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Buckinghamshire
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{{Other uses}}{{more citations needed|date=June 2017}}{{EngvarB|date=October 2015}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2015}}{{short description|County of England}}







factoids
South East England>South EastHistoric counties of England>Ancient| lord_lieutenant_office = Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire| lord_lieutenant_name = Henry Aubrey-Fletcher| high_sheriff_office = High Sheriff of BuckinghamshireNEWSPAPER=LONDON GAZETTE, 16 April 2019, (2019–20)| area_total_km2 = 1874| area_total_rank = 32nd| ethnicity = 91.7% White4.3% S. Asian1.6% Black150px|Coat of arms of Buckinghamshire County Council)Buckinghamshire County Council| admin_hq = Aylesbury| area_council_km2 = 1565| area_council_rank = 33rd| iso_code = GB-BKM| ons_code = 11| gss_code = E10000002 | nuts_code = UKJ13150px)#FFFF80}} Unitary {{Colorsample|#FFC8C8}} County council area| districts_list =
  1. South Bucks
  2. Chiltern
  3. Wycombe
  4. Aylesbury Vale
  5. {{nowrap|Milton Keynes (unitary)}}
List of Parliamentary constituencies in Buckinghamshire>List of MPs| police = Thames Valley Policewww.buckscc.gov.uk}}}}Buckinghamshire ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|b|ʌ|k|ɪ|ŋ|ə|m|ʃ|ər|,_|-|ʃ|ɪər}}), abbreviated Bucks,{{sfnp|EB|1878}} is a ceremonial county in South East England which borders Greater London to the south east, Berkshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the west, Northamptonshire to the north, Bedfordshire to the north east and Hertfordshire to the east.Buckinghamshire is one of the home counties and towns such as High Wycombe, Amersham, Chesham and the Chalfonts in the east and southeast of the county are parts of the London commuter belt, forming some of the most densely populated parts of the county. Development in this region is restricted by the Metropolitan Green Belt. Other large settlements include the county town of Aylesbury, Marlow in the south near the Thames and Princes Risborough in the west near Oxford. Some areas without direct rail links to London, such as around the old county town of Buckingham and near Olney in the northeast, are much less populous. The largest town is Milton Keynes in the northeast, which with the surrounding area is administered as a unitary authority separately to the rest of Buckinghamshire. The remainder of the county is administered by Buckinghamshire County Council as a non-metropolitan county, and four district councils. In national elections, Buckinghamshire is considered a reliable supporter of the Conservative Party.A large part of the Chiltern Hills, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, runs through the south of the county and attracts many walkers and cyclists from London. In this area older buildings are often made from local flint and red brick. Many parts of the county are quite affluent and like many areas around London this has led to problems with housing costs: several reports have identified the market town of Beaconsfield as having among the highest property prices outside London.WEB, Spence, Graham, Beaconsfield is the most expensive market town in England,weblink Get Bucks, 15 December 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151222103912weblink">weblink 22 December 2015, dead, dmy-all, WEB, How expensive are the houses in your street? Beaconsfield is the most pricey - Chesham the least,weblink Get Bucks, 15 December 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151222143014weblink">weblink 22 December 2015, dead, dmy-all, Chequers, a mansion estate owned by the government, is the country retreat of the incumbent Prime Minister. To the north of the county lies rolling countryside in the Vale of Aylesbury and around the Great Ouse. The Thames forms part of the county’s southwestern boundary. Notable service amenities in the county are Pinewood Film Studios, Dorney rowing lake and part of Silverstone race track on the Northamptonshire border. Many national companies have offices in Milton Keynes. Heavy industry and quarrying is limited, with agriculture predominating after service industries.

History

(File:Buckingham-215x334.jpg|thumb|left|Map of Bucks (1904))The name Buckinghamshire is Anglo-Saxon in origin and means The district (scire) of Bucca's home. Bucca's home refers to Buckingham in the north of the county, and is named after an Anglo-Saxon landowner. The county has been so named since about the 12th century; however, the county has existed since it was a subdivision of the kingdom of Mercia (585–919).The history of the area predates the Anglo-Saxon period and the county has a rich history starting from the Celtic and Roman periods, though the Anglo-Saxons perhaps had the greatest impact on Buckinghamshire: the geography of the rural county is largely as it was in the Anglo-Saxon period. Later, Buckinghamshire became an important political arena, with King Henry VIII intervening in local politics in the 16th century and just a century later the English Civil War was reputedly started by John Hampden in mid-Bucks.WEB,weblink Biography of John Hampden, Johnhampden.org, 19 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100908134006weblink">weblink 8 September 2010, live, dmy-all, Historically, the biggest change to the county came in the 19th century, when a combination of cholera and famine hit the rural county, forcing many to migrate to larger towns to find work. Not only did this alter the local economic situation, it meant a lot of land was going cheap at a time when the rich were more mobile and leafy Bucks became a popular rural idyll: an image it still has today. Buckinghamshire is a popular home for London commuters, leading to greater local affluence; however, some pockets of relative deprivation remain.WEB, High Wycombe Local Community Area Profile, Buckinghamshire County Council, October 2008,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120606165628weblink">weblink 6 June 2012, dmy, The expansion of London and coming of the railways promoted the growth of towns in the south of the county such as Aylesbury, Amersham and High Wycombe, leaving the town Buckingham itself to the north in a relative backwater.WEB, About Buckingham,weblink University of Buckingham, 15 December 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150910190131weblink">weblink 10 September 2015, live, dmy-all, As a result, most county institutions are now based in the south of the county or Milton Keynes, rather than in Buckingham.

Geography

The county can be split into two sections geographically. The south leads from the River Thames up the gentle slopes of the Chiltern Hills to the more abrupt slopes on the northern side leading to the Vale of Aylesbury, a large flat expanse of land, which includes the path of the River Great Ouse.

Waterways

Rivers

The county includes parts of two of the four longest rivers in England. The River Thames forms the southern boundary with Berkshire, which has crept over the border at Eton and Slough so that the river is no longer the sole boundary between the two counties. The River Great Ouse rises just outside the county in Northamptonshire and flows east through Buckingham, Milton Keynes and Olney.

Canals

(File:Medmenham River Thames geograph-4090549-by-Ben-Brooksbank.jpg|thumb|The River Thames at Medmenham)The main branch of the Grand Union Canal passes through the county as do its arms to Slough, Aylesbury, Wendover (disused) and Buckingham (disused). The canal has been incorporated into the landscaping of Milton Keynes.

Landscape

The southern part of the county is dominated by the Chiltern Hills. The two highest points in Buckinghamshire are Haddington Hill in Wendover Woods (a stone marks its summit) at {{convert|267|m|ft}} above sea level, and Coombe Hill near Wendover at {{convert|260|m|ft}}.

Mineral extraction

Quarrying has taken place for chalk, clay for brickmaking and gravel and sand in the river valleys. Flint, also extracted from quarries, was often used to build older local buildings. Several former quarries, now flooded, have become nature reserves.WEB, College Lake,weblink BBOWT, 12 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151024012611weblink">weblink 24 October 2015, live, dmy-all, District|Main towns">

Demography{| class"wikitable"|+ Buckinghamshire districts|District|Main towns

Population (2011)HTTP://WWW.ONS.GOV.UK/ONS/PUBLICATIONS/RE-REFERENCE-TABLES.HTML?EDITION=TCM%3A77-286262ACCESS-DATE= 11 DECEMBER 2012ARCHIVE-DATE= 5 JANUARY 2016DF= DMY-ALL, |Area|Population density (2011)|Population projection 2026Aylesbury Vale>Aylesbury, Buckingham>| 213,000Wycombe (district)>WycombeHigh Wycombe, Marlow, Buckinghamshire>| 324.57 km²529/km²165,000Chiltern (district)>ChilternAmersham, Chesham92,635196.35 km²472/km²89,000South Bucks>Beaconsfield, Burnham, Buckinghamshire>Burnham66,867141.28 km²474/km²63,800TOTAL Non-Metropolitan>505,283>1565 km²>323/km²>|530,800Borough of Milton Keynes>Milton Keynes, Newport Pagnell>TOTAL Ceremonial>754,104>1874 km²>402/km²>|853,946(File:CheshamPondParkView.jpg|thumb|Suburban housing, Chesham)As can be seen from the table, the Vale of Aylesbury and the Borough of Milton Keynes have been identified as growth areas, with a projected population surge of almost 40,000 in Aylesbury Vale between 2011 and 2026 and 75,000 in Milton Keynes within the same 15 years.{{citation needed|date=November 2015}} The population of the Borough of Milton Keynes is expected to reach almost 350,000 by 2031.NEWS, Hetherington, Peter,weblink Milton Keynes to double in size over next 20 years, The Guardian, 23 November 2012, London, 6 January 2004,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060418100925weblink">weblink 18 April 2006, live, dmy-all, Buckinghamshire is sub-divided into civil parishes.Today Buckinghamshire is ethnically diverse, particularly in the larger towns. At the end of the 19th century some Welsh drover families settled in north Bucks and, in the last quarter of the 20th century, a large number of Londoners in Milton Keynes. Between 6 and 7% of the population of Aylesbury are of Asian or Asian British origin.WEB, Aylesbury Local Community Area Profile, Buckinghamshire County Council, February 2007,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120606165604weblink">weblink 6 June 2012, Likewise Chesham has a similar-sized Asian community,WEB,weblink Profile of Chesham, Chesham Town Council, January 2009, 8 December 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120420194942weblink">weblink 20 April 2012, live, dmy-all, and High Wycombe is the most ethnically diverse town in the county, with large Asian and Afro-Caribbean populations. During the Second World War there were many Polish settlements in Bucks, Czechs in Aston Abbotts and Wingrave, and Albanians in Frieth. Remnants of these communities remain in the county.

Politics

{{see also|List of Parliamentary constituencies in Buckinghamshire}}File:CountyHallAylesbury.jpg|thumb|Bucks County Council's County HallCounty Hall(File:Wendover Dean.jpg|thumb|Wendover Dean)

Ceremonial

The ceremonial county of Buckinghamshire consists of the area administered by Milton Keynes Borough Council as well as that administered by Buckinghamshire County Council. The ceremonial county has a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Currently the Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire is Sir Henry Aubrey-Fletcher and the High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire is Amanda Nicholson.{{citation needed|date=November 2015}} The office of Custos rotulorum has been combined with that of Lord Lieutenant since 1702.

Local government

At present, the county has two top-level administrations: Buckinghamshire County Council, which administers about four-fifths of the county (see map above) and the Borough of Milton Keynes, a unitary authority, which administers the remaining fifth. There are four district councils that are subsidiary to the county council: Aylesbury Vale, Chiltern, South Bucks and Wycombe districts.

Buckinghamshire County Council

The county council was founded in 1889 with its base in new municipal buildings in Walton Street, Aylesbury (which are still there). In Buckinghamshire, local administration is run on a two-tier system where public services are split between the county council and a series of district councils.In 1966 the council moved into new premises: a 15-storey tower block in the centre of Aylesbury (pictured) designed by county architect Fred Pooley. It is now a Grade II listed building.In 1997 the northernmostThe part of Buckinghamshire north of the Varsity Line together with Bow Brickhill, Woburn Sands and parts of Bletchley and Fenny Stratford. part of Buckinghamshire, then Milton Keynes District, was separated to form a unitary authority, the Borough of Milton Keynes; however for ceremonial and some other purposes Milton Keynes is still considered in law to be part of Buckinghamshire.LEGISLATION UK
, act
, 1997
, 23
, Lieutenancies Act 1997
, Buckinghamshire County Council is a large employer in the county and provides a variety of services, including education (schools, adult education and youth services), social services, highways, libraries, County Archives and Record Office, the County Museum and the Roald Dahl Children's Gallery in Aylesbury, consumer services and some aspects of waste disposal and planning.

Coat of arms

File:Neolithic Barrow Whiteleaf Hill ed.jpg|thumb|Neolithic Barrow, Whiteleaf Hill ]]The coat of arms of Buckinghamshire County Council features a white swan in chains. This dates back to the Anglo-Saxon period, when swans were bred in Buckinghamshire for the king's pleasure. That the swan is in chains illustrates that the swan is bound to the monarch, an ancient law that still applies to wild swans in the UK today. The arms were first borne at the Battle of Agincourt by the Duke of Buckingham.Above the swan is a gold band, in the centre of which is Whiteleaf Cross, representing the many ancient landmarks of the county. The shield is surmounted by a beech tree, representing the Chiltern Forest that once covered almost half the county. Either side of the shield are a buck, for Buckingham, and a swan, the county symbol.The motto of the shield is Vestigia Nulla Retrorsum. This is Latin and means 'no stepping back' (or 'no steps backwards').BOOK, Pine, L.G., A dictionary of mottoes, 1983, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 0-7100-9339-X, 249, 1, registration,weblink

Milton Keynes Council

Milton Keynes Council was formed by the Local Government Act 1972 as the Milton Keynes District Council, subordinate to Buckinghamshire County Council. The (district) council was first elected in 1973, a year before formally coming into its powers and prior to the creation of the District of Milton Keynes on 1 April 1974. The council gained borough status, entitling it to be known as Milton Keynes Borough Council and to annually appoint a (ceremonial) Mayor of Milton Keynes.WEB,weblink District Councils and Boroughs, 28 March 1974, Hansard 1803–2005, Parliament of the United Kingdom, 16 January 2012, BOOK, Local Government in England and wales. a Guide to the New System., 1974, HMSO, London, 0117508470, 15–109, Table III(a), On 1 April 1997, it became a self-governing unitary authority.

Flag

The traditional flag of Buckinghamshire comprises a chained swan on a bicolour of red and black. The flag was registered with the Flag Institute on 20 May 2011.

Economy

(File:Ashton House, Milton Keynes - geograph.org.uk - 1208078.jpg|thumb|Offices, Milton Keynes)(File:Princes Risborough, ercol workshop and showroom - geograph.org.uk - 749399.jpg|thumb|Ercol furniture factory, Princes Risborough)Buckinghamshire has a modern service-based economy and is part of the Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire NUTS-2 region, which was the seventh richest subregion in the European Union in 2002.WEB,weblink ''Regional GDP per capita in the EU25 GDP per capita in 2002 ranged from 32% of the EU25 average in Lubelskie to 315% in Inner London'', Europa (web portal), 25 January 2005, 19 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090206184743weblink">weblink 6 February 2009, live, dmy-all, As well as the highest GDP per capita outside Inner London, Buckinghamshire has the highest quality of life, the highest life expectancy and the best education results in the country.NEWS,weblink Buckinghamshire is best county, 15 January 2009, The Independent, London, Nicky, Burridge, 29 March 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090820205831weblink">weblink 20 August 2009, live, dmy-all, The southern part of the county is a prosperous section of the London commuter belt. The county has fertile agricultural lands, with many landed estates, especially those of the Rothschild banking family of England in the 19th century (see Rothschild properties in England). The county has several annual agricultural shows, with the Bucks County Show established in 1859. Manufacturing industries include furniture-making (traditionally centred at High Wycombe), pharmaceuticals and agricultural processing.This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Buckinghamshire at current basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds sterling (except GVA index).Office for National Statistics {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060525140007weblink |date=25 May 2006 }} (pp.240–253){| class="wikitable"! Year || Regional Gross Value AddedComponents may not sum to totals due to rounding || Agricultureincludes hunting and forestry || Industryincludes energy and construction || Servicesincludes financial intermediation services indirectly measured ||GVA index per personUK average index base = 1006,008 >| 1188,389 >| 1259,171 >| 118

Places of interest

(File:Lake at Stowe Landscape Garden with Temple in distance - geograph.org.uk - 77696.jpg|thumb|Stowe Landscape Garden)(File:The Roald Dahl Museum and Story Centre - geograph.org.uk - 1264147.jpg|thumb|The Roald Dahl Museum and Story Centre, Great Missenden)Buckinghamshire is notable for its open countryside and natural features, including the Chiltern Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Stowe Landscaped Gardens near Buckingham, and the River Thames.WEB,weblink Welcome to Buckinghamshire!, Visit Buckinghamshire, 19 August 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100822180730weblink">weblink 22 August 2010, live, dmy-all, The Ridgeway Path, a long-distance footpath, passes through the county. The county also has many historic houses. Some of these are opened to the public by the National Trust, such as Waddesdon Manor, West Wycombe Park and Cliveden.WEB,weblink The National Trust, Visit Buckinghamshire, 19 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100723152810weblink">weblink 23 July 2010, Other historic houses are still in use as private homes, such as the Prime Minister's country retreat Chequers.NEWS,weblink View from the new 250mph rail route, Savage, Mike, 12 March 2010, The Independent, UK, 19 August 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100315132855weblink">weblink 15 March 2010, live, dmy-all, Claydon House is a National Trust property, situated near the village of Steeple Claydon in Aylesbury Vale. Home to the Verney family and was also home to Florence Nightingale for some time.Buckinghamshire is the location of Bletchley Park in Milton Keynes, the site of World War II British codebreaking and Colossus, the world's first programmable electronic digital computer.Buckinghamshire is the home of various notable people in connection with whom tourist attractions have been established: for example the author Roald Dahl who included many local features and characters in his works.WEB,weblink Roald Dahl Trail, Visit Buckinghamshire, 19 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100724053807weblink">weblink 24 July 2010, NEWS,weblink The best family days out, Dale, Louise, 14 August 2010, The Guardian, UK, 19 August 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151017071557weblink">weblink 17 October 2015, live, dmy-all, Sports facilities in Buckinghamshire include half of the international Silverstone Circuit which straddles the Buckinghamshire and Northamptonshire border, Adams Park in the south and Stadium MK in the north, and the county is also home to the world-famous Pinewood Studios. Dorney Lake, named "Eton Dorney" for the event, was used as the rowing venue for the 2012 Summer Olympics.

Transport

Roads

(File:M40 - Chiltern Cutting - Stokenchurch - geograph.org.uk - 94271.jpg|thumb|The M40 in the Chilterns)(File:Arriva 5434 on route 359 at Amersham Running Day 2013 (14096696112).jpg|thumb|Local bus, Amersham)Buckinghamshire (including Milton Keynes) is served by four motorways, although two are on its borders:
  • M40 motorway: cuts through the south of the county serving towns such as High Wycombe and Beaconsfield
  • M1 motorway: serves Milton Keynes in the north
  • M25 motorway: passes into Bucks but has only one junction (J16-interchange for the M40)
  • M4 motorway: passes through the very south of the county with only J7 in Bucks
Five important A roads also enter the county (from north to south):
  • A5: serves Milton Keynes
  • A421: serves Milton Keynes and Buckingham and links the M1 to the M40
  • A41: cuts through the centre of the county from Watford to Bicester, serving Aylesbury
  • A40: parallels M40 through south Bucks and continues to Central London
  • A4: serves Taplow in the very south
Also less important primary A roads enter the country:
  • A4146:runs from Leighton Buzzard in Bedfordshire to Milton Keynes
  • A4010:runs from M40 J4 (High Wycombe) to Stoke Mandeville
  • A404:serves Marlow and High Wycombe
  • A509 serves the north of the county through Olney, crossing but the M1 to meet the A5 in Milton Keynes.
The county is poorly served with internal routes, with the A413 and A418 linking the south and north of the county.

Rail

File:Hugh llewelyn 165 017 (6347618666).jpg|thumb|Chiltern Railways service at Great Missenden ]]File:Milton Keynes Central railway station MMB 23 390008.jpg|thumb|Virgin Trains service at Milton Keynes ]]As part of the London commuter belt, Buckinghamshire is well connected to the national rail network, with both local commuter and inter-city services serving some destinations.Chiltern Railways is a principal train operating company in Buckinghamshire, providing the majority of local commuter services from the centre and south of the county, with trains running into {{rws|London Marylebone}}. Great Western operate services from {{rws|Taplow}} and {{rws|Iver}} into London Paddington. West Midlands Trains operate services from {{rws|Milton Keynes Central}} into {{rws|Euston}} whilst Southern operate services via the West London Line from Milton Keynes to East Croydon.Virgin Trains operate services from Milton Keynes Central to Euston, North West England, the West Midlands, the Scottish Central Belt, and North Wales. Great Western Railway operates non-stop services through the south of the county from Paddington to South West England and South Wales.There are four main lines running through the county: There are the following additional lines: From 2020, Iver will be served by Elizabeth line services. From 2025, East West Rail is to reinstate the route via {{rws|Winslow}} between {{rws|Oxford}} and Bletchley, enabling services to Milton Keynes Central. The line between Aylesbury and Claydon Junction may also be reinstated in the same programme, enabling services between Aylesbury and Milton Keynes. High Speed 2 will run non-stop through the county at some future date.

Settlements{| class"wikitable sortable"|+ Largest towns in ceremonial Buckinghamshire (2011 census)

! Town !! PopulationWEB,weblink 2011 Census – Built-up areas, Office for National Statistics, ONS, 4 July 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921045319weblink">weblink 21 September 2013, live, dmy-all, !! District !! Notes! Milton Keynes| Unitary Authority since 1997. At the 2011 census, the population of the Milton Keynes Urban Area, which includes Newport Pagnell and Woburn Sands was 236,700! High Wycombe|120,256|Wycombe|Includes suburbs of Downley and Hazlemere. The High Wycombe Urban Area population is 133,204! Aylesbury|71,977|Aylesbury Vale|County town of Buckinghamshire. Population of Aylesbury Urban Area (including Stoke Mandeville and Bierton) is 74,748! Amersham|23,086|Chiltern|Part of Amersham/Chesham urban area with a population of 46,122.! Chesham|22,356|Chiltern|Part of Amersham/Chesham urban area with a population of 46,122.!Gerrards Cross|20,633|Chiltern/South Bucks|Includes Chalfont St Peter. The area lacks town status but is the 5th largest conurbation in the county.! Marlow|18,261|Wycombe|! Newport Pagnell|15,118|Borough of Milton Keynes|Governed by Milton Keynes Council, not Buckinghamshire County Council! Beaconsfield|13,797|South Bucks|! Buckingham|12,890|Aylesbury Vale|Historically the county town of Buckinghamshire! Princes Risborough|8,231|Wycombe|! Wendover|7,702|Aylesbury Vale|! Olney|6,477|Borough of Milton Keynes|Governed by Milton Keynes Council, not Buckinghamshire County Council! Winslow|4,407|Aylesbury Vale|For the full list of towns, villages and hamlets in Buckinghamshire, see List of places in Buckinghamshire. Throughout history, there have been a number of changes to the Buckinghamshire boundary.

Education

File:Gateway building BNU.jpg|thumb|The Gateway Building, Buckinghamshire New University, High WycombeHigh Wycombe{{Further|List of schools in Buckinghamshire|List of schools in Milton Keynes}}Education in Buckinghamshire is governed by two Local Education Authorities. Buckinghamshire County Council is one of the few remaining LEAs still using the tripartite system, albeit with some revisions such as the abolition of secondary technical schools. It has a completely selective education system: pupils transfer either to a grammar school or to a secondary modern school or free school depending on how they perform in the Eleven-Plus exam and on their preferences. Pupils who do not take the test can only be allocated places at secondary modern schools or free school. There are 9 independent schools and 34 maintained (state) secondary schools, not including sixth form colleges, in the county council area. There is also the Buckinghamshire University Technical College which offers secondary education from age 14. The unitary authority of Milton Keynes operates a comprehensive education system: there are 8 maintained (state) secondary schools in the borough council area.Buckinghamshire and Milton Keynes are also home to the University of Buckingham, Buckinghamshire New University, the National Film and Television School, the Open University and the University Campus Milton Keynes.

Notable people

(File:John Milton's cottage.jpg|thumb|John Milton's cottage, Chalfont)File:House from rear (9058754955).jpg|thumb|ClivedenClivedenFile:Buckingham Church - geograph.org.uk - 715502.jpg|thumb|Buckingham church seen from across the Ouse ]]Buckinghamshire is the birthplace and/or final resting place of several notable individuals. St Osyth was born in Quarrendon and was buried in Aylesbury in the 7th centuryTendring District Council Conservation Area Review {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070703121332weblink |date=3 July 2007 }} (pdf) while at about the same time Saint Rumwold was buried in Buckingham.WEB,weblink Biography of St Rumwold, University of Buckingham, Buckingham.ac.uk, 19 August 2008, 19 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100218113446weblink">weblink 18 February 2010, In the medieval period Roger of Wendover was, as the name suggests, from WendoverWEB,weblink Medieval Sourcebook: Roger of Wendover, Fordham.edu, 19 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101204154832weblink">weblink 4 December 2010, live, dmy-all, and Anne Boleyn also owned property in the same town.Picture Tour at Chiltern Web {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070914120709weblink |date=14 September 2007 }} It is said that King Henry VIII made Aylesbury the county town in preference to Buckingham because Boleyn's father owned property there and was a regular visitor himself.WEB,weblink Aylesbury Tourist Information, Aboutbritain.com, 19 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100909202338weblink">weblink 9 September 2010, live, dmy-all, Other medieval residents included Edward the Confessor, who had a palace at Brill,Genuki guide to Brill {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110912214039weblink |date=12 September 2011 }} and John Wycliffe who lived in Ludgershall.WEB,weblink Biography of John Wycliffe, 8 December 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120203183252weblink">weblink 3 February 2012, live, dmy-all, Buckinghamshire later became home to some notable literary characters. Edmund Waller was brought up in Beaconsfield and served as Member of Parliament for both Amersham and Wycombe. Percy Bysshe Shelley and his wife Mary lived for some time in Marlow, attracted to the town by their friend Thomas Love Peacock who also lived there.WEB, James Mulvihill (University of Alberta),weblink Biography of Thomas Love Peacock, Litencyc.com, 13 January 2005, 19 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101228151010weblink">weblink 28 December 2010, live, dmy-all, John Milton lived in Chalfont St Giles and his cottage can still be visited thereWEB,weblink Milton's Cottage website, 30 May 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070617235757weblink">weblink 17 June 2007, live, dmy-all, and John Wilkes was MP for Aylesbury.WEB,weblink Review of a biography of John Wilkes, Aylesburytowncouncil.gov.uk, 19 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110717161614weblink">weblink 17 July 2011, Later authors include Jerome K. Jerome who lived at Marlow,WEB,weblink Literary guide to Marlow, Marlowtown.co.uk, 19 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110514214159weblink">weblink 14 May 2011, live, dmy-all, T. S. Eliot who also lived at Marlow,WEB,weblink Tourist guide to Marlow, Riverthames.co.uk, 19 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110105084148weblink">weblink 5 January 2011, dead, dmy-all, Roald Dahl who lived at Great Missenden,WEB,weblink About Britain.com, About Britain.com, 19 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100914052716weblink">weblink 14 September 2010, live, dmy-all, Enid Blyton who lived in BeaconsfieldWEB,weblink Guide to Beaconsfield, Beaconsfield.co.uk, 19 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100202230547weblink">weblink 2 February 2010, live, dmy-all, and Edgar Wallace who lived at Bourne EndWEB,weblink Bourne End online, Bourneend.org.uk, 19 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110726025838weblink">weblink 26 July 2011, dead, dmy-all, and is buried in Little Marlow.WEB,weblink Biography of Edgar Wallace, Online-literature.com, 19 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100820081852weblink">weblink 20 August 2010, live, dmy-all, Modern-day writers from Bucks include Terry Pratchett who was born in Beaconsfield,WEB,weblink Biography of Terry Pratchett, Lspace.org, 19 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110514010253weblink">weblink 14 May 2011, live, dmy-all, Tim Rice who is from Amersham{{IMDb name|id=0005358|name=Tim Rice}} and Andy Riley who is from Aylesbury.During the Second World War a number of European politicians and statesmen were exiled in England. Many of these settled in Bucks as it is close to London. President Edvard Beneš of Czechoslovakia lived at Aston Abbotts with his family while some of his officials were stationed at nearby Addington and Wingrave.WEB,weblink Czechs in Exile at Aston Abbotts, Czechsinexile.org, 19 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110515154330weblink">weblink 15 May 2011, Meanwhile, Władysław Sikorski, military leader of Poland, lived at IverWEB,weblink Polish government comparison, Czechs in Exile, 19 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110515154344weblink">weblink 15 May 2011, and King Zog of Albania lived at Frieth.Court of King Zog Research Society {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110514204047weblink |date=14 May 2011 }} Much earlier, King Louis XVIII of France lived in exile at Hartwell House from 1809 to 1814.Also on the local political stage Buckinghamshire has been home to Nancy Astor who lived in Cliveden,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080416211302weblink">weblink 16 April 2008, Guide to Cliveden, Thames-search.com, 19 September 2010, Frederick, Prince of Wales who also lived in Cliveden,WEB, John Darnton,weblink Travel Supplement, Buckinghamshire (Eng), New York Times, 4 August 1996, 19 September 2010,weblink 28 July 2018, live, dmy-all, Baron Carrington who lives in Bledlow,WEB,weblink Bledlow, Visit Buckinghamshire, 19 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110726030622weblink">weblink 26 July 2011, Benjamin Disraeli who lived at Hughenden Manor and was made Earl of Beaconsfield,EB1911, Beaconsfield, Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of, 3, 563–571, Frederick, Greenwood, John Hampden who was from Great Hampden and is revered in Aylesbury to this day and Prime Minister Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery who lived at Mentmore.Genuki guide to Mentmore {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110909123120weblink |date=9 September 2011 }} Also worthy of note are William Penn who believed he was descended from the Penn family of Penn and so is buried nearbyWEB,weblink Biography of William Penn, 30 May 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070410014353weblink">weblink 10 April 2007, live, dmy-all, and the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, who has an official residence at Chequers. John Archdale, the colonial governor of North Carolina and South Carolina, was born in Buckinghamshire.BOOK, Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896, Marquis Who's Who, Chicago, 1963, Other notable natives of Buckinghamshire include:{{Div col|colwidth=35em}} {{div col end}}Celebrities living in Bucks include:{{Div col|colwidth=35em}} {{div col end}}

See also

Notes

{{Reflist|30em}}

References

  • EB9, cs2, County of Buckingham, 4, {{harvid, EB, 1878, |pages=415–417 }}
  • EB1911, cs2, Buckinghamshire, 4, {{harvid, EB, 1911, |pages=728–731 }}

External links

{{Commons category|Buckinghamshire}} {{Geographic Location|title = Neighbouring counties|Centre = Buckinghamshire|North = Northamptonshire|Northeast = Bedfordshire|East = BedfordshireHertfordshire|Southeast = Greater London|South = Berkshire|Southwest = Oxfordshire|West = Oxfordshire|Northwest = Northamptonshire}}{{Buckinghamshire}}{{England counties}}

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