Bust (sculpture)

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Bust (sculpture)
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{{short description|Sculpture of a person's head and shoulders}}File:Château de Versailles, salon de Diane, buste de Louis XIV, Bernin (1665) 03 black bg.jpg|thumb|Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Bust of Louis XIVLouis XIVA bust is a sculpted or cast representation of the upper part of the human figure, depicting a person's head and neck, and a variable portion of the chest and shoulders. The piece is normally supported by a plinth. The bust is generally a portrait intended to record the appearance of an individual, but may sometimes represent a type. They may be of any medium used for sculpture, such as marble, bronze, terracotta, wax or wood.File:Chinard-desconhecida.jpg|thumb|Unidentified woman, by Joseph Chinard, terracottaterracotta


Sculptural portrait heads from classical antiquity, stopping at the neck, are sometimes displayed as busts. However, these are often fragments from full-body statues, or were created to be inserted into an existing body, a common Roman practice;Stewart, 47 these portrait heads are not included in this article. Equally, sculpted heads stopping at the neck are sometimes mistakenly called busts.The portrait bust was a Hellenistic Greek invention, though very few original Greek examples survive, as opposed to many Roman copies of them. There are four Roman copies as busts of Pericles with the Corinthian helmet, but the Greek original was a full-length bronze statue. They were very popular in Roman portraiture.Stewart, 46-47 The Roman tradition may have originated in the tradition of Roman patrician families keeping wax masks, perhaps death masks, of dead members, in the atrium of the family house. When another family member died, these were worn by people chosen for the appropriate build in procession at the funeral, in front of the propped-up body of the deceased, as an "astonished" Polybius reported, from his long stay in Rome beginning in 167 BC.Belting, 116-117 Later these seem to have been replaced or supplemented by sculptures. Possession of such imagines maiorum ("portraits of the ancestors") was a requirement for belonging to the Equestrian order.Belting, 116

Pictorial timeline

File:Nofretete Neues Museum.jpg|Bust of Nefertiti by Thutmose (limestone, c. 1345 B.C.)File:Pericles Pio-Clementino Inv269 n3.jpg|Pericles with the Corinthian helmet (marble, Roman after a Greek original, c. 430 BC)File:Capitoline Brutus Musei Capitolini MC1183.jpg|Bronze bust of Lucius Junius Brutus, the Capitoline Brutus, late 4th century BC to early 3rd century BCFile:Busto de Vibia Sabina (M. Prado) 01.jpg|The Empress Vibia Sabina (c. 130 AD)File:COMMODE HERCULE.jpg|Emperor Commodus dressed as Hercules, c. 191 CE, in the late imperial "baroque" style.File:Saint Nectaire l' eglise buste de St Baudime XII°s.JPG|The reliquary bust of St. Baudime, (c. 1125–1150)File:Aachen Domschatz Bueste1.jpg|Reliquary bust of Charlemagne (gold, Aachen Cathedral treasury, c. 1350)File:Juliano de Médici, por Verrocchio.jpg|Giuliano de' Medici by Andrea del Verrocchio (terracotta, 1475–85)File:Fugger Meit 2.jpg|Jakob Fugger the Rich by Conrat Meit (polychrome wood, c. 1515)File:WLA metmuseum Reliquary Bust of a Female Saint.jpg|Reliquary of a saint (oak, paint, gilding, 1520–30)File:Alessandro algardi, il cardinale paolo emilio zacchia, 1650 ca..JPG|Terracotta modello by Alessandro Algardi of Cardinal Paolo Emilio Zacchia, c. 1650File:Jules Hardouin Mansart by Lemoyne.jpg|Jules Hardouin-Mansart by Jean-Louis Lemoyne (marble, 1703)File:Menshikov by Rastrelli (1717, copy by I.Vitali, GRM) by shakko 01.jpg|Menshikov by Rastrelli (1717)File:Bust of a Man by the studio of Francis Harwood.jpg|Bust of a ManPreviously known as The Blackamoor. from the studio of Francis Harwood (black limestone, c. 1758)File:Tête grimaçante Franz Xaver Messerschmidt.jpg|Simplicity of the Highest Degree, ninth in a series of character heads by Franz Xaver Messerschmidt (alabaster, after 1770)File:Chinard - Buste Etienne Vincent-Marniola.jpg|(:fr:Étienne Vincent-Marniola|Étienne Vincent-Marniola) by Joseph Chinard (terracotta, 1809)File:Be sheekee.jpg|Chief Beshekee by Francis Vincenti (marble, 1855–56)File:The Veiled Nun.jpg|The Veiled Nun by Giuseppe Croff (marble, 1860)File:Carpeaux Valenciennes 080810 51 Mater Dolorosa.jpg|Mater Dolorosa by Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux (terracotta, 1869–70)File:Sarah Bernhardt par Ringel d'Illzach.jpg|Sarah Bernhardt by Jean-Désiré Ringel d'Illzach (wax, 1895)File:Victor Nessler-Orangerie-Strasbourg (3).JPG|Viktor Nessler by Alfred Marzolff (bronze, 1890s)File:Francis de Saint-Vidal - Mme Jeanne Granier.jpg|Jeanne Granier by Francis de Saint-Vidal (late 19th century)File:Sombusitso1.jpg|Faduma Ali, wife of Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi (Italian Somaliland, c. 1920s)File:KeysToCommunity.jpg|Keys To Community (featuring Benjamin Franklin) by James Peniston (2007)

See also




  • Belting, Hans, An Anthropology of Images: Picture, Medium, Body, 2014, Princeton University Press, {{ISBN|0691160961}}, 9780691160962, google books
  • Stewart, Peter, Statues in Roman Society: Representation and Response, 2003, Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|0199240949}}, 9780199240944, google books

External links

{{commons category|busts}}{{Wiktionary|bust}}

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M.R.M. Parrott