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Brigham Young
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{{short description|19th-century Latter Day Saint religious leader}}{{Other uses}}{{POV check|date=November 2018}}{{Use mdy dates|date=January 2017}}
| birth_place = Whitingham, Vermont, U.S.
| death_date = {{death date and age|mf = yes|1877|08|29|1801|06|01}}
| death_place = Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, U.S.
| death_cause = Ruptured appendix
| resting_place = Brigham Young Cemetery
| resting_place_coordinates = {{Coord|40.7703|-111.8856|type:landmark|display=inline|name=Brigham Young Cemetery}}
| boards =
| spouse = See List of Brigham Young's wives
| children = 56{{citation |url=weblink |title= Brigham Young Biography: Facts of Faith |work= Y Facts |publisher= BYU |access-date= September 19, 2013 |archive-url=weblink" title="archive.today/20130920194808weblink">weblink |archive-date= September 20, 2013 |url-status= dead |df= mdy-all }}
| parents = John and Abigail Young
| awards =
| signature = Brigham Young Signature.svg
| signature_alt = Signature of Brigham Young
| website = brighamyoung.org
| portals = LDS
| footnotes =
| position_or_quorum1 = 2nd President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
| predecessor1 = Joseph Smith
| successor1 = John Taylor
| start_date1 = | end_date1 = | position_or_quorum2 = President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
| start_date2 = | end_date2 = | predecessor2 = Thomas B. Marsh
| successor2 = Orson Hyde
| end_reason2 = Became President of the Church
| position_or_quorum3 = Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
| called_by3 = Three Witnesses
| start_date3 = | end_date3 = | end_reason3 = Became President of the Church
| position_or_quorum4 = LDS Church Apostle
| called_by4 = Three Witnesses
| start_date4 = | ordination_reason4 = Initial organization of Quorum of the Twelve
| end_date4 = | reorganization4 = No apostles immediately ordainedA year after Young's death, Orson Hyde died and Moses Thatcher was ordained an apostle. The First Presidency was not reorganized until October 10, 1880, after which Francis M. Lyman and John Henry Smith were ordained. Orson Pratt died in 1881, and the Quorum of the Twelve did not have twelve members again until October 16, 1882, when George Teasdale and Heber J. Grant were ordained.
| political_office1 = 1st Governor of Utah Territory
| term_start1 = February 3, 1851
| term_end1 = April 12, 1858
| office_predecessor1 = None
| office_successor1 = Alfred Cumming
| list_notes = Succeeded Smith as leader of the LDS Church. Was also Governor of Utah Territory from February 3, 1851 to April 12, 1858.
| poly_date = April 5, 1841{{harvnb|Smith|1994|p=16}}
| poly_wives = 55
| poly_notes = Is probably the most famous Latter Day Saint polygamist with 55 wives.
}}Brigham Young ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|b|r|ɪ|ɡ|əm}}; June 1, 1801{{snd}}August 29, 1877)WEB,weblink Brigham Young (1801–1877) {{!, FamilySearch|website=ancestors.familysearch.org|access-date=2018-10-05}} was an American religious leader, politician, and settler. He was the second president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1847 until his death in 1877. He founded Salt Lake City and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory. Young also led the foundings of the precursors to the University of Utah and Brigham Young University.Young had many nicknames, among the most popular being "American Moses"{{citation |url=https://newsroom.churchofjesuschrist.org/article/brigham-young |title=Topics and Background: Topic {{ndash}} Brigham Young |work=Newsroom (MormonNewsroom.org) |publisher=LDS Church }} (alternatively, the "Modern Moses" or "Mormon Moses"),{{citation |first=Francis M. |last=Gibbons |authorlink=Francis M. Gibbons |title=Brigham Young: Modern Moses, Prophet of God |place=Salt Lake City, Utah |publisher=Deseret Book |year=1981 |isbn=978-0877478584 }}{{citation |authorlink=Jason Lee Steorts| first=Jason Lee |last=Steorts |url=https://www.nationalreview.com/nrd/articles/330077/mormon-moses |title=The Mormon Moses |journal=National Review |date=October 29, 2012 }} because, like the biblical figure, Young led his followers, the Mormon pioneers, in an exodus through a desert, to what they saw as a promised land.{{citation |first=Russell M. |last=Nelson |authorlink=Russell M. Nelson |url=https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/ensign/1999/07/the-exodus-repeated |title=The Exodus Repeated |journal=Ensign |date=July 1999 |quote=Many instructive parallels exist between the exodus from Egypt of the Israelites under Moses and the exodus from the United States of the Latter-day Saint pioneers under Brigham Young. We can learn much from these stalwarts of ancient and modern Israel.}} Young was dubbed by his followers the "Lion of the Lord" for his bold personality and commonly was called "Brother Brigham" by Latter-day Saints. A polygamist, Young had 55 wives. He instituted a church ban against conferring the priesthood on men of black African descent, and also led the church during the Utah War against the United States.WEB, Roberts, David, The Brink of War,weblink Smithsonian Magazine, Smithsonian Institution,

Early life and succession to Latter Day Saint leadership

File:Brigham Young and his brothers.jpg|225px|thumb|left|The five sons of John and Nabby YoungFrom left to right: Lorenzo Dow, Brigham, Phineas H., Joseph, and John.]]Young was born to John Young and Abigail "Nabby" Howe, a farming family in Whitingham, Vermont, and worked as a travelling carpenter and blacksmith, among other trades.{{citation |last=Sheret |first=John G. |url=http://crookedlakereview.com/articles/136_167/141fall2006winter2007/141sheret.html |title=Brigham Young: Carpenter and Cabinet Maker |work=The Crooked Lake Review |issue=141 |date=Fall 2006 – Winter 2007 }} Young was first married in 1824 to Miriam Angeline Works. Though he had converted to the Methodist faith in 1823, Young was drawn to Mormonism after reading the Book of Mormon shortly after its publication in 1830. He officially joined the new church in 1832 and traveled to Upper Canada as a missionary. After his wife died in 1832, Young joined many Mormons in establishing a community in Kirtland, Ohio. Young was ordained a member of the original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835, and he assumed a leadership role within that organization in taking Mormonism to the United Kingdom and organizing the exodus of Latter Day Saints from Missouri in 1838.In 1844, while in jail awaiting trial for treason charges, Joseph Smith, president of the church, was killed by an armed mob. Several claimants to the role of church president emerged during the succession crisis that ensued. Before a large meeting convened to discuss the succession in Nauvoo, Illinois, Sidney Rigdon, the senior surviving member of the church's First Presidency, argued there could be no successor to the deceased prophet and that he should be made the "Protector" of the church.{{citation |editor-link=B. H. Roberts |editor-last=Roberts |editor-first=B. H. |title=History of the Church |volume=7 |chapter=XVIII|title-link=History of the Church (Joseph Smith) }} Young opposed this reasoning and motion. Smith had earlier recorded a revelation which stated the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was "equal in authority and power" to the First Presidency,{{lds|Doctrine and Covenants|dc|107|23|24}} so Young claimed that the leadership of the church fell to the Twelve Apostles.{{citation |editor-link=B. H. Roberts |editor-last=Roberts |editor-first=B. H. |title=History of the Church |volume=7 |chapter=XIX|title-link=History of the Church (Joseph Smith) }} The majority in attendance were persuaded that the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was to lead the church with Young as the Quorum's president. Many of Young's followers would later reminisce that while Young spoke to the congregation, he looked or sounded exactly like Smith, which they attributed to the power of God.BOOK, The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power, Quinn, D. Michael, Signature Books, 1994, 1-56085-056-6, 166, D. Michael Quinn, ; {{Harvnb|Harper|1996}}; {{citation|last=Jorgensen|first=Lynne Watkins|title=Opening the Heavens: Accounts of Divine Manifestations, 1820–1844|year=2005|pages=374–480|contribution=The Mantle of the Prophet Joseph Smith Passes to Brother Brigham: One Hundred Twenty-one Testimonies of a Collective Spiritual Witness|place=Provo, Utah|publisher=BYU Press|editor-last=Welch|editor-first=John W.|editor-link=John W. Welch}}; {{citation|last=England|first=Eugene|title=George Laub's Nauvoo Journal|date=Winter 1978|quote=Now when President Young arose to address the congregation his voice was the voice of Bro[ther] Joseph and his face appeared as Joseph's face & should I have not seen his face but heard his voice I should have declared that it was Joseph. [spelling and punctuation normalized]|journal=BYU Studies|volume=18|page=16}}; {{citation|last=Burton|first=William|title=William Burton Diary, May 1845|quote=But their [Joseph Smith and Hyrum Smith's] places were filed by others much better than I once supposed they could have been, the spirit of Joseph appeared to rest upon Brigham"|location=LDS Church Archives}}; {{citation|last=Johnson|first=Benjamin F.|title=My Life's Review|year=1928|quote=But as soon as he spoke I jumped upon my feet, for in every possible degree it was Joseph's voice, and his person, in look, attitude, dress and appearance; [it] was Joseph himself, personified and I knew in a moment the spirit and mantle of Joseph was upon him"|pages=103–104|location=Independence}}; {{citation|title=Life Story of Mosiah Hancock|quote=Although only a boy, I saw the mantle of the Prophet Joseph rest upon Brigham Young; and he arose lion-like to the occasion and led the people forth|page=23|location=BYU Library}}; {{citation|last=Woodruff|first=Wilford|title=none|date=March 15, 1892|quote=If I had not seen him with my own eyes, there is no one that could have convinced me that it was not Joseph Smith|authorlink=Wilford Woodruff|newspaper=Deseret News}}; {{citation|last=Cannon|first=George Q.|title=none|date=October 29, 1870|quote=When Brigham Young spoke it was with the voice of Joseph himself; and not only was it the voice of Joseph which was heard, but it seemed in the eyes of the people as though it was the every person of Joseph which stood before them|authorlink=George Q. Cannon|journal=Juvenile Instructor|volume=5|issue=22|pages=174–175}} However, historians have come to different conclusions on whether the occurrence of such events is supported by contemporary records. Van Wagoner observed of contemporary accounts that "none of these references an explicit transfiguration, a physical metamorphosis of Brigham Young into the form and voice of Joseph Smith," and "[w]hen 8 August 1844 is stripped of emotional overlay, there is not a shred of irrefutable contemporary evidence to support the occurrence of a mystical event either in the morning or afternoon gatherings of that day.": JOURNAL, Van Wagoner, Richard S., Winter 1995, The Making of a Mormon Myth: The 1844 Transfiguration of Brigham Young, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, 28, 4, 1–24, harv, JOURNAL, Jorgenson, Lynne W., 1996–97, The Mantle of the Prophet Joseph Passes to Brother Brigham: A Collective Spiritual Witness, BYU Studies, 36, 4, 125–204, harv, BOOK, Arrington, Leonard J., Brigham Young: American Moses, University of Illinois Press, 114–115, 1986, 0-252-01296-8, registration,weblink Young was ordained President of the Church in December 1847, three and a half years after Smith's death. Rigdon became the president of a separate church organization based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and other potential successors emerged to lead what became other denominations of the movement.

Migration west

{{See also|Mormon pioneers}}Repeated conflict led Young to relocate his group of Latter-day Saints to the Salt Lake Valley, which was then part of Mexico. Young organized the journey that would take the Mormon pioneers to Winter Quarters, Nebraska, in 1846, then to the Salt Lake Valley. By the time Young arrived at the final destination, it had come under American control as a result of war with Mexico, although U.S. sovereignty would not be confirmed until 1848. Young arrived in the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847, a date now recognized as Pioneer Day in Utah. Young's expedition was one of the largest and one of the best organized westward treks."MEMBERWIDE">TITLE=BRIGHAM YOUNGACCESS-DATE=FEBRUARY 29, 2016, On August 22, 29 days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Young organized the Mormon Tabernacle Choir.{{citation title=Frequently Asked Questions {{ndash}} When was the Mormon Tabernacle Choir formed?publisher=Mormon Tabernacle Choir weblink >archivedate=March 29, 2013 }}After three years of leading the church as the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Young reorganized a new First Presidency and was sustained as the second president of the church on December 27, 1847.

Governor of Utah Territory

(File:1853 Brigham Young Daguerreotype.jpg|thumb|upright|left|A beardless Brigham Young in 1853.)As colonizer and founder of Salt Lake City, Young was appointed the territory's first governor and superintendent of American Indian affairs by President Millard Fillmore on February 3, 1851.NEWS,weblink Utah's new capitol grows from humble beginning; first political sessions were held in council house; fight for statehood, Salt Lake Telegram, October 22, 1916, May 14, 2010, During his time as prophet, Young directed the establishment of settlements throughout present-day Utah, Idaho, Arizona, Nevada, California and parts of southern Colorado and northern Mexico. Under his direction, the Mormons built roads and bridges, forts, irrigation projects; established public welfare; organized a militia; issued an extermination order against the Timpanogos and after a series of wars eventually made peace with the Native Americans. Young was also one of the first to subscribe to Union Pacific stock, for the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad. Young organized the first legislature and established Fillmore as the territory's first capital.Young organized a board of regents to establish a university in the Salt Lake Valley.{{citation |url=http://utahhistory.sdlhost.com/#/item/000000011019614/view/33 |title=The Beginnings of the University of Utah |first=Yvette D. |last=Ison |date=January 1995 |journal=History Blazer |publisher=Utah State Historical Society }}. Online reprint, with permission, at HistoryToGo.utah.gov by the Utah Division of State History, Utah Department of Heritage and Arts, State of Utah. It was established on February 28, 1850, as the University of Deseret; its name was eventually changed to the University of Utah.(File:Brigham Young by Charles Roscoe Savage, 1855.jpg|thumb|upright|150px|right|Brigham Young photographed by Charles Roscoe Savage, 1855)In 1851, Young and several federal officials, including territorial Secretary Broughton Harris, became unable to work cooperatively. Harris and the others departed Utah without replacements being named, and these individuals later became known as the Runaway Officials of 1851.Randal S. Chase, Church History Study Guide, Part 3, 2012, p. 85.Young supported slavery and its expansion into Utah, and led the efforts to legalize and regulate slavery in the 1852 Act in Relation to Service, based on his beliefs on slavery.BOOK, Journals of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah, of the ... Annual Session, for the Years ..., Volume 1, Utah Legislative Assembly, 1852,weblink 108–110, {{citation |title=The Teachings of President Brigham Young: Vol. 3 1852–1854 |editor-first=Fred C. |editor-last=Collier |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=LkRZGQ8oO8IC|year=1987 |first=Brigham |last=Young |location=Salt Lake City, Utah |publisher=Colliers Publishing Company |isbn=0934964017 |oclc=18192348 |pages=26–28|quote=Inasmuch as we believe in the ordinances of God, in the Priesthood and order and decrees of God, we must believe in slavery}}WEB,weblink Brigham Young: We Must Believe in Slavery (23 January 1852), mit.irr.org, In 1856, Young organized an efficient mail service. In 1858, following the events of the Utah War, he stepped down to his successor, Alfred Cumming.{{citation |url=http://archives.utah.gov/research/guides/governor-young.htm |title=Brigham Young |publisher=Utah State Archives }}

LDS Church presidency

Young was the longest-serving President of the LDS Church in history, having served for 29 years.

Educational endeavors

On October 16, 1875, Young deeded buildings and land in Provo, Utah to a board of trustees for establishing an institution of learning, ostensibly as part of the University of Deseret.BOOK, Sloan, Robert W., Utah Gazatteer and Directory of Logan, Ogden, Provo and Salt Lake Cities, for 1884, 1884, 278,weblink Young said, "I hope to see an Academy established in Provo ... at which the children of the Latter-day Saints can receive a good education unmixed with the pernicious atheistic influences that are found in so many of the higher schools of the country." The school broke off from the University of Deseret and became Brigham Young Academy,NEWS, Sarah, Bills,weblink Warren Dusenberry (1875–1876), The Universe (BYU), BYU NewsNet, April 16, 2003,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120207182134weblink">weblink February 7, 2012, the precursor to Brigham Young University.Within the church, Young reorganized the Relief Society for women in 1867, and he created organizations for young women in 1869 and young men in 1875.

Temple building

Young was involved in temple building throughout his membership in the LDS Church, making it a priority of his church presidency. Under Smith's leadership, Young participated in the building of the Kirtland and Nauvoo temples. Just four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Young designated the location for the Salt Lake Temple; he presided over its groundbreaking on April 6, 1853.{{citation |last=Hanks |first=Marion Duff |authorlink=Marion D. Hanks |contribution=Salt Lake Temple |url=http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/EoM/id/4155 |pages=1252–1254 |editor1-last=Ludlow |editor1-first=Daniel H |editor1-link=Daniel H. Ludlow |title=Encyclopedia of Mormonism |location=New York |publisher=Macmillan Publishing |year=1992 |isbn=0-02-879602-0 |oclc=24502140 }} During his tenure, Young oversaw construction of the Salt Lake Tabernacle and he announced plans to build the St. George (1871), Manti (1875), and Logan (1877) temples. He also provisioned the building of the Endowment House, a "temporary temple" which began to be used in 1855 to provide temple ordinances to church members while the Salt Lake Temple was under construction.

Teachings

The majority of Young's teachings are contained in the 19 volumes of transcribed and edited sermons in the Journal of Discourses. The LDS Church's Doctrine and Covenants contains one section from Young that has been canonized as scripture, adding the section in 1876.The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints{{LDSpolygamy}}Though polygamy was practiced by Young's predecessor Joseph Smith,WEB,weblink Plural Marriage in Kirtland and Nauvoo, ChurchofJesusChrist.org, the practice is often associated with Young. Some Latter Day Saint denominations, such as the Community of Christ, consider Young the "Father of Mormon Polygamy".{{citation |author=Richard and Pamela Price |title=Joseph Smith Fought Polygamy: How Men Nearest the Prophet Attached Polygamy to His Name in Order to Justify Their Own Polygamous Crimes |place=Independence, Missouri |publisher=Price Publishing Company |year=2000 |chapter-url=http://restorationbookstore.org/articles/nopoligamy/jsfp-vol1/chp4.htm |chapter=Vol.1, Ch.4: Brigham Young: The Father of Mormon Polygamy |isbn=1891353063 |oclc=42027453 |lccn=99041763 |type=self-published}} In 1853, Young made the church's first official statement on the subject since the church had arrived in Utah. Young acknowledged the suffering the doctrine created for women, but stated its necessity for creating large families, proclaiming: "But the first wife will say, 'It is hard, for I have lived with my husband twenty years, or thirty, and have raised a family of children for him, and it is a great trial to me for him to have more women;' then I say it is time that you gave him up to other women who will bear children."http://jod.mrm.org/4/51. Vol.4 p.56One of the more controversial teachings of Young was the Adam–God doctrine. According to Young, he was taught by Smith that Adam is "our Father and our God, and the only God with whom we have to do". According to the doctrine, Adam was once a mortal man who became resurrected and exalted. From another planet, Adam brought Eve, one of his wives, with him to the earth, where they became mortal by eating the fruit of the Garden of Eden. After bearing mortal children and establishing the human race, Adam and Eve returned to their heavenly thrones where Adam acts as the god of this world. Later, as Young is generally understood to have taught, Adam returned to the earth to become the biological father of Jesus.Widmer, Kurt (2000), Mormonism and the Nature of God: A Theological Evolution, 1830–1915, Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, p. 131.Gary James Bergera, "The Orson Pratt–Brigham Young Controversies: Conflict Within the Quorums, 1853 to 1868" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110614014538weblink |date=June 14, 2011 }}, (Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought) 13(2):7–49 (1980) at p. 41.Boyd Kirkland, "Jehovah as the Father: The Development of the Mormon Jehovah Doctrine", Sunstone 44:36–44 (1984) at p. 39 (Adam "later begot Jesus, his firstborn spirit son, in the flesh"). The LDS Church has since repudiated the Adam–God doctrine.Spencer W. Kimball, "Our Own Liahona," Ensign, November 1976, p. 77 ("We denounce that theory and hope that everyone will be cautioned against this and other kinds of false doctrine.").Young is generally considered to have instituted a church ban against conferring the priesthood on men of black African descent, who had been treated equally in this respect under Smith's presidency.BOOK, Bush, Lester E., Jr., Armand L., Mauss, Armand Mauss, Neither White nor Black: Mormon Scholars Confront the Race Issue in a Universal Church, Signature Books, 1984, Midvale, Utah, 54–65, 70, Chapter 3: Mormonism's Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview,weblink 978-0-941214-22-3, After settling in Utah in 1848, Young announced the ban, which also forbade blacks from participating in Mormon temple rites such as the endowment or sealings. On many occasions, Young taught that blacks were denied the priesthood because they were "the seed of Cain",{{citation |url=https://www.dialoguejournal.com/2012/mormonisms-negro-doctrine-an-historical-overview/|title=Mormonism's Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview |publisher=Dialogue |date=Spring 1973 |author=Bush, Lester E. |pages=54–97 |accessdate=December 17, 2013}} but also stated that they would eventually receive the priesthood after "all the other children of Adam have the privilege of receiving the Priesthood, and of coming into the kingdom of God, and of being redeemed from the four quarters of the earth, and have received their resurrection from the dead, then it will be time enough to remove the curse from Cain and his posterity."{{citation |title=Journal of Discourses |volume=2 |page=142|title-link=Journal of Discourses }} These racial restrictions remained in place until 1978, when the policy was rescinded by LDS Church president Spencer W. Kimball,{{citation |chapter-url=https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/scriptures/dc-testament/od/2?lang=eng |contribution=Official Declaration 2 |title=Doctrine and Covenants|title-link=Doctrine and Covenants }} and the LDS Church subsequently "disavow[ed] theories advanced in the past" to explain this ban,{{citation |url=https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/topics/race-and-the-priesthood |title=Gospel Topics {{ndash}} Race and the Priesthood |publisher=LDS Church }} thereby "plac[ing] the origins of black priesthood denial blame squarely on Brigham Young."NEWS, The Mormon Church Disavows Its Racist Past But Still Offers No Apology, Huffington Post,weblink December 17, 2013, In 1863, Young stated: "Shall I tell you the law of God in regard to the African race? If the white man who belongs to the chosen seed mixes his blood with the seed of Cain, the penalty, under the law of God, is death on the spot. This will always be so."{{citation |title=Journal of Discourses |volume=10 |page=110|title-link=Journal of Discourses }}. See also: miscegenation. Young was a vocal opponent of theories of human polygenesis, being a firm voice for stating that all humans were the product of one creation.Daniel Peterson quoting statements from Paul Reeve in Religion of a Different Color

Conflicts

Shortly after the arrival of Young's pioneers, the new Mormon colonies were incorporated into the United States through the Mexican Cession. Young petitioned the U.S. Congress to create the State of Deseret. The Compromise of 1850 instead carved out Utah Territory and Young was installed as governor. As governor and church president, Young directed both religious and economic matters. He encouraged independence and self-sufficiency. Many cities and towns in Utah, and some in neighboring states, were founded under Young's direction. Young's leadership style has been viewed as autocratic.{{citation |url=http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761555412/Brigham_Young.html |title=Brigham Young |work=Encarta |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091030200308weblink |url-status=dead |archivedate=October 30, 2009 |access-date=October 31, 2009 |df=mdy-all }}.{{unreliable source?|date=September 2013}} When federal officials received reports of widespread and systematic obstruction of federal officials in Utah (most notably judges), U.S. President James Buchanan decided to install a non-Mormon governor. Buchanan accepted the reports of the judges without any further investigation, and the new non-sectarian governor was accompanied by troops sent to garrison forts in the new territory. When Young received word that federal troops were headed to Utah with his replacement, he called out his militia to ambush the federal force. During the defense of Utah, now called the Utah War, Young held the U.S. Army at bay for a winter by taking their cattle and burning supply wagons. The Mormon forces were largely successful thanks to Lot Smith. Young eventually relented and agreed to step down as governor. He later received a pardon from Buchanan. Relations between Young and future governors and U.S. Presidents were mixed.File:Brigham Young and company 1870.PNG|thumb|left|500px|Brigham Young (seated near the middle, wearing a tall beaver hat) and an exploring party camped at the Colorado RiverColorado RiverThe degree of Young's involvement in the Mountain Meadows massacre, which took place in Washington County in 1857, is disputed.NEWS, Emily, Eakin, Reopening a Mormon Murder Mystery; New Accusations That Brigham Young Himself Ordered an 1857 Massacre of Pioneers,weblink The New York Times, October 12, 2002, Late Edition-Final, Section B, Page 9, Column 2, Leonard J. Arrington reports that Young received a rider at his office on the day of the massacre, and that when he learned of the contemplated attack by the members of the LDS Church in Parowan and Cedar City, he sent back a letter directing that the Fancher party be allowed to pass through the territory unmolested.Brigham Young to Isaac C. Haight, September 10, 1857, Letterpress Copybook 3:827–28, Brigham Young Office Files, LDS Church Archives Young's letter reportedly arrived on September 13, 1857, two days after the massacre. As governor, Young had promised the federal government he would protect immigrants passing through Utah Territory, but over 120 men, women and children were killed in this incident. There is no debate concerning the involvement of individual Mormons from the surrounding communities by scholars. Only children under the age of seven, who were cared for by local Mormon families, survived, and the murdered members of the wagon train were left unburied. The remains of about 40 people were later found and buried, and Union Army officer James Henry Carleton had a large cross made from local trees, the transverse beam bearing the engraving, "Vengeance Is Mine, Saith The Lord: I Will Repay" and erected a cairn of rocks at the site. A large slab of granite was put up on which he had the following words engraved: "Here 120 men, women and children were massacred in cold blood early in September, 1857. They were from Arkansas." For two years, the monument stood as a memorial to those travelling the Spanish Trail through Mountain Meadow. Some claim that, in 1861, Young brought an entourage to Mountain Meadows and had the cairn and cross destroyed, while exclaiming, "Vengeance is mine and I have taken a little".Sally Denton (2003). American Massacre: The Tragedy at Mountain Meadows, September 1857 (New York: Vintage Books, {{ISBN|0-375-72636-5}}) p. 210.

Death

File:BrighamYoungGrave.jpg|right|thumb|Young is buried on the grounds of the Mormon Pioneer Memorial Monument in Salt Lake CitySalt Lake CityBefore his death in Salt Lake City on August 29, 1877,"Death of Brigham Young", The New York Times, August 30, 1877. Young was suffering from cholera morbus and inflammation of the bowels."Brigham Young's Health", The New York Times, August 29, 1877. It is believed that he died of peritonitis from a ruptured appendix. His last words were "Joseph! Joseph! Joseph!", invoking the name of the late Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon faith.{{Citation |url=https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/ensign/1977/08/brigham-young-man-of-the-spirit |title=Brigham Young: Man of the Spirit |first=D. Michael |last=Quinn |authorlink=D. Michael Quinn |date=August 1977 |journal=Ensign}} On September 2, 1877, Young's funeral was held in the Tabernacle with an estimated 12,000 to 15,000 people in attendance."Brigham Young's Funeral", The New York Times, September 3, 1877. He is buried on the grounds of the Mormon Pioneer Memorial Monument in the heart of Salt Lake City. A bronze marker was placed at the grave site June 10, 1938, by members of the Young Men and Young Women organizations, which he founded.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120717112905weblink">weblink July 17, 2012, Grave of Brigham Young, State of Utah, October 17, 2011, dead,

Legacy

Impact

A century after his death, one writer stated that{{citation |url=http://calteches.library.caltech.edu/357/1/mormons.pdf |title=The Mormons of Yesterday and Today |publisher=California Institute of Technology & Alumni Association |journal=Engineering and Science |volume=38 |issue=2 |date=December 1974 – January 1975 |author=Paul, Rodman W. |pages=12–27 |accessdate=September 19, 2013}}He credited Young's leadership with helping to settle much of the American West:{{r|paul197412}}Memorials to Young include a bronze statue in front of the Abraham O. Smoot Administration Building, Brigham Young University; a marble statue in the National Statuary Hall Collection at the United States Capitol, donated by the State of Utah in 1950;{{citation |url=http://www.aoc.gov/capitol-hill/national-statuary-hall-collection/brigham-young |title=Art: Sculpture {{ndash}} Statues: Brigham Young |work=Explore Capitol Hill |publisher=Architect of the Capitol }} and a statue atop the This is the Place Monument in Salt Lake City.{{multiple image
| align = right | direction = horizontal | width =
| header = Memorials to Brigham Young | header_align = center | header_background =
| footer = | footer_align = left/right/center | footer_background =
| image1 =| width1 = 145 | caption1 = Statue on campus of Brigham Young University
| image2 = Young.jpg | width2 = 121 | caption2 = Statue in Statuary Hall of the United States Capitol
| image3 = This Is The Place Heritage Park.jpg | width3 = 131 | caption3 = This Is the Place Monument, Salt Lake City
| image4 = Brigham Young Monument.jpg | width4 = 144 | caption4 = Brigham Young Monument, Salt Lake City
}}Young's teachings were the 1998–99 course of study in the LDS Church's Sunday Relief Society and Melchizedek priesthood classes.

Family and descendants

{{See also|List of Brigham Young's wives}}(File:In memoriam brigham young 2.jpg|thumb|right|Caricature of Young's wives, after his death)Young was a polygamist, marrying a total of 55 wives, 54 of them after he converted to Mormonism.{{citation |first=Jeffrey Odgen |last=Johnson |url=http://content.lib.utah.edu/u?/dialogue,17879 |title=Determining and Defining 'Wife' â€” The Brigham Young Households |journal=(Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought) |volume=20 |issue=3 |date=Fall 1987 |pages=57–70}} The policy was difficult for many in the church. Young stated that upon being taught about plural marriage, "It was the first time in my life that I desired the grave."{{citation |url=https://www.pbs.org/mormons/peopleevents/e_polygamy.html |title=People & Events {{ndash}} Polygamy and the Church: A History |work=The Mormons |date=April 30, 2007 |publisher=PBS |accessdate=September 19, 2013}} By the time of his death, Young had 56 children by 16 of his wives; 46 of his children reached adulthood.Sources have varied on the number of Young's wives, due to differences in what scholars have considered to be a "wife". There were 55 women who Young was sealed to during his lifetime. While the majority of the sealings were "for eternity", some were "for time only". Researchers believe that not all of the 55 marriages were conjugal. Young did not live with a number of his wives or publicly hold them out as wives, which has led to confusion on the number and their identities. This is in part due to the complexity of how wives were identified in the Mormon society at the time.Of Young's 55 wives, 21 had never been married before; 16 were widows; six were divorced; six had living husbands and the marital status of six others is unknown. In 1856, Young built the Lion House to accommodate his sizable family. This building remains a Salt Lake City landmark, together with the Beehive House, another Young family home. A contemporary of Young wrote: "It was amusing to walk by Brigham Young's big house, a long rambling building with innumerable doors. Each wife has an establishment of her own, consisting of parlor, bedroom, and a front door, the key of which she keeps in her pocket."WEB, DeHegermann-Lindencrone, Lillie, The Sunny Side of Diplomatic Life, 1875–1912,weblink Project Gutenberg, July 18, 2006, At the time of Young's death, 19 of his wives had predeceased him; he was divorced from ten, and 23 survived him. The status of four was unknown. One of his wives, Zina Huntington Young, served as the third president of the Relief Society. In his will, Young shared his estate with the 16 surviving wives who had lived with him; the six surviving non-conjugal wives were not mentioned in the will.

Notable descendants

In 1902, 25 years after his death, The New York Times established that Young's direct descendants numbered more than 1,000."Descendants of Brigham Young to Hold Annual Mass Meetings", The New York Times, June 22, 1902. Some of Young's descendants have become leaders in the LDS Church.

Cultural references

In comics

Brigham Young appeared at the end of Le Fil qui chante album, the last Lucky Luke album written by Goscinny.JOURNAL, Homer, Michael, From Sherlock Holmes to Godzilla: The Mormon Image in Comics, Sunstone, September 2010, 73,weblink

In literature

The Scottish poet John Lyon, who was an intimate friend of Young, wrote Brigham the Bold in tribute to him after his death.Lyon, T. Edgar (1989). John Lyon : the life of a pioneer poet. Provo, Utah: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University. {{ISBN|0-88494-708-4}}.WEB,weblink "Fair Home of My Choice" (1853–1889) {{!, Religious Studies Center|website=rsc.byu.edu|language=en|access-date=2018-01-24}}Florence Claxton's graphic novel, The Adventures of a Woman in Search of Her Rights (1872), satirizes a would-be emancipated woman whose failure to establish an independent career results in her marriage to Young before she wakes to discover she's been dreaming.Arthur Conan Doyle based his first Sherlock Holmes novel, A Study in Scarlet, on Mormon history, mentioning Young by name. When asked to comment on the story, which had, "provoked the animosity of the Mormon faithful", Doyle noted, "all I said about the Danite Band and the murders is historical so I cannot withdraw that though it is likely that in a work of fiction it is stated more luridly than in a work of history." Doyle's daughter stated: "You know father would be the first to admit that his first Sherlock Holmes novel was full of errors about the Mormons."{{citation |first=Harold |last=Schindler |authorlink=Harold Schindler |date=April 10, 1994 |title=The Case Of The Repentant Writer: Sherlock Homes' Creator Raises The Wrath Of Mormons |newspaper=The Salt Lake Tribune |page=D1 |id=Archive Article ID: 101185DCD718AD35 (NewsBank)}}. Online reprint {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060923063139weblink |date=September 23, 2006}}, with permission, at HistoryToGo.utah.gov by the Utah Division of State History, Utah Department of Heritage and Arts, State of Utah.Mark Twain devoted a chapter and much of an appendix to Young in Roughing It.Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr., talking about his fondness of trees, joked in his The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table: "I call all trees mine that I have put my wedding-ring on, and I have as many tree-wives as Brigham Young has human ones."BOOK, The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table, Holmes, Oliver Wendell, J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd, 1952, 1406813176, London, 222,

In movies

Brigham Young was played by Dean Jagger in the 1940 film Brigham Young.

In television

{{more citations needed|section|date=November 2017}}Byron Morrow played Young in a cameo appearance in the Death Valley Days 1966 episode, "An Organ for Brother Brigham". In the story line, the organ built and guided west to Salt Lake City by Joseph Harris Ridges (1827–1914) of Australia becomes mired in the sand. Wagonmaster Luke Winner (Morgan Woodward) feels compelled to leave the instrument behind until Ridges finds solid rock under the sand.WEB,weblink An Organ for Brother Brigham on Death Valley Days, Internet Movie Data Base, October 5, 2018, In another Death Valley Days episode in 1969, "Biscuits and Billy, the Kid", Michael Hinn (1913–1988) of the former Boots and Saddles western series was cast as Young. In the story line, the Tugwell family, Jason (Ben Cooper), Ellie (Emily Banks), and Mary (Erin Moran), are abandoned by their guide while on a wagon train from Utah to California.WEB,weblink Biscuits and Billy, the Kid, Internet Movie Data Base, July 20, 2015, Gregg Henry depicts Young in the fourth (2014) and fifth (2015) seasons of the TV series Hell on Wheels, a fictional story about the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad. As the competing rail lines approach Utah from the east and west coasts, Young supplies Mormon laborers to both railroad companies and negotiates with the railways to have them make Salt Lake City their meeting point. In the Season 5 mid-season finale, "False Prophets", Young's son, Phineas, attempts to murder his father. Persuaded by The Swede, Phineas believed he was the chosen one to go forward to lead the Mormons, instead of his father.

Literary works

Since Young's death, a number of works have published collections of his discourses and sayings.
  • BOOK


, Teachings of President Brigham Young: Salvation for the Dead, the Spirit World, and Kindred Subjects
, 1922
, Seagull Press
,
  • BOOK


, Brigham Young
, Discourses of Brigham Young
, 1925
, Deseret Book
, selected by John A. Widtsoe
,weblink
,
  • BOOK


, Young, Brigham
, The Best from Brigham Young: Statements from His Sermons on Religion, Education, and Community Building
, 1952
, Deseret Book Company
, selected by Alice K. Chase
,
  • BOOK


, Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 1801–1844
, 1969
, Eldon J. Watson
,
  • BOOK


, Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 1846–1847
, 1971
, Eldon J. Watson
,
  • BOOK


, Letters of Brigham Young to His Sons
, 1974
, Deseret Book Company
, Dean C. Jessee
,
  • BOOK


, Diary of Brigham Young, 1857
, 1980
, Tanner Trust Fund, University of Utah Library
, Everett L. Cooley
,weblink
,
  • BOOK


, The Essential Brigham Young
, 1992
, Signature Books
, 1-56085-010-8
,weblink
,
  • BOOK


, Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Brigham Young
, 1997
, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
, Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Brigham Young
, LDS Church publication number 35554
  • BOOK


, Young
, Brigham
, Richard Van Wagoner
, The Complete Discourses of Brigham Young
, 2009
, Smith-Pettit Foundation
,
, 978-1-56085-206-3
, 5
, harv
,

See also

{hide}Wikipedia books
|1=LDS Church Presidents
{edih}

Notes

{{Reflist}}

References



, Nibley
, Hugh W.
, Hugh Nibley
, Brother Brigham Challenges the Saints (The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, vol. 13)
, 1994
, Salt Lake City, Utah
, Shadow Mountain Pub.
, 0-87579-818-7
, , republished online at BOOK
, Brother Brigham Challenges the Saints by Hugh W. Nibley
,weblink
, Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, FARMS
, April 28, 2009
, .
  • Bergera, Gary James, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040205091243weblink">Conflict in the Quorum: Orson Pratt, Brigham Young, Joseph Smith
  • BOOK


, Cannon
, Frank J.
, Frank J. Cannon
, Knapp
, George L.
, Brigham Young and His Mormon Empire
, 1913
, New York
, Fleming H. Revell Co.
,weblink
,
  • BOOK


, Tullidge
, Edward W.
, Edward Tullidge
, Life of Brigham Young: Or, Utah and Her Founders
, 1877
, New York
, Tullidge & Crandall
,weblink
,
  • Turner, John G. Brigham Young: Pioneer Prophet. Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 2012.
  • BOOK


, Waite
, C.V. (Catherine Van Valkenburg)
, The Mormon prophet and his harem: or, An authentic history of Brigham Young, his numerous wives and children
, 1868
, Chicago
, J.S. Goodman & Co.
,weblink
, . See also: The Mormon Prophet and His Harem.
  • BOOK


, Young
, Brigham
, Self-Government â€” Mysteries â€” Recreation and Amusements, not in Themselves Sinful â€” Tithing â€” Adam, Our Father and Our God
, April 9, 1852
, Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others
, Watt
, G.D.
, 1
, Liverpool
, F.D. & S.W. Richards
, 1854
,weblink
, 46–53
,
  • BOOK


, Young
, Brigham
, The Necessity of the Saints Living up to the Light Which Has Been Given Them
, March 2, 1856
, Journal of Discourses Delivered by President Brigham Young, His Two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, and Others
, Watt
, G.D.
, George D. Watt
, 3
, Liverpool
, Daniel H. Wells
, 1856
, 221–226
,weblink
, Journal of Discourses
,

External links

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