Carl Van Vechten

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Carl Van Vechten
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{{short description|American writer and photographer}}{{Use mdy dates|date=June 2018}}

| birth_place = Cedar Rapids, Iowa, U.S.1964216|17}}| death_place = New York City, New York, U.S.Washington High School (Cedar Rapids, Iowa)>Washington High School| alma_mater = University of Chicago| occupation = PhotographerAnna Snyder1912}}{{marriageFania Marinoff>1914|1964}}}}Carl Van Vechten (June 17, 1880 – December 21, 1964) was an American writer and artistic photographer who was a patron of the Harlem Renaissance and the literary executor of Gertrude Stein.WEB,weblink Portraits by Carl Van Vechten – Carl Van Vechten Biography – (American Memory from the Library of Congress),, March 9, 2010, He gained fame as a writer, and notoriety as well, for his novel Nigger Heaven. In his later years, he took up photography and took many portraits of notable people. Although he was married to women for most of his adult life, Van Vechten engaged in numerous homosexual affairs over his lifetime.

Life and career

Born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, he was the youngest child of Charles and Ada Van Vechten.{{Citation | last = White | first = Edward | title = The Tastemaker: Carl Van Vechten and the Birth of Modern America | place = New York | publisher = Farrar, Straus and Giroux | year = 2014 | isbn = 978-0-374-20157-9 }}{{rp|14}} Both of his parents were well educated. His father was a wealthy and prominent banker. His mother established the Cedar Rapids public library and had great musical talent.WEB,weblink Van Vechten, Carl – The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa -The University of Iowa,, May 23, 2018, As a child, Van Vechten developed a passion for music and theatre.WEB,weblink Van Vechten Collection - Carl Van Vechten Biography and Chronology, 1932,, en, May 23, 2018, He graduated from Washington High School in 1898.NEWS, Carl Van Vechten's Camera Documented Personalities,weblink Cedar Rapids Gazette, March 10, 1971, November 17, 2012, {{Dead link|date=November 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}After high school, Van Vechten was eager to take the next steps in his life, but found it difficult to pursue his passions in Iowa. He described his hometown as "that unloved town". In order to advance his education, he decided in 1899 to study at the University of ChicagoWEB,weblink Carl Van Vechten Biography,, December 21, 1964, March 9, 2010, {{dead link|date=November 2016 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} where he studied a variety of topics including music, art and opera. As a student, he became increasingly interested in writing and wrote for the college newspaper, the University of Chicago Weekly.After graduating from college in 1903, Van Vechten accepted a job as a columnist for the Chicago American. In his column "The Chaperone", Van Vechten covered many different topics through a style of semi-autobiographical gossip and criticism. During his time with the Chicago American, he was occasionally asked to include photographs with his column. This was the first time he was thought to have experimented with photography which later became one of his greatest passions. Van Vechten was fired from his position with the Chicago American because of what was described as an elaborate and complicated style of writing. Some described his contributions to the paper as "lowering the tone of the Hearst papers". In 1906, he moved to New York City. He was hired as the assistant music critic at The New York Times.JOURNAL,weblink White Mischief: The passions of Carl Van Vechten, Sanneh, Kelefa, The New Yorker, February 17, 2014, His interest in opera had him take a leave of absence from the paper in 1907 to travel to Europe and explore opera.While in England, he married Anna Snyder, his long-time friend from Cedar Rapids. He returned to his job at The New York Times in 1909, where he became the first American critic of modern dance. Under the leadership of Van Vechten's social mentor Mabel Dodge Luhan, he became engrossed in avant-garde art. This was an innovative type of art which explores new styles or subject matters and is thought to be well ahead of other art in terms of technique, subject matter, and application. He also began to frequently attend groundbreaking musical premieres at the time when Isadora Duncan, Anna Pavlova, and Loie Fuller were performing in New York City. He also attended premieres in Paris where he met American author and poet Gertrude Stein in 1913. He became a devoted friend and champion of Stein. He was considered to be one of Stein's most enthusiastic fans.WEB,weblink Van Vechten, Carl – The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa -The University of Iowa,, May 24, 2018, They continued corresponding for the remainder of Stein's life, and, at her death, she appointed Van Vechten her literary executor; he helped to bring into print her unpublished writings.{{rp|306}} A collection of the letters between Van Vechten and Stein has been published.WEB,weblink Van Vechten Collection - Carl Van Vechten Biography and Chronology, 1932,, en, May 24, 2018, Van Vechten wrote a piece called "How to Read Gertrude Stein" for the arts magazine The Trend. In his piece, Van Vechten attempted to demystify Gertrude Stein and bring clarity to her works. Van Vechten came to the conclusion that Gertrude Stein is a difficult author to understand and she can be best understood when one has been guided through her work by an "expert insider". He writes that "special writers require special readers".BOOK,weblink The Tastemaker : Carl Van Vechten and the Birth of Modern America, White, Edward, 9780374201579, First, New York, 846545238, The marriage to Anna Snyder ended in divorce in 1912, and he wed actress Fania Marinoff in 1914.WEB, Carl Van Vechten's Biography on,weblink July 10, 2012, Van Vechten and Marinoff were known for ignoring the social separation of races during the times and for inviting blacks to their home for social gatherings. They also were known to attend public gatherings for black people and to visit black friends in their homes.Although Van Vechten's marriage to his wife Fania Marinoff lasted for 50 years, they often had arguments about Van Vechten's affairs with men. Van Vechten was known to have romantic and sexual relationships with men, especially Mark Lutz.Mark Lutz (1901–1968) was born in Richmond, Virginia, and was introduced to Van Vechten by Hunter Stagg in New York in 1931. Lutz was a model for some of Van Vechten's earliest experiments with photography. The friendship lasted until Van Vechten's death. At Lutz's death, as per his wishes, the correspondence with Van Vechten, amounting to 10,000 letters, was destroyed. Lutz donated his collection of Van Vechten's photographs to the Philadelphia Museum of Art.BOOK, The Letters of Gertrude Stein and Carl Van Vechten, 1913–1946, 2013, Columbia University Press, 310,weblink January 13, 2018, Several books of Van Vechten's essays on various subjects, such as music and literature, were published between 1915 and 1920, and Vechten also served as an informal scout for the newly formed Alfred A. Knopf.BOOK,weblink The lady with the Borzoi : Blanche Knopf, literary tastemaker extraordinaire, Claridge, Laura, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2016, 9780374114251, First, New York, 41, 908176194, Between 1922 and 1930 Knopf published seven novels by him, starting with Peter Whiffle: His Life and Works and ending with Parties.WEB,weblink Carl Van Vechten Facts, information, pictures | articles about Carl Van Vechten,, June 17, 2012, His sexuality is most clearly reflected in his intensely homoerotic portraits of working class men.As an appreciator of the arts, Van Vechten was extremely intrigued by the explosion of creativity which was occurring in Harlem. He was drawn towards the tolerance of Harlem society and the excitement it generated among black writers and artists. He also felt most accepted there as a gay man.BOOK,weblink Carl Van Vechten and the Harlem Renaissance : a portrait in black and white, Bernard, Emily, 2012, Yale University Press, 9780300183290, New Haven [Conn.], 784957824, Van Vechten promoted many of the major figures of the Harlem Renaissance, including Paul Robeson, Langston Hughes, Ethel Waters, Richard Wright, Zora Neale Hurston and Wallace Thurman. Van Vechten's controversial novel Nigger Heaven was published in 1926. His essay "Negro Blues Singers" was published in Vanity Fair in 1926. Biographer Edward White suggests Van Vechten was convinced that negro culture was the essence of America.Van Vechten played a critical role in the Harlem Renaissance and helped to bring greater clarity to the African American movement. However, for a long time he was also seen as a very controversial figure. In Van Vechten's early writings, he claimed that black people were born to be entertainers and sexually "free". In other words, he believed that black people should be free to explore their sexuality and singers should follow their natural talents such as jazz, spirituals and blues. Van Vechten wrote about his experiences of attending a Bessie Smith concert at the Orpheum Theatre in Newark, New Jersey, in 1925.BOOK, The Devil's Music, Giles Oakley, Da Capo Press, 106, 978-0-306-80743-5, 1997, registration,weblink In Harlem, Van Vechten often attended opera and cabarets. He was credited for the surge in white interest in Harlem nightlife and culture as well as involved in helping well respected writers like Langston Hughes and Nella Larsen find publishers for their early works.BOOK,weblink The tiger in the house, Carl, Van Vechten, 2006, New York Review Books, 9781590172230, New York, 76142159, In 2001, Emily Bernard published "Remember Me to Harlem". This was a collection of letters which documented the long friendship between Van Vechten and Langston Hughes, who publicly defended Nigger Heaven. Bernard's book Carl Van Vechten and the Harlem Renaissance: A Portrait in Black and White explores the messy and uncomfortable realities of race, and the complicated tangle of black and white in America.His older brother Ralph Van Vechten died on June 28, 1927; when Ralph's widow Fannie died in 1928, Van Vechten inherited $1 million invested in a trust fund, which was unaffected by the stock market crash of 1929 and provided financial support for Carl and Fania.{{rp|242–244}}{{Citation | last = Smalls | first = James | title = The Homoerotic Photography of Carl Van Vechten: Public Face, Private Thoughts | place = Philadelphia | publisher = Temple University Press | page = 24 | url =weblink | isbn = 1-59213-305-3| year = 2006 }}(File:Carl Van Vechten, NYC, NY.jpg|thumb|275px|left|Van Vechten House and Studio, Manhattan, New York City, 2017)By the start of the 1930s and at age 50, Van Vechten was finished with writing and took up photography, using his apartment at 150 West 55th Street as a studio, where he photographed many notable people.WEB,weblink Carl Van Vechten: Biography from,, December 21, 1964, March 9, 2010, WEB,weblink Prints & Photographs Online Catalog – Van Vechten Collection – Biography,, March 9, 2010, After the 1930s Van Vechten published little writing, though he continued writing letters to many correspondents.Van Vechten died in 1964 at the age of 84 in New York City. His ashes were scattered over the Shakespeare garden in Central Park, Manhattan, New York.Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 48447). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition He was the subject of a 1968 biography by Bruce Kellner, Carl Van Vechten and the Irreverent Decades,Kellner, B., Carl Van Vechten and the Irreverent Decades (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968). {{oclc|292311}} as well as Edward White's 2014 biography, The Tastemaker: Carl Van Vechten and the Birth of Modern America.

Archives and museum collections

Most of Van Vechten's personal papers are held by the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University. The Beinecke Library also holds a collection titled "Living Portraits: Carl Van Vechten's Color Photographs Of African Americans, 1939–1964", a collection of 1,884 color Kodachrome slides.Living Portraits: Carl Van Vechten's Color Photographs Of African Americans, 1939–196 {{Webarchive|url= |date=September 25, 2011 }}. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University. Retrieved July 8, 2009.(File:Saul Mauriber, after a photograph of Salvador Dali by Halsman, 1944.jpg|thumb|Saul Mauriber, after a photograph of Salvador Dalí by Halsman, 1944 by Van Vechten)The Library of Congress has a collection of approximately 1,400 photographs, which it acquired in 1966 from Saul Mauriber (May 21, 1915 – February 12, 2003). There is also a collection of Van Vechten's photographs in the Prentiss Taylor collection in the Smithsonian's Archives of American Art, and a Van Vechten collection at Fisk University. The Museum of the City of New York's collection includes 2,174 of Carl Van Vechten's photographs. Brandeis University's department of Archives & Special Collections holds 1,689 Carl Van Vechten portraits.WEB, Carl Van Vechten photographs,weblink Robert D. Farber University Archives & Special Collections Department, Brandeis University, August 25, 2016, Van Vechten also donated materials to Fisk University to form the George Gershwin Memorial Collection of Music and Musical Literature.{{rp|284}}The Philadelphia Museum of Art currently holds one of the largest collection of photographs by Van Vechten in the United States. The collection began in 1949 when Van Vechten made a gift of sixty of his photographs to the museum. In 1965, Mark Lutz made a gift to the museum of over 12,000 photographs by Van Vechten from his personal collection. Included in the collection are images from extensive portrait sessions with figures of the Harlem Renaissance such as Langston Hughes, Ella Fitzgerald, Billie Holiday, Zora Neale Hurston, and Cab Calloway; artists such as Marcel Duchamp, Henri Matisse, Joan Miró, and Frida Kahlo; and countless other actors, musicians, and cultural figures. Also included in the Mark Lutz gift is an extensive body of photographs Van Vechten took at the 1939 New York World's Fair as well as a large number of photographs depicting scenes across Western Europe and Northern Africa taken during Van Vechten’s travels in 1935-1936.WEB,weblink Philadelphia Museum of Art - Collections : Search Collections,, 2019-08-30, In 1980, concerned that Van Vechten's fragile 35 mm nitrate negatives were fast deteriorating, photographer Richard Benson, in conjunction with the Eakins Press Foundation, transformed 50 of the portraits into handmade gravure prints. The album 'O, Write My Name': American Portraits, Harlem Heroes was completed in 1983. That year, the National Endowment for the Arts transferred the Eakins Press Foundation's prototype albums to the permanent collection of the Smithsonian American Art Museum.WEB, Harlem Heroes: Photographs by Carl Van Vechten,weblink Exhibitions - Smithsonian American Art Museum, Smithsonian Institution, August 25, 2016, The National Portrait Gallery, London, holds 17 of Van Vechten's portraits of leading creative talents of his era.WEB,weblink Carl Van Vechten - National Portrait Gallery,,


At age 40, Van Vechten wrote the book Peter Whiffle, which established him as a respected novelist. This novel was recognized as contemporary and an important work to the collection of Harlem Renaissance history. In his novel, autobiographical facts were arranged into a fictional form. In addition to Peter Whiffle, Van Vechten wrote several other novels. One is The Tattooed Countess, a disguised manipulation of his memories of growing up in Cedar Rapids. His book the Tiger in the House explores the quirks and qualities of Van Vechtens most beloved animal, the cat.BOOK,weblink The tiger in the house, Van Vechten, Carl, 2006, New York Review Books, 9781590172230, New York, 76142159, One of his more controversial novels, Nigger Heaven, was received with both controversy and praise. Van Vechten called this book "my Negro novel". He intended for this novel to depict how African Americans were living in Harlem and not about the suffering of blacks in the South who were dealing with racism and lynchings. Although many encouraged Van Vechten to reconsider giving his novel such a controversial name, he could not resist having an incendiary title. Some worried that his title would take away from the content of the book. In one letter, his father wrote to him "Whatever you may be compelled to say in the book," he wrote, "your present title will not be understood & I feel certain you should change it."NEWS,weblink White Mischief, The New Yorker, May 24, 2018, en-US, Many black readers were divided over how the novel depicted African Americans. Some felt the novel depicted black people as "alien and strange", and others valued the novel for its representation of African Americans as everyday people, with complexity and flaws just like typical White characters. Some of the novel's supporters included Nella Larsen, Langston Hughes and Gertrude Stein, who all defended the novel for bringing Harlem society and racial issues to the forefront of America.BOOK,weblink The Tastemaker : Carl Van Vechten and the Birth of Modern America, White, Edward, 9780374201579, First, New York, 846545238, His supporters also sent him letters to voice their opinions of the novel. Alain Locke sent Van Vechten a letter from Berlin citing his novel Nigger Heaven and the excitement surrounding its release as his primary reason for making an imminent return home. Gertrude Stein sent Van Vechten a letter from France writing that the novel was the best thing he had ever written. Stein also played an important role in the development of the novel.BOOK,weblink The Tastemaker : Carl Van Vechten and the Birth of Modern America, Edward, White, 9780374201579, First, New York, 846545238, Well known critics of this novel included African American scholar W.E.B. Du Bois and black novelist Wallace Thurman. Du Bois dismissed the novel as "cheap melodrama". Decades after the book was published, literary critic and scholar Ralph Ellison remembered Van Vechten as a bad influence, an unpleasant character who "introduced a note of decadence into Afro-American literary matters which was not needed." In 1981, David Levering Lewis, historian and author of a classic study of the Harlem Renaissance, called Nigger Heaven a "colossal fraud," a seemingly uplifting book with a message that was overshadowed by "the throb of the tom-tom." He viewed Van Vechten as being driven by "a mixture of commercialism and patronizing sympathy".{{colbegin|colwidth=25em}}
  • Music After the Great War (1915)
  • Music and Bad Manners (1916)
  • Interpreters and Interpretations (1917)
  • The Merry-Go-Round (1918)
  • The Music of Spain (1918)
  • In the Garret (1919)
  • The Tiger in the House (1920)
  • Lords of the Housetops (1921)
  • Peter Whiffle (1922)
  • The Blind Bow-Boy (1923)
  • The Tattooed Countess (1924)
  • Red (1925)
  • Firecrackers. A Realistic Novel (1925)
  • Excavations (1926)
  • Nigger Heaven (1926)
  • Spider Boy (1928)
  • Parties (1930)
  • Feathers (1930)
  • Sacred and Profane Memories (1932)
  • The Dance Writings of Carl Van Vechten (1974)
Source: {{HathiTrust|001029607|A bibliography of the writings of Carl Van Vechten}}{{colend}}


File:Marian Anderson.jpg|Marian Anderson, 1940File:Earlofsnowdon.jpeg|Antony Armstrong-Jones, 1958File:Isherwood and Auden by Carl van Vechten, 1939.jpg|Christopher Isherwood and W.H. Auden, 1939File:Pierre Balmain and Ruth Ford, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, November 9, 1947.jpg|Pierre Balmain and Ruth Ford, 1947File:Bachardy, Donald (1934-viv.) - 1954 foto Van Vechten.jpg|Don Bachardy, 1954File:TallulahBankhead.jpg|Tallulah Bankhead, 1934File:Jamesbaldwin.jpg|James Baldwin, 1955File:Albert C. Barnes.jpg|Albert C. Barnes, 1940File:Harry Belafonte Almanac 1954 b.jpg|Harry Belafonte, 1954File:Feral Benga, 1937.jpg|Féral Benga, 1937File:Robert Hunt and Witter Bynner.jpg|Robert Hunt and Witter BynnerFile:Karen Blixen 1959 photo by Carl Van Vechten.jpg|Karen von Blixen-Finecke, 1959File:Marlon Brando 1948.jpg|Marlon Brando, 1948File:Donald Windham and Sandy Campbell, 1955.jpg|Donald Windham and Sandy Campbell, 1955File:Truman Capote 1924 1.jpg|Truman Capote, 1948File:Katharine Cornell.jpg|Katharine Cornell, 1933File:Giorgio de Chirico (portrait).jpg|Giorgio de Chirico, 1936File:Portrait of Salvador Dali, Paris, LOC 4483943847.jpg|Salvador Dali, 1934File:Gloria Davy.jpg|Gloria Davy, 1958File:Mabel Dodge Luhan - Van Vechten.jpg|Mabel Dodge Luhan, 1934File:Norman Douglas 1935.jpg|Norman Douglas, 1935File:John Van Druten.jpg|John Van Druten, 1932File:Portrait of John Gielgud 2 by Carl Van Vechten cropped.jpeg|John Gielgud as Richard II, 1936File:William Faulkner 1954 (2) (photo by Carl van Vechten).jpg|William Faulkner, 1954File:Arthur Gold and Robert Fizdale, 1952.jpg|Arthur Gold and Robert Fizdale, 1952File:Lynn Fontanne portrait2.jpg|Lynn Fontanne, 1932File:Bengazarra.jpg|Ben Gazzara, 1955File:Dizzy_Gillespie_playing_horn_1955.jpg|Dizzy Gillespie, 1955File:Martha Graham and Bertram Ross.jpg|Martha Graham and Bertram Ross, 1961File:Maurice Grosser, 1935.jpg|Maurice Grosser, 1935File:WCHandy.jpg|W. C. Handy, 1941File:Julie Harris as Sally Bowles.jpg|Julie Harris, 1952File:Billie Holiday 1949.jpg|Billie Holiday, 1949File:Lenahorne.jpeg|Lena Horne, 1941File:Marilyn Horne and Henry Lewis.jpg|Marilyn Horne and Henry Lewis, 1961File:Joseiturbi.jpg#/media/File:Joseiturbi.jpg|José Iturbi, 1933File:Mahalia Jackson 1962, van Vechten, LC-USZ62-91314.jpg|Mahalia Jackson, 1962File:Philip Johnson3.jpg|Philip Johnson, 1933File:Eartha Kitt.jpg|Eartha Kitt, 1952File:Victor Kraft, 1935.jpg|Victor Kraft, 1935File:Fernand Léger.jpg|Fernand Léger, 1936File:Portrait of Hugh Laing, in Jardin aux Lilas LCCN2004663158.jpg|Portrait of Hugh Laing, 1940File:Vechten, Carl Van - Hugh Laing e altro ballerino.jpg|Hugh Laing (left), 1940File:Native-Son-Canada-Lee-1941-2.jpg|Canada Lee, 1941File:Lotte Lenya.jpg|Lotte Lenya, 1962File:Joe Louis by van Vechten.jpg|Joe Louis, 1941File:Portrait of Clare Boothe Luce LCCN2004663224.jpg|Clare Boothe Luce, 1932File:Alfred Lunt 1.jpg|Alfred Lunt, 1932File:Norman Mailer 3a42824u.jpg|Norman Mailer, 1948File:Henri Matisse photo taken by Carl Van Vechten.jpg|Henri Matisse, 1933File:Elsa Maxwell, on the Conte de Savoia, 1935.jpg|Elsa Maxwell, 1935File:Gcmenotti.jpg|Gian Carlo Menotti, 1944File:Vechten, Carl van - 1947 - Francisco Moncion.jpg|Francisco Moncion, 1947File:Robert Morse.jpg|Robert Morse, 1958File:Laurence Olivier Carl Van Vechten portrait 3.jpg|Laurence Olivier, 1939File:Christopher Plummer.jpg|Christopher Plummer, 1959File:José Quintero, 1958.jpg|José Quintero, 1958File:Cesarromero.jpg|Cesar Romero, 1934File:Arthur Schwartz by Van Vechten.jpg|Arthur Schwartz, 1933File:Bessiesmith-2.jpg|Bessie Smith, 1936File:Maugham retouched.jpg|W. Somerset Maugham, 1934File:Gertrude Stein 1935-01-04.jpg|Gertrude Stein, 1935File:Jimmy Stewart.jpg|James Stewart, 1934File:William Grant Still by Carl Van Vechten.jpg|William Grant Still, 1949File:Paul Taylor.jpg|Paul Taylor, 1960File:Tchelitchew.jpg|Pavel Tchelitchew, 1934File:Virgil Thomson by Carl Van Vechten.jpg|Virgil Thomson, 1947File:Anthonytudor.jpg|Antony Tudor, 1941File:GoreVidalVanVechten1.jpg|Gore Vidal, 1948File:Hugh Walpole, 1934.jpg|Hugh Walpole, 1934File:Portrait of Ethel Waters LCCN2004663703.jpg|Ethel Waters, 1938File:Evelynwaugh.jpeg|Evelyn Waugh, 1940File:Orson_Welles_1937.jpg|Orson Welles, 1937File:Anna May Wong 2.jpg|Anna May Wong, 1939File:Zoritch.jpg|George Zoritch, 1942


  • Bird, Rudolph P. (ed.) (1997). Generations in Black and White: Photographs of Carl Van Vechten from the James Weldon Johnson Memorial Collection, University of Georgia Press. {{ISBN|0820319449}}
  • Kellner, Bruce (1968). Carl Van Vechten and the Irreverent Decades. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. {{ISBN|0-8061-0808-8}}
  • Kellner, Bruce (ed.) (1980). A Bibliography of the Work of Carl Van Vechten. Westport: Greenwood Press. {{ISBN|0-313-20767-4}}
  • Kellner, Bruce (ed.) (1987). Letters of Carl Van Vechten. New Haven: Yale University Press. {{ISBN|0-300-03907-7}}
  • Smalls, James (2006). weblink" title="">The Homoerotic Photography of Carl Van Vechten: Public Face, Private Thoughts. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. {{ISBN|1-59213-305-3}}
  • White, Edward (2014). The Tastemaker: Carl Van Vechten and the Birth of Modern America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. {{ISBN|978-0-374-20157-9}}
  • Hurston, Zora Neale (1984). (Dust Tracks on a Road: An Autobiography). University of Illinois Press. {{ISBN|0-252-01047-7}}

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