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49.41666720.25type:mountain_region:PLdisplay=inline,title}}|map_image=|map_caption=}}The Beskids or Beskid Mountains (, , , (BeskydÅ·), (Beskydy), (Beskidy)) is a traditional name for a series of mountain ranges in the Carpathians, stretching from the Czech Republic in the west along the border of Poland with Slovakia up to Ukraine in the east.Encyclopedia of Ukraine: BeskydsThe highest mountain in the Beskids is Babia Góra, at 1,725 m metres (5,659 ft).


The origin of the name beskydy has not been conclusively established. A Thracian or Illyrian origin has been suggested,{{Citation needed|date=May 2009}} however, as yet, no theory has majority support among linguists. The word appears in numerous mountain names throughout the Carpathians and the adjacent Balkan regions, like in Albanian bjeshkë. The Slovak name Beskydy refers to the Polish Bieszczady Mountains, which is not a synonym for the entire Beskids but one single range, belonging to the Eastern Beskids. According to another linguistic theory, it may be related to Middle Low German beshêt, beskēt, meaning watershed.Zbigniew Gołąb. The Origins of the Slavs: A Linguist's View. Slavica Publishers, Inc., 1992 p. 342. "The Germanic etymology of Bieszczad // Beskid was proposed by prof. Jan Michał Rozwadowski (1914:162, etc). He derives the variant beščad from Germc. biskaid, wchich is represented by MLG besche (beskêt) Trennung and by Scandinavian bêsked, borrowed from [...]"Historically, the term was used for hundreds of years to describe the mountain range separating the old Kingdom of Hungary from the old Kingdom of Poland. In 1269, the Beskids were known by the Latin name "Beschad Alpes Poloniae" (translated as: Beskid Mountains of Poland).Kazimierz Zarzycki, Zbigniew Głowaciński (1986): Bieszczady (p. 7)


The Beskids are approximately 600 km in length and 50–70 km in width. They stand mainly along the southern border of Lesser Poland with northern Slovakia, stretching to the Moravia and Czech Silesia regions of the eastern Czech Republic and to Carpathian Ruthenia in western Ukraine. Parts form the European Watershed, separating the Oder and Vistula basins in the north from the Eastern Slovak Lowland, part of the Great Hungarian Plain drained by the Danube River.Geologically all of the Beskids stand within the Outer Western Carpathians and the Outer Eastern Carpathians. In the west they begin at the natural pass of the Moravian Gate, which separates them from the Eastern Sudetes, continue east in a band to the north of the Tatra Mountains, and end in Ukraine. The eastern termination of the Beskids is disputed. According to older sources, the Beskids end at the source of the Tisza River, while newer sources state that the Beskids end at the Uzhok Pass at the Polish-Ukrainian border.


File:Vnější Západní Karpaty, e.svg|thumb|right|240px|Western section of Western BeskidsWestern BeskidsFile:Vnější Západní Karpaty, f.svg|thumb|right|240px|Northern section of Western BeskidsWestern BeskidsFile:Vnější Západní Karpaty, h.svg|thumb|right|240px|Eastern section of the Western BeskidsEastern section of the Western BeskidsFile:Vnější Západní Karpaty, g.svg|thumb|right|250px|Central section of the Western BeskidsCentral section of the Western BeskidsMultiple traditions, languages and nationalities have developed overlapping variants for the divisions and names of the Beskid ranges. According to the divisions of the Carpathians, they are categorized within:

Western Beskids

Central Beskids

File:Vnější Východní Karpaty, a.svg|thumb|right|240px|Central Beskidian PiedmontCentral Beskidian PiedmontFile:Vnější Východní Karpaty, b.svg|thumb|right|240px|Central Beskids, marked in red and labeled with B]]

Eastern Beskids

File:Vnější Východní Karpaty, c.svg|thumb|right|240px|Eastern Beskids, marked in red and labeled with C]]Eastern Beskids are divided into two parallel ridges: Wooded Beskids and Polonynian Beskids.
  • Wooded Beskids (PL: Beskidy Lesiste; UA: Лісисті Бескиди)
    • Bieszczady Mountains (PL: Bieszczady; UK: Бещади) → c1
    • Sanok-Turka Mountains (PL: Góry Sanocko-TurczaÅ„skie; UK: Верхньодністровські Бескиди) → c3
    • Skole Beskids (PL: Beskidy Skolskie; UA: Сколівські Бескиди) → c2
    • Gorgany (PL: Gorgany; UA: Ґорґани) → c4
    • Pokuttia-Bucovina Beskids (PL: Beskidy Pokucko-BukowiÅ„skie; UA: Покутсько-Буковинські Карпати) → c5
  • Polonynian Beskids (PL: Beskidy PoÅ‚oniÅ„skie; UA: Полонинські Бескиди)
    • Smooth Polonyna (UK: Полонина Рівна) → c6
    • Polonyna Borzhava (UK: Полонина Боржава) → c7
    • Polonyna Kuk (UK: Полонина Кук) → c8
    • Red Polonyna (UK: Полонина Красна)→ c9
    • Svydovets (UK: Свидівець) → c10
    • Chornohora (UK: Чорногора) → c11
    • Hrynyavy Mountains (UK: Гриняви) → c12


The Beskids are currently rich in forest and coal. In the past they were rich in iron ore, with important plants in Ostrava and Třinec – Třinec Iron and Steel Works.There are many tourist attractions, including historic wooden churches (see Wooden Churches of Southern Little Poland, Carpathian Wooden Churches of Slovakia, and Wooden Churches of Ukraine) and the increasingly popular skiing resorts.A number of environmental groups support a small but growing population of bears, wolves and lynx in the ecosystem of the Beskidy mountains. The Central Beskids include the Polish Babia Góra National Park and the adjacent Slovak Horná Orava Protected Landscape Area.

See also

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  • BOOK, harv, Földvary, Gábor Z., Geology of the Carpathian Region, 1988, Singapore, World Scientific Publishing Company,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Kondracki, Jerzy, Regiony fizycznogeograficzne Polski, 1977, Warszawa, Wydawa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Kondracki, Jerzy, Problemy standaryzacji nazw geograficznych, 1989, Warszawa, Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PWN,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Kondracki, Jerzy, Geografia regionalna Polski, 2000, 1998, 2., Warszawa, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Tasenkevich, Lydia, Polonynas: Highlands Pastures in the Ukrainian Carpathians, Grasslands in Europe: Of High Nature Value, 2009, Zeist, KNNV Publishing, 203–208,weblink
  • Filip ÅšwistuÅ„, Galicyjskie Beskidy i Karpaty Lesiste: Zarys orograficzn, Rzeszow 1876.


File:Beskid Mountains division map.svg|Map of the Beskid ranges in Slovakia and PolandFile:Czantoria - widok z wiezy widokowej 09.JPG|Czantoria, Silesian BeskidsFile:Beskidy Bieszczady SE.jpg|Western BieszczadyFile:Bieszczady1.jpg|Western BieszczadyFile:New granite sculpture of Radegast.jpg|Statue of "Radegast" on a Czech BeskidsFile:Kwiaton 2.jpg|Wooden church in KwiatońFile:OV-Hrabova.JPG|Wooden church in Hrabova, Moravia (14th - 1564)File:Koniaków miyszani owiec (redyk wiosenny) 04.jpg|Shepherds in Silesian BeskidsFile:Beskid Wyspowy a10.jpg|Island Beskids

External links

{{commons category|The Beskids}} {{Authority control}}

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