Carpathian Mountains

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Carpathian Mountains
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{{short description|Mountain range in Central and Eastern Europe}}{{Other uses2|Carpathian}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2011}}

| Gerlachovský štít|High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,655| Gerlachovská veža| High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,642| Lomnický štít| High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,633| Ľadový štít| High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,627 | Pyšný štít| High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,623 | Zadný Gerlach| High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,616 | Lavínový štít| High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,606| Malý Ľadový štít| High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,602| Kotlový štít| High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,601 | Lavínová veža| High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,600| Malý Pyšný štít| High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,591| Veľká Litvorová veža| High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,581| Strapatá veža| High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,565| Kežmarský štít| High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,556| Moldoveanu| Făgăraş Mountains| Romania | Negoiu| Făgăraș Mountains| Romania | Viştea Mare| Făgăraş Mountains| Romania | Parângu Mare| Parâng Mountains| Romania | Peleaga| Retezat Mountains| Romania | Păpușa| Retezat Mountains| Romania | Vânătoarea lui Buteanu| Făgăraș Mountains| Romania | Omu (mountain)| Bucegi Mountains| Romania | Cornul Călțunului| Făgăraș Mountains| Romania | Ocolit (Bucura)| Bucegi Mountains| Romania | Rysy| High Tatras| Poland, Slovakia| Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Prešov Region| 2,503 | Dara| Făgăraș Mountains| Romania
name Carpathians

  • {{native_name|de|Karpaten{edih}
  • {{native_name|hu|Kárpátok}}
  • {{native_name|pl|Karpaty}}
  • {{native_name|ro|CarpaÈ›i}}
  • {{native_name|sr|Карпати / Karpati}}
  • {{native_name|sk|Karpaty}}
  • {{native_name|ukr|Карпати / Karpaty}}
  • }}|photo=Morskie oko o swicie.jpg|photo_size=325px|photo_caption=Western Carpathians, Tatra Mountains, Morskie Oko in Poland|country=Czech Republic|country1=Poland|country2=Austria|country3=Slovakia|country4=Hungary|country5=Ukraine|country6=Romania|country7=Serbia|state_type=Region|region=|border=| border1=Alps|geology=| period= | orogeny=|area_km2= | length_km=1700| length_orientation=|width_km= | width_orientation=|highest=Gerlachovský Å¡tít|elevation_m=2655|coordinates =
    4725.5region:PLdisplay=inline,title}}|map_image=Mapcarpat.png | map_caption=The different sections of the Carpathians with the borders of constituent countries}}The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians ({{IPAc-en|k|ɑr|ˈ|p|eɪ|θ|i|ən|z}}) are a range of mountains forming an arc throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Roughly {{convert|1500|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} long, it is the third-longest European mountain range after the Urals with {{convert|2500|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} and the Scandinavian Mountains with {{convert|1700|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}. The range stretches from the far eastern Czech Republic (3%) in the northwest through Slovakia (17%), Poland (10%), Hungary (4%) and Ukraine (10%) Serbia (5%) and Romania (50%) in the southeast.weblink "The Carpathians" European Travel Commission, in The Official Travel Portal of Europe, Retrieved 15 November 2016weblink The Carpathian Project: Carpathian Mountains in Serbia, Institute for Spatial Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade (2008), Retrieved: 15 November 2016weblink Bulletin of the Natural History Museum, pg. 54, Valuing the geological heritage of Serbia (UDC: 502.171:55(497.11), Aleksandra Maran (2010), Retrieved 15 November 2016BOOK,weblink Sacred Language of the Vlach Bread, Paun es Durlic, Balkankult, 2011, 15 November 2016, The highest range within the Carpathians is known as the Tatra mountains in Slovakia, where the highest peaks exceed {{convert|2600|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}. The second-highest range is the Southern Carpathians in Romania, where the highest peaks range between {{convert|2500|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} and {{convert|2550|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}.The divisions of the Carpathians are usually in three major sections:About the Carpathians - Carpathian Heritage Society {{webarchive|url= |date=6 April 2010 }} The term Outer Carpathians is frequently used to describe the northern rim of the Western and Eastern Carpathians.The Carpathians provide habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania,WEB,weblink Braunbären (Ursus arctos) in Europa, Peter Christoph Sürth,weblink 15 August 2008, dead, 10 March 2011, dmy, WEB,weblink Wolf (Canis lupus) in Europa, Peter Christoph Sürth,weblink 15 August 2008, dead, 10 March 2011, dmy, WEB,weblink Eurasischer Luchs (Lynx lynx) in Europa, Peter Christoph Sürth,, 15 August 2008, dead, 10 March 2011, dmy, as well as over one third of all European plant species.WEB,, Carpathian montane conifer forests - Encyclopedia of Earth,, MediaWiki,weblink" title="">weblink 2010-04-04, 4 August 2010, The mountains and their foothills also have many thermal and mineral waters, with Romania having one-third of the European total.Bucureşti, staţiune balneară – o glumă bună? {{Webarchive|url=|date=14 March 2012}} in Capital, 19 January 2009. Retrieved: 26 April 2011Ruinele de la Baile Herculane si Borsec nu mai au nimic de oferit {{Webarchive|url= |date=13 July 2019 }} in Ziarul Financiar, 5 May 2010. Retrieved: 26 April 2011 Romania is likewise home to the second-largest surface of virgin forests in Europe after Russia, totaling 250,000 hectares (65%), most of them in the Carpathians,Salvaţi pădurile virgine! in Jurnalul Național, 26 October 2011. Retrieved: 31 October 2011 with the Southern Carpathians constituting Europe's largest unfragmented forest area.Europe: New Move to Protect Virgin Forests in Global Issues, 30 May 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Deforestation rates due to illegal logging in the Carpathians are high.NEWS,weblink Romania breaks up alleged €25m illegal logging ring, Neslen, Arthur, 2018-05-31, The Guardian, 2019-07-11, en-GB, 0261-3077, The most important cities in or near the Carpathians are: Bratislava and Košice in Slovakia, Kraków in Poland, Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu, and Braşov in Romania, and Uzhhorod in Ukraine.


    {{see| Carpi (people)#Name etymology}} In modern times, the range is called Karpaty in Czech, Polish and Slovak and Карпати (Karpaty) in Ukrainian, Карпати / Karpati in Serbian, Carpați {{IPA-ro|karˈpat͡sʲ||Ro-Carpați.ogg}} in Romanian, Karpaten in German, and Kárpátok in Hungarian.{{sfn|Moldovanu|2010|p=18}}{{sfn|Blazovich|1994|p=332}} Although the toponym was recorded already by Ptolemy in the second century of the Christian era, {{sfn|Buza|2011|p=24}} the modern form of the name is a neologism in most languages.{{sfn|Moldovanu|2010|p=18}} For instance, Havasok ("Snowy Mountains") was its medieval Hungarian name; Russian chronicles referred to it as "Hungarian Mountains". {{sfn|Blazovich|1994|p=332}}{{sfn|Moldovanu|2010|p=18}} Later sources, such as Dimitrie Cantemir and the Italian chronicler Giovanandrea Gromo, referred to the range as "Transylvania's Mountains", while the 17th-century historian Constantin Cantacuzino translated the name of the mountains in an Italian-Romanian glossary to "Rumanian Mountains". {{sfn|Moldovanu|2010|p=18}}(File:Carpathians dem.jpg|left|thumb|upright=1.3|Relief map of the Carpathian Mountains)The name "Carpates" is highly associated with the old Dacian tribes called "Carpes" or "Carpi" who lived in a large area from the east, north-east of the Black Sea to Transylvanian plains on the present day Romania and Moldova.The name Carpates may ultimately be from the Proto Indo-European root *sker-/*ker-, from which comes the Albanian word karpë (rock), and the Slavic word skála (rock, cliff), perhaps via a Dacian cognate{{Which|date=March 2011}} which meant mountain, rock, or rugged (cf. Germanic root *skerp-, Old Norse harfr "harrow", Gothic skarpo, Middle Low German scharf "potsherd", and Modern High German Scherbe "shard", Old English scearp and English sharp, Lithuanian kar~pas "cut, hack, notch", Latvian cìrpt "to shear, clip"). The archaic Polish word karpa meant "rugged irregularities, underwater obstacles/rocks, rugged roots, or trunks". The more common word skarpa means a sharp cliff or other vertical terrain. The name may instead come from Indo-European *kwerp "to turn", akin to Old English hweorfan "to turn, change" (English warp) and Greek karpós "wrist", perhaps referring to the way the mountain range bends or veers in an L-shape.Room, Adrian. Placenames of the World. London: MacFarland and Co., Inc., 1997.In late Roman documents, the Eastern Carpathian Mountains were referred to as Montes Sarmatici (meaning Sarmatian Mountains).E.g. in work Tractatus de duabus Sarmatiis, Asiana et Europiana, et de contentis in eis by Mathias de Miechow, first edition from 1517. Second book, chapter 1. The Western Carpathians were called Carpates, a name that is first recorded in Ptolemy's Geographia (second century AD).{{citation needed|date=June 2015}}In the Scandinavian Hervarar saga, which relates ancient Germanic legends about battles between Goths and Huns, the name Karpates appears in the predictable Germanic form as Harvaða fjöllum (see Grimm's law)."Inter Alpes Huniae et Oceanum est Polonia" by Gervase of Tilbury, has described in his Otia Imperialia ("Recreation for an Emperor") in 1211. Thirteenth- to fifteenth-century Hungarian documents named the mountains Thorchal, Tarczal, or less frequently Montes Nivium.DNB, Gervase of Tilbury,


    File:Marmarosch.jpg|thumb|MaramureÈ™ Mountains in north of Romania]]File:0.2014 Sanok, von KoÅ›ciuszkistrasse aus gesehen.JPG|thumb|View from Sanok in PolandPolandThe northwestern Carpathians begin in Slovakia and southern Poland. They surround Transcarpathia and Transylvania in a large semicircle, sweeping towards the southeast, and end on the Danube near OrÅŸova in Romania. The total length of the Carpathians is over {{convert|1500|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} and the mountain chain's width varies between {{convert|12|and|500|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}. The highest altitudes of the Carpathians occur where they are widest. The system attains its greatest breadth in the Transylvanian plateau and in the southern Tatra Mountains group – the highest range, in which Gerlachovský Å¡tít in Slovakia is the highest peak at {{convert|2655|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} above sea level. The Carpathians cover an area of {{convert|190000|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}, and after the Alps, form the next-most extensive mountain system in Europe.File:Kežmarok z Kamennej bane.jpg|thumb|KežmarokKežmarokFile:Zakopane at night.jpg|thumb|Tatra Mountains in ZakopaneZakopaneFile:2 Східні гуцули.jpg|thumb|Hutsul people, living in the Carpathian mountains, circa 1872]]File:Szczawnica in Poland 1939.jpg|thumb|Szczawnica in Poland, PieninyPieninyFile:Koniaków miyszani owiec (redyk wiosenny) 06.jpg|thumb|Shepherds in BeskidsBeskidsFile:"Grojcowianie" folklore group in Å»ywiec Beskids clothing.jpg|thumb|The Feast of the Assumption of MaryAssumption of Mary(File:Hutsul wedding 09.jpg|thumb|Hutsul wedding in Ukraine)Although commonly referred to as a mountain chain, the Carpathians do not actually form an uninterrupted chain of mountains. Rather, they consist of several orographically and geologically distinctive groups, presenting as great a structural variety as the Alps. The Carpathians, which attain an altitude over {{convert|2500|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} in only a few places, lack the bold peaks, extensive snowfields, large glaciers, high waterfalls, and numerous large lakes that are common in the Alps. It was believed that no area of the Carpathian range was covered in snow all year round and there were no glaciers, but recent research by Polish scientists discovered one permafrost and glacial area in the Tatra Mountains.WEB, GÄ…dek, Gradiecz, Bogdan, Mariusz, Glacial Ice and Permafrost Distribution in the Medena Kotlina (Slovak Tatras): Mapped with Application of GPR and GST Measurements,weblink Landform Evolution in Mountain Areas, Studia Geomorphologica Carpatho-Balcanica, 3 February 2013, The Carpathians at their highest altitude are only as high as the middle region of the Alps, with which they share a common appearance, climate, and flora.The Carpathians are separated from the Alps by the Danube. The two ranges meet at only one point: the Leitha Mountains at Bratislava. The river also separates them from the Balkan Mountains at OrÅŸova in Romania. The valley of the March and Oder separates the Carpathians from the Silesian and Moravian chains, which belong to the middle wing of the great Central Mountain System of Europe. Unlike the other wings of the system, the Carpathians, which form the watershed between the northern seas and the Black Sea, are surrounded on all sides by plains, namely the Pannonian plain to the southwest, the Lower Danubian Plain to the south, with the southern part being in Bulgaria, and the northern - in (Romania), and the Galician plain to the northeast.

    Cities and towns

    Important cities and towns in or near the Carpathians are, in approximate descending order of population:{{Div col|colwidth=17em}} {{div col end}}

    Highest peaks

    This is an (incomplete) list of the peaks of the Carpathians having summits over {{convert|2500|m|ft}}, with their heights, geologic divisions, and locations.{| class="wikitable sortable"! Peak! Geologic divisions! Nation (Nations)! County (Counties)! Height (m)
    Vysoká (Tatra mountain)>Vysoká| High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,547
    ArgeÈ™ County>ArgeÈ™| 2,544
    ArgeÈ™ County>ArgeÈ™| 2,535
    Brașov County>Brașov| 2,527
    Alba County>Alba, Gorj County, Hunedoara County>Hunedoara| 2,519
    Lespezi_(mountain)>Lespezi| Făgăraș Mountains| RomaniaSibiu County>Sibiu| 2,517
    Hunedoara County>Hunedoara| 2,509
    Hunedoara County>Hunedoara| 2,508
    ArgeÈ™ County>ArgeÈ™| 2,507
    Prahova County>Prahova, Brașov County, Dâmbovița County>Dâmbovița| 2,505
    Sibiu County>Sibiu| 2,505
    Prahova County>Prahova, Brașov County, Dâmbovița County>Dâmbovița| 2,503
    Sibiu County>Sibiu| 2,500

    Highest peaks by country

    This is a list of the highest national peaks of the Carpathians, their heights, geologic divisions, and locations. Excluding mountains located in two countries (on the border).{| class="wikitable sortable"! Peak! Geologic divisions! Nation (Nations)! County (Counties)! Height (m) | Gerlachovský štítFatra-Tatra Area>High Tatras| Slovakia| Prešov Region| 2,655| Moldoveanu| Făgăraş Mountains| RomaniaArgeş County>Argeş| 2,544 | Rysy| Fatra-Tatra Area| Poland| Tatra County| 2,499 | Hoverla| Eastern Beskids (Chornohora)| Ukraine| Nadvirna Raion, Rakhiv Raion| 2,061|Beljanica|Beljanica|Serbia|Despotovac|1,339|Lysá hora|Moravian-Silesian Beskids|Czech Republic|Moravian-Silesian Region|1,323| Kékes| North Hungarian Mountains| Hungary| Heves County| 1,014

    Mountain passes

    In the Romanian part of the main chain of the Carpathians, mountain passes include Prislop Pass, TihuÈ›a Pass, Bicaz Canyon, GhimeÈ™ Pass, Buzău Pass, Predeal Pass (crossed by the railway from BraÅŸov to Bucharest), Turnu RoÈ™u Pass (1,115 ft., running through the narrow gorge of the Olt River and crossed by the railway from Sibiu to Bucharest), Vulcan Pass, and the Iron Gate (both crossed by the railway from TimiÈ™oara to Craiova).


    File:Slovakia Vratna 11.jpg|thumb|Vrátna dolinaVrátna dolinaThe area now occupied by the Carpathians was once occupied by smaller ocean basins. The Carpathian mountains were formed during the Alpine orogeny in the MesozoicPlašienka, D., 2002, Origin and growth of the Western Carpathian orogenetic wedge during the mesozoic. {{webarchive|url= |date=7 October 2011 }} (PDF) in Geologica Carpathica Special Issues 53 Proceedings of XVII. Congress of Carpathian-Balkan Geological Association Bratislava, 1–4 September 2002 and Tertiary by moving the ALCAPA, Tisza and Dacia plates over subducting oceanic crust.Mantovani, E., Viti, M., Babbucci, D., Tamburelli, C., Albarello, D., 2006, Geodynamic connection between the indentation of Arabia and the Neogene tectonics of the central–eastern Mediterranean region. GSA Special Papers, v. 409, p. 15-41The mountains take the form of a fold and thrust belt with generally north vergence in the western segment, northeast to east vergence in the eastern portion and southeast vergence in the southern portion.The external, generally northern, portion of the orogenic belt is a Tertiary accretionary prism of a so-called Flysch belt (the Carpathian Flysch Belt) created by rocks scraped off the sea bottom and thrust over the North-European plate. The Carpathian accretionary wedge is made of several thin skinned nappes composed of Cretaceous to Paleogene turbidites. Thrusting of the Flysch nappes over the Carpathian foreland caused the formation of the Carpathian foreland basin.Nehyba, S., Šikula, J., 2007, Depositional architecture, sequence stratigraphy and geodynamic development of the Carpathian Foredeep (Czech Republic). Geologica Carpathica, 58, 1, pp. 53-69 The boundary between the Flysch belt and internal zones of the orogenic belt in the western segment of the mountain range is marked by the Pieniny Klippen Belt, a narrow complicated zone of polyphase compressional deformation, later involved in a supposed strike-slip zone.Mišík, M., 1997, The Slovak Part of the Pieniny Klippen Belt After the Pioneering Works of D. Andrusov. Geologica Carpathica, 48, 4, pp. 209-220 Internal zones in western and eastern segments contain older Variscan igneous massifs reworked in Mesozoic thick and thin-skinned nappes. During the Middle Miocene this zone was affected by intensive calc-alkalinePácskay, Z., Lexa, J., Szákacs, A., 2006, Geochronology of Neogene magmatism in the Carpathian arc and intra-Carpathian area. Geologica Carpathica, 57, 6, pp. 511 - 530 arc volcanism that developed over the subduction zone of the flysch basins. At the same time, the internal zones of the orogenic belt were affected by large extensional structureDolton, G.L., 2006, Pannonian Basin Province, Central Europe (Province 4808)—Petroleum geology, total petroleum systems, and petroleum resource assessment. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2204–B, 47 p. of the back-arc Pannonian Basin.Royden, L.H., Horváth, F., Rumpler, J., 1983, Evolution of the Pannonian basin system. 1. Tectionics. Tectonics, 2, pp. 61-90 The last volcanic activity occurred at Ciomadul about 30,000 years ago.Iron, gold and silver were found in great quantities in the Western Carpathians. After the Roman emperor Trajan's conquest of Dacia, he brought back to Rome over 165 tons of gold and 330 tons of silver.WEB, Dacia-Province of the Roman Empire, United Nations of Roma Victor,weblink 2010-11-14, {{dead link|date=November 2016 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}

    Divisions of the Carpathians

    File:mapcarpat2.png|right|thumb|upright=1.35|Map of the main divisions of the Carpathians.1. Outer Western Carpathians2. Inner Western Carpathians3. Outer Eastern Carpathians4. Inner Eastern Carpathians5. Southern Carpathians6. Western Romanian Carpathians7. Transylvanian Plateau8. Serbian CarpathiansSerbian CarpathiansThe largest range is the Tatras in Poland and Slovakia. A major part of the western and northeastern Outer Eastern Carpathians in Poland, Ukraine, and Slovakia is traditionally called the Eastern Beskids.The geological border between the Western and Eastern Carpathians runs approximately along the line (south to north) between the towns of Michalovce, Bardejov, Nowy Sącz and Tarnów. In older systems the border runs more in the east, along the line (north to south) along the rivers San and Osława (Poland), the town of Snina (Slovakia) and river Tur'ia (Ukraine). Biologists, however, shift the border even further to the east.The border between the eastern and southern Carpathians is formed by the Predeal Pass, south of Braşov and the Prahova Valley.In geopolitical terms, Carpathian Mountains are often grouped and labeled according to national or regional borders, but such division has turned out to be relative, since it was, and still is dependent on frequent historical, political and administrative changes of national or regional borders. According to modern geopolitical division, Carpathians can be grouped as: Serbian, Romanian, Ukrainian, Polish, Slovakian, Czech, Austrian, and Hungarian. Within each nation, specific classifications of the Carpathians have been developing, often reflecting local traditions, and thus creating terminological diversity, that produces various challenges in the fields of comparative classification and international systematization.Section of the Carpathians within borders of Romania is commonly known as the Romanian Carpathians. In local use, Romanians sometimes denote as "Eastern Carpathians" only the Romanian part of the Eastern Carpathians, which lies on their territory (i.e., from the Ukrainian border or from the Prislop Pass to the south), which they subdivide into three simplified geographical groups (northern, central, southern), instead of Outer and Inner Eastern Carpathians. These groups are:
    • MaramureÈ™-Bukovinian Carpathians (Romanian: CarpaÈ›ii MaramureÈ™ului È™i ai Bucovinei)
    • Moldavian-Transylvanian Carpathians (Romanian: CarpaÈ›ii Moldo-Transilvani)
    • Curvature Carpathians (Romanian: CarpaÈ›ii Curburii, CarpaÈ›ii de Curbură)
    Section of the Carpathians within borders of Ukraine is commonly known as the Ukrainian Carpathians. Classification of eastern sections of the Carpathians is particularly complex, since it was influenced by several overlapping traditions. Terms like Wooded Carpathians, Poloniny Mountains or Eastern Beskids are often used in varying scopes by authors belonging to different traditions.

    Notable people

    {{Expand section|date=March 2017}}

    See also

    {{Div col|colwidth=26em}} {{colend|colwidth=26em}}




    • BOOK, Blazovich, László, Kristó, Gyula, Engel, Pál, Makk, Ferenc, Korai magyar történeti lexikon (9-14. század) [Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History (9th-14th centuries)], Akadémiai Kiadó, 1994, 332, Kárpátok [Carpathians], 963-05-6722-9, harv, hu,
    • JOURNAL, Buza, Mircea, On the origins and historical evolution of toponymy on the territory of Romania, Revue Roumaine de Géographie / Romanian Journal of Geography, 55, 1, 23–36, Institute of Geography, Romanian Academy, 2011,weblink 27 June 2015, 1220-5311, harv,
    • JOURNAL, Moldovanu, DragoÈ™, Toponimie de origine Romană în Transilvania È™i în sud-vestul Moldovei, Anuar de Lingvistică ÅŸi Istorie Literară, XLIX-L, 17–95, Institute of Geography, Romanian Academy, 2010,weblink 27 June 2015, ro, harv,weblink" title="">weblink 5 March 2016, dead, dmy-all,

    External links

    {{Wikivoyage}}{{commons|Carpathian Mountains}}{{EB1911 poster|Carpathian Mountains}} {{Carpathian Mountains}}{{Authority control}}

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