Canadian Prairies

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Canadian Prairies
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{{redirect|The Prairies|other uses|Prairie (disambiguation)}}

1780650.6mi2|abbr=on}}| map_image = Canada Prairie provinces map.svg| map_caption = Map of the Prairie Provinces}}The Canadian Prairies is a region geographically located in Western Canada. The area includes the Canadian portion of the Great Plains and the Prairie provinces, namely Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.BOOK, McGinn, Sean, Weather and Climate Patterns in Canada's Prairies, 2010, 1, 105–119, 10.3752/9780968932148,weblink 9780968932148, These provinces are partially covered by grasslands, plains, and lowlands, mostly in the southern regions. Known to a lesser extent, is the northern-most section of the Canadian prairies which is marked by forests and more variable topology.WEB, The Prairies,weblink The Canada Guide, 8 April 2019, To define the region in a physiographic sense, to strictly include areas only covered by prairie land, the corresponding region is known as the Interior Plains.WEB, Prairies Ecozone,weblink, Geographically, the Canadian prairies extend to northeastern British Columbia, however this province is not included in a political manner.WEB, Facts About the Canadian Prairie Provinces,weblink WorldAtlas, Chepkemoi, Joyce, 8 April 2019, The prairies in Canada are a temperate grassland and shrubland biome within the prairie ecoregion of Canada that consists of northern mixed grasslands in Alberta, Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, as well as northern short grasslands in southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan.JOURNAL, Quiring, S. M, Papakryiakou, T. N., An evaluation of agricultural drought indices for the Canadian prairies, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2003, 118, 1–2, 49–62, 10.1016/S0168-1923(03)00072-8, 2003AgFM..118...49Q, Also, the northern tall grasslands in southern Manitoba, and Aspen parkland which covers central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, and southern Manitoba.WEB, Prairies Ecozone,weblink Ecological Framework of Canada, Government of Canada,weblink" title="">weblink 2 June 2016, The Prairie starts from north of Edmonton and it covers the three provinces in a southward-slanting line east to the Manitoba-Minnesota border.WEB, Wide open spaces, but for how long?,weblink The Royal Canadian Geographical Society, The Royal Canadian Geographical Society,weblink" title="">weblink 3 April 2016, 16 October 2014, no, The prairie is the most dominant land cover in Alberta and the least in Manitoba since it has the Boreal Forest covering a large area of land mass. Alberta has the most land classified as Prairie, while Manitoba has the least, as the Boreal Forest begins at a lower latitude in Manitoba than in Alberta.JOURNAL, Quiring, S. M, Papakryiakou, T. N., An evaluation of agricultural drought indices for the Canadian prairies., Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2003, 118, 1–2, 49–62, 10.1016/S0168-1923(03)00072-8, 2003AgFM..118...49Q,

Main climates

The core climate of the Canadian prairie region is defined as a semi-arid climate and is often based upon the Köppen climate classification system.JOURNAL, Powell, J.M, Climate Classifications of the Prairie Provinces of Canada, Northern Forest Research Center, 1978,weblink This type of classification encompasses five main climate types, with several categoric subtypes based on the precipitation pattern of the region.WEB, Köppen climate classification,weblink, The majority of the prairie provinces experience snowy, fully humid continental climates with cool summers, also known as class Dfc on the Köppen climate scale. The southern-most regions of the prairies tend to experience fully humid continental climates with warm summers, Dfb. A trifling section surrounding the Alberta-Saskatchewan border has been classified as Bsk, semi-cold and arid climate.Precipitation events in the Canadian prairies are very important to study as these locations make up 80% of the countries agricultural production.WEB, Agriculture and Food {{!, The Canadian Encyclopedia |url= |}} On average, 454 mm of precipitation falls on the prairies each year.JOURNAL, McGinn, Sean, Weather and Climate Patterns of Canada's Prairies, Anthropods of Canadian Grasslands, 2010, 1, 10.3752/9780968932148.ch5, Out of the three prairie provinces, Saskatchewan obtains the least amount of precipitation annually (395 mm), with Manitoba receiving the most at 486 mm. Most rainfall typically happens in the summer months such as June and July. With the high humidity of the prairies, tornadoes are likely to occur—marking central Saskatchewan and southern Manitoba as high probability areas.JOURNAL, Cheng, Vincent Y. S., Arhonditsis, George B., Sills, David M. L., Auld, Heather, Shephard, Mark W., Gough, William A., Klaassen, Joan, Probability of Tornado Occurrence across Canada, Journal of Climate, 19 July 2013, 26, 23, 9415–9428, 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00093.1, 0894-8755, 2013JCli...26.9415C, Approximately 72% of tornadoes in Canada are seen across the prairiesWEB, Durage, Samantha, Wirasinghe, S.C, Ruwanpura, Janaka, Mitigation of the impact of tornadoes in the Canadian Prairies,weblink Canadian Risk and Hazards Network, University of Calgary, due to the capability of summer thunderstorm precipitation to mechanically mix with the air adjacent to the relatively flat surface of the region.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="width:75%; font-size:95%;"Average climates for selected cities in the Canadian PrairiesCANADA'S PLANT HARDINESS,weblink Canada's Plant Hardiness, Natural Resources Canada, 5 January 2016, no,weblink" title="">weblink 5 March 2016, !City!Province!July!January!Annual precipitation!Plant hardiness zone!Average growing season(in days) {{notelist|Based on averages from Environment Canada 1981-2010 data}}LethbridgeHTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=2263&LANG=E&DCODE=0&PROVINCE=ALTA&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 WORK = CANADIAN CLIMATE NORMALS 1981–2010 ACCESSDATE = 12 MAY 2014 ARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140512223646/HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=2263&LANG=E&DCODE=0&PROVINCE=ALTA&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 DATE = 2013-09-25, align=centerAlberta>AB align=center 0 Â°C/-12 Â°C (32 Â°F/10 Â°F) align=center4B align=center|119CalgaryHTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=2205&LANG=E&STATIONNAME=CALGARY&SEARCHTYPE=CONTAINS&STNNAMESUBMIT=GO&DCODE=1&DISPBACK=1 PUBLISHER=ENVIRONMENT CANADA DEADURL=NO ARCHIVEDATE=4 MARCH 2016 DATE=2013-09-25, align=center 23 Â°C/9 Â°C (73 Â°F/48 Â°F)align=center 419 mm (16.4 in)align=center117Medicine HatHTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=2273&LANG=E&DCODE=1&PROVINCE=ALTA&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 WORK=CANADIAN CLIMATE NORMALS 1981–2010 MEDICINE HAT ACCESSDATE=14 MAY 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20141006093129/HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=2273&LANG=E&DCODE=1&PROVINCE=ALTA&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 DATE=2013-09-25, align=center 28 Â°C/12 Â°C (82 Â°F/54 Â°F) align=center 323 mm (12.7 in) align=center134EdmontonEDMONTON CITY CENTRE AIRPORT PUBLISHER=ENVIRONMENT CANADA URL=HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=1867&LANG=E&DCODE=0&PROVINCE=ALTA&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 DEADURL=NO ARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 4, 2016, align=center 23 Â°C/12 Â°C (73 Â°F/54 Â°F) align=center 456 mm (17.9 in) align=center135Grande PrairieHTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=2718&LANG=E&DCODE=1&PROVINCE=ALTA&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 WORK = CANADIAN CLIMATE NORMALS 1981−2010 ACCESSDATE = MAY 14, 2014 ARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140514171008/HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=2718&LANG=E&DCODE=1&PROVINCE=ALTA&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 DATE = 2013-09-25, align=center 23 Â°C/10 Â°C (73 Â°F/50 Â°F) align=center 445 mm (17.5 in) align=center117Regina, Saskatchewan>ReginaENVIRONMENT CANADA >URL=HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=3002&LANG=E&DCODE=1&PROVINCE=SASK&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 WORK=CANADIAN CLIMATE NORMALS 1981–2010 DEADURL=NO ARCHIVEDATE=12 MAY 2014 Saskatchewan > 26 Â°C/12 Â°C (79 Â°F/54 Â°F) align=center 390 mm (15.3 in) align=center119SaskatoonENVIRONMENT CANADA TITLE=SASKATOON DIEFENBAKER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT ACCESSDATE=MAY 12, 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140513010837/HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=3328&LANG=E&DCODE=1&PROVINCE=SASK&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 DATE=2013-09-25, align=center 25 Â°C/12 Â°C (77 Â°F/54 Â°F) align=center 354 mm (13.8 in)align=center117Prince Albert, Saskatchewan>Prince AlbertHTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=3322&LANG=E&DCODE=1&PROVINCE=SASK&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 >TITLE=PRINCE ALBERT A PUBLISHER=ENVIRONMENT CANADA DEADURL=NO ARCHIVEDATE=MAY 14, 2014 SK align=center -11 Â°C/-23 Â°C (12 Â°F/-9 Â°F) align=center3A align=center|108Brandon, Manitoba>BrandonENVIRONMENT CANADA >URL=HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=3472&LANG=E&DCODE=1&PROVINCE=MAN&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 WORK=CANADIAN CLIMATE NORMALS 1981–2010 DEADURL=NO ARCHIVEDATE=8 MAY 2014 Manitoba > 25 Â°C/11 Â°C (77 Â°F/54 Â°F) align=center 474 mm (18.6 in) align=center 119WinnipegENVIRONMENT CANADA TITLE=WINNIPEG RICHARDSON INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT ACCESSDATE=MAY 7, 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150211174638/HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=3698&LANG=E&DCODE=1&PROVINCE=MAN&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 DATE=2013-09-25, align=center 25 Â°C/12 Â°C (77 Â°F/55 Â°F) align=center 521 mm (20.5 in) align=center121

Physical geography

{{See also|Geography of Canada}}Although the Prairie Provinces region is named for the prairies located within Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, the physical geography of the three provinces is quite diverse, consisting of portions of the Canadian Shield, the Western Cordillera and the Canadian Interior Plains.JOURNAL, Baldwin, D. J., Desloges, J. R., & Band, L. E., Physical geography of Ontario., 2000, Ecology of a managed terrestrial landscape: patterns and processes of forest landscapes in Ontario, 12–29, The plains comprise both prairies and forests while, with the exception of freshwater along the Hudson Bay, the shield is predominantly forested.File:Gimli Manitoba Canada Panorama.jpg|500px|thumb||align=right||Gimli, Manitoba is located on Lake WinnipegLake Winnipeg


Three main grassland types occur in the Canadian prairies: tallgrass prairie, mixed grass prairie, and fescue prairie (or using the WWF terminology, northern tall grasslands, northern mixed grasslands, and northern short grasslands).JOURNAL, Williams, G. D. V., Joynt, M. I., & McCormick, P. A., Regression analyses of Canadian prairie crop-district cereal yields, 1961–1972, in relation to weather, soil, and trend., Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 1975, 55, 1, 43–53, 10.4141/cjss75-007, Each has a unique geographic distribution and characteristic mix of plant species. All but a fraction of one percent of the tallgrass prairie has been converted to cropland.JOURNAL, Gauthier, David A., Wiken, Ed B., Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2003, 88, 1/3, 343–364, Monitoring the Conservation of Grassland Habitats, Prairie Ecozone, Canada, 10.1023/A:1025585527169, What remains occurs on the {{convert|6000|km2|abbr=on}} plain centred in the Red River Valley in Manitoba. Mixed prairie is more common and is part of the dry interior plains that extend from Canada south to the U.S. state of Texas.File:Northern short grasslands map.svg|left|thumb|250px|The northern short grasslandsnorthern short grasslandsMore than half of the remaining native grassland in the Canadian prairies is mixed. Though widespread in southern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta, because of extensive cattle grazing, it is estimated that only 24% of the original mixed prairie grassland remains. Fescue prairie occurs in the moister regions, occupying the northern extent of the prairies in central and southwestern Alberta and west-central Saskatchewan.WEB,weblink Prairie Grasslands and Parkland,weblink" title="">weblink 2010-05-27, File:Palliser's Triangle map.png|thumb|250px|Palliser's TrianglePalliser's TriangleThe southwestern Canadian prairies, supporting brown and black soil types, are semi-arid and highly prone to frequent and severe droughts.JOURNAL, Gregorich, E.G., Anderson, D.W., Effects of cultivation and erosion on soils of four toposequences in the Canadian prairies, Geoderma, December 1985, 36, 3–4, 343–354, 10.1016/0016-7061(85)90012-6, 1985Geode..36..343G, The zones around the cities of Regina and immediately east of Calgary are also very dry. Most heavy precipitation quickly dissipates by the time it passes Cheadle on its way heading east. In an average year, southern Saskatchewan receives between {{convert|30|-|51|cm|abbr=on}} of precipitation, with the majority falling between April and June. Frost from October to April (and sometimes even early May) limits the growing season for certain crops.The eastern section of the Canadian prairies in Manitoba is well watered with several large lakes such as Lake Winnipeg and several large rivers. The area also gets reasonable amounts of precipitation. The middle sections of Alberta and Saskatchewan are also wetter than the south and have better farmland, despite having a shorter frost-free season.JOURNAL, Turner, M G, Landscape Ecology: The Effect of Pattern on Process, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, November 1989, 20, 1, 171–197, 10.1146/, The areas around Edmonton and Saskatoon are especially notable as good farmland. Both lie in the northern area of the Palliser's Triangle, and are within aspen parkland a transitional prairie ecozone.WEB, Prairies Ecozone,weblink Ecological Framework of Canada, Government of Canada, 23 May 2016, no,weblink" title="">weblink 2 June 2016, Further north, the area becomes too cold for most agriculture besides wild rice operations and sheep raising, and it is dominated by boreal forest. The Peace Region in northwestern Alberta is an exception, however.JOURNAL, Price, David T., Alfaro, R.I., Brown, K.J., Flannigan, M.D., Fleming, R.A., Hogg, E.H., Girardin, M.P., Lakusta, T., Johnston, M., McKenney, D.W., Pedlar, J.H., Stratton, T., Sturrock, R.N., Thompson, I.D., Trofymow, J.A., Venier, L.A., Anticipating the consequences of climate change for Canada's boreal forest ecosystems, Environmental Reviews, 1 December 2013, 21, 4, 322–365, 10.1139/er-2013-0042, 1181-8700, It lies north of the 55th Parallel and is warm and dry enough to support extensive farming. Aspen parkland covers the area; The long daylight hours in this region during the summer are an asset despite having an even shorter growing season than central Alberta. In fact, agriculture plays a major economic role in the Peace Region.


{{Canadian Prairies census metropolitan areas}}In the Canada 2011 Census, the Canadian prairie provinces had a population of 5,886,906, consisting of 3,645,257 in Alberta, 1,208,268 in Manitoba, and 1,033,381 in Saskatchewan, up 8.9% from 5,406,908 in 2006.WEB,weblink Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2011 and 2006 censuses, Statistics Canada, 2012-01-24, 2012-03-17, no,weblink 2014-03-07, The three provinces have a combined area of {{convert|1780650.6|km2|abbr=on}}, consisting of {{convert|640081.87|km2|abbr=on}} in Alberta, {{convert|552329.52|km2|abbr=on}} in Manitoba, and {{convert|588239.21|km2|abbr=on}} in Saskatchewan.


Some of the prairie region of Canada has seen rapid growth from a boom in oil production since the mid-20th century.WEB,weblink Atlantic unemployment tonic: oil sands,weblink" title="">weblink 2008-10-20, According to StatsCanada, the prairie provinces had a population of 5,886,906 in 2011. In 2016, the population had grown by 14.6% to 6,748,280.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2017-05-04, no,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-05-04,


(File:Theawesomequappellevalleykjfmartin.jpg|thumb|A canola field in the Qu'Appelle Valley in Southern Saskatchewan.)In the mid 20th century, the economy of the prairies exploded, due to the oil boom, and introduced a growth of jobs. The primary industries are agriculture and services. Agriculture consisting of livestock(cattle and sheep), cultivating crops (oats, canola, wheat, barley), and production of oil. Due to the production of oil, the service industry expanded in order to provide for the employees of the oil companies extracting the oil. In the 1950s-1970s, the explosion of oil production increased the worth of Alberta and allowing it to become the “nations richest province” and Canada one of the top petroleum exporters in the world. Edmonton and Calgary drew in a larger population with the increase in jobs in the energy field, which causes the jobs supporting this field to grow as well. It was through the steady economic growth that followed this explosion that the prairies region began to switch from an agriculture-based job sector to one with services included.BOOK, Friesen, G, The Canadian prairies: A history, 1987, University of Toronto Press, In 2014, the global market for oil fell and led to a recession, impacting the economy dramatically. Alberta still has an oil dominant economy even as the traditional oil wells dry up, there are oil sands further north (ie. Fort McMurray) that continue to provide jobs to extract, drill and refine the oil. Saskatchewan, in particular, in the early 20th century grew economically due to the Canadian agricultural boom and produce large crops of wheat. It is said to have a “one-crop economy” due to such dependency on this crop alone, but after 1945 the economy took another turn with technological advancements that allowed for the discovery of uranium, oil, and potash.

Culture and politics

The Prairies are distinguished from the rest of Canada by cultural and political traits. The oldest influence on Prairie culture are the First Nations, who have lived in the area for millennia. The first Europeans to see the Prairies were fur traders and explorers from eastern Canada (mainly present-day Quebec) and Great Britain via Hudson Bay. They gave rise to the Métis, working class "children of the fur trade." It was not until the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway did widespread agricultural production occur.WEB, History of Settlement in the Canadian Prairies {{!, The Canadian Encyclopedia |url= |}} During their settlement, the prairies were settled in distinct ethnic block settlements giving certain areas distinctively Ukrainian, German, French, or Scandinavian Canadian cultures.Some areas also developed cultures around their main economic activity. For example, southern Alberta is renowned for its cowboy culture, which developed when real open range ranching was practised in the 1880s. Canada's first rodeo, the Raymond Stampede, was established in 1902. These influences are also evident in the music of Canada's Prairie Provinces. This can be attributed partially to the massive influx of American settlers who began to migrate to Alberta (and to a lesser extent, Saskatchewan) in the late 1880s because of the lack of available land in the United States.File:Badlands Alberta.JPG|thumb|left|The Alberta badlandsbadlandsThe Prairie Provinces have given rise to the "prairie protest" movements, such as the Winnipeg General Strike of 1919, the first general strike in Canadian history. These political movements (both of the left and right) tend to feed off of well established feelings of Western alienation, and each one represents a distinct challenge to the perceived Central Canadian elite.JOURNAL, Peterson, Larry, Revolutionary Socialism and Industrial Unrest in the Era of the Winnipeg General Strike: The Origins of Communist Labour Unionism in Europe and North America, Labour / Le Travail, 1 January 1984, 13,weblink 1911-4842, The Prairies continue to have a wide range of political representation. While the Conservative Party of Canada has widespread support throughout the region, the New Democratic Party holds seats at the provincial level in all three provinces, forming the government in one, as well as holding seats at the federal level in all three provinces. The Liberal Party of Canada presently holds federal seats in urban areas of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, while the Alberta Liberal Party holds a provincial seat in Alberta and the Manitoba Liberal Party holds four seats in Manitoba.{{Clear}}

See also

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Further reading

{{see also|Bibliography of Saskatchewan history|Bibliography of Alberta history|History of Manitoba}}
  • Alberta Encyclopedia Online (2005)
  • Archer, John H. Saskatchewan: A History (1980)
  • Barnhart, Gordon L., ed. Saskatchewan Premiers of the Twentieth Century. (2004). 418 pp.
  • Bennett, John W. and Seena B. Kohl. Settling the Canadian-American West, 1890-1915: Pioneer Adaptation and Community Building. An Anthropological History. (1995). 311 pp. online edition
  • Danysk, Cecilia. Hired Hands: Labour and the Development of Prairie Agriculture, 1880–1930. (1995). 231 pp.
  • Emery, George. The Methodist Church on the Prairies, 1896–1914. McGill-Queen's U. Press, 2001. 259 pp.
  • The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan: A Living Legacy. U. of Regina Canadian Plains Research Center, 2005. online 1071pp in print edition
  • Fairbanks, C. and S.B. Sundberg. Farm Women on the Prairie Frontier. (1983)
  • {{citation |last=Friesen |first=Gerald |year=1987 |title=The Canadian prairies: a history |url= |publisher=University of Toronto Press |isbn=978-0-8020-6648-0}}
  • Hodgson, Heather, ed. Saskatchewan Writers: Lives Past and Present. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center, 2004. 247 pp.
  • Jones, David C. Empire of Dust: Settling and Abandoning the Prairie Dry Belt. (1987) 316 pp.
  • Keahey, Deborah. Making It Home: Place in Canadian Prairie Literature. (1998). 178 pp.
  • Kononenko, Natalie "Vernacular religion on the prairies: negotiating a place for the unquiet dead," Canadian Slavonic Papers 60, no. 1-2 (2018)
  • Langford, N. "Childbirth on the Canadian Prairies 1880-1930." Journal of Historical Sociology, 1995. Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 278–302.
  • Langford, Nanci Louise. "First Generation and Lasting Impressions: The Gendered Identities of Prairie Homestead Women." PhD dissertation U. of Alberta 1994. 229 pp. DAI 1995 56(4): 1544-A. DANN95214 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
  • Laycock, David. Populism and Democratic Thought in the Canadian Prairies, 1910 to 1945. (1990). 369 pp.
  • Melnyk, George. The Literary History of Alberta, Vol. 1: From Writing-on-Stone to World War Two. U. of Alberta Press, 1998. 240 pp.
  • Morton, Arthur S. and Chester Martin, History of prairie settlement (1938) 511pp
  • Morton, W. L. Manitoba, a History University of Toronto Press, 1957 weblink" title="">online edition
  • Norrie, K. H. "The Rate of Settlement of the Canadian Prairies, 1870–1911", Journal of Economic History, Vol. 35, No. 2 (Jun., 1975), pp. 410–427 in JSTOR; statistical models
  • Palmer, Howard. The Settlement of the West (1977) online edition
  • Pitsula, James M. "Disparate Duo" Beaver 2005 85(4): 14–24, a comparison of Saskatchewan and Alberta, Fulltext in EBSCO
  • Rollings-Magnusson, Sandra. "Canada's Most Wanted: Pioneer Women on the Western Prairies". Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 2000 37(2): 223–238. {{ISSN|0008-4948}} Fulltext: Ebsco
  • Swyripa, Frances. Storied Landscapes: Ethno-Religious Identity and the Canadian Prairies (University of Manitoba Press, 2010) 296 pp. {{ISBN|978-0-88755-720-0}}.
  • Thompson, John Herd. Forging the Prairie West (1998).
  • Wardhaugh, Robert A. Mackenzie King and the Prairie West (2000). 328 pp.
  • Waiser, Bill, and John Perret. Saskatchewan: A New History (2005).


  • Francis, R. Douglas. "In search of a prairie myth: A survey of the intellectual and cultural historiography of prairie Canada." Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue d'Études Canadiennes 243 (1989): 44+ online
  • {{citation |last=Ingles |first=Ernie B |year=2009 |title=Peel's Bibliography of the Canadian Prairies to 1953 |url= |publisher=University of Toronto Press |isbn=978-0-8020-4825-7}}
  • Wardhaugh, Robert A., ed. Toward Defining the Prairies: Region, Culture, and History. (2001). 234 pp.
  • {{citation |last=Wardhaugh |first=Robert |first2=Alison |last2=Calder |year=2005 |title=History, literature, and the writing of the Canadian Prairies |url= |publisher=University of Manitoba Press |isbn=978-0-88755-682-1}} 310 pp.

External links

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