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Caprinae
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{{hatnote|Not to be confused with Antilocapridae. "Goat-antelope" redirects here. For the species sometimes called goat antelope see, Tibetan antelope.}}{{Automatic taxobox
Late Miocene|present}}| image = Stone Sheep British Columbia.jpg| image_caption = Stone sheep (Ovis dalli stonei) in British Columbia, 2009| taxon = CaprinaeJohn Edward Gray>Gray, 1821| subdivision_ranks = Genera| subdivision =  Nemorhaedus  Rupicapra  Oreamnos  Budorcas  Ovibos  Hemitragus  Ammotragus  Pseudois  Capra  Ovisand see text}}File:Aoudad skeleton.jpg|thumb|Skeleton of a Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) on display at the Museum of OsteologyMuseum of OsteologyThe subfamily Caprinae is part of the ruminant family Bovidae, and consists of mostly medium-sized bovids. A member of this subfamily is called a caprine.{{citation needed|date=March 2019|reason=According to Wiktionary, a caprine is a member of the tribe Caprini. A member of the subfamily Caprinae would be called a caprid.}} A member is also sometimes referred to as a goat-antelope, however, this term "goat-antelope" does not mean that these animals are true antelopes: a true antelope is a bovid with a cervid-like or antilocaprid-like morphology.Within this subfamily Caprinae, a prominent tribe, Caprini, includes sheep and goats.Some earlier taxonomies considered Caprinae a separate family called Capridae (whence a caprid), but now it is usually considered a subfamily within the family Bovidae, whence a caprine is a kind of bovid.

Characteristics

Although most goat-antelopes are gregarious and have fairly stocky builds, they diverge in many other ways – the muskox (Ovibos moschatus) is adapted to the extreme cold of the tundra; the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) of North America is specialised for very rugged terrain; the urial (Ovis orientalis) occupies a largely infertile area from Kashmir to Iran, including much desert country. The European mouflon (Ovis musimon) is thought to be the ancestor of the modern domestic sheep (Ovis aries).Many species have become extinct since the last ice age, probably largely because of human interaction. Of the survivors:
  • Five are classified as endangered,
  • Eight as vulnerable,
  • Seven as of concern and needing conservation measures, but at lower risk, and
  • Seven species are secure.
Members of the group vary considerably in size, from just over {{convert|1|m|ft|sigfig=1|abbr=on}} long for a full-grown grey goral (Nemorhaedus goral), to almost {{convert|2.5|m|sigfig=1|abbr=on}} long for a musk ox, and from under {{convert|30|kg|abbr=on}} to more than {{convert|350|kg|abbr=on}}. Musk oxen in captivity have reached over {{convert|650|kg|abbr=on}}.The lifestyles of caprids fall into two broad classes: 'resource-defenders', which are territorial and defend a small, food-rich area against other members of the same species; and 'grazers', which gather together into herds and roam freely over a larger, usually relatively infertile area.The resource-defenders are the more primitive group: they tend to be smaller in size, dark in colour, males and females fairly alike, have long, tassellated ears, long manes, and dagger-shaped horns. The grazers (sometimes collectively known as tsoan caprids, from the Hebrew (wikt:צאן|tso'n) meaning sheep and goats) evolved more recently. They tend to be larger, highly social, and rather than mark territory with scent glands, they have highly evolved dominance behaviours. No sharp line divides the groups, but a continuum varies from the serows at one end of the spectrum to sheep, true goats, and musk oxen at the other.

Evolution

(File:Palaeoreas lindermayeri.JPG|thumb|200px|right|Palaeoreas lindermayeri fossil) The goat-antelope, or caprid, group is known from as early as the Miocene, when members of the group resembled the modern serow in their general body form.BOOK, Macdonald, D., Geist, Valerius, 1984, The Encyclopedia of Mammals, Facts on File, New York, 584–587, 0-87196-871-1, registration,weblink The group did not reach its greatest diversity until the recent ice ages, when many of its members became specialised for marginal, often extreme, environments: mountains, deserts, and the subarctic region.The ancestors of the modern sheep and goats (both rather vague and ill-defined terms) are thought to have moved into mountainous regions – sheep becoming specialised occupants of the foothills and nearby plains, and relying on flight and flocking for defence against predators, and goats adapting to very steep terrain where predators are at a disadvantage.

Extant species

{{update-section|date=August 2017}}FAMILY BOVIDAE
  • Subfamily Caprinae
    • Tribe Ovibovini{{contradict-inline|article=muskox|date=May 2015}}
      missing image!
      - Takin (1).jpg -
      Takin (Budorcas taxicolor)
      missing image!
      - Lightmatter ibex.jpg -
      Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica)
      File:PikiWiki Israel 4287 Capra.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Nubian ibexNubian ibex
      missing image!
      - Rook goat.jpg -
      Bharal (Pseudois nayaur)
Takin, Budorcas taxicolor Muskox, Ovibos moschatus Barbary sheep, Ammotragus lervia Arabian tahr, Arabitragus jayakari West Caucasian tur, Capra caucasica* East Caucasian tur, Capra caucasica cylindricornis Markhor, Capra falconeri Wild goat, Capra aegagrus* Domestic goat, Capra aegagrus hircus Alpine ibex, Capra ibex Nubian ibex, Capra nubiana Spanish ibex, Capra pyrenaica Siberian ibex, Capra sibirica Walia ibex, Capra walie Himalayan tahr, Hemitragus jemlahicus Argali, Ovis ammon Domestic sheep, Ovis aries Bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis Dall or thinhorn sheep, Ovis dalli European mouflon, Ovis musimon Marco Polo sheep, Ovis polii Snow sheep, Ovis nivicola Wild sheep, Ovis orientalis*Mouflon, Ovis orientalis orientalis*Urial, Ovis orientalis vignei Nilgiri tahr, Nilgiritragus hylocrius Bharal (Himalayan blue sheep), Pseudois nayaur Dwarf blue sheep, Pseudois schaeferi Japanese serow, Capricornis crispus Sumatran serow, Capricornis sumatraensis Taiwan serow, Capricornis swinhoei Chinese serow, Capricornis milneedwardsii Red serow, Capricornis rubidus Himalayan serow Capricornis thar Red goral, Nemorhaedus baileyi Chinese goral, Nemorhaedus griseus Grey goral, Nemorhaedus goral Long-tailed goral, Naemorhedus caudatus Mountain goat, Oreamnos americanus Pyrenean chamois, Rupicapra pyrenaica Alpine chamois, Rupicapra rupicapra

Fossil genera

The following extinct genera of Caprinae have been identified:tolweb.orgpalaeos.org Unsorted{{div col|colwidth=15em}} {{div col end}}

References

{{more citations needed|date=October 2015}}{{Reflist}}{{Artiodactyla|R.3}}{{Taxonbar|from=Q189804}}


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