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Boxer Protocol
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{{Use mdy dates|date=November 2013}}{{Chinese|pic=Chinaboxerprotocolsignature.png|picsize=230px|piccap=Signature page of the Boxer rebellion settlement|t=1. 辛丑條約2. 辛丑各國和約3. 北京議定書|s=1. 辛丑条约2. 辛丑各国和约3. 北京议定书|w=1. Hsin1-ch'ou3 T'iao2-yüeh1|j=1. san1 fu2 tiu4 joek32. san1 cau2 gok3 gwok3 wo4 joek33. bak1 ging1 ji6 ding6 syu1|p=1. xīnchǒu tiáoyuē2. xīnchǒu gè guó héyuē3. běijīng yìdìngshū|l=1. Xinchou (year 1901) treaty2. Xinchou (year 1901) all-nation peace treaty3. Beijing protocol}}{{Wikisource|Boxer Protocol}}{{Campaignbox Boxer Rebellion}}The Boxer Protocol was signed on September 7, 1901, between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance that had provided military forces (including Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United States, and the United Kingdom) as well as Belgium, Spain, and the Netherlands; after China's defeat in the intervention to put down the Boxer Rebellion. It is often regarded as one of the Unequal Treaties.{{TOC limit|2}}

Negotiations during the Boxer Rebellion

The Qing dynasty was by no means defeated when the Allies took control of Beijing. The Allies had to temper the demands they sent in a message to Xi'an to get the Empress Dowager Cixi to agree with them; for instance, China did not have to give up any land. Many of the Dowager Empress' advisers in the Imperial Court insisted that the war continue against the foreigners, arguing that China could defeat them since it was the disloyal and traitorous people within China who allowed Beijing and Tianjin to be captured by the Allies, and the interior of China was impenetrable. The Dowager was practical and decided that the terms were generous enough for her to acquiesce and stop the war when she was assured of her continued reign.BOOK,weblink The Boxer Rebellion: the dramatic story of China's war on foreigners that shook the world in the summer of 1900, Diana, Preston, 2000, Bloomsbury Publishing, USA, 312, 9780802713612, March 4, 2011,

Signatories

The Boxer Protocol was signed on September 7, 1901, in the Spanish Legation in Beijing. Signatories included:JOURNAL, Cologan y Gonzalez-Massieu, Jorge, El papel de Espana en la Revolucion de los Boxers de 1900: Un capitulo olvidado en la historia de las relaciones diplomaticas, Boletín de la Real Academia de la Historia, 2008, 205, 3, 493, La Academia, Spanish, 423747062,

Foreign powers

and
  • (File:China Qing Dynasty Flag 1889.svg|22px|border) Qing Dynasty, represented by:
    • His Excellency Li Hongzhang, Earl of the First Rank Su-i, Tutor of the Heir Apparent, Grand Secretary of the Wen Hua Tien, Minister of Commerce, Superintendent of the Northern Ports, and Governor General of the province of Chihli.
    • His Highness Yikuang, Prince Qing first Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet.

The clauses

(File:《辛丑条约》签字时的情景.jpg|thumb|250px|Signing of the Boxer Protocol. Left, from left to right: F.M Knobel from Netherland (only see his hands); K. Jutaro from Japan; G. S. Raggi from Italy; Joostens from Belgium; C. von Walhborn from Austria-Hungary; B. J. Cologán from Spain; M. von Giers from Russia; A. Mumm for German Empire; E. M. Satow from United Kingdom; W. W. Rockhill from US; P. Beau from France; I-Kuang; Li Hongzhang; Prince Qing)File:EightNationsCrime02.jpg|thumb|250px|The Eight-Nation Alliance during a celebration ceremony inside the Forbidden City after the signing of the Boxer Protocol. Immediately identifiable flags in picture: {{flagicon|Kingdom of Italy}} Italy, {{flagicon|French Third Republic}} France, {{flagicon|German Empire}} Germany, {{flagicon|Russian Empire}} Russia and {{flagicon|Empire of Japan}} Japan, 1901.]]450 million taels of fine silver (around 18,000 tonnes, worth approx. US$333 million or £67 million at the exchange rates of the time) were to be paid as indemnity over a course of 39 years to the eight nations involved.BOOK, Spence, Jonathan D., The Search for Modern China, 1991, Norton, New York, 0393307808, 1st Norton pbk., The Chinese paid the indemnity in gold on a rising scale with a 4% interest charge until the debt was amortized on December 31, 1940. After 39 years, the amount was almost 1 billion taels (precisely 982,238,150), or ~{{convert|1180000000|ozt|t|abbr=off}} at 1.2 ozt/tael.The sum was to be distributed as follows: Russia 28.97%, Germany 20.02%, France 15.75%, United Kingdom 11.25%, Japan 7.73%, United States 7.32%, Italy 7.32%, Belgium 1.89%, Austria-Hungary 0.89%, Netherlands 0.17%, Spain 0.03%, Portugal 0.021%, Sweden and Norway 0.014%.BOOK, M.E. Sharpe, A History of Modern Shanghai Banking, 8054799M, Ji, Zhaojin, March 2003, 9780765610027, 75,

Other clauses included

  • To prohibit the importation of arms and ammunition, as well as materials for the production of arms or ammunition for a period of 2 years, extensible further 2 years as the Powers saw necessary.
  • The destruction of Taku Forts.BOOK, Sondhaus, Lawrence, Naval warfare, 1815-1914, 2001, Routledge, London, 9780415214773,
  • Legation Quarters occupied by the Powers shall be considered as a special area reserved for their use under exclusive control, in which Chinese shall not have the right to reside, and which may be defensible. China recognised the right of each Power to maintain a permanent guard in the said Quarters for the defense of its Legation.
  • Boxer and Government officials were to be punished for crimes or attempted crimes against the foreign Governments or their nationals. Many were either sentenced to execution, deportation to Xinjiang, imprisoned for life, commit suicide, or suffer posthumous degradation.
  • The "Office in Charge of Affairs of All Nations" (Zongli Yamen) was replaced with a Foreign Office, which ranked above the other six boards in the government.
  • The Chinese Government was to prohibit forever, under the pain of death, membership in any anti-foreign society, civil service examinations were to be suspended for 5 years in all areas where foreigners were massacred or subjected to cruel treatment, provincial and local officials would personally be held responsible for any new anti-foreign incidents.
  • The Emperor of China was to convey his regrets to the German Emperor for the assassination of Baron von Ketteler.
  • The Emperor of China was to appoint Na't'ung to be his Envoy Extraordinary and direct him to also convey to the Emperor of Japan, his expression of regrets and that of his Government at the assassination of Mr. Sugiyama.
  • The Chinese Government would have to erect on the spot of the assassination of Baron von Ketteler a commemorative arch inscribed in Latin, German, and Chinese.
  • Concede the right to the Powers to station troops in the following places:Pamphlets on the Chinese-Japanese War, 1939–1945. [Published 1937]
Sino-Japanese Conflict, 1937—45. Digitized May 30, 2007. No ISBN.{|class="wikitable"! Traditional Chinese! Simplified Chinese! Pinyin! Transliterated names from early text using a system that pre-dates Pinyin
Huangcun >| Huang-tsun
Langfang >| Lang-fang
Yangcun >| Yang-tsun
Tianjin >| Tien-tsin
Junliangcheng >| Chun-liang-Cheng
Tanggu District>Tanggu Tong-ku
Lutai >| Lu-tai
Tangshan >| Tong-shan
Luanzhou >| Lan-chou
Changli >| Chang-li
Qinhuangdao >| Chin-wang Tao
Shanhaiguan District>Shanhaiguan Shan-hai Kuan

Hoax demands

The French Catholic vicar apostolic, Msgr. Alfons Bermyn, wanted foreign troops garrisoned in Inner Mongolia, but the Governor refused. Bermyn resorted to lies, and falsely petitioned the Manchu Enming to send troops to Hetao where Prince Duan's Mongol troops and General Dong Fuxiang's Muslim troops allegedly threatened Catholics. It turned out that Bermyn had created the incident as a hoax.BOOK,weblink Chronique du Toumet-Ortos: looking through the lens of Joseph Van Oost, missionary in Inner Mongolia (1915–1921), Ann Heylen, 2004, Leuven University Press, Leuven, Belgium, 203, 90-5867-418-5, June 28, 2010, BOOK,weblink Han-Mongol encounters and missionary endeavors: a history of Scheut in Ordos (Hetao) 1874–1911, Patrick Taveirne, 2004, Leuven University Press, Leuven, Belgium, 539, 90-5867-365-0, June 28, 2010, One of the false reports claimed that Dong Fuxiang wiped out Belgian missionaries in Mongolia and was going to massacre Catholics in Taiyuan.BOOK, Fire and sword in Shansi: the story of the martyrdom of foreigners and Chinese Christians, E. H., Edwards, 1903, 167, Revell, New York, 13518958M,weblink BOOK, The I. G. in Peking: Letters of Robert Hart, Chinese Maritime Customs, 1868-1907, Robert, Hart, James Duncan, Campbell, John King, Fairbank, Katherine Frost, Bruner, Elizabeth MacLeod, Matheson, 1975, Harvard University Press,weblink 1271, 0674443209, 24 April 2014, harv,

Demands rejected by China

The Qing did not capitulate to all the foreign demands. The Manchu Governor Yuxian was executed, but the Imperial court refused to execute the Chinese General Dong Fuxiang, although both were anti-foreign and had been accused of encouraging the killing of foreigners during the rebellion.BOOK,weblink Beijing: a concise history, Stephen G. Haw, 2007, Routledge, 98, 0-415-39906-8, June 28, 2010, Instead, General Dong Fuxiang lived a life of luxury and power in "exile" in his home province of Gansu.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, 8, Hastings, James, Selbie, John Alexander, Gray, Louis Herbert, 1915, T. & T. Clark, 894,weblink Edinburgh, 3065458, BOOK,weblink E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam 1913–1936, M. Th. Houtsma, A. J. Wensinck, 1993, Stanford BRILL, 850, 90-04-09796-1, June 28, 2010, In addition to sparing Dong Fuxiang, the Qing also refused to exile the Boxer supporter Prince Zaiyi to Xinjiang, as the foreigners demanded. Instead, he moved to Alashan, west of Ningxia, and lived in the residence of the local Mongol prince. He then moved to Ningxia during the Xinhai Revolution when the Muslims took control of Ningxia, and finally, moved to Xinjiang with Sheng Yun.BOOK, Teichman, Eric, Eric Teichman,weblink Travels Of A Consular Officer In North-West China, CUP Archive, Cambridge, 188, 14046010M, 1921, 2585746, Prince Duan "went no farther than Manchuria for exile, and was heard of there in 1908".BOOK, The Boxer Rebellion: A Political and Diplomatic Review, Paul Henry, Clements, 1915, Columbia University, 201,weblink 24661390M, harv,

Spending & remittance

On December 28, 1908, the United States remitted $11,961,121.76 of its share of the Indemnity to support the education of Chinese students in the United States and the construction of Tsinghua University in Beijing,BOOK, Elleman, Bruce A., Diplomacy and deception : the secret history of Sino-Soviet diplomatic relations, 1917-1927, 1998, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk (N.Y.), 0765601435, 144, harv, thanks to the efforts of the Chinese ambassador Liang Cheng.WEB,weblink Liang Cheng, The "Diplomatic Hero", Cultural China, Shanghai News and Press Bureau, November 22, 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121023161302weblink">weblink October 23, 2012, mdy-all, When China declared war on Germany and Austria in 1917, it suspended the combined German and Austrian share of the Boxer Indemnity, which totaled 20.91 percent. At the Paris Peace Conference, Beijing succeeded in completely revoking the German and Austrian shares of the Boxer Indemnity.{{harvnb|Elleman|1998|p=145}}The history surrounding Russia's share of the Boxer Indemnity is the most complex of all the nations involved. On December 2, 1918, the Bolsheviks issued an official decree abolishing Russia's share of the Indemnity (146). Upon the arrival of Lev Karakhan in Beijing during the Fall of 1923, however, it became clear that the Soviet Union expected to retain control over how the Russian share was to be spent. Though Karakhan was initially hesitant to follow the United States' example of directing the funds toward education, he soon insisted in private that the Russian share had to be used for that purpose and during February 1924, presented a proposal stating that the "Soviet portion of the Boxer Indemnity would be allocated to Chinese educational institutions."{{harvnb|Elleman|1998|p=147}} On March 14, 1924, Karakhan completed a draft Sino-Soviet agreement stating "The government of the USSR agrees to renounce the Russian portion of the Boxer Indemnity." Copies of these terms were published in the Chinese press, and the ensuing positive public reaction encouraged other countries to match the USSR's terms. On May 21, 1924, the U.S. Congress agreed to remit to China the final $6,137,552.90 of the American share. Ten days later, however, it became apparent that the USSR did not intend to carry through on its earlier promise of full renunciation. When the final Sino-Soviet agreement was announced, it specified that Russia's share would be used to promote education in China and that the Soviet government would retain control over how the money was to be used, an exact parallel to the U.S. remittance of 1908.{{harvnb|Elleman|1998|p=148}}On March 3, 1925, Great Britain completed arrangements to use its share of the Boxer Indemnity to support railway construction in China. On April 12, France asked that its indemnity be used to reopen a defunct Sino-French Bank. Italy signed an agreement on October 1 to spend its share on the construction of steel bridges. The Netherlands' share paid for harbor and land reclamation. The Netherlands also used its indemnity for the establishment of the Sinological Institute at Leiden University.BOOK, Idema, Wilt, Chinese Studies in the Netherlands: Past, Present and Future, 2013, BRILL, Leiden, 978-90-04-26312-3, 77, harv, The Belgian funds were earmarked to be spent on railway material in Belgium. Finally, Japan's indemnity was transferred to develop aviation in China under Japanese oversight.{{harvnb|Elleman|1998|p=154}} Once these countries' approximately 40 percent of the Boxer Indemnity was added to Germany's and Austria's combined 20.91 percent, the United States' 7.32 percent, and the Soviet Union's 28.97 percent share, the Beijing government had accounted for over 98 percent of the entire Boxer Indemnity. Hence, by 1927, Beijing had almost completely revoked Boxer Indemnity payments abroad and had succeeded in redirecting the payments for use within China.{{harvnb|Elleman|1998|p=155}}

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{Sino-Russian treaties}}{{Qing dynasty topics}}

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