains four transverse roadways that carry crosstown traffic across the park. From south to north, they are 66th Street, 79th Street, 86th Street, and 97th Street, originally respectively numbered transverse roads 1 through 4. The 66th Street transverse connects the discontinuous sections of 65th and 66th Streets on either side of the park, and the 97th Street transverse likewise joins the disconnected segments of 96th and 97th Streets. On the other hand, the 79th Street transverse links West 81st and East 79th Streets, while the 86th Street transverse links West 86th Street with East 84th and 85th Streets. Each roadway carries two lanes, one in each direction, and is sunken below the level of the rest of the park to minimize the transverses' visual impact on the park. The transverse roadways are open even when the park is closed.WEB,weblink Central Park, March 18, 2009, NYC 311, April 14, 2019, {{Dead link|date=July 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}The 66th Street transverse was the first to be finished, having opened in December 1859.WEB,weblink 1863 Central Park Commissioners Annual Report, 1863, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, January 13, 2017, {{rp|77 (PDF p. 80)}} The 79th Street transverse—which passed under Vista Rock, Central Park's second-highest point—was completed by a railroad contractor due to the difficulty of construction;{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=168–169}} it opened in December 1860. The 86th and 97th Street transverses opened in late 1862.{{rp|77 (PDF p. 80)}} By the 1890s, maintenance had decreased to the point where the 86th Street transverse handled most crosstown traffic because the other transverse roads had been so poorly maintained. Both ends of the 79th Street transverse were widened in 1964 to accommodate increased traffic,NEWS,weblink City to Open Last Section Of Road in Central Park, August 9, 1964, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, but overall, the transverses were not as frequently scrutinized as the rest of the park, despite being used more frequently than the park proper.NEWS,weblink Streetscapes: Central Park Transverses, Gray, Christopher, November 5, 1989, The New York Times, April 18, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331,

Scenic drives

The park has three scenic drives that travel it vertically. The drives each have multiple traffic lights at the intersections with pedestrian paths, although there are also some arches and bridges where pedestrian and drive traffic could cross without intersection. To discourage park patrons from speeding, the designers incorporated extensive curves in the park drives.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pp=244–246}}NEWS,weblink Deaths Expose Chaos of Central Park's Loop, Goodman, J. David, September 28, 2014, The New York Times, April 13, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, {{Anchor|List of drives|Description}} {{vanchor|West Drive}} is the westernmost of the park's three vertical "drives". The road, which carries southbound bicycle and horse-carriage traffic, winds through the western part of Central Park, connecting Lenox Avenue/Central Park North with Seventh Avenue/Central Park South and Central Drive. The drive is dangerous; in 2014, a {{convert|0.5|mi|adj=on}} stretch of West Drive was considered to be "the most dangerous section of Central Park" for pedestrians, with bicycle crashes along the drive leaving 15 people injured.WEB,weblink Pedestrians walking into bicycle danger zones in Central Park, New York Post, (File:Taxis routes Central Park.JPG|thumb|upright=1.1|Center Drive in Central Park){{vanchor|Center Drive}} (also known as the "Central Park Lower Loop"WEB,weblink Central Park Drives: Improvements for Pedestrians & Cyclists, ) connects northbound bicycle and carriage traffic from Midtown at Central Park South/Sixth Avenue to East Drive near the 66th Street transverse. The street generally goes east and then north, forming the bottom part of the Central Park loop. The attractions along Center Drive include Victorian Gardens, the Central Park Carousel, and the Central Park Mall.{{vanchor|East Drive}}, the easternmost of the three drives, connects northbound bicycle and carriage traffic from Midtown to the Upper West Side at Lenox Avenue. The street is renowned for its country scenery and free concerts. It generally straddles the east side of the park along Fifth Avenue. The drive passes by the Central Park Zoo around 63rd Street and the Metropolitan Museum of Art from 80th to 84th Streets. Unlike the rest of the drive system, which is generally serpentine, East Drive is straight between the 86th and 96th Street transverses, because it is located between Fifth Avenue and the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir. East Drive is known as the "Elite Carriage Parade", because that was where the carriage procession occurred at the time of the park's opening, and because only five percent of the city was able to afford the carriage.BOOK, Morris, L.R., Incredible New York: High Life and Low Life from 1850 to 1950, Syracuse University Press, 1996, 978-0-8156-0334-4,weblink April 10, 2019, 95, In the late 19th century, West and East Drives were popular places for carriage rides.In addition, there are two other scenic drives that cross the park horizontally. Terrace Drive is located at 72nd Street and connects West and East Drives, passing over Bethesda Terrace and Fountain. The 102nd Street Crossing, located further north near the street of the same name, is a former carriage drive connecting West and East Drives.

Modifications and closures

In Central Park's earliest years, the speed limits were set at {{Convert|5|mph|km/h|abbr=}} for carriages and {{Convert|6|mph|km/h|abbr=on}} for horses, which were respectively later raised to {{Convert|7|mph|km/h|abbr=on}} and {{Convert|10|mph|km/h|abbr=on}}. Commercial vehicles and buses were banned from the park. Automobiles became more common in Central Park during the 1900s and 1910s, and they often broke the speed limits, resulting in crashes. In an attempt to increase safety, the gravel roads were paved in 1912, and the carriage speed limit was raised to {{Convert|15|mph|km/h|abbr=on}} two years later. However, with the proliferation of cars among the middle class in the 1920s, traffic increased on the drives, to as many as eight thousand cars per hour in 1929. The roads were still dangerous; in the first ten months of 1929, eight people were killed and 249 were injured in 338 separate collisions.WEB,weblink Park Safety Is Aim Of One-Way Rules, November 27, 1929, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, October 6, 2018, In November 1929, the scenic drives were converted from two-way traffic to unidirectional traffic.WEB,weblink One-Way Traffic Ordered for Central Park, November 23, 1929, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, October 6, 2018, Further improvements were made in 1932 when forty-two traffic lights were installed along the scenic drives, and the speed limit was lowered to {{Convert|25|mph|km/h}}. The signals were coordinated so that drivers could go through all of the green lights if they maintained a steady speed of 25 mph.WEB,weblink Central Park Uses New Traffic Lights Today To Curb Speeding and Protect Pedestrians, March 1, 1932, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, October 6, 2018, The drives were experimentally closed to automotive traffic on weekends starting in 1967, for exclusive use by pedestrians and bicyclists.WEB,weblink New Car Ban Set For Central Park, April 17, 1967, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, October 6, 2018, In subsequent years, the scenic drives were closed to automotive traffic for most of the day during the summer. By 1979, the drives were only open during rush hours and late evenings during the summer.WEB,weblink Car Ban, a Spring Ritual, Gives Park Roads to the People, Daniels, Lee A, May 8, 1979, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, October 6, 2018, Legislation was proposed in October 2014 to conduct a study to make the park car-free in summer 2015. In 2015, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced the permanent closure of West and East Drives north of 72nd Street to vehicular traffic as it was proven that closing the roads did not adversely impact traffic.WEB,weblink Central Park Will Be Permanently Car-Free Above 72nd Street, Mayor Says, Frost, Emily, June 18, 2015, DNA Info,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150928151120weblink">weblink September 28, 2015, dead, June 22, 2016, After most of the Central Park loop drives were closed to vehicular traffic, the city performed a follow-up study. The city found that West Drive, which was used by 1,050 vehicles a day, was open for two hours during the morning rush hour, and that East Drive, which was open for twelve hours a day, was used by 3,400 vehicles per day.WEB,weblink Central Park's Scenic Drives Will Soon Be Car-Free, April 20, 2018, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, October 6, 2018, Subsequently, all cars were banned from East Drive in January 2018.WEB,weblink At last, Prospect Park is permanently car-free, Plitt, Amy, January 2, 2018, Curbed NY, October 6, 2018, In April 2018, de Blasio announced that the entirety of all three loop drives would be permanently closed to traffic.WEB,weblink New York banning cars from Central Park starting this summer, Cherelus, Gina, April 20, 2018, Reuters U.S., October 6, 2018, The closure was placed into effect in June 2018.

Issues

File:Central Park May 2019 80.jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|North Woods, one of several places where crimes were reported during the 1989 Central Park jogger caseCentral Park jogger case

Crime and neglect

In the mid-20th century Central Park had a perception of being very dangerous, especially after dark. Such a viewpoint was reinforced following a 1941 incident when 12-year-old Jerome Dore fatally stabbed 15-year-old James O'Connell in the northern section of the park. Local tabloids cited this incident and several other crimes as evidence of a highly exaggerated "crime wave". Though recorded crime did increase since Central Park opened in the late 1850s, this was in line with crime trends seen in the rest of the city.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=471–473}} Central Park's reputation for crime was reinforced by its worldwide name recognition, and the fact that crimes in the park were covered disproportionately compared to crimes in the rest of the city. For instance, in 1973 The New York Times wrote stories about 20% of murders citywide, but wrote about 75% of the murders (three of four) that took place in Central Park that year. By the 1970s and 1980s, the number of murders in the area north of Central Park were 18 times higher than the number of murders within the park itself, and even in the area south of the park, the number of murders was three times as high.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=474–475}}The park was the site of numerous high-profile crimes during the late 20th century. Of these, two particularly notable cases shaped public perception against the park. In 1986, Robert Chambers murdered Jennifer Levin in what was later called the "preppy murder".WEB, Stone, Michael, Robert Chambers, Jennifer Levin, and a Death That Shocked the City, New York Magazine, June 27, 2008,weblink September 16, 2019, WEB, Jennifer Levin's Mother Remembers 'Preppy Murder' Case, CBS New York, September 2, 2011,weblink September 16, 2019, Three years later, an investment banker was raped and brutally beaten in what came to be known as the Central Park jogger case.NEWS,weblink 'Smart, Driven' Woman Overcomes Reluctance, Farber, M. A, July 17, 1990, The New York Times, April 19, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, NEWS, Didion, Joan, Joan Didion, January 17, 1991, Sentimental Journeys, The New York Review of Books,weblink June 21, 2007, (This essay has also been published in Didion's non-fiction collection After Henry (1992))., Conversely, other crimes such as the 1984 gang-rape of two homeless women were barely reported upon. Fear was also directed toward the gay community after World War II due to fears that gay men perpetrated sex crimes and attracted violence.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|page=479}}BOOK, Chauncey, George, Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Makings of the Gay Male World, May 19, 1995, Basic Books, New York, 0465026214, Other problems in the 1970s and 1980s included a drug epidemic, a large homeless presence, and general vandalism and neglect.NEWS,weblink New York Parks Face a Touch‐and‐Go Summer..., Ferre'Iti, Fred, May 26, 1977, The New York Times, April 19, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, As crime has declined in the park and in the rest of New York City, many of the negative perceptions have begun to wane. Safety measures hold the number of crimes in the park to fewer than one hundred per year, down from approximately 1,000 in the early 1980s. However, some well-publicized crimes have still occurred: for instance, on June 11, 2000, following the Puerto Rican Day Parade, gangs of drunken men sexually assaulted women in the park.WEB,weblink 35 Scary Minutes: Women Tell Police Of Assaults in Park, Chivers, C. J., Kevin Flynn, June 13, 2000, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, April 11, 2012,

Other issues

Permission to hold issue-centered rallies in Central Park, similar to the be-ins of the 1960s, has been met with increasingly stiff resistance from the city. During some 2004 protests, the organization United for Peace and Justice wanted to hold a rally on the Great Lawn during the Republican National Convention. The city denied application for a permit, stating that such a mass gathering would be harmful to the grass and that such damage would make it harder to collect private donations to maintain the park.WEB, Brick, Michael, Permit Denial for Big Park Rally Adds to Push for Protests There, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, August 9, 2004,weblink April 19, 2019, A judge of the New York Supreme Court's New York County branch upheld the refusal.WEB, Saulny, Susan, Preparing For The Convention: The Ruling; Judge Bars Big Rally in Park, But Protest March Is Still Set, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, August 26, 2004,weblink April 19, 2019, During the 2000s and 2010s, new supertall skyscrapers were constructed along the southern end of Central Park, in a corridor commonly known as Billionaires' Row. According to a Municipal Art Society report, such buildings cast long shadows over the southern end of the park.WEB,weblink Accidental Skyline, MAS.org, October 15, 2014, March 1, 2015, WEB, Heins, Scott, Behold Central Park's Dark & Shadowy Future, Gothamist, July 27, 2016,weblink April 19, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190419153250weblink">weblink April 19, 2019, dead, A 2016 analysis from The New York Times found that some of the tallest and skinniest skyscrapers, such as One57, Central Park Tower, and 220 Central Park South, would cast shadows that can be as much as {{convert|1|mi|km}} long during the winter, covering up to a third of the park's length.WEB, Bui, Quoctrung, White, Jeremy, The New York Times, en-US, 0362-4331, December 21, 2016,weblink Mapping the Shadows of New York City: Every Building, Every Block, April 19, 2019, In 2018, the New York City Council proposed legislation that would restrict the construction of skyscrapers near city parks.WEB, Plitt, Amy, Bill aims to curb supertall shadows in NYC parks, Curbed NY, October 18, 2018,weblink April 19, 2019, {{Clear}}

Impact

Cultural significance

(File:3015-Central Park-Sheep Meadow.JPG|thumb|upright=1.1|alt=Sheep Meadow|Sheep Meadow, a common place for gatherings){{for|a list of films, TV shows, and other media where Central Park has appeared|Central Park in popular culture}}Central Park's size and cultural position has served as a model for many urban parks.WEB, Sisson, Patrick, 10 parks that changed America: From Savannah to the High Line, the country's influential public spaces, Curbed, April 12, 2016,weblink April 19, 2019, WEB, Season 1 – 10 Parks That Changed America, PBS, April 19, 2019,weblink April 19, 2019, Many of its features were incorporated, and in several cases improved upon, when Olmsted and Vaux constructed Brooklyn's Prospect Park in the 1860s.BOOK,weblink Prospect Park Handbook, Lancaster, Clay, Long Island University Press, 1972, 978-0-913252-06-2, 2nd, New York, An icon of New York City, Central Park is the most filmed location in the world. A December 2017 report found that 231 movies have used it for on-location shoots, more than the 160 movies that have filmed in Greenwich Village or the 99 movies that have filmed in Times Square.WEB,weblink Central Park is a film superstar, Pereira, Ivan, December 10, 2017, am New York, December 11, 2017, WEB,weblink These are the most-used film locations around the world, Petter, Olivia, February 16, 2018, The Independent, April 20, 2019, Some of these movies, such as the 1993 film The Age of Innocence, reflect ideals of the past. Other films, like The Fisher King (1991), Marathon Man (1976), The Out of Towners (1970), and (Home Alone 2: Lost in New York) (1992), use the park for dramatic conflict scenes. Central Park has also been used in romance films like Maid in Manhattan (2002), 13 Going on 30 (2004) or Hitch (2005), as well as fantasy animations such as Enchanted (2007).WEB,weblink Cinematic Parks : NYC Parks, June 26, 1939, New York City Department of Parks & Recreation, May 2, 2019, Overall, in 2009, it was estimated that the park hosted more than 4,000 days of film shoots annually, or an average of more than ten film shoots per day, accounting for $135.5 million in revenue for the city.Because of its cultural and historical significance, Central Park has been a National Historic Landmark since 1962,WEB,weblink Central Park, September 10, 2007, National Historic Landmark summary listing, National Park Service,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071013053342weblink">weblink October 13, 2007, dead, WEB, {{NHLS url, 66000538, |title=National Register of Historic Places Inventory|date=August 14, 1975|publisher=National Park Service}}WEB, {{NHLS url, 66000538, y, |title=National Register of Historic Places Inventory|date=August 14, 1975|publisher=National Park Service}} and a New York City designated scenic landmark since 1974.{{harvnb|ps=.|Central Park Landmark Designation|1974|p=1 (PDF p. 2)}} In addition, it was placed on UNESCO's list of tentative World Heritage Sites in 2017.WEB, Central Park, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, October 11, 2017,weblink June 2, 2019,

Real estate and economy

(File:Lower Central Park Shot 5.JPG|thumb|upright=1.1|alt=A view of skyscrapers from the Pond, at the southern border of Central Park|Skyscrapers abut the southern border of Central Park)The value of the surrounding land started rising significantly in the mid-1860s during the park's construction.{{harvnb|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|ps=.|pages=268–269}} The completion of Central Park immediately increased the surrounding area's real estate prices, in some cases by up to 700 percent between 1858 and 1870.JOURNAL, Beard, Charles A, May 1926, Some Aspects of Regional Planning, American Political Science Review, en, 20, 2, 273–283, 10.2307/1945139, 0003-0554, 1945139, {{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=85–87}} It also resulted in the creation of the zoning plan in Upper Manhattan.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|page=88}} Upscale districts grew on both sides of Central Park following its completion.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=291–293}} On the Upper East Side, a portion of Fifth Avenue abutting lower Central Park became known as "Millionaires' Row" by the 1890s, due to the concentration of wealthy families in the area.BOOK,weblink The Gilded Age in New York, 1870–1910, Crain, E., Running Press, 2016, 978-0-316-35368-7, 80, April 14, 2019, The Upper West Side took longer to develop, but row houses and luxury apartment buildings came to predominate the neighborhood, and some were later included in the Central Park West Historic District.BOOK,weblink Upper West Side/Central Park West Historic District Designation Report, New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, 1990, Pearson, Marjorie, I: Essays, Architects' Appendix, 10–11, Urbanelli, Elisa, Though most of the city's rich formerly lived in mansions, they moved into apartments close to Central Park during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.{{harvnb|ps=.|Rosenzweig|Blackmar|1992|pages=376–377, 379}}During the late 20th century, until Central Park's restoration in the 1990s, proximity to the park did not have a significant positive effect on real estate values. However, following Central Park's restoration, some of the city's most expensive properties have been sold or rented near the park.WEB, Sheftell, Jason, Central Park: The world's greatest real estate engine, New York Daily News, June 3, 2010,weblink April 19, 2019, The value of the land in Central Park was estimated to be about $528.8 billion in December 2005, though this was based on the park's impact on the average value of nearby land.WEB,weblink Central Park: Because We Wouldn't Trade a Patch of Grass for $528,783,552,000, Robledo, S.Jhoanna, December 15, 2005, New York Magazine, April 19, 2019, In the modern day, it is estimated that Central Park has resulted in billions of dollars in economic impact. A 2009 study found that the city received annual tax revenue of over $656 million, while visitors spent over $395 million due to the park, and concessions/attractions and film shoots each generated $135.5 million of economic output.WEB, Measuring Central Park perks, Crain's New York Business, May 29, 2009,weblink April 19, 2019, Additionally, in 2013, about 550,000 people lived within a ten-minute walk (about {{convert|0.5|mi|km|disp=sqbr}}) outside the park's boundaries, and 1.15 million more people could get to the park within a half-hour subway ride.

Notes and references

Notes

{{notelist}}

References

{{reflist}}

Bibliography

  1. BOOK, Berman, John S., Central Park, Barnes and Noble Books, Portraits of America, 2003, 978-0-7607-3886-3,weblink harv,
  2. WEB,weblink Designation List 179 LP-0851; Central Park, New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, March 26, 1974, {{harvid, Central Park Landmark Designation, 1974, }}
  3. BOOK, Heckscher, Morrison H.,weblink Creating Central Park, 2008, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 978-0-30013-669-2, en, harv,
  4. BOOK, Kinkead, Eugene, Central Park, 1857-1995: The Birth, Decline, and Renewal of a National Treasure, New York, Norton, 1990, 0-393-02531-4, harv, registration,weblink
  5. CENTRAL PARK HISTORY, harv,
  6. BOOK, Taylor, Dorceta E., The Environment and the People in American Cities, 1600s–1900s: Disorder, Inequality, and Social Change, Duke University Press, 2009, section 3, 978-0-8223-4451-3, harv,weblink

Further reading

  • BOOK, Kelly, Bruce, Gail T., Guillet, Mary Ellen W., Hern, Art of the Olmsted Landscape, New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Arts Publisher, 1981, 0-941302-00-8, registration,weblink
  • BOOK, Central Park : an American masterpiece, Miller, Sara, Harry N. Abrams Publishers in association with the Central Park Conservancy, 2003, 978-0-8109-3946-2, New York, 50773395,
  • BOOK, Voorsanger, Catherine Hoover, Howat, John K., Art and the empire city: New York, 1825–1861,weblink New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000, 9780870999574,
  • For more resources, see: WEB,weblink Central Park: A Research Guide, Central Park Conservancy, 2016,

External links

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