Bruce Nuclear Generating Station

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Bruce Nuclear Generating Station
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{{short description|Canadian power station}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2012}}

| status = O| construction_began = Unit 1: June 1, 1971Unit 2: December 1, 1970Unit 3: July 1, 1972Unit 4: September 1, 1972Unit 5: June 1, 1978Unit 6: January 1, 1978Unit 7: May 1, 1979Unit 8: August 1, 1979| commissioned = Units 1–2: September 1, 1977Unit 3: February 1, 1978Unit 4: January 18, 1979Unit 5: March 1, 1985Unit 6: September 14, 1984Unit 7: April 10, 1986Unit 8: May 22, 1987| decommissioned =| cost = $1.8 billion CAD (A station)$6 billion CAD (B station)| owner = Ontario Power Generation (OPG)| operator = Bruce Power| np_reactor_type = CANDUAtomic Energy of Canada Limited>AECL| np_fuel_supplier = | ps_cogeneration = | ps_cooling_source = Lake Huron| ps_cooling_towers = | ps_units_operational = 4 × 830 MW (gross)3 × 872 MW (gross)1 × 891 MW (gross)| ps_units_manu_model = CANDU 791 (A 1–2)CANDU 750A (A 3–4)CANDU 750B (B 5–8)| ps_units_uc = | ps_units_planned = | ps_units_cancelled = Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station>Douglas Point)| ps_thermal_capacity = 2 × 2620 MWth (A 1–2)2 × 2550 MWth (A 3–4)2 × 2832 MWth (B5 & B7)2 × 2690 MWth (B6 & B8)| ps_heating_capacity = | ps_electrical_capacity = 6,288| ps_electrical_cap_fac = 87.4% (2014-2018)76.90% (lifetime)| ps_annual_generation = 48,169| website = Bruce Power| extra = }}Bruce Nuclear Generating Station is a nuclear power station located on the eastern shore of Lake Huron in Ontario. It occupies 932 ha (2300 acres) of land.WEB,weblink Global Security Article, 22 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 5 December 2011, no, The facility derives its name from Bruce County in which it is located, in the former Bruce Township. It is the world's largest fully operational nuclear generating station by total reactor count, the number of currently operational reactors, and total output.The station is the largest employer in Bruce County, with over 4000 workers. WEB,weblink Bruce Power About Us, Bruce Power, 2 April 2019,weblink 2 April 2019, no, Formerly known as the Bruce Nuclear Power Development (BNPD), the facility was constructed in stages between 1970 and 1987 by the provincial Crown corporation, Ontario Hydro. In April 1999 Ontario Hydro was split into 5 component Crown corporations with Ontario Power Generation (OPG) taking over all electrical generating stations. In June 2000, OPG entered into a long term lease agreement with private sector consortium Bruce Power to take over operation. In May 2001, Bruce Power began operations. The lease is for 18 years until 2019 with an option to extend another 25 years to 2044.WEB,weblink Bruce A Refurbishment, 22 March 2011, December 2004, Bruce Power (Golder Associates), yes,weblink" title="">weblink 24 November 2010, dmy, In November 2009, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) renewed Bruce Power's operating licences for 5 years until 2014, and gave permission to refuel units 1 and 2.WEB, steveheiser,weblink Bruce Power Gets Five-Year Operating Licences - Nuclear Power Industry News - Nuclear Power Industry News - Nuclear Street - Nuclear Power Portal, Nuclear Street, 5 November 2009, In May 2014, the CNSC extended the licence to May 2015 and public hearings were scheduled for early 2015 in Ottawa and Kincardine.WEB,weblink CNSC Extends Bruce Power's Operating Licence Until May 2015, Government of Canada, CNSC, 17 August 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 7 August 2014, no, A new operating licence was granted for June 1, 2015, until May 31, 2020.WEB,weblink Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission renews Bruce Power's power reactor operating licences, Government of Canada, CNSC, 5 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 25 June 2015, no,


Bruce Nuclear Generating Station is a nuclear power station located on the eastern shore of Lake Huron in the communities of Inverhuron and Tiverton, Ontario in Canada. It occupies 932 ha (2300 acres) of land. The facility derives its name from Bruce Township, the local municipality when the plant was constructed, now Kincardine due to amalgamation.Its eight reactors are arranged into two plants (A and B) with four reactors each. Each reactor stands within a reinforced concrete containment, driving eight steam generators. The steam generators are 12 m tall, and weigh 100 tonnes each. Each plant uses three fueling machines, shared between the four reactors, which travel in a duct cut through solid rock beneath the reactors, traversing the entire plant. The duct doubles as part of the pressure relief system, connected to the vacuum building.JOURNAL,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 19 September 2012, Nuclear Engineering and Design - Pressure relief structures of multi-unit candu nuclear power plants, 2 February 1987, 10.1016/0029-5493(87)90069-0, 100, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 21–39, Huterer, J., Brown, D.G., Osman, M.A., Ha, E.C., Each reactor has its own turbine generator set, with one high-pressure turbine and three low-pressure turbines driving one generator.WEB, Reporter's Guide to Bruce Power (Revision 4),weblink 24 March 2011, Aug 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 1 April 2010, dmy-all, {{webarchive |url= |date=24 November 2010}} The turbine hall is about 400 m long at each plant and houses the four turbine generator sets. Cooling water is taken from Lake Huron. There is (originally) one control room per 4 reactors.WEB,weblink Nuclear Reactor Containment Design (chapter 3, module A), Daams, Dr. Johanna,, 2018-06-28,weblink 29 June 2018, no, (File:Bruce Nuclear Generating Station.jpg|thumb|Bruce A, from across Baie Du Dor)

Bruce A

Construction of Bruce A began in 1969, making it the successor to the Pickering A plant. Bruce A units were originally rated at 750 MWe net / 805 MWe gross,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 21 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 16 July 2011, yes, dmy-all, which was later increased to 769 MWe net / 825 MWe gross. {{As of|2017}} the Bruce A units were capable of producing up to 779 MWe net according to IESO generator data. Each reactor requires 6240 fuel bundles that weigh 22.5 kg each, or about 140 tonnes of fuel. There are 480 fuel channels per reactor, containing 12 bundles each. There is storage capacity for about 23,000 bundles. Approximately 18 bundles are discharged per reactor per day.WEB, Pitre, John, Chan, Peter, Dastur, Adi, Candu physics considerations for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium,weblink AECL, 29 July 2017, The Bruce A steam generators utilize a separate large horizontal shared steam drum (with one steam drum common to four steam generators), a design dropped in most other plants at the time. Issues related to the AECL requested design of the tube supports caused repair and delay costs, which exceeded the net worth of the builder Babcock & Wilcox Canada.WEB,weblink Evolution of CANDU Steam Generators – a Historical View, Canteach, 19 May 2006, 26 March 2011, John M. Dyke, Wm. J. Garland, yes, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 1 July 2014, dmy-all, Until they were removed in 1998, Bruce A reactors used unique booster rods to control reactivity.WEB, Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 2006 Safety Report, Revision 15,weblink W. Dickie, June 2006, Booster rods contained 93% uranium-235, and were inserted to overcome xenon poisoning. Bruce B and all other Ontario Hydro reactors instead use absorber rods called "adjusters" which are normally inserted and are removed to overcome xenon poisoning.Bruce A demonstrated an "excellent" early operating history. Together with Pickering A, the eight units achieved an overall average capability factor of 83% over the initial five-year period.WEB, A Short History of the CANDU Nuclear Power System, Revision 2,weblink Canteach, 25 March 2011, Gord L. Brooks, December 2002, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 23 July 2011, dmy-all, However, by 2001, when Bruce Power took the lease, all Bruce A units were laid-up.In 1981, Unit 1 was ranked the top reactor in the world with a 97% availability factor.WEB, About Us Bruce Power {{!, Bruce Power|url=||accessdate=19 February 2017|date=2015-08-25|archive-url=|archive-date=14 May 2017|dead-url=no}}In December 1997, after about 20 years of operation, it was out of service. In 2005 (after 7 years of being idle) refurbishment started. In September 2012 (15 years out of service) it resumed operation.In 1982, Unit 2 was temporarily shut down due to a pressure tube leak. In 1986 a fuel channel failed while the reactor was shut down; some of the fuel elements were swept into the moderator (calandria) and were difficult to remove.WEB, Canada's Nuclear History Chronology,weblink Canadian Nuclear Society, 31 March 2011, Morgan Brown, 25 November 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 19 July 2011, no, WEB, The Safety of Ontario's Nuclear Power Reactors (Vol 2 Appendices),weblink 31 March 2011, Ontario Nuclear Safety Review, Toronto, Ontario, 29 February 1988, 581,weblink" title="">weblink 2 June 2015, no, In 1986, maintenance workers accidentally left a protective lead blanket in the steam generator of Unit 2. By the time the mistake was discovered six years later, the blanket had melted, severely damaging the boiler.WEB, Bruce A Proves There Are Second Acts in Nuclear Power,weblink Power Magazine, 27 March 2011, 1 August 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 2 October 2011, no, WEB, CANDU Flawed, Maclean's Magazine,weblink The Canadian Encyclopedia, 26 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 21 December 2017, no, WEB, The Billion Dollar "oops" at the Bruce Nuclear Station,weblink Greenpeace, 27 March 2011, Keith Stewart, 24 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 26 March 2011, yes, dmy-all, In October 1995, after about 18 years of operation, unit 2 was out of service.In 2005 (after 9 years of being idle) refurbishment started.In October 2012, it resumed operation.In 1982, Unit 3 set a then world record of 494 days of continuous operation and {{as of|1984|lc=y}} Bruce A was the most reliable multi-unit station in the world.From April 1998 onward Bruce A3 remained idle for 6 years, returning to service in January 2004 (unit was 32 years old).WEB, PRIS - Reactor Details,weblink, 29 July 2017,weblink 29 July 2017, no, Planned refurbishment of the third unit to begin in 2023 (unit will be 51 years old).WEB, Bruce Power's Role In Ontario,weblink Bruce Power, 21 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 22 February 2017, yes, dmy-all, WEB, Re: NERA Economic Consulting's Opinion as to the Fairness of the Amended and Restated Bruce Power Refurbishment Implementation Agreement,weblink NERA Economic Consulting, 21 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 22 February 2017, yes, dmy-all, In 1990, a software error in unit 4 caused a fueling machine error, damaging a fuel channel.WEB,weblink CONTEXT AND SOFTWARE SAFETY ASSESSMENT, 17 August 2014, Garrett, Chris, Apostolakis, George, yes, 49,weblink" title="">weblink 23 September 2015, no, In 1993, reactor power was reduced to 60% until various loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) scenarios could be addressed. Subsequently, Bruce A units returned to 89% of rated power.In March 1998, after about 19 years of operation, unit 4 was out of service.WEB, PRIS - Reactor Details,weblink, 29 July 2017,weblink 19 June 2018, no, It returned to service in October 2003, after 6 years of being idle (unit was 31 years old).Planned refurbishment of unit 4 to begin in 2025 (unit will be 53 years old).

Bruce B

Bruce B units are of a slightly larger capacity: 817 MW net, 840 MW gross. which is attributed to an improved steam generator design, where the steam drum is integral to each steam generator in a "light bulb" arrangement, eliminating the horizontal cross-drum.WEB, Bruce Power: Site History,weblink Canadian Nuclear Workers' Council (CNWC), 27 March 2011, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 May 2011, dmy-all, In 1990, a nine-week "impairment" of Bruce B was created when a technician incorrectly set the calibration on radioactivity monitors. In 2007, Bruce B 7 was the top performing nuclear reactor in Ontario with 97.2% performance.WEB, CNA Nuclear Energy Booklet 2008,weblink Canadian Nuclear Association, 27 March 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 28 September 2011, dmy-all, and in 2009, Bruce B 5 was first with 95.4% performance.WEB, CNA Nuclear Energy Booklet 2010,weblink Canadian Nuclear Association, 27 March 2011, 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 6 July 2011, dmy-all, Bruce B 5
  • Construction began 1 June 1978.WEB, PRIS - Reactor Details,weblink, 29 July 2017,weblink 19 June 2018, no,
  • On 15 November 1984 it reached first criticality.
  • Commercial operation began on 1 March 1985.
  • Originally scheduled to be shut down in 2016 (unit would have been 31 years old).
  • Planned refurbishment to begin in 2026 (unit will be 41 years old).
Bruce B 6
  • Construction began 1 January 1978.WEB, PRIS - Reactor Details,weblink, 29 July 2017,weblink 19 June 2018, no,
  • On 29 May 1984 it reached first criticality.
  • Commercial operation began on 14 September 1984.
  • Originally scheduled to be shut down in 2018 (unit would have been 34 years old).
  • Planned refurbishment to begin in 2020 (unit will be 36 years old).
Bruce B 7
  • Construction began 1 May 1979.WEB, PRIS - Reactor Details,weblink, 29 July 2017,weblink 19 June 2018, no,
  • On 7 January 1986 it reached first criticality.
  • Commercial operation began on 10 April 1986.
  • Originally scheduled to be shut down in 2015 (unit would have been 29 years old).
  • Planned refurbishment to begin in 2028 (unit will be 42 years old).
Bruce B 8
  • Construction began 1 August 1979.WEB, PRIS - Reactor Details,weblink, 29 July 2017,weblink 19 June 2018, no,
  • On 15 February 1987 it reached first criticality.
  • Commercial operation began on 22 May 1987.
  • Originally scheduled to be shut down in 2019 (unit would have been 32 years old).
  • Planned refurbishment to begin in 2030 (unit will be 43 years old).

Electrical output

{{as of|2017}}, the station (A and B combined) produced the following amounts of electricity annually:
  • 2001 20.5 terawatt hours (TWh);
  • 2003 24.5 TWh;
  • 2004 (planned) 34 TWh.
  • 2007 35.47 TWh
  • 2008 35.26 TWhWEB,weblink 22 March 2011, {{dead link|date=May 2017}}
  • 2013 45 TWh, which was about 30% of Ontario's production.WEB,weblink Bruce Power's 2013 Annual Review, Bruce Power, 27 July 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 15 April 2015, no,
  • 2015 47.63 TWh
  • 2017 49.02 TWhWEB,weblink Archived copy, 28 April 2019,weblink 2 April 2019, no,
After Units 1–2 completed refurbishment activities and were brought back online in 2012, Bruce became the largest operating nuclear generation facility in the world by both the number of currently operational reactors and total net output capacity, having a total of 8 operational CANDU nuclear reactors with a combined output of 6,384 MWe net (7,276 MWe gross) when all units are online.WEB, The World's Largest Power Plants,weblink 26 March 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 6 October 2012, dmy-all, WEB, Nuclear Power in Canada,weblink Canadian Nuclear Association, 27 March 2011, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 26 August 2011, yes, dmy-all, (The Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant in Japan had a larger total output capacity, but it has been out of service since 2011.WEB,weblink Japan Times: TEPCO may ask U.S. utility to inspect Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear plant, 12 October 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 27 February 2017, no, )As of 2008, the Bruce station had three double-circuit 500 kV transmission lines to feed the major load centres in southern Ontario, in addition to three double-circuit 230 kV lines serving the local area.WEB,weblink The Need for More Transmission in Bruce Region, 2008-04-18, Ontario Power Authority, These circuits are connected via two high voltage switchyards owned and operated by Hydro One. In 2006, OPA had proposed increasing transmission line capacity, at a cost of between $200–600 million,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2011-03-23, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 July 2011, dmy-all, described as "the largest electricity transmission investment in Ontario in the last 20 years."WEB, Ontario's Long-Term Energy Plan,weblink OPA, 26 March 2011, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 19 August 2014, yes, dmy-all, The line was completed in June 2012, several months ahead of schedule, with over 700 towers built for the 180 kilometre line to Milton. The project ranked 45th in Renew Canada's annual list.WEB,weblink Bruce to Milton Transmission Line Completed Six Months Ahead of Schedule, 17 August 2014, McCallum, Douglas,weblink" title="">weblink 19 August 2014, no, In 2010, Bruce Power was paid approximately $60 million for contracted, but unused power.NEWS,weblink Bruce Power got millions to not produce electricity, 22 March 2011, 21 September 2010, CTV News,weblink" title="">weblink 28 September 2010, no,

Comparison with Pickering

Compared to the other major Canadian nuclear power plant built earlier, Pickering station, the Bruce reactors have higher power output, achieved by: increasing the number of fuel channels, increasing the number of bundles per channel, and a change in the fuel bundle itself.At Bruce, the fuelling equipment is shared by the four reactors of each plant, while at Pickering each reactor had a fuelling machine. The Bruce fuelling machine and fuel channel end fitting design (mostly by Canadian General Electric) is based on the Nuclear Power Demonstration design. The Pickering design by AECL was based on Douglas Point.WEB,weblink CANDU ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION - PART 1 OF 5 AN OVERVIEW OF THE EARLY CANDU PROGRAM PREPARED FROM INFORMATION PROVIDED BY JOHN S. FOSTER, Canteach, February 2001, 27 July 2014, Foster John S., Brooks G.L., yes,weblink 11 August 2014, no, The building design of the reactor differs: Bruce uses a squarish "close-in" design, in which as much of the equipment as possible is arranged outside the main containment envelope for easier access during maintenance and emergencies. The steam generators penetrate the containment. The primary coolant pumps and primary piping systems are inside the containment enclosure, but the pump motors are outside containment and the drive shaft seals form the containment boundary.WEB,weblink Chernobyl - A Canadian Technical Perspective, Canteach / AECL, 27 July 2014, Howieson J.Q., Snell V.G., yes,weblink 11 August 2014, no, Pickering has round domes which enclose much of the secondary cooling equipment.WEB, Simmons, R.B.V., Nuclear Power Symposium Lecture No. 10: Plant Layout,weblink Atomic Energy Of Canada Limited (AECL), 20 August 2017,weblink 20 August 2017, no,
  • The Pickering A system did not originally have a second independent shutdown system. The Bruce containment concept differs: the reactor's reactivity mechanism deck serves as a part of the containment boundary, is closer to the reactor, and more prone to damage in the event of an accident ("accidental physical disassembly"). The designers therefore foresaw the need for a second safety system to reduce the risk on an accident. Bruce received a second, fully independent Safety Shutdown System (SDS2) which uses a liquid neutron poison injection method.WEB,weblink CANDU ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION PART 5 OF 5 THE ORIGINS & EVOLUTION OF THE SECOND SHUTDOWN SYSTEM, CANTEACH, February 2001, 27 July 2014, Brooks G.L.,weblink 11 August 2014, no,
  • The Bruce system also has a high-pressure Emergency Coolant Injection System (ECIS).
  • Each Bruce "4 pack" has its own Vacuum Building, while Pickering has one per eight reactors.
  • At Pickering, the vacuum duct was closed by nonreturn valves, to prevent flow of the steam/air mixture from the duct to a non-accident reactor unit following a LOCA. In the Bruce concept, there is no such non-return valve; the reactor buildings are all interconnected during normal operation.
  • Bruce uses single-circuit heat transport system, while Pickering had two circuits.
  • The first two reactor units of Pickering A originally used Zircaloy-2 pressure tubes. All subsequent CANDU units use a zirconium - 2.5% niobium alloy.
  • Bruce uses a pressurizer to maintain coolant pressure, Pickering a different system.{{vague|date=August 2017}}
  • The Pickering design utilized 12 small steam generators operated in groups of three which can be individually valved out of the heat transport loop, as can the 16 pumps per reactor, with 4 being spare. At Bruce, the number of steam generators and coolant pumps was reduced to 8 and 4 respectively, without any spare pumps, thereby simplifying the piping. The Bruce system permits reactor power level to be adjusted more quickly and easily.BOOK, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canada enters the nuclear age, 1997, 978-0-7735-1601-4,

Construction costs

Bruce A was projected to cost {{currency|0.9|CAD}} billion (1969), and actually cost $1.8 billion (1978), a 100% over-run. Bruce B was projected to cost $3.9 billion (1976), and actually cost $6 billion (1989) in "dollars of the year", a 50% over-run.WEB, Better Never Than Late,weblink Greenpeace, 4 April 2011, October 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2015, yes, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Appendix 2 Ontarioís Nuclear Generating Facilities: A History and Estimate of Unit Lifetimes and Refurbishment Costs,, 2018-06-26,weblink 4 April 2017, yes, These figures are better than for Pickering B or Darlington (at 350%, not accounting for inflation).

Cost of generated electricity

On January 1, 2016, Bruce Power began receiving a single contracted price for all output from the site of {{CA$|65.73|link=yes}} per megawatt-hour (MWh).WEB,weblink Amended Agreement Secures Bruce Power's Role In Long-Term Energy Plan {{!, |author=Bruce Power||access-date=2016-03-03|archive-url=|archive-date=3 March 2016|dead-url=no}} This price is partially adjusted annually to account for inflation and wage growth, with additional monthly fuel cost adjustments, and it includes a small payment for Bruce's unique ability to curtail up to 2400 MW of generation (total across all eight units — up to 300 MW per individual unit) via steam bypass operation during periods of surplus generation.REPORT, An Assessment of the Financial Risks of the Nuclear Refurbishment Plan, 21 November 2017, Financial Accountability Office of Ontario,weblink 27 June 2018, 978-1-4868-0925-7,weblink" title="">weblink 27 June 2018, no, During the course of the refurbishment of Units 3–6 the price will be raised in steps to cover individual reactor refurbishment costs, with each increase starting 12 months prior to the start of each individual refurbishment (and lasting only until that unit's refurbishment costs (which are fixed prior to refurbishment start) have been recovered). The average price per MWh that will be paid to Bruce Power for all electricity generated from 2016–2064 (covering the entire refurbishment period for Units 3–6 plus the entire expected remaining post-refurbishment lifetimes of all eight Bruce Power reactors (including the two that were already refurbished)) was estimated to be approximately {{CA$|80.6}}/MWh in 2017 dollars by the Financial Accountability Office of Ontario. In contrast, the estimated average price of nuclear electricity from all three Ontario nuclear plants during that same 2016–2064 period was estimated to be {{CA$|80.7}}/MWh in 2017 dollars, the 2017–2018 unit cost of Ontario nuclear power was {{CA$|69}}/MWh, and the current price of electricity for "most residential and small business customers" was {{CA$|114.9}}/MWh (prior to the Fair Hydro Plan) or {{CA$|97.6}} (after the Fair Hydro Plan).

Blackout of 2003

During the Northeast Blackout of 2003 three Bruce B units continued running at 60% reactor power and 0% grid electrical power. They were able to do so for hours, because they had steam bypass systems designed to de-couple the reactor output from the generator electrical output. The three units were reconnected to the grid within 5 hours. Bruce A and B stations were designed to operate indefinitely while disconnected from the grid.JOURNAL, Carvalho, V.F., Acchione, P.N., Performance of Nuclear Unit Controls in Grid Emergency Situations, IFAC Proceedings Volumes, December 1986, 19, 16, 161–168, 10.1016/S1474-6670(17)59375-1, "Contrary to popular belief, the electrical generators of nuclear plants can follow the load demands of the electrical grid provided specific engineered systems to permit this mode of operation are included in the plant design."WEB, Ontario Electrical Grid and Project Requirements for Nuclear Plants,weblink Ontario Society of Professional Engineers (OSPE), 4 April 2011, 8 March 2011, {{dead link|date=September 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}

Cobalt-60 production

Cobalt-60 (60Co) can be produced in a CANDU reactor by using adjuster rods made primarily out of 59Co (instead of the normal stainless steel), which is slowly transmuted into 60Co via neutron activation (59Co + n → 60Co).WEB, Canadian Nuclear Worker,weblink Canadian Nuclear Workers Council, 9 August 2017, 3, June 2017, The following day, Bruce Power announced the completion of a Cobalt-60 harvest during the Unit 5 outage. Following the harvest, new rods of Cobalt-59 (becomes Cobalt-60 after up to two years in the reactor) were inserted in Unit five along with four rods of medical High Specific Activity Cobalt which is used to treat brain cancer.,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2017, no, WEB, The Canadian Nuclear Factbook 2017,weblink Canadian Nuclear Association, 9 August 2017,weblink 9 August 2017, no, These now-intensely-radioactive cobalt-60 adjuster rods are then "harvested" (removed and replaced with fresh 59Co adjuster rods) after one to three years of use in the reactor during a routine reactor shutdown, and are later processed into sealed 60Co sources of varying intensities by Nordion.NEWS, Gowan, Rob, Bruce Power to produce Cobalt-60,weblink 9 August 2017, Owen Sound Sun Times, Owen Sound Sun Times, 17 November 2014, en-CA,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2017, yes, dmy-all, WEB, The Role of Nuclear: Present and Future,weblink 9 August 2017, 3–4,weblink 24 May 2017, no, WEB, Bruce Power: Canada's Largest Public-Private Partnership,weblink 9 August 2017, 22, August 2015, Unrelated to refurbishment, yet extremely innovative work that takes during planned maintenance outages, is the Cobalt-60 harvest. Working together, Bruce Power and Nordion provide a reliable, long-term, end-to-end Cobalt-60 supply, which fuels gamma processing operations such as irradiation facilities that sterilize single-use medical devices. Cobalt is mined like any other mineral. It's removed from the ground and processed into pure Cobalt-59 powder. Once processed into powder, it's compressed into slugs, which are coated with nickel. These slugs are then encapsulated and assembled into adjuster rods, which are used to control the reaction in Bruce Power's reactors, where the cobalt is activated by absorbing neutrons to become Cobalt-60. The rods are in the reactor for a minimum of one year and maximum of 2.5 years. Bruce Power harvests the rods during planned maintenance outages on the units. The bundles are then received by Nordion and the Cobalt-60 is removed from its encapsulation and welded into a new double-encapsulated source called C-188. It is then shipped to the sites of Nordion's customers for use in irradiators. In 2014, Bruce Power and Nordion signed an agreement for up to an additional 14 years to provide a long-term supply of Cobalt-60 that will support health care around the world. Cobalt-60 makes an invaluable contribution to the health care industry and is used to sterilize approximately 40 per cent of all single-use medical devices and equipment produced globally.,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2017, no, The Bruce nuclear power plant has been producing 60Co since the 1980s, and almost all of the world's supply of 60Co comes from various CANDU nuclear reactors, with Bruce being the single largest supplier.WEB, Nordion and Bruce Power ensure global Cobalt-60 supply up to 2064,weblink 9 August 2017, 8 November 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2017, no, WEB, Nuclear Power in Canada - World Nuclear Association,weblink, World Nuclear Association, 9 August 2017, As well as their use for electricity, Candu power reactors produce almost all the world's supply of the cobalt-60 radioisotope for medical and sterilization use.,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2017, no, NEWS, Vulcan, Tom, Radioisotopes: A Market In Decay? {{!,|url=|accessdate=9 August 2017||date=19 April 2010|language=en|archive-url=|archive-date=9 August 2017|dead-url=no}}NEWS, Canadian companies collaborate to secure isotope supplies,weblink 9 August 2017,, World Nuclear News, 8 November 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2017, no, WEB, Clean Nuclear Power {{!, Safe Hospitals|url=||accessdate=9 August 2017|archive-url=|archive-date=25 July 2017|dead-url=no}} {{As of|2007}}, Bruce supplied over 40% of the world's 60Co. This rose to over 50% by 2016, with Pickering supplying approximately another 20% of global demand. In 2016, Bruce extended their contract with Nordion for the continued supply of 60Co to cover the entire projected post-refurbishment life of the Bruce reactors, which are expected to operate until 2064.Bruce also began producing High Specific Activity (HSA) 60Co in 2016, which is designed for highly specialized medical uses such as cancer treatment and had been primarily produced at the NRU reactor for the past 60+ years (which was originally scheduled to be shut down in 2016, but will be kept online until March 31, 2018 due to the general worldwide lack of sufficient replacement medical isotope production capacity for several critical isotopes such as molybdenum-99).NEWS, Reprieve for Canadian isotope reactor,weblink 9 August 2017,, World Nuclear News, 9 February 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 30 June 2017, no, NEWS, Canadian companies join up for medical isotope development,weblink 9 August 2017,, World Nuclear News, 29 October 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2017, no, NEWS, Jones, Kristie, Partnership ensures stable supply of medical grade cobalt,weblink 9 August 2017,, Hospital News,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2017, no, JOURNAL, Brown, C, Will new isotope sources be ready in time?, CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1 March 2016, 188, 4, 252, 10.1503/cmaj.109-5224, 26811359, 4771533, NEWS, Kveton, Adam, Nordion to get cancer-treating isotope from Bruce Power {{!,|url=|accessdate=9 August 2017||publisher=Kanata Kourier-Standard|date=16 November 2015|language=en-CA|archive-url=|archive-date=9 August 2017|dead-url=no}} As the NRU produces over two-thirds of the world's HSA 60Co, Bruce's ability to supply HSA 60Co will become critical to help fill the immense production gap left by the NRU once it is decommissioned in 2018.WEB, Nordion, A Billion Curies and Counting: 50 years of Canadian nuclear innovation in healthcare,weblink Canadian Nuclear Society, 9 August 2017, 30,35, 1 February 2016,weblink 9 August 2017, no, OPG and Bruce Power are collaborating on an effort to expand 60Co production to the Bruce A and Darlington reactors in order to fully cover Pickering's production (which will end when the plant is decommissioned in 2024) in addition to the inevitable gaps in 60Co production capacity that will be caused by the upcoming refurbishments of six of Bruce's reactors (Units A 3–4 & Units B 5–8), as well as all four of Darlington's reactors. They are also working on expanding the production of HSA 60Co to more reactors.WEB, OPG's Update to Municipal Councils in Bruce County Q2 – 2017,weblink Ontario Power Generation, 9 August 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2017, yes, dmy-all, In 2017, Bruce Power became the first Canadian recipient of a Top Innovative Practice (TIP) award from the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) for its ongoing work with Nordion to produce cobalt-60.NEWS, Bruce Power wins Innovation Award,weblink 9 August 2017, Kincardine News, 25 May 2017, en-CA,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2017, yes, dmy-all, WEB, Top Innovative Practice Awards 2017,weblink Nuclear Energy Institute, 20 August 2017,weblink 20 August 2017, no,

Radioisotope production project

Bruce Power is working with Framatome to develop the capability to "produce shorter half-life radioisotopes (such as molybdenum-99, lutetium-177 and iridium-192)" using Areva's proprietary technology for the on-line production of radioisotopes in heavy water reactors.WEB, Bruce Power and AREVA NP Expand Agreement for Commercialization of Radioisotope Production - AREVA NP - AREVA Group,weblink, 9 August 2017, 8 August 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2017, yes, dmy-all, NEWS, Bruce Power, Areva NP join for isotope production,weblink 9 August 2017,, World Nuclear News, 9 August 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2017, no, Areva will design and supply the system for installation in the existing Bruce units.In June 2018, Bruce Power and ITG (a subsidiary of Isotopen Technologien München (ITM)) announced the start of a joint effort to explore producing lutetium-177 in Bruce's reactors, with ITG planned to manage the development, processing, and distribution of lutetium-177.NEWS, Bruce Power and ITM to supply cancer therapy isotope,weblink 30 June 2018,, 29 June 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 30 June 2018, no,

Refurbishment of Units 1–2, 1995–2012

missing image!
- Bruce A Turbine Hall December 2002.JPG -
Bruce A Turbine Hall during the 2002-04 restart project
Retubing of Bruce A units was planned in 1992, but deferred, as Ontario Hydro had a surplus of generation at the time.In late 2005, Bruce Power and the Government of Ontario committed to return units 1 and 2 to service, in order to help meet increasing energy demand in the province of Ontario.NEWS,weblink Government and Bruce Power Reach Agreement to Restart Nuclear Units, 17 October 2005, 2008-04-18, Canadian Ministry of Energy, Queen's Park, Ontario, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 25 February 2010, The project was originally estimated to cost $4.25 billion.NEWS,weblink TransCanada to Invest in $4.25 Billion Bruce Power Restart and Increase Its Interest in Bruce A, 17 October 2005, 2008-04-18, Marketwire, Calgary, Alberta,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2008, yes, dmy-all, It was determined that while Units 1 & 2 could have been restarted without refurbishment, it was economically advantageous to do so, since refurbishment would have been required shortly thereafter. The goal is to keep Units 1 & 2 in service until 2043, 66 years after original commissioning.The refurbishment required pressure tube and calandria tube replacement, steam generator replacement, shutdown System 2 (SDS2) enhancement, an upgrade of turbine control systems, replacing original analog controls with a DCSWEB,weblink Turbine control system upgrade for Bruce Nuclear plant units 1 and 2 (Abstract), IEEE Xplore, 27 July 2014, Gray, S.F., Basu, S., yes,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2014, no, and significant other work and maintenance (for example, replacement of 30 transformers containing PCBs).{{citation needed|date=August 2017}}A new fuel bundle design (Low Void Reactivity Fuel, LVRF) was considered, using slightly enriched (1% U-235 fuel pellets, within a CANFLEX 43-element bundle compared to the existing 37-element bundle.In 2006 and 2007, the restart project was judged to be the largest infrastructure project in Canada by ReNew Canada magazine.WEB,weblink ReNew Canada - The Top 100, 2008-04-18,weblink" title="">weblink 21 March 2008, yes, dmy, In April 2007, the auditor general reviewed the refurbishment deal WEB, The Bruce Power Refurbishment Agreement,weblink 27 March 2011, Office of the Auditor General of Ontario, 5 April 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 May 2011, dmy-all, In August 2007, estimated cost for the project had grown to $5.25 billion when Bruce Power decided to replace all 480 fuel channels in Unit 4, which will extend its working life to 2036, in line with the other 3 units of Bruce A.NEWS,weblink TransCanada Announces Expanded Unit 4 Refurbishment on Bruce A Restart Project, 29 August 2007, 2008-04-18, Marketwire, Calgary, Alberta, {{dead link|date=May 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} In 2008, due to difficulties developing the necessary robotics, the estimated cost of restarting Units 1 and 2 rose between $400 and $700 million.NEWS,weblink Reactor repairs confirmed over budget, 18 April 2008, 2008-04-18, The Toronto Star, Tyler Hamilton, As of 2008, the project remained on schedule.NEWS,weblink Bruce Power two-unit restart cost estimate rises to between $3.1 B and $3.4 B, 17 April 2008, 2008-04-18, The Canadian Press, Toronto, Ontario, {{dead link|date=May 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}NEWS,weblink TransCanada Provides Update on Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, 17 April 2008, 2008-04-18, Marketwire, Calgary, Alberta, {{dead link|date=May 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}In January 2010, up to 217 workers were potentially exposed to radiation during the refurbishment.WEB,weblink Bruce Power,, 8 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 8 January 2016, no, 27 workers may have received 5 mSv, a level well below the level that can affect human health. Only one lab in Canada (at Chalk River) was qualified to do the testing. Bruce Power had to seek permission to use alternative labs.WEB,weblink 21 March 2011, {{dead link|date=May 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}NEWS, Bruce Nuclear radiation incident shows safety gap,weblink 24 March 2011, CTV News, 18 February 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 27 July 2011, no, In 2010, a plan to ship decommissioned, low-level radioactive steam generators to Sweden via the Great Lakes caused controversy.NEWS,weblink Toronto, The Star, Brett, Popplewell, Critics slam proposal to ship nuclear waste through Lake Ontario, 11 July 2010, 25 August 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 23 October 2012, no, The CNSC approved the plan in February 2011.WEB, Bruce Power granted licence to transport steam generators,weblink 26 March 2011, 4 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 13 November 2006, dmy-all, As of January 2011, fuel channel installation in Unit 2 was complete.WEB,weblink Bruce Power – Bruce A Unit 2 Completes Installation of 480 New Fuel Channels - Nuclear Power Industry News - Nuclear Power Industry News - Nuclear Street - Nuclear Power Portal, Nuclear Street, 26 January 2011, 22 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 20 July 2011, no, The CNSC gave the operator the green light to restart Unit 2 on 16 March 2012.NEWS, Bruce Power gets nod to restart Ontario reactor, Reuters, Edmonton Journal, Edmonton,weblinkweblink yes, 21 March 2019, 16 March 2012, 19 March 2012, However, the reactor was shut down the next day after a leak was discovered in the moderator system.NEWS, Leak discovered at nuclear plant, QMI Agency, London Free Press, London, Ontario,weblink 19 March 2012, 19 March 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 8 January 2016, no, In 2011, refurbishment of Unit 1 and 2, scheduled to be complete 2009, was predicted for 2012. In 2011, the cost had totaled $3.8 billion; the final cost was expected to be $4.8 billion. The original 2005 estimate was $2.75 billion.WEB,weblink 21 March 2011, {{dead link|date=May 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}In September 2012, Unit 1 began generating power again.NEWS,weblink Bruce 1 generates power for the first time in 15 years, Nuclear Engineering International, 24 September 2012, 8 October 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 30 January 2013, dmy-all, On 16 October 2012, Unit 2 was connected to the provincial electricity grid for the first time in 17 years.Bruce Power unit sends power to Ontario grid for 1st time in 17 years {{Webarchive|url= |date=8 January 2016 }} The Canadian Press, October 17, 2012In 2013, final costs were estimated at $4.8 billion, up from an original estimate of $2.75 billion, and the project ran "far behind" schedule.WEB,weblink Darlington nuclear refit will have two outside overseers, Toronto Star, Jan 20, 2013, March 24, 2013, Spears John,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, no,

Refurbishment of Units 3–8, 2016–present

In October 2013, under the Ontario Long Term Energy Plan (LTEP) 2013, Ontario announced plans to refurbish six reactors at the Bruce plant beginning with Bruce A4 in 2016. Other units would follow at intervals. Bruce Power estimated the cost at about $2 billion per unit, or $12 billion for six. The price of the power from these units was expected to be in the range of ~$60–$70 per MWh.WEB,weblink Achieving Balance: Ontario's Long-Term Energy Plan, Ontario Government, 27 July 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 25 March 2014, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Long-Term Energy Plan Brief October 2013, Bruce Power, 27 July 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 15 April 2015, no, In 2016, Bruce Power started a $13 billion refurbishment program for "major component replacement on Units 3–8 in 2020, starting in Unit 6".NEWS, Learment, Frances, 28 February 2017, Bright future for Saugeen Shores,weblink Shoreline Beacon, Southampton, Ontario, 8 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 9 March 2017, yes, dmy-all, According to Bruce Power, this multi-year plan "will generate between 1,500 and 2,500 jobs on site annually – and 18,000 across Ontario directly and indirectly – while injecting up to $4 billion annually into Ontario's economy".WEB,weblink Unit 1 sets new post-refurbishment long run record, 14 April 2016, Bruce Power, Bruce Power, 8 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 9 March 2017, no, Renew Canada rated the project as the biggest infrastructure upgrade in Canada for 2017.WEB,weblink Top 100 Canada's Biggest Infrastructure Projects, 2018-06-28,weblink 29 June 2018, no,

Waste storage

The Bruce station area is the site of OPG's Western Waste Management Facility (WWMF). The WWMF stores the low-level waste and intermediate level nuclear waste from operating its 20 nuclear reactors, including those leased to Bruce Power. As of 2009, there were 11 low level storage buildings.WEB,weblink Western Waste Management Facility,weblink" title="">weblink 12 June 2011, Ontario Power Generation, yes, dmy-all, The WWMF provides dry nuclear fuel storage for the Bruce reactors. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization was mandated in 2002 by the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act to submit a proposal for the long-term management, which was submitted to the Minister of Natural Resources in November 2005 and approved by the government in June 2007.Nuclear Waste Management. Types of Waste: Long-term management of used fuel {{Webarchive|url= |date=13 June 2017 }} Ontario Power Generation Inc., 2017, retrieved 30 May 2017 {{As of|May 2017}} it is seeking a separate site in Canada for a permanent repository for the used fuel from all of Canada's nuclear reactors.In 2013, OPG proposed to construct a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for long-term storage of low-and-intermediate level waste on lands adjacent to WWMF. The proposed DGR would be about 680 metres below surface.WEB,weblink Ontario Power Generation: Power Generation: Nuclear Waste Management,, n.d., 30 May 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2017, no,

Future development

New station (cancelled)

In 2007, the Ontario Power Authority had recommended in a plan submitted to the Ontario Energy Board, to build a new nuclear power station consisting of at least two reactors.NEWS,weblink Power plan calls for Ontario to spend $26.5B on nuclear plants, 29 August 2007, 2008-04-18, CBC News,weblink" title="">weblink 20 April 2008, no, The leading candidate was AECL's Advanced CANDU Reactor.NEWS,weblink Queen's Park prepares for 'power' play, 14 April 2008, 2008-04-18, David Olive, Toronto Star,weblink" title="">weblink 13 October 2012, no, Since 2008, environmental assessments have been underway both at Bruce and at Ontario Power Generation's Darlington Nuclear Generating Station.NEWS,weblink GE-Hitachi won't bid for reactor, 8 April 2008, 2008-04-18, Toronto Star, Tyler Hamilton, The government plans to pick a winning technology by the end of the year. It also will decide by that time whether the plant will be located in Clarington or Bruce County, and whether the plant's operator will be Ontario Power Generation or Bruce Power., In 2009, Bruce Power withdrew its application to the CNSC for the Bruce C plant.WEB, Withdrawal of Application... [Letter],weblink CNSC, 26 March 2011, Frank Saunders, 23 July 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 18 July 2011, no, WEB, steveheiser,weblink Bruce Power Will Focus On Additional Refurbishments At Bruce A And Bruce B, Nuclear Street, 24 July 2009, 22 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 20 July 2011, no,

Other features on site

(File:NPP Bruce A.jpg|thumb|Bruce A looking Southwest across Baie Du Dor)There are more than 56 kilometres of roads on site, and at least 25 major structures. The site has its own fire department, laundry and medical centre.

Douglas Point, 1960–1984

Encompassed by the Bruce site is the shut-down Douglas Point reactor, an earlier version of the CANDU design. Construction began in 1960; was operational in 1967; and was shut down in 1984. The present Bruce reactors each are roughly 4 times the capacity of the 200 MW Douglas Point unit.

Bruce Heavy Water Plant, 1973–1997

The Bruce Heavy Water Plant (BHWP) also occupied the site. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited contracted the Lummus Company of Canada Limited in 1969 to design and construct the first phase of the plant, while Ontario Hydro was responsible for commissioning and operating.BOOK, Abstract for "Separation of Hydrogen Isotopes", 68, 27–39, American Chemical Society, 10.1021/bk-1978-0068.ch002, Bruce Heavy Water Plant Performance, ACS Symposium Series, 1978, Davidson, G. D., 978-0-8412-0420-1, It was planned to consist of four sub-plants, A through D:
  • A was in production in 1973, shutdown in 1984, and demolished in 1993;
  • B was in production in 1979, partially shutdown in 1993, completely closed in 1997, and subsequently demolished;
  • C was cancelled, and never built;
  • D was 70% completed when cancelled, and subsequently demolished in 1995.
During its lifetime, BHWP produced 16,000 tonnes of reactor grade heavy water. Capacity of each sub-plant was planned to be 800 tonnes/annum. The plant size was approximately 960 m by 750 m. The heavy water was 99.75% pure.The production of a single pound of heavy water required 340,000 pounds of feed water.WEB, Heavy Water Production,weblink Federation of American Scientists, 27 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 5 April 2011, no,

Bruce Bulk Steam System, 1972–2006

Steam from Bruce A could be diverted to the Bruce Bulk Steam System (BBSS) to provide energy for the production of heavy water (750 MW thermal), to heat buildings within the development (15 MW th), or to provide energy (72 MW th) for the adjacent Bruce Energy Centre (BEC). The BEC supported industries such as greenhouses and plastic manufacturers. As one of the largest bulk steam systems in the world, this system could produce 5,350 MW of medium-pressure process steam, and had over 6 km of piping.WEB, Small and Medium Reactors: Development Status and Application Aspects,weblink IAEA, 27 March 2011, Jürgen Kupitz, March–April 2000, 38,weblink" title="">weblink 2 June 2015, no, {{rp|15–16}} It was demolished by the end of 2006. Because of the requirement to provide steam, the Bruce A turbines were undersized relative to the reactor power.{{dead link|date=May 2017}}WEB, Nuclear heat applications: World overview,weblink IAEA, 27 March 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 5 September 2012, dmy-all, WEB, Introduction to CANDU processes,weblink 27 March 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 23 July 2011, dmy-all, WEB, Bruce Energy Centre Discussion Paper, Municipality of Kincardine, Meridian Planning Consultants, June 2005,

Inverhuron Provincial Park, 1950–present

OPG owns the nearby 288 ha Inverhuron Provincial Park on Lake Huron, bordering Inverhuron, 14 km north-east of Kincardine, which is not part of the Bruce site proper, and leases it to the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. As a condition of the operating licence for Bruce Nuclear, OPG retained a 914 m radius exclusion zone in the northwest corner of the park. after operating over 25 years the park campground was phased out in 1976, because of safety concerns related to the heavy water production. When heavy water was no longer produced, the park campground was allowed to re-open in 2000 on the same spot.WEB, Inverhuron Draft Vegetation Management Plan,weblink Queen's Printer for Ontario, Ontario Ministry Natural Resources (OMNR), 4 April 2011, 2007, 42,weblink" title="">weblink 25 September 2012, no, {{rp|7}}


The heated water released back into Lake Huron by the plant prevents the surrounding shoreline from freezing over during winter and attracts an inordinate concentration of lake fish, which in turn attracts droves of bald eagles wintering in the area. Numbers peak around late February to early March and it is not uncommon for visitors to observe several dozen eagles in and around the general vicinity of the plant at any given time during these months.JENNIFER SCHLEICH Nuclear plant calls in hawks to scare off nesting gulls {{Webarchive|url= |date=1 August 2013 }} The Whig, April 6, 2011Rob Gowan Eagles create stir {{Webarchive|url= |date=18 January 2013 }}, Owen Sound Sun Times, 13 January 2013

Security and safety

(File:Bruce Nuclear Generating Station From Plane.jpg|thumb|Bruce Power as seen from a passenger aircraft)In 1977, three Greenpeace activists canoed into the site to demonstrate the lack of security.WEB,weblink John Bennett | Sierra Club Canada,, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 25 February 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Greenpeace History,, 9 October 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 15 April 2012, no, On 23 September 2001, a man whose boat capsized on Lake Huron near the Bruce complex squeezed through a gate, entered an office building and phoned for help—all undetected.NEWS, Nuke foes fight expansion of Canadian plant,weblink 4 April 2011, The Detroit News, 24 July 2002, Tony Manolatos,weblink" title="">weblink 25 July 2011, no, WEB, Ontario Hansard - 10-October2001,weblink 4 April 2011, 10 October 2001,weblink" title="">weblink 17 August 2011, no, Before the 2001 September 11 attacks, mandate of the security team was to delay attackers for 17 minutes, until local police could respond. Reliance was on passive measures such as fencing and locks.The "transformed" post-9/11 security team is described as being larger than the police force of the city of Kingston, i.e. equivalent to the force of a city of 100,000. Force members are permitted to carry firearms, and have powers of arrest. The force possesses armoured vehicles, water craft, and the plant is now triple-fenced.WEB,weblink Blue Line Forums • View topic - nuclear plant security,, 23 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 7 October 2011, no, In May 2008, the Bruce Nuclear Response Team (NRT) won the U.S. National SWAT Championship (USNSC), defeating 29 other teams from 4 countries, the first time a Canadian team won an international SWAT event. They won again in 2009, 2010, and 2011.WEB,weblink 98 The Beach News,, 23 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 24 July 2011, no, {{webarchive |url= |date=26 September 2011 }}WEB, US National SWAT Championship,weblink 24 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 26 November 2010, yes, dmy-all, WEB, US National SWAT Championship,weblink 7 November 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 7 November 2011, dmy-all, WEB, Nanticoke Nuclear Power Plant Project Environmental Assessment Fact Sheet 6: Security and Safety,weblink Bruce Power, 4 April 2011, November 2008, {{dead link|date=September 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}After 9/11, tours of the plant area were discontinued, although there is a visitor centre outside of the site.According to the Bruce County emergency plan, "The Municipality of Kincardine will coordinate the emergency response concerns of a nuclear emergency situation resulting from an accident at the Bruce Power Site in the Municipality of Kincardine".WEB, COUNTY OF BRUCE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN,weblink 24 March 2011, 1.2.3, 2004,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2010, yes, dmy-all, Kincardine is required to maintain a warning system within 3 km of the plant, and has a network of 10 warning stations equipped with sirens and strobes.WEB, Municipality of Kincardine Public Alerting System,weblink 25 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 19 August 2011, yes, dmy-all, A variety of radiation monitoring measures are in place. Milk samples from local farms are sampled weekly. Drinking water at treatment plants in Kincardine and Southampton is sampled twice daily, and tested weekly. Ground water is sampled from several surface water, shallow and deep well locations. Aquatic sediment and fish are analysed, as well as livestock feed, honey, eggs, fruits and vegetables.WEB, Annual Summary & Assessment of Environmental Radiological Data for 2009,weblink Bruce Power, 26 March 2011, 30 April 2010, {{dead link|date=September 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}

Reactor data

The Bruce Generating Station consist of 8 operational reactors. {| class="wikitable sortable mw-datatable"|+ List of units in the Bruce Generating Station! rowspan="2" |Phase! rowspan="2" |UnitNo.! colspan="2" |Reactor! rowspan="2" |Status! colspan="2" |Capacity in MWe! rowspan="2" |Construction start! rowspan="2" |First criticality! rowspan="2" |Commercial operation! rowspan="2" |Closure! Type ||Model ||Net ||Gross A 1 Pressurized heavy-water reactor >CANDU reactor>CANDU {{yesWEBSITE=WWW.IAEA.ORGARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180619062725/HTTPS://WWW.IAEA.ORG/PRIS/COUNTRYSTATISTICS/REACTORDETAILS.ASPX?CURRENT=53DEAD-URL=NO, 17 December 1976 {{dts2042}})Pressurized heavy-water reactor>PHWR CANDU reactor >Operational}} 760 830 1 December 1970PRIS - REACTOR DETAILS>URL=HTTPS://WWW.IAEA.ORG/PRIS/COUNTRYSTATISTICS/REACTORDETAILS.ASPX?CURRENT=54ACCESSDATE=29 JULY 2017ARCHIVE-DATE=19 JUNE 20181 September 1977}} ({{dts|2043}})Pressurized heavy-water reactor>PHWR CANDU reactor >Operational}} 750 830 July 1972 28 November 1977 {{dts2053}})Pressurized heavy-water reactor>PHWR CANDU reactor >Operational}} 750 830 September 1972 10 December 1978 {{dts2054}}) B 5 Pressurized heavy-water reactor >CANDU reactor>CANDU {{yes1 March 1985}} ({{dts|2052}})Pressurized heavy-water reactor>PHWR CANDU reactor >Operational}} 817 891 January 1978 {{dts2052}})Pressurized heavy-water reactor>PHWR CANDU reactor >Operational}} 817 872 May 1979 {{dts2052}})Pressurized heavy-water reactor>PHWR CANDU reactor >Operational}} 817 872 August 1979 {{dts2052}})

See also




External links

{{Nuclear power in Canada}}{{Electricity generation}}

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