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Bristol
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{{About|the British city}}{{short description|City and county in England}}{{featured article}}







factoids
| image_alt = Wills Memorial Building, Clifton Suspension Bridge and Cabot Tower (Bristol)>Cabot Tower| image_flag = | imagesize = 275| flag_size = | image_seal = | seal_size = | image_shield = | shield_size = | shield_alt = A coat of arms, with a shield showing a sailing ship and a castle with maned lions on either side, surmounted by the helmet from a suit of arms and two hands holding a snake and scales of justice. The motto at the bottom is "Virtute et Industria"| image_blank_emblem = | blank_emblem_type = | blank_emblem_alt = | blank_emblem_size = | map_alt = A map showing the location of the county of Bristol in England.| map_caption = Location of the county of Bristol in England| image_map1 = | mapsize1 = | map_caption1 = | image_dot_map = | pushpin_map = England#UK#Europe| pushpin_label_position = | pushpin_mapsize = | pushpin_relief = 1| pushpin_map_caption = Location within EnglandLocation within the United KingdomLocation in Europe51N35region:GB|display=inline}}| subdivision_type = Sovereign state| subdivision_name = United KingdomCountries of the United Kingdom>Country| subdivision_name1 = EnglandRegions of England>RegionSouth West England>South West| government_footnotes = | government_type = Unitary authority| leader_title = Governing{{nbsp}}body| leader_name = Bristol City Council| leader_title1 = Admin HQ {edih}Local government in England#Councillors and mayors>Leadership| leader_name2 = Mayor and CabinetMayor of Bristol>MayorMarvin Rees Labour Party (UK)>(Lab)List of MPs elected in the 2015 United Kingdom general election>MPsKerry McCarthy Labour Party (UK)>(Lab)Darren Jones (politician) Labour Party (UK)>(Lab)Karin Smyth Labour Party (UK)Thangam Debbonaire Labour Party (UK)>(Lab)Urban Chris Skidmore Conservative Party (UK) Jack Lopresti Conservative Party (UK)>(Con)| established_title = Royal Charter| established_date = 1155| established_title2 = County status| established_date2 = 1373| seat_type = StatusCity status in the United Kingdom>City, county and unitary authority| area_magnitude = 1 E8| unit_pref = | total_type = City and county| area_footnotes = | area_total_km2 = 110| area_land_km2 = | area_water_km2 = | area_total_sq_mi = | area_land_sq_mi = | area_water_sq_mi = | area_water_percent = | area_urban_km2 = | area_urban_sq_mi = | area_metro_km2 = | area_metro_sq_mi = | area_blank1_title = | area_blank1_km2 = | area_blank1_sq_mi = | population_as_of = 2017| population_footnotes = | population_note = List of English districts by population>10th district and List of ceremonial counties of EnglandRNK=Bristol}} ceremonial county)| population_density_km2 = 3892Larger Urban Zones>LUZ 2009)| population_demonym = Bristolian| population_density_metro_km2 = | population_urban = 724,000 | population_density_urban_km2 = | population_density_urban_sq_mi = | population_blank1_title = EthnicityWEB
,weblink
, 2011 Census: Ethnicgroup, local authorities in England and Wales
, Census 2011
, Office for National Statistics
, 12 December 2012
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116113227weblink">weblink
, 16 January 2013
,
  • 84.0% white (77.9% white British)
  • 6.0% black
  • 5.5% Asian
  • 3.6% mixed-race
  • 0.3% Arab
  • 0.6% other
}}| population_density_blank1_km2 = | population_density_blank1_sq_mi = GMT ((UTC±00:00>UTC))British Summer Time>BST| utc_offset_DST = +1| elevation_footnotes = WEB
,weblink
, Historical Weather for Bristol, England, United Kingdom
, Weatherbase
, Canty & Associates
, 15 October 2015
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304083544weblink">weblink
, 4 March 2016
, | elevation_m = 11| elevation_ft = 36Gross Value Added>GVA| blank_info_sec1 = 2012| blank1_name_sec1 = {{nbsp}}• TotalGBP>£11.7bn ($19.4bn) (8th)| blank2_name_sec1 = {{nbsp}}• Growth| blank2_info_sec1 = {{increase}} 1.6%| blank3_name_sec1 = {{nbsp}}• Per capitaList of UK cities by GVA>5th)| blank4_name_sec1 = {{nbsp}}• Growth| blank4_info_sec1 = {{increase}} 0.6%| postal_code_type = PostcodeBS postcode area>BS| area_codes = 0117, 01275| iso_code = GB-BST| blank1_info = WVehicle registration plates of the United Kingdom>Vehicle registration area codeONS coding system>ONS code| blank2_info = 00HB (ONS)E06000023 (GSS)Ordnance Survey National Grid>OS grid referenceST595726}}Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics>NUTS 3| blank4_info = UKK11| website = www.bristol.gov.uk| footnotes = }}Bristol ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-uk-Bristol.ogg|ˈ|b|r|ɪ|s|t|əl}}) is a city and countyWEB, The Lord-Lieutenant of the County & City of Bristol,weblink The Lord-Lieutenant of the County & City of Bristol, 8 June 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151022174137weblink">weblink 22 October 2015, in South West England with a population of 463,400weblink The wider district has the 10th-largest population in England.{{United Kingdom district population citation|England}} The urban area population of 724,000 is the 8th-largest in the UK. The city borders North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, with the cities of Bath and Gloucester to the south-east and north-east, respectively. South Wales lies across the Severn estuary.Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, and around the beginning of the 11th century, the settlement was known as Brycgstow (Old English "the place at the bridge"). Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was historically divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373 when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts. Bristol was surpassed by the rapid rise of Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool in the Industrial Revolution.Bristol was a starting place for early voyages of exploration to the New World. On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, became the first European since the Vikings to land on mainland North America. In 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America. At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, more than 2,000 slave ships carried an estimated 500,000 people from Africa to slavery in the Americas. The Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock.Bristol's modern economy is built on the creative media, electronics and aerospace industries, and the city-centre docks have been redeveloped as centres of heritage and culture. The city has the largest circulating community currency in the UK—the Bristol pound, which is pegged to the Pound sterling. The city has two universities, the University of Bristol and the University of the West of England, and a variety of artistic and sporting organisations and venues including the Royal West of England Academy, the Arnolfini, Spike Island, Ashton Gate and the Memorial Stadium. It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road and rail, and to the world by sea and air: road, by the M5 and M4 (which connect to the city centre by the Portway and M32); rail, via Bristol Temple Meads and Bristol Parkway mainline rail stations; and Bristol Airport.One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, Bristol was selected in 2009 as one of the world's top ten cities by international travel publishers Dorling Kindersley in their Eyewitness series of travel guides. The Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, and Bristol also won the EU's European Green Capital Award in 2015.

Etymology

The most ancient recorded name for Bristol is the archaic Welsh Caer Odor (the fort on the chasm), which is consistent with modern understanding that early Bristol developed between the River Frome and Avon Gorge.WEB, Early Bristol,weblink riveravontrail.org.uk, River Avon Interpretation Project, 21 October 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161022085114weblink">weblink 22 October 2016, It is most commonly stated that the Saxon name Bricstow was a simple calque of the existing Celtic name, with Bric (meaning a break) a literal translation of Odor, and the common Saxon suffix Stow replacing Caer.WEB,weblink A Vision of Britain Through Time, Descriptive Gazetteer Entry for Bristol, University of Portsmouth, 21 October 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161022084925weblink">weblink 22 October 2016, . The modern Welsh name, taken from the English, is "Bryste". Alternative etymologies are supported by numerous orthographic variations in medieval documents, with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms.BOOK, Seyer, Samuel, Memoirs, Historical and Topographical of Bristol and its Neighborhood,weblink 1823, live,weblink 17 October 2015, Bristol, Printed for the author by J. M. Gutch, The Old English form Brycgstow is commonly used to derive the meaning place at the bridge.{{sfn|Little|1967|p=ix}} Utilizing another form, Brastuile, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived the name from the Celtic words bras (quick, rapid), or braos (a gap, chasm) and tuile (a stream). The poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to Brictric, a leading landholder in the area. It appears that the form Bricstow prevailed until 1204,WEB, Market Towns Of Gloucestershire, SDUK Penny Cyclopedia,weblink oldtowns.co.uk, 21 October 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161220071007weblink">weblink 20 December 2016, and the Bristolian 'L' (the tendency for the local dialect to add the sound "L" to many words ending in a neutral vowel) is what eventually changed the name to Bristol.BOOK, Brace, Keith, Portrait of Bristol, 1996, Robert Hale, London, 978-0-7091-5435-8,

History

File:Robert Ricart's map of Bristol.png|thumb|left|alt=Fifteenth-century pictorial map of Bristol, radiating from the town centre|Robert Ricart's map of Bristol, drawn when he became common clerk of the town in 1478. At the centre, it shows the High Cross.JOURNAL,weblink Ricart's View of Bristol, Jean Manco, Bristol Magazine, 2006, 15 October 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150914150549weblink">weblink 14 September 2015, ]]Archaeological finds, including flint tools believed to be between 300,000 and 126,000{{nbsp}}years old made with the Levallois technique, indicate the presence of Neanderthals in the Shirehampton and St Annes areas of Bristol during the Middle Palaeolithic.WEB, Bates, M.R., Wenban-Smith, F.F., Palaeolithic Research Framework for the Bristol Avon Basin,weblink Bristol City Council, 12 June 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130404082939weblink">weblink 4 April 2013, Iron Age hill forts near the city are at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down, on the side of the Avon Gorge, and on Kings Weston Hill near Henbury.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110520074522weblink">weblink 20 May 2011, Bristol in the Iron Age, 10 March 2007, Bristol City Council, A Roman settlement, Abona,WEB,weblink Abona â€“ Major Romano-British Settlement, 17 December 2008, Roman-Britain.org,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080203023441weblink">weblink 3 February 2008, existed at what is now Sea Mills (connected to Bath by a Roman road); another was at the present-day Inns Court. Isolated Roman villas and small forts and settlements were also scattered throughout the area.WEB, Bristol City Council,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110520075145weblink">weblink 20 May 2011, Bristol in the Roman Period, 10 March 2007,

Middle Ages

Bristol was founded by 1000; by about 1020, it was a trading centre with a mint producing silver pennies bearing its name.{{sfn|Lobel|Carus-Wilson|1975|pp=2–3}} By 1067 Brycgstow was a well-fortified burh, and that year the townsmen beat off a raiding party from Ireland led by three of Harold Godwinson's sons.{{sfn|Lobel|Carus-Wilson|1975|pp=2–3}} Under Norman rule, the town had one of the strongest castles in southern England.WEB, Bristol Past,weblink The Impregnable City, 7 October 2007, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080615133941weblink">weblink 15 June 2008, Bristol was the place of exile for Diarmait Mac Murchada, the Irish king of Leinster, after being overthrown. The Bristol merchants subsequently played a prominent role in funding Richard Strongbow de Clare and the Norman invasion of Ireland.NEWS, Irish Times,weblink Bristol merchants funded Anglo-Norman invasion, 7 October 2007, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160625165804weblink">weblink 25 June 2016, File:Bristol Harbour (St Stephen's Church, St Augustine the Less Church, Bristol Cathedral), BRO Picbox-7-PBA-22, 1250x1250.jpg|thumb|left|Black and white etching showing the towers of St Stephen's Church, St Augustine the Less Church and Bristol CathedralBristol CathedralThe port developed in the 11th century around the confluence of the Rivers Frome and Avon, adjacent to Bristol Bridge just outside the town walls.{{sfn|Brace|1976|pp=13–15}} By the 12th century Bristol was an important port, handling much of England's trade with Ireland, including slaves. There was also an important Jewish community in Bristol from the late 12th century through to the late 13th century when all Jews were expelled from England.WEB, The Jewish Community of Bristol,weblink The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot, The stone bridge built in 1247 was replaced by the current bridge during the 1760s.{{NHLE |num=1204252 |desc=Bristol Bridge |accessdate=27 August 2015}} The town incorporated neighbouring suburbs and became a county in 1373,{{sfn|Liddy|2005|p=13}} the first town in England to be given this status.WEB,weblink High Sheriff â€“ City of Bristol County History, Staff, High Sheriffs Association of England and Wales, 2011, 19 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110526160040weblink">weblink 26 May 2011, dmy-all, {{sfn|Rayfield|1985|pp=17–23}}BOOK, Myers, A. R., English Historical Documents 1327–1485, Douglas, David C., Routledge, London and New York, 2, IV, 560, 978-0-415-14369-1,weblink 1996, During this period, Bristol became a shipbuilding and manufacturing centre.{{sfn|Carus-Wilson|1933|pp=183–246}} By the 14th century Bristol, York and Norwich were England's largest medieval towns after London.WEB,weblink The Ranking of Provincial Towns in England 1066–1861, Delving into building history, Jean Manco, 13 January 2010, 25 July 2009, Manco, Jean, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091204184227weblink">weblink 4 December 2009, One-third to one-half of the population died in the Black Death of 1348–49,{{sfn|McCulloch|1839|pp=398–399}} which checked population growth, and its population remained between 10,000 and 12,000 for most of the 15th and 16th centuries.WEB, History in Bristol,weblink Discover Bristol, 5 May 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140505142934weblink">weblink 5 May 2014,

15th and 16th centuries

During the 15th century Bristol was the second most important port in the country, trading with Ireland,JOURNAL, Childs, Wendy R., Ireland's trade with England in the Later Middle Ages, Irish Economic and Social History, 1982, IX, 5–33, Iceland{{sfn|Carus-Wilson|1933|pp=155–182}} and Gascony.{{sfn|Carus-Wilson|1933|pp=183–246}} It was the starting point for many voyages, including Robert Sturmy's (1457–58) unsuccessful attempt to break the Italian monopoly of Eastern Mediterranean trade.{{sfn|Jenks|2006|p=1}} New exploration voyages were launched by Venetian John Cabot, who in 1497 made landfall in North America.{{sfn|Jones|Condon|2016}} A 1499 voyage, led by merchant William Weston of Bristol, was the first expedition commanded by an Englishman to North America.JOURNAL, Jones, Evan T., Henry VII and the Bristol expeditions to North America: the Condon documents, Historical Research, August 2010, 83, 221, 10.1111/j.1468-2281.2009.00519.x, 444–454, During the first decade of the 16th century Bristol's merchants undertook a series of exploration voyages to North America and even founded a commercial organisation, 'The Company Adventurers to the New Found Land', to assist their endeavours.{{sfn|Jones|Condon|2016|pp=57–70}} However, they seem to have lost interest in North America after 1509, having incurred great expenses and made little profit.During the 16th century, Bristol merchants concentrated on developing trade with Spain and its American colonies.{{sfn|Connell-Smith|1954|p=10}} This included the smuggling of prohibited goods, such as food and guns, to IberiaJOURNAL, Jones, Evan T., Illicit business: accounting for smuggling in mid-sixteenth-century Bristol, The Economic History Review, February 2001, 54, 1, 17–38, 10.1111/1468-0289.00182,weblink 1983/870, during the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604).JOURNAL, Croft, Pauline, Trading with the Enemy 1585–1604, The Historical Journal, June 1989, 32, 2, 281–302, 2639602, 10.1017/S0018246X00012152, Bristol's illicit trade grew enormously after 1558, becoming integral to its economy.{{sfn|Jones|2012}}(File:bristol.cathedral.west.front.arp.jpg|thumb|left|alt=A stone built Victorian Gothic building with two square towers and a central arched entrance underneath a circular ornate window. A Victorian street lamp stands in front of the building and on the right part of a leafless tree, with blue skies behind.|West front of Bristol Cathedral)The original Diocese of Bristol was founded in 1542,JOURNAL,weblink Bristol: Introduction, Horn, Joyce M, 1996, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1541–1857: Volume 8: Bristol, Gloucester, Oxford and Peterborough Dioceses, 3–6, 8 June 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304044250weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, when the former Abbey of St. Augustine (founded by Robert Fitzharding four hundred years earlier){{sfn|Bettey|1996|pp=1–5}} became Bristol Cathedral. Bristol also gained city status that year.BOOK, Appendix to the First Report of the Commissioners Appointed to inquire into the Municipal Corporations of England and Wales, 1835, 1158,weblink 1 March 2014, During the English Civil War in the 1640s the city was occupied by Royalists, who built the Royal Fort House on the site of an earlier Parliamentarian stronghold.WEB,weblink Royal Fort dig, University of Bristol, 21 April 2009, 21 July 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120328093546weblink">weblink 28 March 2012,

17th and 18th centuries

Growth of the city and trade came with the rise of England's American colonies in the 17th century. Bristol's location on the west side of Great Britain gave its ships an advantage in sailing to and from the New World, and the city's merchants made the most of it. The 18th century saw an expansion of England's role in the Atlantic trade in Africans taken for slavery to the Americas. Bristol and Liverpool became centres of the Triangular Trade. In the first side of the slavery triangle, manufactured goods were shipped to West Africa and exchanged for Africans; the enslaved captives were transported across the Atlantic to the Americas in the Middle Passage under brutal conditions.WEB
,weblink
, Triangular trade
, National Maritime Museum
, 22 March 2009
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110720111640weblink">weblink
, 20 July 2011
,
In the third side of the triangle, plantation goods such as sugar, tobacco, rum, rice, cotton and a few slaves (sold to the aristocracy as house servants) returned across the Atlantic. Some household slaves were baptised in the hope this would mean their freedom in England. The Somersett Case of 1772 clarified that slavery was illegal in England.
WEB
,weblink
, Black Lives in England : The Slave Trade and Abolition
, English Heritage
, 23 November 2015
, live
,weblink
, 24 November 2015
,
At the height of the Bristol slave trade from 1700 to 1807, more than 2,000 slave ships carried a conservatively estimated 500,000 people from Africa to slavery in the Americas.WEB, Marking The End Of The Slave Trade – Abolition 200 Events In Bristol,weblink Culture 24, 27 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150928194740weblink">weblink 28 September 2015, The Seven Stars public house,WEB,weblink Seven Stars, Slavery and Freedom!, 18 December 2008, Bristol Radical History Group, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130828025048weblink">weblink 28 August 2013, where abolitionist Thomas Clarkson collected information on the slave trade, is still operating.WEB, The history of the Seven Stars,weblink Seven Stars, 25 August 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150927110940weblink">weblink 27 September 2015,
(File:Bristol 1873.png|thumb|alt= An engraving showing at the top a sailing ship and paddle steamer in a harbour, with sheds and a church spire. On either side arched gateways, all above a scroll with the word "Bristol". Below a street scene showing pedestrians and a horse-drawn carriage outside a large ornate building with a colonnade and arched windows above. A grand staircase with two figures ascending and other figures on a balcony. A caption reading "Exterior, Colston Hall" and Staircase, Colston Hall". Below, two street scenes and a view of a large stone building with flying buttresses and a square tower, with the caption "Bristol cathedral". At the bottom views of a church interior, a cloister with a man mowing grass and archways with two men in conversation.|An 1873 engraving of sights around Bristol)Fishermen from Bristol, who had fished the Grand Banks of Newfoundland since the 16th century,NEWS
,weblink
, Rear Window: Newfoundland: Where fishes swim, men will fight
, The Independent
, 19 March 1995
, 27 January 2013
, Cathcart
, Brian
, London
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131219234612weblink">weblink
, 19 December 2013
,
began settling Newfoundland permanently in larger numbers during the 17th century, establishing colonies at Bristol's Hope and Cuper's Cove. Because of Bristol's nautical environment, maritime safety was an important issue in the city. During the 19th century, Samuel Plimsoll, known as "the sailor's friend," campaigned to make the seas safer; shocked by overloaded vessels, he successfully fought for a compulsory load line on ships.
WEB
,weblink
, Samuel Plimsoll â€“ the seaman's friend
, BBC â€“ Bristol â€“ History
, 16 March 2009
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110825071302weblink">weblink
, 25 August 2011
, In 1739 John Wesley founded the first Methodist chapel, the New Room, in Bristol.WEB, Wesley's New Room, Looking at Buildings from the Pevsner Architectural Guides,weblink 18 October 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927235114weblink">weblink 27 September 2007, dead, Wesley, along with his brother Charles Wesley and George Whitefield, preached to large congregations in Bristol and the neighbouring village of Kingswood, often in the open air.WEB, Hanham Mount,weblink Methodist Heritage, 22 November 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151123030104weblink">weblink 23 November 2015, JOURNAL, Reist, Irwin W., John Wesley and George Whitefield: A Study in the Integrity of Two Theologies of Grace, Evangelical Quarterly, 1975, 47, 1, 26–40,weblink live,weblink 27 October 2016,

19th century

The city was associated with Victorian engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who designed the Great Western Railway between Bristol and London Paddington, two pioneering Bristol-built oceangoing steamships ({{SS|Great Britain}} and {{SS|Great Western}}), and the Clifton Suspension Bridge. The new railway replaced the Kennet and Avon Canal, which had fully opened in 1810 as the main route for the transport of goods between Bristol and London.{{sfn| Clew |1970 |pp=79–80}} Competition from Liverpool (beginning around 1760), disruptions of maritime commerce due to war with France (1793) and the abolition of the slave trade (1807) contributed to Bristol's failure to keep pace with the newer manufacturing centres of Northern England and the West Midlands. The tidal Avon Gorge, which had secured the port during the Middle Ages, had become a liability. An 1804–09 plan to improve the city's port with a floating harbour designed by William Jessop was a costly error, requiring high harbour fees.{{sfn|Buchanan|Cossons|1969|pp=32–33}}By 1867, ships were getting larger and the meanders in the river Avon prevented boats over {{convert|300|ft|-1}} from reaching the harbour, resulting in falling trade.{{sfn|Coules|2006|pp=194–195}} The port facilities were migrating downstream to Avonmouth and new industrial complexes were founded there.{{sfn|Buchanan|Cossons|1969|pp=224–225}} Some of the traditional industries including copper and brass manufacture went into decline,JOURNAL, Day, Joan M., The Bristol brass industry: Furnace structures and their associated remains, Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, 1988, 22, 1, 24–,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151122225918weblink">weblink 22 November 2015, but the import and processing of tobacco flourished with the expansion of the W.D. & H.O. Wills business.WEB, Bristol's early nineteenth century staple industries.,weblink University of the West of England, 18 October 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141009201834weblink">weblink 9 October 2014, Supported by new industry and growing commerce, Bristol's population (66,000 in 1801), quintupled during the 19th century,WEB, Harvey, Charles, Press, Jon, Industrial Change in Bristol Since 1800. Introduction,weblink Bristol Historical Resource, University of the West of England, 29 March 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140504223425weblink">weblink 4 May 2014, resulting in the creation of new suburbs such as Clifton and Cotham. These provide architectural examples from the Georgian to the Regency style, with many fine terraces and villas facing the road, and at right angles to it. In the early 19th century, the romantic medieval gothic style appeared, partially as a reaction against the symmetry of Palladianism, and can be seen in buildings such as the Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery,{{NHLE|desc=City Museum and Art Gallery and attached front walls |num=1202478 |accessdate=10 March 2007 |fewer-links=yes }} the Royal West of England Academy,{{NHLE|desc=Royal West of England Academy |num=1282156 |accessdate=9 May 2006 |fewer-links=yes }} and The Victoria Rooms.{{NHLE|desc=Victoria Rooms and attached railings and gates |num=1202480 |accessdate=23 March 2007 |fewer-links=yes }} Riots broke out in 1793{{sfn|Hunt|1818}} and 1831; the first over the renewal of tolls on Bristol Bridge, and the second against the rejection of the second Reform Bill by the House of Lords.NEWS,weblink BBC â€“ Made in Bristol â€“ 1831 Riot facts, BBC News, 15 March 2009, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090422105101weblink">weblink 22 April 2009, The population by 1841 had reached 140,158.The National Cyclopaedia of Useful Knowledge, Vol III, (1847), London, Charles Knight, p.815The Diocese of Bristol had undergone several boundary changes by 1897 when it was "reconstituted" into the configuration which has lasted into the 21st century.{{London Gazette |issue=26871 |date=9 July 1897 |page=3787 |city=London }}

20th century

(File:Bristol map 1946.jpg|thumb|right|alt=An old ordnance survey map of Bristol, showing roads, railways, rivers and contours.|A 1946 map of Bristol)From a population of about 330,000 in 1901, Bristol grew steadily during the 20th century, peaking at 428,089 in 1971. Its Avonmouth docklands were enlarged during the early 1900s by the Royal Edward Dock.WEB, Royal Edward Dock, Avonmouth,weblink Engineering Timelines, 27 January 2013, dead,weblink 21 May 2013, Another new dock, the Royal Portbury Dock, opened across the river from Avonmouth during the 1970s.WEB,weblink Appendix H Cultural_Heritage, H–4, Wessex Archaeology, eon-uk, November 2008, 28 December 2015, live,weblink 6 January 2016, As air travel grew in the first half of the century, aircraft manufacturers built factories.WEB,weblink BAC 100: 2010–1910s, Staff, BAC 100, BCP, 2011, 15 October 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151122215434weblink">weblink 22 November 2015, The unsuccessful Bristol International Exhibition was held on Ashton Meadows in the Bower Ashton area in 1914.NEWS, International exhibition became known as a city,weblink 5 April 2016, Bristol Post, 9 July 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140201192130weblink">weblink 1 February 2014, After the premature closure of the exhibition the site was used, until 1919, as barracks for the Gloucestershire Regiment during World War I.WEB, Ashton Gate Drill Hall,weblink The Drill Hall Project, 5 April 2016, {{sfn|Burlton|2014|pp=60–90}}(File:St Mary le Port Church, Bristol, BRO Picbox-3-Blitz-4a, 1250x1250.jpg|thumb|left|St Mary le Port Church, destroyed on the 24th November 1940)Bristol was heavily damaged by Luftwaffe raids during World War II; about 1,300 people living or working in the city were killed and nearly 100,000 buildings were damaged, at least 3,000 beyond repair.WEB, Lambert, Tim, A brief history of Bristol,weblink Local Histories, 12 June 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110615130426weblink">weblink 15 June 2011, WEB, Penny, John, The Luftwaffe over Bristol,weblink Fishponds Local History Society, 12 June 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511144048weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, The original central shopping area, near the bridge and castle, is now a park containing two bombed churches and fragments of the castle. A third bomb-damaged church nearby, St Nicholas, has been restored and is a museum housing a 1756 William Hogarth triptych painted for the high altar of St Mary Redcliffe. The museum also has statues of King Edward I (moved from Arno's Court Triumphal Arch) and King Edward III (taken from Lawfords' Gate in the city walls when they were demolished about 1760), and 13th-century statues of Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (builder of Bristol Castle)BOOK, Venning, Timothy, Normans and Early Plantagenets, 2014, Pen and Sword, 978-1-4738-3457-6,weblink and Geoffrey de Montbray (who built the city's walls) from Bristol's Newgate.WEB, Four figures on Arno's Gateway, Public Monument and Sculpture Association, National Recording Project,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110716182625weblink">weblink 16 July 2011, 19 March 2007, (File:Ambrose Rd, Bristol.jpg|thumb|Ambrose Road, in the Cliftonwood neighbourhood)The rebuilding of Bristol city centre was characterised by 1960s and 1970s skyscrapers, mid-century modern architecture and road improvements. Beginning in the 1980s some main roads were closed, the Georgian-era Queen Square and Portland Square were restored, the Broadmead shopping area regenerated, and one of the city centre's tallest mid-century towers was demolished.NEWS,weblink Demolition of city tower begins, 10 March 2007, BBC News, 13 January 2006, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080309120823weblink">weblink 9 March 2008, Bristol's road infrastructure changed dramatically during the 1960s and 1970s with the development of the M4 and M5 motorways, which meet at the Almondsbury Interchange just north of the city and link Bristol with London (M4 eastbound), Swansea (M4 westbound across the Severn Estuary), Exeter (M5 southbound) and Birmingham (M5 northbound).WEB, Almondsbury Interchange,weblink SABRE, 25 August 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150906155206weblink">weblink 6 September 2015, Bristol was bombed twice by the IRA, in 1974 and again in 1978.NEWS, 'Irish Car Bomb' drink ad censored,weblink BBC News, 12 March 2014, The 20th-century relocation of the docks to Avonmouth Docks and Royal Portbury Dock, {{convert|7|mi|km|0}} downstream from the city centre, has allowed the redevelopment of the old dock area (the Floating Harbour).NEWS,weblink Bristol: seemingly unstoppable growth, 18 December 2007, The Guardian, 30 October 2007, Norwood, Graham, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131219164257weblink">weblink 19 December 2013, Although the docks' existence was once in jeopardy (since the area was seen as a derelict industrial site), the inaugural 1996 International Festival of the Sea held in and around the docks affirmed the area as a leisure asset of the city.JOURNAL, Atkinson, David, Laurier, David, A sanitised city? Social exclusion at Bristol's 1996 international festival of the sea, Geoforum, May 1998, 29, 2, 199–206, 10.1016/S0016-7185(98)00007-4,

Government

File:Bristol Council House - geograph.org.uk - 197619.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=A large brick building, built in a shallow curve, with a central porch. In front of that a pool and a water fountain. |City Hall, the seat of local government]]File:Bristol-St Mary Redcliffe-Docks.jpg|thumb|right|upright|alt=A tall church spire over a quayside with wooden sheds and boats covered with tarpaulins. In front of these on the water a twin masted sailing boat and a narrowboat|St Mary Redcliffe church and the Floating Harbour, Bristol]]Bristol City council consists of 70 councillors representing 35 wards,WEB, Councillors,weblink Council and Democracy, Bristol City Council, 3 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150906024645weblink">weblink 6 September 2015, with between one and three per ward serving four-year terms. Councillors are elected in thirds, with elections held in three years out of every four-year period. Thus, since wards do not have both councillors up for election at the same time, two-thirds of the wards participate in each election.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091117235955weblink">weblink 17 November 2009, Wards up for future elections, 22 July 2007, Bristol City Council, dead, Although the council was long dominated by the Labour Party, the Liberal Democrats have grown strong in the city and (as the largest party) took minority control of the council after the 2005 United Kingdom general election. In 2007, Labour and the Conservatives united to defeat the Liberal Democrat administration; Labour ruled the council as a minority administration, with Helen Holland as council leader.NEWS,weblink Council leader battle resolved, 27 May 2007, 31 May 2007, BBC News, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080309120820weblink">weblink 9 March 2008, In February 2009, the Labour group resigned and the Liberal Democrats re-entered office with a minority administration.NEWS,weblink Labour 'lost council confidence', BBC News Bristol, 25 February 2009, 25 February 2009, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090301180324weblink">weblink 1 March 2009, In the June 2009 council elections the Liberal Democrats gained four seats and, for the first time, overall control of the city council.NEWS,weblink Lib Dems take control of Bristol, BBC News, 5 June 2009, 5 June 2009, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090607083331weblink">weblink 7 June 2009, In 2010 they increased their representation to 38 seats, giving them a majority of 6.WEB,weblink Local Election Results 2010, Bristol, BBC, 8 September 2018, In 2011, they lost their majority; leading to a hung council. In the 2013 local elections, in which a third of the city's wards were up for election, Labour gained 7{{nbsp}}seats and the Green Party doubled their seats from 2{{nbsp}}to 4. The Liberal Democrats lost 10 seats.NEWS,weblink Vote 2013: Results for Bristol
, BBC, 3 May 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130608001945weblink">weblink 8 June 2013, 29 April 2013
,
These trends were continued into the next election in May 2014, in which Labour gained three seats to take their total to 31, the Green Party won two more seats, the Conservative party gained one seat, and UKIP won their first-ever seat on the council. The Liberal Democrats lost a further seven seats.NEWS,weblink Liberal Democrats lose out in Bristol elections, BBC, 24 May 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140525074833weblink">weblink 25 May 2014, 23 May 2014, On 3 May 2012, Bristol held a referendum on the question of a directly elected mayor replacing one elected by the council. There were 41,032 votes in favour of a directly elected mayor and 35,880 votes against, with a 24% turnout. An election for the new post was held on 15 November 2012, and Independent candidate George Ferguson became Mayor of Bristol.NEWS, Morris, Steven, Bristol mayoral election won by independent George Ferguson,weblink 5 May 2014, The Guardian, 16 November 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140505141901weblink">weblink 5 May 2014, The Lord Mayor of Bristol, not to be confused with the Mayor of Bristol, is a figurehead elected each May by the city council. Councillor Faruk Choudhury was selected by his fellow councillors for the position in 2013. At 38, he was the youngest person to serve as Lord Mayor of Bristol and the first Muslim elected to the office.WEB, Council elects Lord Mayor and approves the appointment of City Director,weblink Bristol City Council, 27 October 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130819015516weblink">weblink 19 August 2013, Bristol constituencies in the House of Commons also included parts of other local authority areas until the 2010 general election, when their boundaries were aligned with the county boundary. The city is divided into Bristol West, East, South and North West.WEB, Constituency Map,weblink Bristol City Council, 3 September 2015, dead,weblink 23 March 2015, At the 2017 general election, Labour won all four of the Bristol constituencies, gaining the Bristol North West seat, seven years after losing it to the Conservatives.NEWS, General election shocks in Bristol help pave the way for a hung parliament and a new prime minister,weblink 3 October 2017, Bristol Post, 9 June 2017, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170715074620weblink">weblink 15 July 2017, The city has a tradition of political activism. Edmund Burke, MP for the Bristol constituency for six years beginning in 1774, insisted that he was a Member of Parliament first and a representative of his constituents' interests second.WEB, Edmund Burke, Speech to the Electors of Bristol,weblink University of Chicago, 5 May 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140708002901weblink">weblink 8 July 2014, MAGAZINE, Wills, Garry, Edmund Burke Against Grover Norquist,weblink The New York Review of Books, 5 May 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140505182217weblink">weblink 5 May 2014, 14 July 2011, Women's-rights advocate Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence (1867–1954) was born in Bristol,JOURNAL, Harrison, Brian H., Lawrence, Emmeline Pethick-, Lady Pethick-Lawrence (1867–1954), suffragette,weblink Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 1, 5 May 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140505144340weblink">weblink 5 May 2014, 10.1093/ref:odnb/37846, 2004, and the left-winger Tony Benn served as MP for Bristol South East in 1950–1960 and again from 1963–83.WEB, Mr Tony Benn,weblink Hansard, 5 May 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140706060314weblink">weblink 6 July 2014, In 1963 the Bristol Bus Boycott, following the Bristol Omnibus Company's refusal to hire Black drivers and conductors, drove the passage of the UK's 1965 Race Relations Act.NEWS,weblink In praise of ... the Race Relations Acts, 12 May 2007, Alan Rusbridger, Alan Rusbridger, 10 November 2005, The Guardian, live, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130829194836weblink">weblink 29 August 2013, The 1980 St. Pauls riot protested against racism and police harassment and showed mounting dissatisfaction with the socioeconomic circumstances of the city's Afro-Caribbean residents. Local support of fair trade was recognised in 2005, when Bristol became a fairtrade zone.NEWS
,weblink
, From slave trade to fair trade, Bristol's new image
, The Guardian
, London
, 4 March 2005
, 14 March 2009
, Morris
, Steven
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130829022902weblink">weblink
, 29 August 2013
, Bristol is both a city and a county, since King Edward III granted it a county charter in 1373.{{sfn|Liddy|2005|p=13}} The county was expanded in 1835 to include suburbs such as Clifton, and it was named a county borough in 1889 when that designation was introduced.{{sfn|Rayfield|1985|pp=17–23}}

Former county of Avon

On 1 April 1974, Bristol became a local government district of the county of Avon.WEB,weblink Local Government Bill (Hansard, 16 November 1971), hansard.millbanksystems.com, 7 March 2009, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511175650weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, On 1 April 1996, Avon was abolished and Bristol became a unitary authority.WEB,weblink The Avon (Structural Change) Order 1995, www.opsi.gov.uk, 27 January 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121113203448weblink">weblink 13 November 2012, The former Avon area, called Greater Bristol by the Government Office of the South West (now abolished) and others,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120311210020weblink">weblink 11 March 2012, Greater Bristol Strategic Transport Study, Atkins, 2005, South West Regional Assembly, 27 January 2013, refers to the city and the three neighbouring local authorities{{nsmdns}}Bath and North East Somerset, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire previously in Avon.The North Fringe of Bristol, a developed area between the Bristol city boundary and the M4, M5 and M32 motorways (now in South Gloucestershire) was so named as part of a 1987 plan prepared by the Northavon District Council of Avon county.NEWS, Town and Country Planning Acts,weblink 29 March 2014, London Gazette, 24 July 1987,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131203001107weblink">weblink 3 December 2013,

West of England Combined Authority

The West of England Combined Authority was created on 9 February 2017.WEB, The West of England Combined Authority Order 2017,weblink www.legislation.gov.uk, en, 8 February 2017, Covering Bristol and the rest of the old Avon county with the exception of North Somerset, the new combined authority has responsibility for regional planning, roads, and local transport, and to a lesser extent, education and business investment. The authority's first mayor, Tim Bowles, was elected in May 2017.NEWS, Mayor of the West of England,weblink BBC News, 5 May 2017, One of the first actions of the new authority was the announcement of a new train station to be build at Portway.NEWS, Metro mayor announces new rail station,weblink BBC News, 28 June 2017,

Geography and environment

Boundaries

{{See also|Subdivisions of Bristol}}File:Clifton.bridge.arp.750pix.jpg|alt=Suspension bridge between two brick built towers, over a wooded gorge, showing mud and water at the bottom. In the distance are hills.|thumb|right|Brunel's Clifton Suspension BridgeClifton Suspension BridgeBristol's boundaries are defined in several ways, depending on whether they are those of the city, the developed area, or Greater Bristol. The narrowest definition of the city is the city council boundary, which includes a large section of the western Severn Estuary up to (but not including) the islands of Steep Holm and Flat Holm.WEB,weblink Area boundary for the Bristol unitary authority, NOMIS Labour market statistics, Office for National Statistics, 1 January 2009, The Office for National Statistics (ONS) has defined a Bristol Urban Area, which includes developed areas adjoining Bristol but outside the city-council boundary, such as Kingswood, Mangotsfield, Stoke Gifford, Winterbourne, Almondsbury, Easton in Gordano, Whitchurch village, Filton, Patchway and Bradley Stoke, but excludes undeveloped areas within that boundary.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110628203215weblink">weblink 28 June 2011, The UK's major urban areas, Graham, Pointer, Focus on People and Migration, Office for National Statistics, 2005, 21 June 2011, File:avon gorge and cave arp.jpg|alt=Rocky side to a gorge with a platform in front of a cave halfway up. To the right are a road and river. In the distance are a suspension bridge and buildings.|thumb|right|Avon Gorge and Clifton Suspension BridgeClifton Suspension Bridge

Geography

Bristol is part of a limestone area running from the Mendip Hills in the south to the Cotswolds in the northeast.WEB, Cotswolds AONB,weblink Cotswold AONB, 12 June 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510091538weblink">weblink 10 May 2011, The rivers Avon and Frome cut through the limestone to the underlying clay, creating Bristol's characteristically hilly landscape. The Avon flows from Bath in the east, through flood plains and areas which were marshes before the city's growth. To the west the Avon cuts through the limestone to form the Avon Gorge, aided by glacial meltwater after the last ice age.JOURNAL, Hawkins, Alfred Brian, 1973, The geology and slopes of the Bristol region, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 6, 3–4, 185–205, 10.1144/GSL.QJEG.1973.006.03.02, The gorge, which helped protect Bristol Harbour, has been quarried for stone to build the city, and its surrounding land has been protected from development as The Downs and Leigh Woods. The Avon estuary and the gorge are the county boundary with North Somerset, and the river flows into the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth. Another gorge, cut by the Hazel Brook (which flows into the River Trym), crosses the Blaise Castle estate in northern Bristol.Bristol is often described, by its inhabitants, as being built on seven hills. Given the local geography of Bristol this is easily the case. To name but a few, Red Lion Hill, Barton Hill, Lawrence Hill, St. Michaels Hill, Black Boy Hill, Constitution Hill, Staple Hill, Brandon Hill, Windmill Hill, Malborough Hill, Nine Tree Hill, Talbot, Brook Hill and Granby Hill.BOOK, Taylor, John, A Book about Bristol: Historical, Ecclesiastical, and Biographical, from Original Research, 1872, Houlston and Sons, 10,weblink en, Bristol is {{convert|106|mi|km}} west of London and {{convert|77|mi|km}} south-southwest of Birmingham and {{convert|26|mi|km}} east of the Welsh capital Cardiff.

Climate

The climate is oceanic (Köppen: Cfb), milder than most places in England and United Kingdom.WEB,weblink Bristol climate and weather, www.wordtravels.com, en-us, 13 November 2018, WEB,weblink Bristol, England Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase), Weatherbase, 13 November 2018, Located in southern England, Bristol is one of the warmest cities in the UK with a mean annual temperature of approximately {{convert|10.5|C|F}}.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130801122236weblink">weblink 1 August 2013, Average annual temperature, 12 May 2007, Meteorological Office, 2000, WEB, South West England: climate,weblink Metereological Office, 25 August 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060225164404weblink">weblink 25 February 2006, It is among the sunniest, with 1,541–1,885{{nbsp}}hours of sunshine per year.WEB,weblink Average annual sunshine, 12 May 2007, Meteorological Office, 2000, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140728193119weblink">weblink 28 July 2014, Although the city is partially sheltered by the Mendip Hills, it is exposed to the Severn Estuary and the Bristol Channel. Annual rainfall increases from north to south, with totals north of the Avon in the {{convert|600|-|900|mm|0|abbr=on}} range and {{convert|900|-|1200|mm|0|abbr=on}} south of the river.WEB, National Meteorological Library and Archive Fact sheet 7 â€” Climate of South West England,weblink Meteorological Office, 23 May 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140524004028weblink">weblink 24 May 2014, Rain is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, with autumn and winter the wetter seasons. The Atlantic Ocean influences Bristol's weather, keeping its average temperature above freezing throughout the year, but winter frosts are frequent and snow occasionally falls from early November to late April. Summers are warm and drier, with variable sunshine, rain and clouds, and spring weather is unsettled.WEB,weblink Average annual rainfall, 12 May 2007, Meteorological Office, 2000, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130719222449weblink">weblink 19 July 2013, The weather stations nearest Bristol for which long-term climate data are available are Long Ashton (about {{convert|5|mi|0}} south west of the city centre) and Bristol Weather Station, in the city centre. Data collection at these locations ended in 2002 and 2001, respectively, and Filton Airfield is currently the nearest weather station to the city.WEB, Meteorological Office,weblink Weather Station Location, 27 January 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121028194153weblink">weblink 28 October 2012, Temperatures at Long Ashton from 1959 to 2002 ranged from {{convert|33.5|C|F}} in July 1976WEB, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute,weblink 1976 temperature, 27 January 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130828083806weblink">weblink 28 August 2013, to {{convert|-14.4|C|F}} in January 1982.WEB, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute,weblink 1982 temperature, 27 January 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130828083918weblink">weblink 28 August 2013, Monthly high temperatures since 2002 at Filton exceeding those recorded at Long Ashton include {{convert|25.7|C|F}} in April 2003,WEB, TuTiempo,weblink Filton April temperature, 27 January 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130828023137weblink">weblink 28 August 2013, {{convert|34.5|C|F}} in July 2006WEB, TuTiempo,weblink Filton July temperature, 27 January 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130828024839weblink">weblink 28 August 2013, and {{convert|26.8|C|F}} in October 2011.WEB, TuTiempo,weblink Filton Oct temperature, 27 January 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130828023318weblink">weblink 28 August 2013, The lowest recent temperature at Filton was {{convert|-10.1|C|F}} in December 2010.WEB, TuTiempo,weblink Filton December temperature, 27 January 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130828030827weblink">weblink 28 August 2013, Although large cities in general experience an urban heat island effect, with warmer temperatures than their surrounding rural areas, this phenomenon is minimal in Bristol.JOURNAL, Hughes, Karen, The impact of urban areas on climate in the UK: a spatial and temporal analysis, with an emphasis on temperature and precipitation effects, Earth and Environment, 2006, 2, 54–83, {{Bristol weatherbox}}

Environment

Bristol was ranked as Britain's most sustainable city (based on its environmental performance, quality of life, future-proofing and approaches to climate change, recycling and biodiversity), topping environmental charity Forum for the Future's 2008 Sustainable Cities Index.WEB,weblink Bristol is Britain's greenest city, Staff writer, 9 November 2008, Evening Post, Bristol News and Media, 27 January 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131203011951weblink">weblink 3 December 2013, WEB,weblink Sustainable Cities Index 2008, 25 November 2008, Forum for the Future, 5 July 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090418005928weblink">weblink 18 April 2009, Local initiatives include Sustrans (creators of the National Cycle Network, founded as Cyclebag in 1977){{sfn|Cotton|Grimshaw|2002}} and Resourcesaver, a non-profit business established in 1988 by Avon Friends of the Earth.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110719211447weblink">weblink 19 July 2011, Resourcesaver: Home Page, Beehive, Bristol News and Media, 5 July 2009,
In 2014 The Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live.NEWS,weblink Best places to live in Britain, SundayTimes, 18 October 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117024337weblink">weblink 17 November 2015, The Sunday Times, 23 March 2014, Goss, Alexandra, The city received the 2015 European Green Capital Award, becoming the first UK city to receive this award.WEB,weblink 2015-Bristol, European Commission, 22 April 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140630013758weblink">weblink 30 June 2014,

Green belt

The city has green belt mainly along its southern fringes, taking in small areas within the Ashton Court Estate, South Bristol crematorium and cemetery, High Ridge common and Whitchurch, with a further area around Frenchay Farm. The belt extends outside the city boundaries into surrounding counties and districts, for several miles in places, to afford a protection from urban sprawl to surrounding villages and towns.

Demography{{anchor|Historical population records}}

{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; text-align:center;"|+ Bristol population data! scope="col" |Year !! scope="col" |Population !! scope="col" |Year !! scope="col" | Population 1377 9,518{{sfn1948| 323,698 1607 10,549{{sfn1900| 352,178 1700 20,000 1921 367,831 1801 68,944 1931 384,204 1811 83,922 1941 402,839 1821 99,151 1951 422,399 1831 120,789 1961 425,214 1841 144,803 1971 428,089 1851 159,945 1981 384,883 1861 194,229 1991 396,559 1871 228,513 2001 380,615 1881 262,797 2012 432,500MID-2012 POPULATION ESTIMATES >URL=HTTP://WWW.BRISTOL.GOV.UK/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/DOCUMENTS/COUNCIL_AND_DEMOCRACY/STATISTICS_AND_CENSUS_INFORMATION/BRIEFING%20NOTE%20-%202012%20POPULATION%20ESTIMATES.PDF ACCESSDATE=17 JUNE 2014 ARCHIVEDATE=24 JUNE 2014, dead, 1891 297,525 2017 459,300HTTPS://WWW.BRISTOL.GOV.UK/DOCUMENTS/20182/33904/POPULATION+OF+BRISTOL+JUNE+2018/53020277-05DE-A153-2052-AA080338BB57 >TITLE=THE POPULATION OF BRISTOL DATE=1 JULY 2018 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180724213709/HTTPS://WWW.BRISTOL.GOV.UK/DOCUMENTS/20182/33904/POPULATION+OF+BRISTOL+JUNE+2018/53020277-05DE-A153-2052-AA080338BB57 URL-STATUS=DEAD, In 2014, the Office for National Statistics estimated the Bristol unitary authority's population at 442,474,WEB, The population of Bristol,weblink Bristol City Council, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141219072057weblink">weblink 19 December 2014, Retrieved 27 September 2015WEB, Population Estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, Mid-2014,weblink Office for National Statistics, 27 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924124600weblink">weblink 24 September 2015, making it the 43rd-largest ceremonial county in England. The ONS, using Census 2001 data, estimated the city's population at 441,556.WEB,weblink Usual resident population, 5 August 2004, 12 May 2007, Office for National Statistics, Census 2001,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070421211031weblink">weblink 21 April 2007, dead, According to the 2011 census, 84% of the population was White (77.9% White British, 0.9% White Irish, 0.1% Gypsy or Irish Travellers and 5.1% Other White); 3.6% mixed-race (1.7% white-and-black Caribbean, 0.4% white-and-black African, 0.8% white and Asian and 0.7% other mixed); 5.5% Asian (1.6% Pakistani, 1.5% Indian, 0.9% Chinese, 0.5% Bangladeshi, and 1% other Asian); 6% Black (2.8% African, 1.6% Caribbean, 1.6% Other Black), 0.3% Arab and 0.6% with other heritage. Bristol is unusual among major British towns and cities in its larger black than Asian population.WEB,weblink 2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales, Office for National Statistics, 12 December 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160224143452weblink">weblink 24 February 2016, These statistics apply to the Bristol Unitary Authority area, excluding areas of the urban area (2006 estimated population 587,400) in South Gloucestershire, Bath and North East Somerset (BANES) and North Somerset—such as Kingswood, Mangotsfield, Filton and Warmley.WEB,weblink Bristol England through time â€“ Population Statistics â€“ Total Population, Great Britain Historical GIS Project, University of Portsmouth, 21 June 2009weblink>archivedate=10 May 2011,
56.2% of the 209,995 Bristol residents who are employed commute to work using either a car, van, motorbike or taxi, 2.2% commute by rail and 9.8% by bus, while 19.6% walk.WEB, Method of Travel to Work,weblink UK Census Data, UKCensusdata.com#sthash.umJUM2up.dpuf, 9 April 2017,

Bristol conurbation

The population of Bristol's contiguous urban area was put at 551,066 by the ONS based on Census 2001 data.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110628203215weblink">weblink 28 June 2011, The UKs major urban areas, 12 May 2007, Office for National Statistics, Census 2001, In 2006 the ONS estimated Bristol's urban-area population at 587,400,WEB, The Population of Bristol,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100918070115weblink">weblink 18 September 2010, 5, PDF, Bristol City Council, 12 June 2011, making it England's sixth-most populous city and tenth-most populous urban area.At {{convert|3599|PD/km²|0}} it has the seventh-highest population density of any English district.WEB,weblink ONS 2005 Mid-Year Estimates, 10 October 2006, 12 May 2007, Office for National Statistics, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070302063319weblink">weblink 2 March 2007, According to data from 2015, the urban area has the 8th-largest population in the UK with a daytime population of 724,000.WEB,weblink Centre For Cities: Outlook Data Tool, Centre For Cities, 27 October 2017, In 2007 the European Spatial Planning Observation Network (ESPON) defined Bristol's functional urban area as including Weston-super-Mare, Bath and Clevedon with a total population of 1.04 million, the twelfth largest of the UK.European Spatial Planning Observation Network, Study on Urban Functions (Project 1.4.3) {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150924002318weblink |date=24 September 2015 }} , Final Report, Chapter 3, (ESPON, 2007){{clear}}

Economy and industry

File:BristolTheNails.jpg|thumb|right|upright|alt=Two ornate metal pillars with large dishes on top in a paved street, with an eighteenth-century stone building behind, upon which can be seen the words "Tea Blenders Estabklishec 177-". People sitting at café-style tables outside. On the right are iron railings.|Two of the four Nails (bronze tables used for conducting business) in Corn StreetCorn StreetBristol has a long history of trade, originally exporting wool cloth and importing fish, wine, grain and dairy products;WEB,weblink Chapter 3: Murage, keyage and pavage, Henry Bush, Institute of Historical Research, 1828, Bristol Town Duties: A collection of original and interesting documents etc., 8 June 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150512160253weblink">weblink 12 May 2015, later imports were tobacco, tropical fruits and plantation goods. Major imports are motor vehicles, grain, timber, produce and petroleum products.WEB, UK Port Freight Statistics,weblink Department for Transport, 25 August 2015, PORT0210 , PORT0303, live,weblink 24 December 2013, Since the 13th century, the rivers have been modified for docks; during the 1240s, the Frome was diverted into a deep, man-made channel (known as Saint Augustine's Reach) which flowed into the River Avon.{{sfn|Poole|2013|pp=8–9}}{{sfn|Watson|1991|pp=81–82}}Ships occasionally departed Bristol for Iceland as early as 1420, and speculation exists that sailors (fishermen who landed on the Canadian coast to salt/ smoke their catch) from Bristol made landfall in the Americas before Christopher Columbus or John Cabot.{{sfn|Brace|1976|pp=13–15}} Beginning in the early 1480s, the Bristol Society of Merchant Venturers sponsored exploration of the North Atlantic in search of trading opportunities.{{sfn|Brace|1976|pp=13–15}} In 1552, Edward VI granted a royal charter to the Merchant Venturers to manage the port. Among explorers to depart from the port after Cabot were Martin Frobisher, Thomas James, after whom James Bay, on southern coast of Hudson Bay is named and Martin Pring, who discovered Cape Cod and the southern New England coast in 1603.WEB, Pring, Martin, 1580–1646,weblink American Journeys, 1 November 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121128023015weblink">weblink 28 November 2012, By 1670 the city had 6,000{{nbsp}}tons of shipping (of which half was imported tobacco), and by the late 17th and early 18th centuries shipping played a significant role in the slave trade.{{sfn|Brace|1976|pp=13–15}} During the 18th century, Bristol was Britain's second-busiest port;NEWS, Bristol harbour reaches 200 years,weblink BBC, 15 June 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140814134043weblink">weblink 14 August 2014, business was conducted in the trading area around The Exchange in Corn Street over bronze tables known as Nails. Although the Nails are cited as originating the phrase "cash on the nail" (immediate payment), the phrase was probably in use before their installation.{{sfn|Knowles|2006|p=723}}The city's economy also relies on the aerospace, defence, media, information technology, financial services and tourism industries.WEB, Bristol Local Economic Assessment March 2011,weblink Bristol City Council, 29 March 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121117004736weblink">weblink 17 November 2012, WEB,weblink Towns & Cities: VisitBritain Corporate Site, VisitBritain, 27 March 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120605203405weblink">weblink 5 June 2012, The Ministry of Defence (MoD)'s Procurement Executive, later known as the Defence Procurement Agency and Defence Equipment and Support, moved to its headquarters to Abbey Wood, Filton, in 1995. This organisation, with a staff of 12,000 to 13,000, procures and supports MoD equipment.WEB
,weblink
, History of the Ministry of Defence
, Ministry of Defence
, 27 January 2013
, live
,weblink
, 3 December 2013
, One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, Bristol was selected in 2009 as one of the world's top-ten cities by international travel publishers Dorling Kindersley in their Eyewitness guides for young adults.NEWS,weblink DK Eyewitness Travel top 10 cities of the world, Bristol Post, Mrath, 23 December 2008, 12 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131203004602weblink">weblink 3 December 2013, Bristol is one of the eight-largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group, and is ranked as a gamma world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, the fourth-highest-ranked English city.WEB,weblink The World According to GaWC 2012, 25 March 2014, Globalization and World Cities Research Network, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140320212149weblink">weblink 20 March 2014, In 2017 Bristol's gross domestic product was £88.448{{nbsp}}billion.WEB, Land Use Management for Sustainable European Cities (LUMASEC),weblink URBACT, European Union, 25 August 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150905215700weblink">weblink 5 September 2015, Its per capita GDP was £46,000 ($65,106, €57,794), which was some 65% above the national average, the third-highest of any English city (after London and Nottingham) and the sixth-highest of any city in the United Kingdom (behind London, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Belfast and Nottingham).WEB,weblink Sub-regional: Gross value added1 (GVA) at current basic price, xls, Office for National Statistics, 12 June 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511222553weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, According to the 2011 census, Bristol's unemployment rate (claiming Jobseeker's Allowance) was three per cent, compared with two per cent for South West England and the national average of four per cent.WEB
,weblink
, Lead Key Figures
, Office for National Statistics
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140729125608weblink">weblink
, 29 July 2014
, Although Bristol's economy no longer relies upon its port, which was moved to docks at Avonmouth during the 1870sWEB,weblink Gloucester, 1835–1985: Economic development to 1914, N.M. Herbert (editor), Institute of Historical Research, 1988, A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 4: The City of Gloucester, 8 June 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150623014802weblink">weblink 23 June 2015, and to the Royal Portbury Dock in 1977 as ship size increased, it is the largest importer of cars to the UK. Until 1991, the port was publicly owned; it is leased, with £330{{nbsp}}million invested and its annual tonnage increasing from 3.9{{nbsp}}million long tons (4{{nbsp}}million tonnes) to 11.8{{nbsp}}million (12{{nbsp}}million).WEB, Bristol (Avonmouth),weblink Ports and Harbours of the UK, 29 March 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140416184227weblink">weblink 16 April 2014, Tobacco importing and cigarette manufacturing have ceased, but the importation of wine and spirits continues.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120415204436weblink">weblink 15 April 2012, About Averys Wine Merchants, Averys of Bristol, 2011, 27 January 2013, The financial services sector employs 59,000 in the city,WEB, Professional Services,weblink Invest in Bristol, 29 March 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130424020151weblink">weblink 24 April 2013, and 50 micro-electronics and silicon design companies employ about 5,000. In 1983 Hewlett-Packard opened its national research laboratory in Bristol.WEB,weblink About the Region, Silicon Southwest, 27 January 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101123204151weblink">weblink 23 November 2010, WEB
,weblink
, HP Lab, Bristol, UK
, Hewlett Packard
, 22 March 2009
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090408145710weblink">weblink
, 8 April 2009
, In 2014 the city was ranked seventh in the "top 10 UK destinations" by TripAdvisor.WEB, Top 10 cities global travellers most want to visit,weblink ITV, 30 December 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160130005535weblink">weblink 30 January 2016, During the 20th century, Bristol's manufacturing activities expanded to include aircraft production at Filton by the Bristol Aeroplane Company and aircraft-engine manufacturing by Bristol Aero Engines (later Rolls-Royce) at Patchway. Bristol Aeroplane was known for their World War I Bristol Fighter{{sfn|Boyne|2002|p=105}} and World War II Blenheim and Beaufighter planes.{{sfn|Boyne|2002|p=105}} During the 1950s they were a major English manufacturer of civilian aircraft, known for the Freighter, Britannia and Brabazon. The company diversified into automobile manufacturing during the 1940s, producing hand-built, luxury Bristol Cars at their factory in Filton, and the Bristol Cars company was spun off in 1960.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061007123103weblink">weblink 7 October 2006, Bristol Owners Club, A brief history of the Bristol Marque, 29 August 2007, The city also gave its name to Bristol buses, which were manufactured in the city from 1908 to 1983: by Bristol Tramways until 1955, and from 1955 to 1983 by Bristol Commercial Vehicles.WEB, A brief history of Bristol Tramways and Carriage Co, Bristol Omnibus Co and Bristol Commercial Vehicles,weblink Bristol Vintage Bus Group, 25 August 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150906013704weblink">weblink 6 September 2015, File:Concorde on Bristol.jpg|thumb|left|alt=A view from below of an aeroplane in flight, with a slender fuselage and swept back wings.|Final ConcordeConcordeFilton played a key role in the Anglo-French Concorde supersonic airliner project during the 1960s. The British Concorde prototype made its maiden flight from Filton to RAF Fairford on 9 April 1969, five weeks after the French test flight.NEWS,weblink BBC On This Day: 2 March 1969: Concorde flies for the first time, Staff, BBC, London, 22 June 2011, 2 March 1969, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110903062944weblink">weblink 3 September 2011, In 2003 British Airways and Air France decided to discontinue Concorde flights, retiring the aircraft to locations (primarily museums) worldwide. On 26 November 2003 Concorde 216 made the final Concorde flight, returning to Bristol Filton Airport as the centrepiece of a proposed air museum which is planned to include the existing Bristol Aero collection (including a Bristol Britannia).WEB,weblink Concorde at Filton, Bristol Aero Collection, 8 June 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150718023502weblink">weblink 18 July 2015, The aerospace industry remains a major sector of the local economy.WEB,weblink Dr Doug Naysmith â€“ Bristol Northwest, 14 March 2008, ePolitix.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090603210702weblink">weblink 3 June 2009, Major aerospace companies in Bristol include BAE Systems, a merger of Marconi Electronic Systems and BAe (the latter a merger of BAC, Hawker Siddeley and Scottish Aviation). AirbusWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080822031810weblink">weblinktitle=Airbus in UK accessdate=20 March 2009 Cameron Balloons, who manufacture hot air balloons;HTTP://WWW.BBC.CO.UK/BRISTOL/CONTENT/ARTICLES/2008/07/14/FIESTA_HOW_DO_YOU_MAKE_A_BALLOON_FEATURE.SHTML PUBLISHER=BBC BRISTOL URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE=31 JANUARY 2009, each August the city hosts the Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, one of Europe's largest hot-air balloon festivals.NEWS
,weblink
, BBC â€“ Bristol â€“ Balloon Fiesta â€“ Balloon Fiesta: Don Cameron
, BBC News
, 5 February 2009
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090201102136weblink">weblink
, 1 February 2009
, In 2005 Bristol was named by the UK government one of England's six science cities.NEWS, What does 'Science City' mean?,weblink BBC, 25 August 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151006072621weblink">weblink 6 October 2015, WEB, Cities gather to plot scientific route to economic growth,weblink University of York, 25 August 2015, live,weblink 6 September 2015, A £500{{nbsp}}million shopping centre, Cabot Circus, opened in 2008 amidst predictions by developers and politicians that the city would become one of England's top ten retail destinations.NEWS
,weblink
, Bristol shopping centre Cabot Circus will lift city into top 10 say business leaders
, Bristol Post
, 12 June 2011
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131203004231weblink">weblink
, 3 December 2013
, The Bristol Temple Quarter Enterprise Zone, focused on creative, high-tech and low-carbon industries around Bristol Temple Meads railway station,NEWS,weblink An enterprising idea with a radically new approach, Bristol Post, 8 July 2013, 18 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402095845weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, was announced in 2011NEWS,weblink Aim to create 20,000 jobs by revitalising derelict land around Temple Meads, Bristol, Bristol Post, 8 June 2011, 18 August 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131203004234weblink">weblink 3 December 2013, and launched the following year. The {{convert|70|ha|adj=on}} Urban Enterprise Zone has streamlined planning procedures and reduced business rates. Rates generated by the zone are channelled to five other designated enterprise areas in the region:NEWS,weblink Land near Temple Meads named as Bristol enterprise zone, BBC, 7 June 2011, 18 March 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140331193401weblink">weblink 31 March 2014, Avonmouth, Bath, Bristol and Bath Science Park in Emersons Green, Filton, and Weston-super-Mare. Bristol is the only big city whose wealth per capita is higher than that of Britain as a whole. With a highly skilled workforce drawn from its universities, Bristol claims to have the largest cluster of computer chip designers and manufacturers outside Silicon Valley. The wider region has one of the biggest aerospace hubs in the UK, centred on Airbus, Rolls-Royce and GKN at Filton airfield.NEWS,weblink Bristol to become smart city laboratory, Financial Times, 30 October 2014, 1 December 2015, subscription, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160520160353weblink">weblink 20 May 2016, {{Clear}}{{Panorama
| image = File:Panorama of Bristol.jpg|alt = A panoramic view looking over a cityscape of office blocks, old buildings, church spires and a multi-story car park. In the distance are hills.
| fullwidth = 4370
| fullheight = 665
| caption = Panorama of Bristol in 2004
| height = 265
}}

Culture

Arts

(File:Coopers' Hall front.jpg|thumb|alt=An imposing eighteenth-century building with three entrance archways, large first-floor windows and an ornate peaked gable end above.|The Coopers Hall, entrance to the Bristol Old Vic Theatre Royal complex)File:Bristol pw from ms.jpg|thumb|alt=A long two-storey building with 4 cranes in front on the quayside. Two tugboats are moored at the quay.|Site of the former Bristol Industrial Museum, now the M ShedM ShedFile:Banksy-ps2.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=A painting on a building showing a naked man hanging by one hand from a window sill. A man in a suit looks out of the window, shading his eyes with his right hand, behind him stands a woman in her underwear.|Well Hung Lover, one of many BanksyBanksyBristol has a thriving current and historical arts scene. Some of the modern venues and modern digital production companies have merged with legacy production companies based in old buildings around the city. In 2008 the city was a finalist for the 2008 European Capital of Culture, although the title was awarded to Liverpool.WEB,weblinkweblink dead, 12 May 2010, Six Cities Make Short List For European Capital of Culture 2008, Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 12 June 2011, The city was designated "City of Film" by UNESCO in 2017 and has been a member of the Creative Cities Network since then.WEB,weblink 2017: Bristol announced as a UNESCO City of Film {{!, Bristol Vision Institute {{!}} University of Bristol|last=Bristol|first=University of|website=www.bristol.ac.uk|language=en-GB|access-date=3 October 2018}}The Bristol Old Vic, founded in 1946 as an offshoot of The Old Vic in London, occupies the 1766 Theatre Royal (607 seats) on King Street; the 150-seat New Vic (a studio-type theatre), and a foyer and bar in the adjacent Coopers' Hall (built in 1743). The Theatre Royal, a grade I listed building,{{NHLE |num=1209703 |desc=The Theatre Royal |accessdate=27 August 2015 |fewer-links=yes }}WEB
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120110140244weblink">weblink
, 10 January 2012
, Grade I Listed Buildings in Bristol
, Bristol City Council
, 27 January 2013
, dead
, is the oldest continuously operating theatre in England.NEWS
,weblink
, England special: In the footsteps of Bristol's slave traders
, The Independent on Sunday archived at Nexis
, Independent News and Media
, fee required
, 27 March 2005
, 21 July 2009
, Rowe
, Mark
, subscription
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110515185353weblink">weblink
, 15 May 2011
, The Bristol Old Vic Theatre School (which originated in King Street) is a separate company, and the Bristol Hippodrome is a 1,951-seat theatre for national touring productions. Other smaller theatres include the Tobacco Factory, QEH, the Redgrave Theatre at Clifton College and the Alma Tavern. Bristol's theatre scene features several companies as well as the Old Vic, including Show of Strength, Shakespeare at the Tobacco Factory and Travelling Light. Theatre Bristol is a partnership between the city council, Arts Council England and local residents to develop the city's theatre industry.WEB,weblink About Us, Theatre Bristol, 8 May 2008, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080517071121weblink">weblink 17 May 2008, Several organisations support Bristol theatre; the Residence (an artist-led community) provides office, social and rehearsal space for theatre and performance companies,WEB,weblink About, Residence, 28 March 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140317033730weblink">weblink 17 March 2014, 20 January 2013, and Equity has a branch in the city.WEB,weblink Bristol and West General Branch, Equity, 8 May 2008, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080505063932weblink">weblink 5 May 2008, The city has many venues for live music, its largest the 2,000-seat Colston Hall named after Edward Colston. Others include the Bristol Academy, The Fleece, The Croft, the Exchange, Fiddlers, the Victoria Rooms, Trinity Centre, St George's Bristol and several pubs, from the jazz-oriented The Old Duke to rock at the Fleece and indie bands at the Louisiana.NEWS
,weblink
, A student's guide to ... University of Bristol
, The Times
, UK
, 14 March 2009
, Reid
, Melanie
, 18 July 2007
, subscription
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100606070653weblink">weblink
, 6 June 2010
, WEB,weblink Bristol's music scene, PortCities Bristol, 4 January 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170105084648weblink">weblink 5 January 2017, In 2010 PRS for Music called Bristol the UK's most musical city, based on the number of its members born there relative to the city's population.NEWS,weblink Bristol is Britain's 'most musical city', 12 March 2010, BBC, 9 April 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100316060143weblink">weblink 16 March 2010, Since the late 1970s Bristol has been home to bands combining punk, funk, dub and political consciousness, and trip hop and Bristol Sound artists such as Tricky,WEB, {{Allmusic, artist, p132766, yes, |title=Tricky > Overview |publisher=All Music |accessdate=15 March 2009 |last=Erlewine |first=Stephen Thomas }} PortisheadWEB, {{Allmusic, artist, p45223, yes, |title=Portishead > Biography |publisher=All Music |accessdate=15 March 2009 |last=Erlewine |first=Stephen Thomas}} and Massive Attack;WEB, {{Allmusic, artist, p13625, yes, |title=Massive Attack > Biography |publisher=All Music |accessdate=15 March 2009 |last=Ankeny |first=Jason }} the list of bands from Bristol is extensive. The city is a stronghold of drum and bass, with artists such as Roni Size's Mercury Prize-winning Reprazent,WEB, {{Allmusic, artist, p199290, yes, |title=Roni Size > Biography |publisher=All Music |accessdate=15 March 2009 |last=Cooper |first=Sean }} as DJ Krust,WEB, {{Allmusic, artist, p199939, yes, |title=Krust > Overview |publisher=All Music |accessdate=15 March 2009 |last=Bush |first=John }} More RockersWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060322084125weblink">weblink 22 March 2006, More Rockers > Overviewaccessdate=15 March 2009 first=Greg, and TC (musician).HTTPS://WWW.BBC.CO.UK/MUSIC/ARTISTS/32A509D0-6C4C-43C9-B169-03B601367DBDWEBSITE=BBCURL=HTTP://WWW.METROACTIVE.COM/PAPERS/METRO/06.18.98/BRISTOL-9824.HTML ACCESSDATE=16 JUNE 2011 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110612165116/HTTP://WWW.METROACTIVE.COM/PAPERS/METRO/06.18.98/BRISTOL-9824.HTML, 12 June 2011, The Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery houses a collection encompassing natural history, archaeology, local glassware, Chinese ceramics and art. The M Shed museum opened in 2011 on the site of the former Bristol Industrial Museum.NEWS,weblink Bristol's £27 m M Shed museum opens, BBC News Bristol, 26 July 2013, 17 June 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110828193540weblink">weblink 28 August 2011, Both are operated by Bristol Museums, Galleries and Archives, which also runs three historic houses{{nsmdns}}the Tudor Red Lodge, the Georgian House and Blaise Castle House{{nsmdns}}and Bristol Archives.WEB,weblink Bristol City Council: Museums and galleries, Bristol City Council, 2013, 25 July 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130401183740weblink">weblink 1 April 2013, The 18th- and 19th-century portrait painter Thomas Lawrence, 19th-century architect Francis Greenway (designer of many of Sydney's first buildings) were born in the city. The graffiti artist Banksy is believed to be from Bristol, and many of his works are on display in the city.The Watershed Media Centre and Arnolfini gallery (both in dockside warehouses) exhibit contemporary art, photography and cinema, and the city's oldest gallery is at the Royal West of England Academy in Clifton.WEB,weblink A Short History of the RWA, Royal West of England Academy, 2009, 21 July 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110716064532weblink">weblink 16 July 2011, The nomadic Antlers Gallery opened in 2010, moving into empty spaces on Park Street, on Whiteladies Road and in the Purifier House on Bristol's Harbourside.NEWS, Antlers gallery takes over Purifier House on Bristol Harbourside,weblink 24 October 2015, Bristol Post, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117021457weblink">weblink 17 November 2015, Stop-motion animation films and commercials (produced by Aardman Animations) are made in Bristol.WEB,weblink Aardman Animations Biography, Screen Online, 7 March 2009, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081202150949weblink">weblink 2 December 2008, Bristol is home to the regional headquarters of BBC West and the BBC Natural History Unit.JOURNAL, Davies, Gail, 1998, Networks of nature: Stories of Natural History Film-Making from the BBC, UCL ePrints, 11–15,weblink 22 August 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150906093640weblink">weblink 6 September 2015, Locations in and around Bristol have featured in the BBC's natural-history programmes, including Animal Magic (filmed at Bristol Zoo).WEB, About Johnny,weblink BBC, 29 March 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160410230219weblink">weblink 10 April 2016, Bristol is the birthplace of 18th-century poets Robert SoutheyODNB, Southey, Robert (1774–1843),weblink Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 18 April 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160206005850weblink">weblink 6 February 2016, 10.1093/ref:odnb/26056, 2004, and Thomas Chatterton.WEB,weblink Chatterton â€“ Bristol's boy poet, BBC, 20 December 2008, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090108200617weblink">weblink 8 January 2009, Southey (born on Wine Street in 1774) and his friend, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, married the Fricker sisters from the city.JOURNAL, Webb, Samantha, 'Not so pleasant to the taste': Coleridge in Bristol during the mixed bread campaign of 1795, Romanticism, 2006, 12, 1, 5–14, 10.1353/rom.2006.0009, William Wordsworth spent time in Bristol,{{sfn|Newlyn|2001|p=7}} where Joseph Cottle published Lyrical Ballads in 1798. Actor Cary Grant was born in Bristol and comedians from the city include Justin Lee Collins,NEWS,weblink Justin Lee Collins: My Life in Media, The Independent, London, 7 March 2009, Sophie, Morris, 11 December 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150701203012weblink">weblink 1 July 2015, Lee Evans,WEB,weblink Lee Evans Biography (1964–), Film Reference, 7 March 2009, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090303073024weblink">weblink 3 March 2009, Lloyd Langford,NEWS,weblink Interview: Port Talbot funnyman Lloyd Langford, Mark Rees, 13 March 2013, South Wales Evening Post, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140819102831weblink">weblink 19 August 2014, WEB,weblink Welsh funnyman Rhod Gilbert goes on tour with flatmate, Abbie Wightwick, 2 October 2010, Wales online, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140819102932weblink">weblink 19 August 2014, Russell HowardNEWS,weblink Russell Howard: Russell who is not a brand, Dominic, Cavendish, The Daily Telegraph, 1 March 2008, TMG, London, 0307-1235, 49632006, 21 July 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120516015828weblink">weblink 16 May 2012, and writer-comedian Stephen Merchant.NEWS
,weblink
, Barbara Ellen meets the 6 ft 7in comedy giant Stephen Merchant
, The Guardian
, London
, 7 March 2009
, Ellen
, Barbara
, 5 November 2006
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131205040424weblink">weblink
, 5 December 2013
,

Architecture

File:Kings Weston House, Bristol. The Garden Front. Sir John Vanbrugh, 1712.jpg|thumb|alt=Large, square two-storey house at the end of a dirt path|Garden front of John Vanbrugh's Kings Weston HouseKings Weston HouseFile:llandoger.trow.overall.arp.jpg|thumb|right|alt=A seventeenth-century timber-framed building with three gables and a traditional inn sign showing a picture of a sailing barge. Some drinkers sit at benches outside on a cobbled street. Other old buildings are further down the street, and in the background part of a modern office building can be seen.|The Llandoger TrowLlandoger TrowBristol has 51 Grade I, 500 Grade II* and over 3,800 Grade II listed buildingsWEB,weblink Bristol City Council: Listed buildings register: Listed buildingsaccessdate=27 January 2013archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120106130440weblink 6 January 2012, in a variety of architectural styles, from medieval to modern. During the mid-19th century Bristol Byzantine, a style unique to the city, was developed, and several examples have survived. Buildings from most architectural periods of the United Kingdom can be seen in the city. Surviving elements of the fortifications and castle date to the medieval period,{{sfn|Burrough|1970|p=3}} and the Church of St James dates back to the 12th century.{{NHLE |num=1282067 |desc=Church of St James |accessdate=27 August 2015 |fewer-links=yes }}The oldest Grade I listed buildings in Bristol are religious. St James' Priory was founded in 1129 as a Benedictine priory by Earl Robert of Gloucester, the illegitimate son of Henry I.{{NHLE|desc=Church of St James |num=1282067 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} The second-oldest is Bristol Cathedral and its associated Great Gatehouse.{{NHLE|desc=The Great Gatehouse |num=1202132 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} Founded in 1140, the church became the seat of the bishop and cathedral of the new Diocese of Bristol in 1542. Most of the medieval stonework, particularly the Elder Lady Chapel, is made from limestone taken from quarries around Dundry and Felton with Bath stone being used in other areas.{{NHLE|desc=Cathedral Church of St Augustine, including Chapter House and cloisters |num=1202129 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} Amongst the other churches included in the list is the 12th-century St Mary Redcliffe which is the tallest building in Bristol. The church was described by Queen Elizabeth I as "the fairest, goodliest, and most famous parish church in England."{{sfn|Burrough|1970|pp=13–14}}Secular buildings include The Red Lodge, built in 1580 for John Yonge as a lodge for a larger house that once stood on the site of the present Colston Hall. It was subsequently added to in Georgian times and restored in the early 20th century.{{NHLE |num=1202417 |desc=Red Lodge |accessdate=27 August 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} St Bartholomew's Hospital is a 12th-century town house which was incorporated into a monastery hospital founded in 1240 by Sir John la Warr, 2nd Baron De La Warr ({{circa|1277–1347}}), and became Bristol Grammar School from 1532 to 1767, and then Queen Elizabeth's Hospital 1767–1847. The round piers predate the hospital, and may come from an aisled hall, the earliest remains of domestic architecture in the city, which was then adapted to form the hospital chapel.{{NHLE|desc=Nos.17, 18 AND 19 St Bartholomew's Hospital |num=1202066 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} Three 17th-century town houses which were attached to the hospital were incorporated into model workers' flats in 1865, and converted to offices in 1978. St Nicholas's Almshouses were built in 1652{{NHLE|desc=St Nicholas' Almshouses, Nos.1–10 |num=1209635 |accessdate=21 February 2007 |fewer-links=yes }} to provide care for the poor. Several public houses were also built in this period, including the Llandoger Trow{{NHLE|desc=Llandoger Trow |num=1202324 |accessdate=22 February 2007 |fewer-links=yes }} on King Street and the Hatchet Inn.{{NHLE|desc=No.1 The Palace Hotel |num=1219436 |accessdate=15 May 2007 |fewer-links=yes }}Manor houses include Goldney Hall, where the highly decorated Grotto dates from 1739.{{NHLE|desc=Grotto approximately 85 metres south of Goldney House |num=1202104 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} Commercial buildings such as the Exchange{{NHLE|desc=The Exchange |num=1298770 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} and Old Post Office{{NHLE|desc=No.48 Old Post Office |num=1187390 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} from the 1740s are also included in the list. Residential buildings include the Georgian Portland Square{{NHLE|desc=Nos.1–6 (Consecutive) and attached area railings |num=1202443 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} {{NHLE|desc=Nos.14–17 (Consecutive) and attached area railings |num=1282179 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} {{NHLE|desc=Nos.18–21 (Consecutive) and attached area railings |num=1208823 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} {{NHLE|desc=Nos.22–28 (Consecutive) and attached area railings |num=1202444 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} {{NHLE|desc=Nos.31–34 (Consecutive) and attached area railings |num=1208879 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} {{NHLE|desc=Nos.7–13 (Consecutive) and attached area railings |num=1208806 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} and the complex of small cottages around a green at Blaise Hamlet, which was built around 1811 for retired employees of Quaker banker and philanthropist John Scandrett Harford, who owned Blaise Castle House.{{NHLE|desc=Circular Cottage |num=1202262 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} {{NHLE|desc=Dial Cottage |num=1282246 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} {{NHLE|desc=Diamond Cottage |num=1282285 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} {{NHLE|desc=Double Cottage |num=1202260 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} {{NHLE|desc=Dutch Cottage |num=1207760 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} {{NHLE|desc=Oak Cottage |num=1207747 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} {{NHLE|desc=Rose Cottage |num=1202261 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} {{NHLE|desc=Sweetbriar Cottage |num=1282247 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} {{NHLE|desc=Vine Cottage |num=1202263 |accessdate=18 October 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} The 18th-century Kings Weston House, in northern Bristol, was designed by John Vanbrugh and is the only Vanbrugh building in any UK city outside London. Almshouses{{NHLE |num=1209635 |desc=St Nicholas' Almshouses |accessdate=27 August 2015 |fewer-links=yes }} and pubs from the same period{{NHLE |num=1202324 |desc=Llandoger Trow Public House |accessdate=27 August 2015 |fewer-links=yes}} intermingle with modern development. Several Georgian squares were designed for the middle class as prosperity increased during the 18th century.{{sfn|Foyle|2004|pp=19–21}} During World War II, the city centre was heavily bombed during the Bristol Blitz.WEB, Pictorial Record of Bristol's History,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070322080553weblink">weblink Bristol History, 29 March 2014, 22 March 2007,weblink The central shopping area near Wine Street and Castle Street was particularly hard-hit, and the Dutch House and St Peter's Hospital were destroyed. Nevertheless, in 1961 John Betjeman called Bristol "the most beautiful, interesting and distinguished city in England".{{sfn|Winstone|1985|p=124}}

Sport

Bristol is represented by professional teams in all the major national sports. Bristol City and Bristol Rovers are the city's main football clubs. Bristol Bears (rugby union) and Gloucestershire County Cricket Club are also based in the city.The two Football League clubs are Bristol City and Bristol Rovers{{nsmdns}}the former being the only club from the city to play in the precursor to the Premier League. Non-league clubs include Bristol Manor Farm, Hengrove Athletic, Brislington, Roman Glass St George and Bristol Telephones. Bristol City, formed in 1897, were Division One runners-up in 1907 and lost the FA Cup final in 1909. In the First Division in 1976, they then sank to the bottom professional tier before reforming after a 1982 bankruptcy. Bristol City were promoted to the second tier of English football in 2007, losing to Hull City in the playoff for promotion to the Premier League that season.NEWS, Bristol City 0–1 Hull,weblink BBC, 13 October 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080526223822weblink">weblink 26 May 2008, Bristol City Women are based at South Gloucestershire and Stroud College.WEB,weblink Bristol Academy Women Club History, Bristol Academy Women,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151122234818weblink">weblink 22 November 2015, live, 27 October 2015, File:Ashton Gate & Bridge.jpg|thumb|left|alt=In the foreground twentieth century housing can be seen amidst trees and on the right a tower block of flats. In the middle distance a complex of red coloured buildings can be seen and behind that a steep sided gorge with a suspension bridge spanning it. Eighteenth century terraces on the right side of the gorge, the slopes of which are heavily wooded and a tower can be seen in the distance on the skyline.|Ashton Gate Stadium, with the Clifton Suspension Bridge over the Avon GorgeAvon GorgeFile:Uplands StandBRFC.JPG|thumb|left|The Memorial Stadium, home of Bristol Rovers ]]Bristol Rovers, the oldest professional football team in the city, were formed in 1883 and promoted back into the football league in 2015. They were third-tier champions twice (Division Three South in 1952–53 and Division Three in 1989–90), Watney Cup Winners (1972) and runners-up for the Johnstone's Paint Trophy (2006–07) although have never played in England's top Division. The club has planning permission for a new 21,700-capacity all-seater stadium at the University of the West of England's Frenchay campus. Construction was due to begin in mid-2014, but in March 2015 the sale of the Memorial Stadium site (needed to finance the new stadium) was in jeopardy.WEB,weblink Potted History, Bristol Post, 20 March 2014, 21 March 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140320222736weblink">weblink 20 March 2014, NEWS, McCormick, Ken, Bristol Rovers board asks fans to keep any anti-Sainsbury's protests "lawful and peaceful", Bristol Post, 27 March 2015,weblink 18 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150418220405weblink">weblink 18 April 2015, Bristol Manor Farm are the highest-ranked non-league club within the city boundaries. They play their games at The Creek, Sea MillsNEWS,weblink Information, 16 April 2018, Manor Farm Online, 5 July 2018, en-US, in the north of Bristol. Formed in 1960, the club currently play in the Southern League Division One South having finished the 2016-17 Western League season as champions. They reached the quarter finals of the FA Vase in 2015-16.WEB,weblink Football Club History Database - Bristol Manor Farm, www.fchd.info, 5 July 2018, The city is also home to Bristol Bears,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080731171020weblink">weblink 31 July 2008, Bristol Rugby : History Page, Bristol Rugby, 16 March 2009,
formed in 1888 as Bristol Football Club by the merger of the Carlton club with rival Redland Park. Westbury Park declined the merger and folded, with many of its players joining what was then Bristol Rugby.WEB, 1888–1910,weblink Bristol Rugby, 27 September 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120319233428weblink">weblink 19 March 2012, Bristol Rugby has often competed at the highest level of the sport since its formation in 1888.WEB,weblink History, Bristol Rugby, 12 June 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110609204809weblink">weblink 9 June 2011, The club played at the Memorial Ground, which it shared with Bristol Rovers from 1996. Although Bristol Rugby owned the stadium when the football club arrived, a decline in the rugby club's fortunes led to a transfer of ownership to Bristol Rovers. In 2014 Bristol Rugby moved to their new home, Ashton Gate Stadium (home to Bristol Rovers' rivals Bristol City), for the 2014–15 season.WEB, Guide to Ashton Gate,weblink Bristol Rugby, 25 August 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140819131726weblink">weblink 19 August 2014, NEWS, Safe standing: Bristol Rugby back Bristol City's Ashton Gate plans,weblink BBC, 25 August 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140302123853weblink">weblink 2 March 2014, BBC Sport, 13 February 2014, They changed their name from Bristol Rugby to Bristol Bears to coincide with their return to Premiership Rugby in 2018–19.
Dating from 1901, the Bristol Combination and its 53 clubs promote rugby union in the city and help support Bristol Bears.WEB, Bristol Combination History,weblink Pitcheroo, 18 October 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160119215228weblink">weblink 19 January 2016, The most prominent of Bristol's smaller rugby clubs include Clifton Rugby, Dings Crusaders, and Cleve. Rugby league is represented in Bristol by the Bristol Sonics.WEB, About Us,weblink Bristol Sonics, 18 October 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151011144449weblink">weblink 11 October 2015, The first-class cricket club Gloucestershire County Cricket ClubWEB
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has its headquarters and plays the majority of its home games at the Bristol County Ground, the only major international sports venue in the south-west of England. It was formed by the family of W. G. Grace.WEB, About Us,weblink Gloucestershire Cricket, 5 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160307022330weblink">weblink 7 March 2016, The club is arguably Bristol's most successful, achieving a period of success between 1999 and 2006 when it won nine trophies and became the most formidable one-day outfit in England, including winning a "double double" in 1999 and 2000 (both the Benson and Hedges Cup and the C&G Trophy), and the Sunday League in 2000. Gloucestershire CCC also won the Royal London One-Day Cup in 2015.
The Bristol Flyers basketball team have competed in the British Basketball League, the UK's premier professional basketball league, since 2014.WEB, Bristol Flyers Awarded BBL Franchise for 2014,weblink Hoopsfix, 27 October 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160106055134weblink">weblink 6 January 2016, 18 June 2013, Bristol Aztecs play in Britain's premier American football competition, the BAFA National Leagues.WEB, Bristol Aztecs,weblink Britball Now, 27 October 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090107002432weblink">weblinkHistory/Britball%20Teams/BristolAztecs.html, 7 January 2009, In 2009 ice hockey returned to Bristol after a 17-year absence, with the Bristol Pitbulls playing at Bristol Ice Rink; after its closure, it shared a venue with Oxford City Stars.WEB, Rink-share arrangement with Bristol Pitbulls, http:oxfordcitystars.com/rink-share-arrangement-with-bristol-pitbulls/, Oxford City Stars, 27 October 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160106195416weblink">weblink 6 January 2016, Bristol sponsors an annual half marathon and hosted the 2001 IAAF World Half Marathon Championships.WEB, Bristol Half Marathon,weblink Run Bristol, 27 October 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150925201616weblink">weblink 25 September 2015, dmy-all, Athletic clubs in Bristol include Bristol and West AC, Bitton Road Runners and Westbury Harriers. Bristol has staged finishes and starts of the Tour of Britain cycle raceNEWS, Prideaux, Sophie, When will the Tour of Britain be in Bristol today?,weblink 27 October 2015, Bristol Post, 10 September 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140912043611weblink">weblink 12 September 2014, and facilities in the city were used as training camps for the 2012 London Olympics.WEB, About the Centre for Sport,weblink University of the West of England, 27 October 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151007215209weblink">weblink 7 October 2015, The Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, a major UK hot-air ballooning event, is held each summer at Ashton Court.WEB
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Media

Bristol is home to the regional headquarters of BBC West and the BBC Natural History Unit based at Broadcasting House, which produces television, radio and online content with a natural history or wildlife theme. These include nature documentaries, including The Blue Planet and Planet Earth. The city has a long association with David Attenborough's authored documentaries, including Life on Earth.WEB, BBC Natural History Unit,weblink BBC, 13 October 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101209075503weblink">weblink 9 December 2010, Bristol has two daily newspapers, the Western Daily Press and the Bristol Post, (both owned by Reach plc); and a Bristol edition of the free Metro newspaper (owned by DMGT).Aardman Animations is an Oscar-winning animation studio founded and still based in Bristol. They created famous characters such as Wallace and Gromit and Morph. Its films include Chicken Run (2000), Early Man (2018), shorts such as Creature Comforts and Adam and TV series like Shaun the Sheep and Angry Kid.The city has several radio stations, including BBC Radio Bristol. Bristol's television productions include Points West for BBC West, Endemol productions such as Deal or No Deal, The Crystal Maze, and ITV News West Country for ITV West Country. The hospital drama Casualty, formerly filmed in Bristol, moved to Cardiff in 2012.NEWS
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In October 2018, Channel 4 announced that Bristol would be home to one of its 'Creative Hubs', as part of their move to produce more content outside of London.WEB,weblink C4 confirms Leeds as National HQ, Bristol & Glasgow Creative Hubs - Channel 4 - Info - Press, www.channel4.com, en-us, 5 November 2018,
Publishers in the city have included 18th-century Bristolian Joseph Cottle, who helped introduce Romanticism by publishing the works of William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.{{sfn|Madden|1972|p=419}} During the 19th century, J.W. Arrowsmith published the Victorian comedies Three Men in a Boat (by Jerome K. Jerome) and The Diary of a Nobody by George and Weedon Grossmith.{{sfn|Jerome|1889}} The contemporary Redcliffe Press has published over 200 books covering all aspects of the city.WEB,weblink About Us, Redcliffe Press, 2012, 18 April 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120219144354weblink">weblink 19 February 2012, Bristol is home to YouTube video developers and stylists The Yogscast, with founders Simon Lane and Lewis Brindley moving their operations from Reading to Bristol in 2012.WEB, Company profile: Yogscast,weblink TechSpark, 12 March 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402110552weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, 11 June 2014,

Dialect

File:Cabot Tower (600px).jpg|thumb|upright|alt=An ornate brick tower surrounded by trees. The tower has balconies and is surmounted by a pitched roof with an ornate figure at the apex.|Cabot Tower, seen from the Brandon Hill park]]A dialect of English (West Country English), known as Bristolian, is spoken by longtime residents, who are known as Bristolians.WEB,weblink Famous Bristolians, Mintinit.com, 12 November 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120425091723weblink">weblink 25 April 2012, Bristol natives have a rhotic accent, in which the post-vocalic r in ’car’ and ’card’ is pronounced (unlike in Received Pronunciation). The unique feature of this accent is the ’Bristol (or terminal) l’, in which l is appended to words ending in a or o.{{sfn|Hughes|2012|pp=86–88}} Whether this is a broad l or a w is a subject of debate,WEB,weblink Calling All Bristolians, Staff, BBC, 14 August 2003, 19 June 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120120132253weblink">weblink 20 January 2012, with ’area& pronounced ’areal’ or ’areaw’. The ending of ’Bristol’ is another example of the Bristol l. Bristolians pronounce -a and -o at the end of a word as -aw (cinemaw). To non-natives, the pronunciation suggests an l after the vowel.JOURNAL, Gick, Bryan, A gesture-based account of intrusive consonants in English, Phonology, 1999, 16, 29–54,weblink 10.1017/s0952675799003693, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130412043850weblink">weblink 12 April 2013, WEB,weblink Trudgill, Peter, Dialect Contact, Dialectology and Sociolinguistics, University of Fribourg, 12 March 2015,weblink 2 April 2015, Until recently Bristolese was characterised by retention of the second-person singular, as in the doggerel "Cassn't see what bist looking at? Cassn't see as well as couldst, casst? And if couldst, 'ouldn't, 'ouldst?" The West Saxon bist is used for the English "art",{{sfn|Black|1996|p=172}} and children were admonished with "Thee and thou, the Welshman's cow". In Bristolian, as in French and German, the second-person singular was not used when speaking to a superior (except by the egalitarian Quakers). The pronoun "thee" is also used in the subject position ("What bist thee doing?"), and "I" or "he" in the object position ("Give he to I.").{{sfn|Strohmeyer|2009|p=13}} Linguist Stanley Ellis, who found that many dialect words in the Filton area were linked to aerospace work, described Bristolian as "a cranky, crazy, crab-apple tree of language and with the sharpest, juiciest flavour that I've heard for a long time".{{sfn|Elmes|2005|p=39}}

Religion

In the 2011 United Kingdom census, 46.8% of Bristol's population identified as Christian and 37.4% said they were not religious; the English averages were 59.4% and 24.7%, respectively. Islam is observed by 5.1% of the population, Buddhism by 0.6%, Hinduism by 0.6%, Sikhism by 0.5%, Judaism by 0.2% and other religions 0.7%; 8.1% did not identify with a religion.WEB,weblink 2011 Census: Religion, local authorities in England and Wales, 12 December 2012, United Kingdom Census 2011, Office for National Statistics, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130126035854weblink">weblink 26 January 2013, Bristol has several Christian churches; the most notable are the Anglican Bristol Cathedral and St Mary Redcliffe and the Roman Catholic Clifton Cathedral. Nonconformist chapels include Buckingham Baptist Chapel and John Wesley's New Room in Broadmead.WEB
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After St James' Presbyterian Church was bombed on 24 November 1940, it was never again used as a church;{{sfn|Duncan|Webb|1990|p=86}} although its bell tower remains, its nave was converted into offices.WEB, Marchant, Neil, The Presbyterian Churches of Bristol,weblink Church Crawler, 5 May 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130925000023weblink">weblink 25 September 2013, The city has eleven mosques,WEB, Mosques in Bristol,weblink All Mosques Together, 27 January 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130602192457weblink">weblink 2 June 2013, several Buddhist meditation centres,
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a Hindu temple,WEB, Bristol Hindu Temple,weblink Culture 24, 27 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150928171418weblink">weblink 28 September 2015, Reform and Orthodox-Jewish synagogues
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and four Sikh temples.WEB, Sikhism,weblink Bristol Multi Faith Forum, 23 May 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140524023158weblink">weblink 24 May 2014,
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Bars and nightlife

Bristol has been awarded Purple Flag statusWEB,weblink Our Values, www.atcm.org, 23 March 2017, dead,weblink 21 September 2015, on many of its districts which shows that it meets or surpasses the standards of excellence in managing the evening and night-time economy. DJ Mag's top 100 club list ranked Motion as the 19th-best club in the world in 2016.NEWS,weblink Top 100 Clubs 2016, DJMag.com, 23 March 2017, live,weblink 7 March 2017,   This is up 5 spots from 2015. Motion is host to some of the world's top DJs, and leading producers. Motion is a complex made up of different rooms, outdoor space and a terrace that looks over the river Avon.WEB,weblink Motion Bristol – West + Wales nightclub, Resident Advisor, 23 March 2017, live,weblink 7 January 2017,  In 2011 Motion was transformed from a skate park, into the rave spot it is today.NEWS,weblink Motion, Time Out Bristol, 23 March 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160427112948weblink">weblink 27 April 2016, In:Motion is an annual series which takes place each autumn and delivers 12 weeks of music and dancing. The club, on Avon Street, behind Temple Meads train station,WEB,weblink www.motionbristol.com, Motion Bristol, 23 March 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170112130613weblink">weblink 12 January 2017, does not limit itself to playing one genre of music. Party-goers can hear everything from disco, house, techno, grime, drum and bass or hip hop, depending on the night. Other clubs of note in the city include Lakota and Thekla.The Attic Bar is a venue located in Stokes Croft.NEWS,weblink Attic Bar, Time Out Bristol, 23 March 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160302113903weblink">weblink 2 March 2016,   Equipped with a sound system and stage which are used every weekend for gigs of every genre, the bar and the connected Full Moon Pub were rated by The Guardian, a British daily paper, as one of the top ten clubs in the UK.NEWS,weblink 10 of the best UK clubs - chosen by the experts, The Guardian, 3 October 2017, live,weblink 18 March 2017, 19 February 2015, Coldwell, Will, Located by Bristol's harbourside, The Apple is a cider bar located by Bristol's harbour side which opened in 2004, in a converted Dutch barge, offering a range of 40 different ciders.WEB,weblink The Apple, applecider.co.uk, 23 March 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161126180620weblink">weblink 26 November 2016,   In 2014, the Great British Pub Awards ranked The Apple as the best cider bar in the UK.WEB,weblink Home – The Great British Pub Awards, The Great British Pub Awards, 23 March 2017, live,weblink 14 April 2017, Bristol is also home to the pie chain Pieminster started in the Stokes Croft area of the city.

Education, science and technology

(File:Victoria Rooms (750px).jpg|thumb|alt= A Palladian style nineteenth century stone building with a large colonnaded porch. In front a large metal statue on a pedestal and fountains with decorations.|The Victoria Rooms, owned by the University of Bristol)Bristol has two major institutions of higher education: the University of Bristol, a redbrick chartered in 1909,WEB,weblink How the University is run, Staff, Bristol University, 2011, 20 June 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110706102039weblink">weblink 6 July 2011, and the University of the West of England, opened as Bristol Polytechnic in 1969, which became a university in 1992.WEB,weblink UWE history timeline, Staff, UWE Bristol, 2011, 20 June 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110717095746weblink">weblink 17 July 2011, The University of Law also has a campus in the city. Bristol has two further education institutions (City of Bristol College and South Gloucestershire and Stroud College) and two theological colleges: Trinity College, and Bristol Baptist College. The city has 129 infant, junior and primary schools,WEB,weblink List of primary schools in Bristol, 27 January 2013, Bristol City Council, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131203003349weblink">weblink 3 December 2013, 17 secondary schools,WEB,weblink List of secondary schools in Bristol, 27 January 2013, Bristol City Council, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150403103832weblink">weblink 3 April 2015, and three learning centres. After a section of north London, Bristol has England's second-highest number of independent school places.NEWS, Curtis, Polly, To have and have not,weblink The Guardian, London, 29 January 2008, 29 January 2008, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131204205114weblink">weblink 4 December 2013, Independent schools in the city include Clifton College, Clifton High School, Badminton School, Bristol Grammar School, Queen Elizabeth's Hospital (the only all-boys school) and the Redmaids' School (founded in 1634 by John Whitson, which claims to be England's oldest girls' school).WEB
,weblink
, A Brief History
, Redmaids' High School
, 27 September 2015
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150928141523weblink">weblink
, 28 September 2015
, File:university of bristol tower after cleaning arp.jpg|thumb|right|upright|alt=A tall stone nineteenth century with shields on the visible sides and a pepperpot upper storey. In front, traffic and pedestrians on a busy street. |The Wills Memorial Building on Park Street, part of the university]]In 2005 Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown named Bristol one of six English ‘science cities’,MAGAZINE, UK designates six 'Science Cities' to spearhead economic growth,weblink Times Higher Education, 18 April 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150418233333weblink">weblink 18 April 2015, 20 September 2005, and a £300{{nbsp}}million science park was planned at Emersons Green.NEWS,weblink City science park partner named, 6 May 2007, BBC News, 20 April 2006, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090111151003weblink">weblink 11 January 2009, Research is conducted at the two universities, the Bristol Royal Infirmary and Southmead Hospital, and science outreach is practiced at We The Curious, the Bristol Zoo, the Bristol Festival of Nature and the CREATE Centre.WEB, Create Centre,weblink Bristol City Council, 27 January 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120107143653weblink">weblink 7 January 2012, The city has produced a number of scientists, including 19th-century chemist Humphry DavyNEWS
,weblink
, Sir Humphry Davy (1778–1829)
, BBC News
, 7 March 2009
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090204211346weblink">weblink
, 4 February 2009
,
(who worked in Hotwells). Physicist Paul Dirac (from Bishopston) received the 1933 Nobel Prize for his contributions to quantum mechanics.
WEB
,weblink
, Dirac biography
, www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk
, 7 March 2009
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090314093417weblink">weblink
, 14 March 2009
,
Cecil Frank Powell was the Melvill Wills Professor of Physics at the University of Bristol when he received the 1950 Nobel Prize for, among other discoveries, his photographic method of studying nuclear processes. Colin Pillinger
WEB,weblink barnstormpr â€“ The website of Professor Colin Pillinger, CBE FRS, colinpillinger.com, 27 January 2013weblink>archivedate=18 February 2012,
was the planetary scientist behind the Beagle 2 project, and neuropsychologist Richard Gregory founded the Exploratory (a hands-on science centre which was the predecessor of At-Bristol/We The Curious).
WEB
,weblink
, Professor Richard Gregory on-line
, www.richardgregory.org
, 7 March 2009
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090305024554weblink">weblink
, 5 March 2009
, Initiatives such as the Flying Start Challenge encourage an interest in science and engineering in Bristol secondary-school pupils; links with aerospace companies impart technical information and advance student understanding of design.WEB
,weblink
, Flying Start Challenge
, www.flyingstartchallenge.co.uk
, 16 March 2009
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090205010234weblink">weblink
, 5 February 2009
, The Bloodhound SSC project to break the land speed record is based at the Bloodhound Technology Centre on the city's harbourside.NEWS
,weblink
, Bloodhound Diary
, BBC
, 30 March 2012
, 19 March 2012
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120322012139weblink">weblink
, 22 March 2012
,

Transport

Rail

{{Bristol railway map|collapse=yes}}Bristol has two principal railway stations. Bristol Temple Meads (near the city centre) has Great Western Railway services which include high-speed trains to London Paddington and local, regional and CrossCountry trains. Bristol Parkway, north of the city centre, has high-speed Great Western Railway services to Swansea, Cardiff Central and London Paddington and CrossCountry services to Birmingham and the North East. Limited service to London Waterloo via Clapham Junction from Bristol Temple Meads is operated by South Western Railway, and there are scheduled coach links to most major UK cities.WEB, West of England Joint Local Transport Plan 3 2O11 â€“ 2O26,weblink West of England Partnership, 29 March 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140416183307weblink">weblink 16 April 2014, File:Bristol Temple Meads station (6466232797).jpg|thumb|left|Bristol Temple Meads station ]]Bristol's principal surviving suburban railway is the Severn Beach Line to Avonmouth and Severn Beach. Although Portishead Railway's passenger service was a casualty of the Beeching cuts, freight service to the Royal Portbury Dock was restored from 2000 to 2002 with a Strategic Rail Authority rail-freight grant. The MetroWest scheme, formerly known as The Greater Bristol Metro, proposes to increase the city's rail capacityWEB,weblink Greater Bristol Metro, West of England Partnership, 20 September 2009, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110515034151weblink">weblink 15 May 2011, and is scheduled for completion by 2019.{{update inline|date=January 2019}}NEWS, Portishead railway station location consultation begins,weblink BBC, 18 April 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141226011553weblink">weblink 26 December 2014, BBC News, 15 June 2014, A further scheme to restore a further {{convert|3|mi|km|0}} of track on the line to Portishead (a dormitory town with one connecting road), is due to open in 2021.{{update inline|date=January 2019}}WEB,weblink Portishead to Bristol railway line work to be done 'in stages', 21 March 2017, A further commuter rail line from Bristol Temple Meads to Henbury is due to open in 2021.{{update inline|date=January 2019}}WEB,weblink MetroWest: Phase 2, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151025225117weblink">weblink 25 October 2015,

Roads

The M4 motorway connects the city on an east-west axis from London to West Wales, and the M5 is a north–south west axis from Birmingham to Exeter. The M49 motorway is a shortcut between the M5 in the south and the M4 Severn Crossing in the west, and the M32 is a spur from the M4 to the city centre. The Portway connects the M5 to the city centre, and was the most expensive road in Britain when opened in 1926.NEWS,weblink New Bristol Road, The Times, subscription, Times Digital Archive, 11, 3 July 1926, 10 August 2016, WEB,weblink Avonmouth Bridge (J18 to J19), The Motorway Archive, 10 August 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160922204554weblink">weblink 22 September 2016, As of 2019, Bristol is working on plans for a Clean Air Zone to reduce pollution, which could involve charging the most polluting vehcles to enter the city centre.NEWS,weblink Mayor 'stalling on city clean air plan', BBC News, 2019-01-22, WEB,weblink Bristol threatened with legal action over lack of NOx plan, Several road-construction plans, including re-routing and improving the South Bristol Ring Road, are supported by the city council.{{update inline|date=January 2019}}WEB,weblink Greater Bristol Strategic Transport Study Chapter 6, 5 May 2014, Atkins, 2005, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140505105431weblink">weblink 5 May 2014, File:Somerset north portbury dock.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Royal Portbury Dock.|Port of BristolPort of BristolPrivate car use is high in the city, leading to traffic congestion costing an estimated £350{{nbsp}}million per year.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101024204219weblink">weblink 24 October 2010, Joint Local Transport Plan, 2006, B&NES, Bristol City, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire councils, 22 July 2009, Bristol allows motorcycles to use most of the city's bus lanes and provides secure, free parking for them.WEB,weblink Bristol City Council, Motorcycles, 27 January 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130405161630weblink">weblink 5 April 2013,

Public transport

Public transport in the city consists primarily of a First West of England bus network. Other providers are Abus,WEB,weblink Abus, Abus, 29 August 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150828195601weblink">weblink 28 August 2015, Stagecoach West, Stagecoach South West and Wessex Bus.WEB,weblink Ulink, University of the West of England, 29 August 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140902094733weblink">weblink 2 September 2014, WEB,weblink Wessex, Wessex, 29 August 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150901052229weblink">weblink 1 September 2015, Bristol's bus service has been criticised as unreliable and expensive, and in 2005 FirstGroup was fined for delays and safety violations.NEWS, First Bus fined for late buses in Bristol and Somerset,weblink BBC, 18 April 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150925223445weblink">weblink 25 September 2015, BBC News, 21 January 2011, NEWS,weblink Bus firm must reduce city fleet, 6 May 2007, BBC News, 25 July 2005, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080309120817weblink">weblink 9 March 2008, Although the city council has included a light rail system in its local transport plan since 2000, it has not yet funded the project; Bristol was offered European Union funding for the system, but the Department for Transport did not provide the required additional funding.WEB,weblink Memorandum on Government Discrimination against Innovative Low-cost Light Rail in favour of Urban Diesel Buses, March 2006, 1 January 2009, Sustraco / H.M. Treasury,weblink 13 October 2008, The most recent light rail proposal was put forward as part of a consultation produced by the West of England Local Enterprise Partnership in November 2016, outlining potential light rail/tram routes from the city centre to Bristol Airport, the eastern and north west fringes of the city, and a route along the A4 road to Bath.WEB,weblink West of England Joint Transport Study – Transport Vision Summary Document, 16 November 2016, live,weblink 17 November 2016, In 2017, a further feasibility study will be undertaken into the possibility of an underground light rail system.WEB, TransportXtra,weblink Underground light rail studied for Bristol, 1 September 2017, A new bus rapid transit system (BRT) called MetroBus, is currently under construction across Bristol, as of 2018, to provide a faster and more reliable service than buses, improve transport infrastructure and reduce congestion. The MetroBus rapid transit scheme will run on both bus lanes and segregated guided busways on three routes; North Fringe to Hengrove (route m1), Ashton Vale to Bristol Temple Meads (route m2), and Emersons Green to The Centre (route m3).WEB, MetroBus,weblink Travelwest, 24 April 2018, MetroBus services started in 2018.NEWS,weblink All you need to know about Bristol's MetroBus, Travelwest, 28 September 2017, en-GB, dead,weblink 28 September 2017, Three park and ride sites serve Bristol.WEB,weblink Park and Ride, 29 March 2014, Travel West, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140328095146weblink">weblink 28 March 2014, The city centre has water transport operated by Bristol Ferry Boats, Bristol Packet Boat Trips and Number Seven Boat Trips, providing leisure and commuter service in the harbour.WEB,weblink Ferry Services, Bristol City Council, 22 August 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100703075904weblink">weblink 3 July 2010,

Cycling

Bristol was designated as England's first "cycling city" in 2008 and one of England's 12 "Cycling demonstration" areas.NEWS
,weblink
, Bristol named first cycling city
, BBC NEWS
, 19 June 2008
, 16 March 2009
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090619142521weblink">weblink
, 19 June 2009
,
It is home to Sustrans, the sustainable transport charity. The Bristol and Bath Railway Path links it to Bath, and was the first part of the National Cycle Network. The city also has urban cycle routes and links with National Cycle Network routes to The rest of the Country. Cycling trips increased by 21% from 2001 to 2005.

Air

File:Bristol airport overview.jpg|thumb|left|alt=An aerial view of an airport with one main runway, car parks on the left and right, and aircraft parked outside terminal buildings on the right. |Bristol AirportBristol AirportThe runway, terminal and other facilities at Bristol Airport (BRS), Lulsgate, have been upgraded since 2001. In 2018 it was ranked the ninth busiest airport in the United Kingdom, handling nearly 8.7 million passengers, an over 5% increase compared with 2017.WEB,weblink Airport data: Table 01: Size of UK airports, Civil Aviation Authority (United Kingdom), UK Civil Aviation Authority, December 2018, 22 February 2019,

Twin cities

File:castle.park.bristol.arp.jpg|thumb|alt=The walls and tower of an old ruined church set in a paved area and surrounded by a park. On the left is water with some pontoons moored and in the background office blocks, streets and church spires.|St Peter's ruined church in Castle Park, Bristol]]Bristol was among the first cities to adopt town twinning after World War II.BOOK, Langenohl, Andreas, Town Twinning, Transnational Connections, and Trans-local Citizenship Practices in Europe, 2015, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-1-137-02123-6, 18,weblink WEB, A history of town twinning,weblink MDRT, 30 December 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160122221951weblink">weblink 22 January 2016, Twin towns include:
  • Bordeaux, FranceWEB,weblink Bordeaux â€“ Rayonnement européen et mondial, 29 July 2013, Mairie de Bordeaux, French,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130207154903weblink">weblink 7 February 2013, WEB,weblink British towns twinned with French towns, 11 July 2013, Archant Community Media Ltd, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130705094933weblink">weblink 5 July 2013, (since 1947)
  • Hanover, GermanyWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110724012346weblink">weblink 24 July 2011, Hanover â€“ Twinn Towns, Region of Hannover, German, 17 July 2009, (since 1947; one of the first post-war twinnings of British and German cities)
  • Porto, Portugal (since 1984)WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120113054303weblink">weblink 13 January 2012, International Relations of the City of Porto, City of Porto, 8 June 2015,
  • Tbilisi, Georgia (since 1988)WEB,weblink Tbilisi Sister Cities, 5 August 2013, Tbilisi City Hall, Tbilisi Municipal Portal,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130724120155weblink">weblink 24 July 2013,
  • Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua (since 1989)WEB, UK twinning links with towns, communities, schools and universities in Nicaragua,weblink Nicaragua Solidarity Campaign, 5 May 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140505142942weblink">weblink 5 May 2014,
  • Beira, Mozambique (since 1990)JOURNAL, Sharp, David, Twinning, Cities, and Health: Opportunities Being Missed?, Journal of Urban Health, September 2008, 85, 5, 637–638, 10.1007/s11524-008-9293-8, 2527438, 18563572,
  • Guangzhou, China (since 2001)WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121024091437weblink">weblink Guangzhou Sister Cities via WaybackMachine.com, Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office, 24 October 2012, 21 July 2013, WEB,weblink Bristol City â€“ Town twinning, Bristol City Council, 27 January 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130122000358weblink">weblink 22 January 2013,
{{clear}}

See also

{{clear}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}{{notelist}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, Bettey, Joseph, St Augustine's Abbey, Bristol, Bristol Branch of the Historical Association, Bristol, 1996, 978-0-901388-72-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Black, James R., Microparametric Syntax and Dialect Variation, 1996, John Benjamins Publishing, 978-90-272-3643-2,weblink harv, live,weblink 5 January 2016,
  • BOOK, Boyne, Walter J, Walter J. Boyne, Air Warfare, ABC-Clio, 1 July 2002, 978-1-57607-345-2,weblink 15 March 2009, harv,
  • BOOK, Brace, Keith, Portrait of Bristol, 1976, Robert Hale, London, 978-0-7091-5435-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Buchanan, R A, Cossons, Neil, The Industrial Archaeology of the Bristol Region, David & Charles, Newton Abbot, 1969, 2, 978-0-7153-4394-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Burlton, Clive, Bristol's Lost City: Built to Inspire Transformed for War, 2014, Bristol Books, 978-1909446052, harv,
  • BOOK, Burrough, THB, Bristol, 1970, Studio Vista, London, 978-0-289-79804-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Eleanora Mary, Carus-Wilson, The overseas trade of Bristol, Eileen, Power, M.M., Postan, Studies in English Trade in the Fifteenth Century, Routledge & Kegan Paul,weblink London, 1933, 978-1-136-61971-7, harv,
  • BOOK, harv, Clew, Kenneth R., The Somersetshire Coal Canal and Railways, 1970, David & Charles, Newton Abbot, UK, 978-0-7153-4792-8,
  • BOOK, Connell-Smith, Gordon K., Forerunners of Drake: A Study of English Trade with Spain in the Early Tudor period, 1954, Published for the Royal Empire Society by Longmans, Green, 978-0-8371-8100-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Cotton, Mick, Grimshaw, John, The Official Guide to the National Cycle Network, 2002, Sustrans, Bristol, 978-1-901389-35-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Coules, Victoria, Lost Bristol, 2006, Birlinn Limited, 978-1-84158-533-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Webb, Edwin, Duncan, John, Blitz over Britain, 1990, Spellmount, 978-0-946771-89-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Elmes, Simon, Talking for Britain: A Journey Through the Nation's Dialects, 2005, Penguin Books, 978-0-14-051562-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Foyle, Andrew, Bristol (Pevsner Architectural Guides: City Guides), 2004, Yale University Press, 978-0-300-10442-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Hunt, Henry, Memoirs of Henry Hunt, Esq., Project Gutenberg, 1818, 3,weblink 27 September 2015, harv, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150928141854weblink">weblink 28 September 2015,
  • BOOK, Hughes, Arthur, English Accents and Dialects: An Introduction to Social and Regional Varieties of English in the British Isles, 2012, Routledge, 978-1-4441-2138-4,weblink harv, live,weblink 5 January 2016,
  • BOOK, S., Jenks, Robert Sturmy's Commercial Expedition to the Mediterranean (1457/8), Bristol Record Society Publications, 58, 2006, 978-0-901538-28-4,weblink harv, live,weblink 6 May 2016,
  • BOOK, Jerome, Jerome K., Three Men in a Boat (To Say Nothing of the Dog), J. W. Arrowsmith, 1889, 978-0-7653-4161-7, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Evan T., Jones,weblink Inside the Illicit Economy: Reconstructing the Smugglers' Trade of Sixteenth Century Bristol, Ashgate, 2012, harv, 978-1-4094-4019-2,
  • BOOK, Jones, Evan T., Condon, Margaret M., Cabot and Bristol's Age of Discovery: The Bristol Discovery Voyages 1480–1508, 2016, Cabot Project Publications, 978-0995619302, harv,
  • BOOK, Knowles, Elizabeth, The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, Oxford University Press, 2006, 978-0-19-860219-4, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Latimer, John, 1900, Annals of Bristol in the seventeenth century, Bristol, William George's Sons, 978-1-143-19839-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Liddy, Christian Drummond, War, Politics and Finance in Late Medieval English Towns: Bristol, York and the Crown, 1350–1400, 2005, Boydell & Brewer, 978-0-86193-274-0,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Little, Bryan, The City and County of Bristol, 1967, S. R. Publishers, Wakefield, 978-0-85409-512-4, harv,
  • BOOK, M. D., Lobel, Eleanora Mary, Carus-Wilson, Bristol, M. D. Lobel, The Atlas of Historic Towns, 2, London, 1975, 978-0-85967-185-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Madden, Lionel, Robert Southey: The Critical Heritage, 1972, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 978-0-7100-7375-4,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, McCulloch, John Ramsay, A Statistical Account of the British Empire, 1839, Charles Knight and Co, London, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Coleridge, Wordsworth and the Language of Allusion, Lucy, Newlyn, 978-0-19-924259-7, 2001, Oxford University Press, harv,
  • BOOK, Poole, Steve, A City Built Upon the Water: Maritime Bristol 1750–1900, 2013, Redcliffe Press, 978-1-908326-10-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Rayfield, Jack, Somerset & Avon, 1985, Cadogan, London, 978-0-947754-09-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Russell, Joshiah Cox, 1948, British Medieval Population, Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press, harv,
  • BOOK, Strohmeyer, Jens, English in the Southwest of England, 2009, BoD â€“ Books on Demand, 978-3-640-32022-6,weblink harv, live,weblink 5 January 2016,
  • BOOK, Watson, Sally, Secret Underground Bristol, 1991, The Bristol Junior Chamber, Bristol, 978-0-907145-01-1, harv,
  • BOOK, J.A., Williamson, The Cabot Voyages and Bristol Discovery Under Henry VII, Hakluyt Society, Second Series, No. 120, CUP, 1962, harv,
  • BOOK, Bristol's Suburbs Long Ago, Reece, Winstone, 1985, Reece Winstone, 978-0-900814-63-1, Reece Winstone, harv,

External links

  • Visit Bristol, official tourism website
  • {{curlie|Regional/Europe/United_Kingdom/England/Bristol}}
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