Biotic material

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Biotic material
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{{short description|Any material that originates from living organisms}}{{Life timeline}}Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms. Most such materials contain carbon and are capable of decay.The earliest life on Earth arose at least 3.5 billion years ago.Schopf, JW, Kudryavtsev, AB, Czaja, AD, and Tripathi, AB. (2007). Evidence of some Archean life: Stromatolites and microfossils. Precambrian Research 158:141–155.Schopf, JW (2006). Fossil evidence of Archaean life. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 29;361(1470) 869-85.BOOK, Peter, Hamilton Raven, George, Brooks Johnson, Biology,weblink 2002, McGraw-Hill Education, 978-0-07-112261-0, 68, 7 July 2013, Earlier physical evidences of life include graphite, a biogenic substance, in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks discovered in southwestern Greenland,JOURNAL, Ohtomo, Yoko, Kakegawa, Takeshi, Ishida, Akizumi, Nagase, Toshiro, Rosing, Minik T., 3, January 2014, Evidence for biogenic graphite in early Archaean Isua metasedimentary rocks, Nature Geoscience, London, Nature Publishing Group, 7, 1, 25–28, 2014NatGe...7...25O, 10.1038/ngeo2025, 1752-0894, as well as, "remains of biotic life" found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.NEWS, Borenstein, Seth, Hints of life on what was thought to be desolate early Earth,weblink 19 October 2015, Excite, Yonkers, NY, Mindspark Interactive Network, Associated Press, 2015-10-20, JOURNAL, Bell, Elizabeth A., Boehnike, Patrick, Harrison, T. Mark, Mao, Wendy L., 3, 19 October 2015, Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon,weblink Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences, 10.1073/pnas.1517557112, 1091-6490, 2015-10-20, 26483481, 4664351, 112, 47, 14518–21, 2015PNAS..11214518B, Early edition, published online before print. Earth's biodiversity has expanded continually except when interrupted by mass extinctions.JOURNAL,weblink Sahney, S., Benton, M.J., Ferry, P.A., yes, 27 January 2010, Links between global taxonomic diversity, ecological diversity and the expansion of vertebrates on land, Biology Letters, 10.1098/rsbl.2009.1024
pages = 544–47 pmid=20106856 species of life (over five billion)KUNIN, W.E. TITLE=THE BIOLOGY OF RARITY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF RARE—COMMON DIFFERENCESDATE=31 DECEMBER 1996 ACCESSDATE=26 MAY 2015, that ever lived on Earth are Extinction,STEARNS LAST2=STEARNS LAST3=STEARNS TITLE=WATCHING, FROM THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION YEAR=2000 YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS >ISBN=978-0-300-08469-6ACCESSDATE=30 MAY 2017, NOVACEK >FIRST=MICHAEL J., Prehistory's Brilliant Future,weblink 8 November 2014, The New York TimesTITLE=HOW MANY SPECIES ARE THERE ON EARTH? DATE=1988 ISSUE=4872 BIBCODE=1988SCI...241.1441M PMID=17790039, MILLER >FIRST1=G. FIRST2=SCOTT, Environmental Science, Biodiversity and Evolution,weblink 1 January 2012, Cengage Learningpage=62LAST2=TITTENSOR LAST3=ADL LAST4=SIMPSON LAST5=WORM TITLE=HOW MANY SPECIES ARE THERE ON EARTH AND IN THE OCEAN? JOURNAL=PLOS BIOLOGY PMID=21886479 VOLUME=9 PAGES=E1001127, Examples of biotic materials are wood, straw, humus, manure, bark, crude oil, cotton, spider silk, chitin, fibrin, and bone.The use of biotic materials, and processed biotic materials (bio-based material) as alternative natural materials, over synthetics is popular with those who are environmentally conscious because such materials are usually biodegradable, renewable, and the processing is commonly understood and has minimal environmental impact. However, not all biotic materials are used in an environmentally friendly way, such as those that require high levels of processing, are harvested unsustainably, or are used to produce carbon emissions.When the source of the recently living material has little importance to the product produced, such as in the production of biofuels, biotic material is simply called biomass. Many fuel sources may have biological sources, and may be divided roughly into fossil fuels, and biofuel.In soil science, biotic material is often referred to as organic matter. Biotic materials in soil include glomalin, Dopplerite and humic acid. Some biotic material may not be considered to be organic matter if it is low in organic compounds, such as a clam's shell, which is an essential component of the living organism, but contains little organic carbon.Examples of the use of biotic materials include:{{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}



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