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Bertelsmann
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{{EngvarB|date=March 2018}}{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2018}}







factoids
| founder = Carl Bertelsmann| location_city = Gütersloh| location_country = GermanyWorld>WorldwideThomas Rabe (manager)HTTPS://NEXT.FT.COM/CONTENT/8411D7B0-CAF0-11E3-9C6A-00144FEABDC0AUTHOR1=HENRY MANCEDATE=27 APRIL 2014WEBSITE=FINANCIAL TIMES, (Chairman and Chief Executive Officer)Christoph MohnCHRISTIAN MüSSGENSDATE=30 AUGUST 2012URL=HTTP://WWW.FAZ.NET/AKTUELL/WIRTSCHAFT/CHRISTOPH-MOHN-EIN-FAMILIENWAECHTER-FUER-BERTELSMANN-11873336.HTMLFRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE ZEITUNG>ACCESS-DATE=19 MAY 2016, (Chairman of the Supervisory Board)}}| industry = Mass media| products = Publishing, Record label, Broadcasting, Cable television, Movie productionRTL Group (75.1%)Penguin Random House (75%)>Gruner + JahrBMG Rights Management>BMGArvato>Bertelsmann Printing GroupBertelsmann Investments}}Euro>€17.673 billion (2018)| net_income = {{decrease}} €1.104 billion (2018)| assets = {{increase}} €25.343 billion (2018)| equity = {{increase}} €9.838 billion (2018)| num_employees = 117,220 (2018)| owner = Bertelsmann Stiftung and othersbertelsmann.com}}ar2018.bertelsmann.com|Annual Report 2018}}}}Bertelsmann is a German multinational corporation based in Gütersloh, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is one of the world's largest mass media companies and also active in the service sector and education.WEB,weblink The World's Largest Media Corporations, 2015, Nordicom, Nordic Information Centre for Media and Communication Research, 15 June 2015, 19 May 2016, Ulrika Facht, NEWS, Bertelsmann stellt sich breiter auf, de, Der Tagesspiegel, 22 March 2016, 19 May 2016, Henrik Mortsiefer,weblink Bertelsmann was founded as a publishing house by Carl Bertelsmann in 1835.NEWS, Bertelsmann druckt erstes Buch, Stephan Grimm, de, 30 August 2012, Neue Westfälische, After World War II, Bertelsmann, under the leadership of Reinhard Mohn, went from being a medium-sized enterprise to a major conglomerate, offering not only books but also television, radio, music, magazines and business services.NEWS, de, Thorsten Gödecker, 1 July 2010, Geschichte mit Zukunft, Neue Westfälische, Bertelsmann is an unlisted and capital market-oriented company,WEB,weblink Bertelsmann, Capital Market Orientation, Investor Relations, 19 May 2016, which remains primarily controlled by the Mohn family.NEWS, 30 January 2011, 19 May 2016,weblink de, Medienmonarchie aus Gütersloh, Handelsblatt, NEWS, de, Es bleibt in der Familie, Wiener Zeitung, 12 October 2011, 19, Since 2016, major divisions of Bertelsmann are RTL Group, Penguin Random House, Gruner + Jahr, BMG, Arvato, Bertelsmann Printing Group, Bertelsmann Education Group and Bertelsmann Investments.NEWS, de, Bertelsmann sortiert sich neu, Handelsblatt, Kai-Hinrich Renner, 23 March 2016, 24,

History

1835 to 1933

(File:Bertelsmann-Signet.jpg|thumb|The original C. Bertelsmann Verlag company logo as it appears on Carl Bertelsmann's tomb in Gütersloh.)The nucleus of the corporation is the C. Bertelsmann Verlag, a publishing house established in 1835 by Carl Bertelsmann in Gütersloh.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 12, Carl Bertelsmann was a representative of the "Minden-Ravensberger Erweckungsbewegung", a Protestant revival movement, whose writings he published.NEWS, de, Singen zu Gottes Ehre und eigener Freude, Westfalen-Blatt, 1 July 2010, The C. Bertelsmann Verlag, originally specialized in theological literature, expanded its publications to include school and textbooks, and in the 1920s and 1930s increasingly entered into the field of light fiction.BOOK, de, Thomas Lehning, Das Medienhaus: Geschichte und Gegenwart des Bertelsmann-Konzerns, Fink, Paderborn, Munich, 2004, 3-7705-4035-2, 27,

1933 to 1945

During the Third Reich, the publishing house gained a prominent position with its affordable "Bertelsmann Volksausgaben" ("people's editions").BOOK, Norbert Frei, Saul Friedländer, Trutz Rendtorff, Reinhard Wittmann, de, Bertelsmann im Dritten Reich, Bertelsmann, Munich, 2002, 3-570-00711-1, 157, In particular, war adventure books such as Werner von Langsdorff's "Fliegerbuch" on aviation were a commercial success.BOOK, Thomas Lehning, de, Das Medienhaus: Geschichte und Gegenwart des Bertelsmann-Konzerns, Fink, Paderborn, Munich, 2004, 3-7705-4035-2, 28, Heinrich Mohn belonged to the patrons' circle of the SS and sought to turn his company into a National Socialist model enterprise.BOOK, de, Norbert Frei, Saul Friedländer, Trutz Rendtorff, Reinhard Wittmann, Bertelsmann im Dritten Reich, Bertelsmann, Munich, 2002, 3-570-00711-1, 347, During World War II, the C. Bertelsmann Verlag became a leading supplier to the Wehrmacht,NEWS, Bertelsmann größter NS-Lieferant, Saarbrücker Zeitung, 18 January 2000, de, even surpassing the central publishing house of the NSDAP Franz Eher.BOOK, Norbert Frei, Saul Friedländer, Trutz Rendtorff, Reinhard Wittmann, de, Bertelsmann im Dritten Reich, Bertelsmann, Munich, 2002, 3-570-00711-1, 423, Especially in the years between 1939 and 1941, the revenues of the C. Bertelsmann Verlag skyrocketed.BOOK, de, Thomas Lehning, Das Medienhaus: Geschichte und Gegenwart des Bertelsmann-Konzerns, Fink, Paderborn, Munich, 2004, 3-7705-4035-2, 30, Jewish slave laborers were not forced to work in Gütersloh, but in printing plants in Lithuania with which the C. Bertelsmann Verlag cooperated.NEWS, Bertelsmann im NS-Staat, de, Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 9 October 2002, 54, NEWS, Literaturnobelpreis am Donnerstag, de, Der Standard, 9 October 2002, 26, In 1944, the Reichsschrifttumskammer (Reich Chamber of Literature) closed the publishing house to "mobilize all powers for victory".BOOK, Norbert Frei, Saul Friedländer, Trutz Rendtorff, Reinhard Wittmann, de, Bertelsmann im Dritten Reich, Bertelsmann, Munich, 2002, 3-570-00711-1, 503–503, Another essential reason for this was criminal paper racketeering by some publisher's employees,NEWS, de, Bücher im Dienst der Kriegspropaganda, Berliner Zeitung, 8 October 2002, 14, which led to a trial in 1944.NEWS, Bertelsmann-Chef zeigt Reue, de, Handelsblatt, 8 October 2002, 18, NEWS, de, Die Gabe des Vergessens, Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 31 October 2008, 63, Thomas Schuler,

1945 to 1970

After the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler and World War II, the company portrayed itself to the Allied Control Authority as a Christian publisher that was part of the resistance to Nazism and allegedly persecuted. Ties to National Socialist organizations were initially denied. After it became known that erroneous, or at least inadequate, statements had been made, Heinrich Mohn stepped down as the head of the publishing house.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 22, Reinhard Mohn, one of his three sons, took over the C. Bertelsmann Verlag, as Hans Heinrich Mohn had been killed in the war and Sigbert Mohn was still a prisoner of war.BOOK, de, Thomas Lehning, Das Medienhaus: Geschichte und Gegenwart des Bertelsmann-Konzerns, Fink, Paderborn, Munich, 2004, 3-7705-4035-2, 33, In 1947, the Allies finally granted the company a publishing license.BOOK, de, Thomas Lehning, Das Medienhaus: Geschichte und Gegenwart des Bertelsmann-Konzerns, Fink, Paderborn, Munich, 2004, 3-7705-4035-2, 34, After the currency reform in 1948, there was a market slump in the book trade that also led to the next existential crisis for the C. Bertelsmann Verlag.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 135, Under these conditions, in 1950 Bertelsmann launched the Lesering (book club) to stimulate sales.NEWS, Günther Bähr, Das allerletzte Kapitel, de, Focus (German magazine), Focus, 14 August 2015, 96–97, The customers ordered books via subscription, and in return, received discounted prices.NEWS, Letztes Kapitel vor Gericht, Erich Reimann, Wiesbadener Kurier, 25 August 2015, de, The business increasingly shifted from the publishing house to the sale of books, which was decisive to further growth.BOOK, de, Volker Ackermann, Torsten Groth, Markus Plate, Arist von Schlippe, Große deutsche Familienunternehmen: Generationenfolge, Familienstrategie und Unternehmensentwicklung, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 2011, 978-3-525-40338-9, 82, In 1959, the C. Bertelsmann Verlag was restructured: From that point on, theological literature was published in the Gütersloher Verlagshaus, a new publishing house which was consolidated with the Rufer Verlag. Fiction, poetry and art came under the roof of Sigbert Mohn Verlag. The C. Bertelsmann Verlag focused on nonfiction books, in particular dictionaries, guidebooks, reference books and journals.BOOK, de, Thomas Lehning, Das Medienhaus: Geschichte und Gegenwart des Bertelsmann-Konzerns, Fink, Paderborn, Munich, 2004, 3-7705-4035-2, 87, The 1950s and 1960s, Bertelsmann expanded its activities into new business areas: Thus, 1956, the company entered the music market with the Bertelsmann Schallplattenring (record club). Two years later, Ariola, one of the most successful German record labels was launched,NEWS, de, Bertelsmann wird heute 175 Jahre alt (1950–1960), Westfalen-Blatt, 1 July 2010, and virtually at the same time, the Sonopress record pressing plant was established.NEWS, Superstar und Freund der Mohns, de, Neue Westfälische, 23 December 2014, 3, With the Kommissionshaus Buch & Ton (book and audio commissioning company), from which the Vereinigte Verlagsauslieferung (VVA) emerged, Bertelsmann laid the cornerstone for its service business.BOOK, Jan Philip Holtman, de, Pfadabhängigkeit strategischer Entscheidungen: Eine Fallstudie am Beispiel des Bertelsmann-Buchclubs Deutschland, Kölner Wiss., Cologne, 2008, 3-937404-57-0,weblink 1 October 2015, 126, In 1964, Bertelsmann purchased the already broken-up UFA from the Deutsche Bank and built on its presence in cinema and television.NEWS,weblink Der Spiegel, de, Klappe zu, 15 January 1964, NEWS, de, Bertelsmann wird heute 175 Jahre alt (1960–1970), Westfalen-Blatt, 1 July 2010, In 1969, Bertelsmann acquired shares in the magazine publisher Gruner + Jahr. A merger with Axel Springer, also planned at the time, for which a loan for millions had been taken out temporarily from Westdeutsche Landesbank,NEWS,weblink Der Spiegel, de, 9 March 1970, Freundlicher Moloch, failed in 1970.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 36,

1971 to 1983

File:Reinhard Mohn Portrait 2008.jpg|thumb|upright|Portrait of Reinhard MohnReinhard MohnStarting in 1971, Bertelsmann operated as a joint-stock company ("Aktiengesellschaft" or "AG"), becoming Bertelsmann AG.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 37, The increasingly diversifying book publishers were bundled in the Verlagsgruppe Bertelsmann publishing group at the end of the 1960s.BOOK, de, Thomas Lehning, Das Medienhaus: Geschichte und Gegenwart des Bertelsmann-Konzerns, Fink, Paderborn, Munich, 2004, 3-7705-4035-2, 88, In 1972, this company moved from Gütersloh to Munich.BOOK, de, Thomas Lehning, Das Medienhaus: Geschichte und Gegenwart des Bertelsmann-Konzerns, Fink, Paderborn, Munich, 2004, 3-7705-4035-2, 91, Key divisions remained in Gütersloh, for which a new office building was built in 1976 at the Group's official location.WEB,weblink Chronicle, Bertelsmann, Gütersloh Head Office Moves to New Premises, 20 May 2016, To this day, it has remained the Bertelsmann headquarters, referred to as the Bertelsmann Corporate Center. The rapid growth of Bertelsmann led to structural and financial problems. In the 1970s, financing requirements reached their peak. From 1975 to 1980, for example, the return on sales fell below one percent.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 43, Bertelsmann also encountered new regulatory rules in its home market, in particular through laws governing mergers.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 40, Larger acquisitions became practically impossible. At the same time, there was an increasing saturation of the German market for the Bertelsmann Lesering,BOOK, de, Thomas Lehning, Das Medienhaus: Geschichte und Gegenwart des Bertelsmann-Konzerns, Fink, Paderborn, Munich, 2004, 3-7705-4035-2, 56, whereas the foreign book clubs earned the lion's share of revenues in this corporate division.BOOK, de, Thomas Lehning, Das Medienhaus: Geschichte und Gegenwart des Bertelsmann-Konzerns, Fink, Paderborn, Munich, 2004, 3-7705-4035-2, 57, The internationalization of Bertelsmann, initiated in the 1960s, was taken further:BOOK, de, Christine Hierl, Medienkonzentration und die Internationalisierung deutscher Medienkonzerne am Beispiel der Bertelsmann AG, 2007, München, 978-3-638-60658-5, GRIN Verlag, Among other things, Bertelsmann acquired shares in the publishing houses Plaza & JanésNEWS, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, de,weblink Chronologie: Die Bertelsmann-Geschichte, 29 July 2002, 20 May 2016, based in Barcelona and Bantam BooksBOOK, The Encyclopedia of New York City, 2nd, Kenneth T. Jackson, Lisa Keller, Nancy Flood, Yale University Press, 2010, from New York City. In the United States, a location was established for Ariola and Arista Records was acquired.BOOK, Reinhard Mohn, Erfolg durch Menschlichkeit und Freiheit, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2008, 978-3-570-01110-2, de, In the period of the 1979–1980 recession, there was discussion concerning the succession of Reinhard Mohn.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 44–45, In 1981, he finally moved over to the supervisory board. Manfred Fischer, who had previously headed up management of Gruner + Jahr, became the new chairman and chief executive officer.NEWS,weblink Manager Magazin, Top-Manager Manfred Fischer ist tot, de, 15 April 2002, 20 May 2016, With this move, Bertelsmann, for the first time, was led by a manager who was not a member of the owner family.NEWS, de,weblink Rückzug an die Spitze, Die Zeit, Heinz-Günter Kemmer, 13 February 1981, 20 November 2015, Mark Wössner became Fischer's successor as chairman and chief executive officer of Bertelsmann in 1983.NEWS, de, Der Spiegel,weblink Im Zweifel selbst, 29 November 1982, 20 May 2016, The affair concerning the forged Hitler diaries occurred at the beginning of his tenure, which damaged the reputation of Gruner + Jahr and Bertelsmann as a whole.NEWS, Der Spiegel, de, Die Kehrseite,weblink 30 May 1983, 20 May 2016, NEWS,weblink Kopflos in die Krise, Gunhild Freese, Richard Gaul, Die Zeit, 8 July 1983, 20 November 2015, de,

1984 to 1993

Mark Wössner brought the subsidiaries closer to headquarters in Gütersloh.BOOK, de, 85, Die Bertelsmann Methode, Jean-Marc Göttert, Redline, Munich, 2013, 978-3-86414-393-9, BOOK, de, Thomas Lehning, Das Medienhaus: Geschichte und Gegenwart des Bertelsmann-Konzerns, Fink, Paderborn, Munich, 2004, 3-7705-4035-2, 109, In particular, this involved business development and controlling.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 46, Under the leadership of Mark Wössner, Bertelsmann also took a stake in RTL plus, the first private TV broadcaster in Germany.NEWS, Bertelsmann wird heute 175 Jahre alt (1980–1990), de, Westfalen-Blatt, 1 July 2010, In 1986, Bertelsmann acquired a majority in RCA Records and merged its activities in the music market with the new Bertelsmann Music Group.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 48, Sonopress, a company established in 1958 to manufacture records, was not part of the Bertelsmann Music Group, rather it was assigned to the print and industrial division.NEWS,weblink Neue Westfälische, de, Sonopress kehrt zu seinem Namen zurück, Ludger Osterkamp, 6 January 2016, 29 March 2016, With Doubleday, another well-known publishing house was acquired.NEWS,weblink Spiegel Online, Chronik: Das rasante Wachstum des Bertelsmann-Verlags, 4 October 2009, 20 November 2015, de, As a result, the Group ascended to become a well-known international company, and Bertelsmann was temporarily the world's largest media group.WEB,weblink Bertelsmann SE & Co. KGaA, Media Data Base, Institute for Media and Communication Policy, 20 May 2016, 11 May 2016, In the financial year of 1990/1991, Bertelsmann had over 45,000 employees and reached sales of 14.5 billion Deutsche Mark annually. 63% involved business outside of Germany, and the United States was the most important foreign market.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 53, After the German reunification and the end of the Cold War, Bertelsmann also expanded to East Germany, as well as into Central and Eastern Europe.WEB,weblink Chronicle, Bertelsmann, Lots of Action on the Eastern Front, 20 May 2016, For example, in 1989 the first branch outlet of the Club Bertelsmann opened in Dresden.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 55, The later development of Bertelsmann in the 1990s was marked by the spread of the Internet as a mass medium, as well as changes to the ownership structure.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 54, In 1993, Reinhard Mohn transferred the majority of capital shares to the Bertelsmann Stiftung and assumed its chairmanship.BOOK, Bertelsmann wird heute 175 Jahre alt (1990–2000), de, Westfalen-Blatt, 1 July 2010, The foundation itself was financed by profits of the company.NEWS,weblink de, Spiegel Online, Jean-Marc Göttert, Die reichsten Deutschen: Der asketische Revolutionär, 11 January 2002, 20 November 2015,

1994 to 2000

File:Penguin Random House Tower New York 2005.jpg|thumb|upright|Penguin Random House Tower in New York CityNew York CityIn 1994, Gruner + Jahr acquired the magazines of The New York Times, whereby Bertelsmann was once again able to expand its presence in foreign markets. From 1995, there was a new business division of multimedia at Bertelsmann. Its centerpiece was AOL Europe,BOOK, de, Thomas Lehning, Das Medienhaus: Geschichte und Gegenwart des Bertelsmann-Konzerns, Fink, Paderborn, Munich, 2004, 3-7705-4035-2, 274, a joint venture of America Online and Bertelsmann.NEWS, ComputerWoche, International Data Group, de,weblink Minderheitsbeteiligung und Joint-venture beschlossen, 10 March 1995, 20 May 2016, Prior to that, Bertelsmann had already acquired a direct share in America Online.NEWS,weblink de, Golem, Bertelsmann: Kein Groll wegen Time Warner + AOL, Andreas Donath, 10 January 2000, 20 November 2015, NEWS, StreamingMedia,weblink Bertelsmann And America Online Announce Launch Of Strategic Global Alliance And Plan To Restructure Joint Ventures, 17 March 2000, 20 May 2016, The multimedia division also included mediaWays and Pixelpark.NEWS, Ingrid Scheithauer, Die gesamte Wertschöpfungskette besetzen, de, Frankfurter Rundschau, 27 September 1996, 11, In 1997, UFA merged with Compagnie Luxembourgeoise de Télédiffusion (CLT) to become a joint entertainment group based in Luxembourg.NEWS, Der Spiegel, Teuflisch intelligent, de, 8 April 1996,weblink With CLT-UFA, Bertelsmann was able to decisively diversify its business.NEWS, Die Weichen für das TV-Geschäft der Zukunft sind gestellt, Gunhild Freese, Die Zeit, de, 12 April 1996, In 1998, Thomas Middelhoff succeeded Mark Wössner as Bertelsmann Chairman and Chief Executive Officer.NEWS, Der Spiegel, Neue Chefs, de, 23 June 1997,weblink Thomas Middelhoff had previously already been a member of the management board of the multimedia division.NEWS, de,weblink Die Welt, Bertelsmann will mit Multimedia Milliarden umsetzen, 27 February 1996, 29 March 2016, Mark Wössner joined the supervisory board of the company and also became Chairman of the Bertelsmann Stiftung.NEWS, de, Personalien: Wachwechsel bei Bertelsmann, Börsen-Zeitung, 5 July 1997, 15, This management change coincided with the takeover of Random House.NEWS, de,weblink Oliver Herrgesell, Bertelsmann kauft die US-Verlagsgruppe Random House, 24 March 1998, 20 November 2015, NEWS,weblink CNN Money, 23 March 1998, 20 May 2016, Bertelsmann buys Random, NEWS, So Why Did Newhouse Sell Random House to Bertelsmann Boys?,weblink Warren St. John, 30 March 1998, New York Observer, 20 May 2016, With this, the group advanced to become the largest publishing group in the English-speaking world.NEWS, de,weblink Heinz Heise, heise online, Bertelsmann kauft Random House, Florian Rötzer, 23 March 1998, 22 November 2015, Random House was merged with Bantam Doubleday Dell,BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 58, and the global headquarters of all Bertelsmann publishing houses were relocated to New York City.BOOK, de, Thomas Lehning, Das Medienhaus: Geschichte und Gegenwart des Bertelsmann-Konzerns, Fink, Paderborn, Munich, 2004, 3-7705-4035-2, 121, In 1999, Bertelsmann acquired the publisher Springer science media, which, among other things, was the market leader for mathematics and physics.NEWS, de, Bertelsmann will sich Springer einverleiben, Darmstädter Echo, 17 November 1998, NEWS, Bertelsmann erwirbt Wissenschaftsverlag, Sächsische Zeitung, 17 February 1999, de, 20, In the year 2000, Bertelsmann dissolved its joint venture with AOL Europe.NEWS, Christian Rabanus,weblink heise online, de, Bertelsmann steigt bei AOL Europe aus, 17 March 2000, 20 November 2015, The sale of the shares in the joint venture to America Online yielded billions to Bertelsmann.NEWS, The New York Times, Bertelsmann to Sell Its Stake In Joint Ventures to AOL, Andrew Ross Sorkin,weblink 18 March 2000, 20 May 2016, In the same year, Bertelsmann and Pearson formed the RTL Group from their TV subsidiaries.NEWS, Bertelsmann wird führender TV-Sender, de, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 8 April 2000, 25, Bertelsmann initially owned a minority in the company, and gradually built up its share.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 57, Later, Bertelsmann secured the majority of the shares in RTL through a share swap with the Groupe Bruxelles Lambert (GBL), which as a result owned 25.1% of Bertelsmann.NEWS,weblink The Guardian, Bertelsmann ups RTL stake, Dan Milmo, 5 February 2001, 20 May 2016, NEWS, Bertelsmann Acquires Control of RTL Through Share Swap for GBL's Stake, The Wall Street Journal,weblink Cecilie Rohwedder, 6 February 2001, 20 May 2016,

2001 to 2007

Under the leadership of Thomas Middelhoff,NEWS, Financial Times, Thomas Middelhoff: the rise and fall of a dotcom evangelist,weblink 21 November 2014, 20 May 2016, Bertelsmann increased its involvement in the Internet,NEWS, de, Ludger Fertmann, Middelhoff schwört Führung aufs Internet ein, Die Welt, 29 June 1999, 25, whereby above all the investment in Napster received major media attention.NEWS,weblink Klage fallen gelassen: Bertelsmann kauft sich bei Napster ein, Spiegel Online, de, 31 October 2000, 18 November 2015, NEWS,weblink Napster ist geschnappt, Goetz Hamann, 2 November 2000, 20 November 2015, de, Die Zeit, The aim of the acquisition, among other things,NEWS, The Wall Street Journal,weblink Bertelsmann to Buy Napster, Hopes to Boost Music Service, Nick Wingfield, 20 May 2002, 20 May 2016, was to stem the illegal spread of copyrighted material.NEWS,weblink de, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Napster: Das letzte Gericht, 2 March 2001, 20 November 2015, In 2001, the service nonetheless had to be shut down due to legal disputes.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 66, Bertelsmann faced several claims for damages by the music industry.NEWS, de,weblink Verfassungsgericht schützt Bertelsmann vorerst vor Napster-Klage, Tim Gerber, 26 July 2003, 16 November 2015, heise online, NEWS,weblink Streit um Napster belastet Netto-Gewinn, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 14 November 2007, 17 November 2015, In order to finance additional growth of Bertelsmann, Thomas Middelhoff raised the idea of going public,NEWS,weblink de, Spiegel Online, Bertelsmann muss an die Börse, 2 August 2002, 10 November 2015, which led to fundamental disagreement with the Mohn family.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 68, In 2002, Gunter Thielen became the new Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Bertelsmann,NEWS, de, Bertelsmann-Chef muss gehen, Handelsblatt, 29 July 2002, 1, and some members of the media viewed the change critically.NEWS,weblink Bertelsmann: Sieg der alten Garde, Spiegel Online, 29 July 2002, 17 November 2015, NEWS, Der Spiegel, de, Westfälischer Unfrieden, 24 November 2003, Thomas Schulz, Thomas Tuma,weblink A consolidation phase followed, in order to solve the problems with the core business.NEWS, de,weblink Manager Magazine, Thielen zieht die Bremse, 30 July 2002, 24 November 2015, For example, Bertelsmann sold unprofitable e-commerce firms like the online shop of Barnes & Noble, among others.NEWS, de, Bertelsmann wird heute 175 Jahre alt (2000–2009), Westfalen-Blatt, 1 July 2010, BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 72, Gruner + Jahr sold the Berliner Zeitung,NEWS, de,weblink Berliner Verlag wird verkauft, Alexandra Knape, Manager Magazine, 26 June 2002, 23 November 2015, and the scientific publisher, BertelsmannSpringer,NEWS,weblink Bertelsmann Agrees to Sell Its Science and Trade Unit, Andrew Ross Sorkin, 13 May 2003, 21 May 2016, The New York Times, was spun off.NEWS, Bertelsmann verkauft Bertelsmann-Springer an Cinven und Candover,weblink de, 13 May 2003, 19 November 2015, Horizont, In the 2003 financial year, Bertelsmann announced that it was investing its music business in a joint venture with Sony.NEWS, CNN International, Sony, BMG agree on music merger,weblink 7 November 2003, 21 May 2016, NEWS,weblink Sony, Bertelsmann agree to merge music labels, The Register, 7 November 2003, 21 May 2016, Tony Smith, Bertelsmann and Sony each owned half the shares.NEWS, de,weblink Bertelsmann und Sony planen gemeinsames Musikunternehmen, heise online, Boi Feddern, 6 November 2003, 23 November 2015, With this transaction, the stakeholders sought to respond to declining sales in the music market.NEWS, Arndt Ohler, Birgit Jennen, de, Krise zwingt BMG in Ehe mit Sony, Financial Times, 7 November 2003, 1, NEWS, de, Ralf Niemczyk, Sony BMG: Schrumpfkur in den Aufschwung, Tages-Anzeiger, 30 November 2004, 53, In addition, Gunter Thielen initiated the buyback of the shares from Groupe Bruxelles Lambert, so that the Mohn family regained complete control of Bertelsmann from 2006.NEWS, de,weblink Aktien-Rückkauf: Bertelsmann verhindert eigenen Börsengang, Der Tagesspiegel, 25 May 2006, 24 November 2015, This measure was also financed with the sale of the music rights business to Vivendi.NEWS, de, Musikverlag BMG geht an Vivendi, Wiener Zeitung, 7 September 2006, 26, NEWS, de, Bertelsmann treibt Schuldenabbau voran, Handelsblatt, 28 December 2006, 18, NEWS, Deutsche Welle,weblink Bertelsmann Sells Music Publishing Unit to Vivendi, 6 September 2006, 21 May 2016, During the tenure of Gunter Thielen, the number of employees at Bertelsmann exceeded 100,000 for the first time.BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9, 75,

2008 to 2016

File:Thomas Rabe 2015-1.jpg|thumb|upright|Thomas Rabe, Chairman and CEO since 2012]]In 2008, Hartmut Ostrowski was appointed Chairman and Chief Executive Officer.NEWS, de,weblink Neuer Bertelsmannchef Ostrowski: Mehr Innovation, mehr Wachstum, keine Internetprojekte, Spiegel Online, 13 December 2007, 24 November 2015, NEWS,weblink de, Handelsblatt, Ostrowski als gehemmter Wachstumstreiber, Hans-Peter Siebenhaar, 13 December 2007, 24 November 2015, Bertelsmann sold its shares of the record label Sony BMG,NEWS,weblink The Guardian, 5 August 2008, 21 May 2016, Richard Wray, Sony buys Bertelsmann out of Sony BMG, NEWS,weblink Bertelsmann seeks $1.5bn for Sony-BMG stake, Gerrit Wiesmann, Andrew Edgecliffe-Johnson, 12 June 2008, 21 May 2016, Financial Times, and since then the company has operated under the name of Sony Music Entertainment.NEWS, de, Bertelsmann überlässt sein Musikgeschäft Sony,weblink Deutsche Welle, 5 August 2008, 24 November 2015, In 2008, Bertelsmann acquired the rights to the Brockhaus Encyclopedia,WEB,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, Brockhaus Enzyklopädie, 3 September 2014, 21 May 2016, Richard Pallardy, Mathias Schindler, and from that time on, this reference work was published by the Wissen Media Verlag.NEWS, de,weblink Manager Magazin, Bertelsmann-Tochter kauft Brockhaus, 17 December 2008, 19 March 2017, At the end of 2011, Hartmut Ostrowski suddenly announced that he was leaving Bertelsmann for unspecified personal reasons.NEWS,weblink Bertelsmann chief Hartmut Ostrowski to stand down, The Guardian, Mark Sweney, 10 October 2011, 21 May 2016, NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Change of Command Set at European Media Group, Eric Pfanner, 10 October 2011, 21 May 2015, In 2012, Bertelsmann went from being an AG to its current incorporation as a partnership limited by shares ("Kommanditgesellschaft auf Aktien" or "KGaA"), with the general partner being a European stock corporation ("Societas Europaea" or "SE"). Also, since 2012, Thomas Rabe has been Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Bertelsmann.NEWS,weblink Cornelius Rahn, Bertelsmann Names Rabe CEO to Succeed Ostrowski in January, 10 October 2011, 21 May 2016, Bloomberg News, Bloomberg, NEWS, de,weblink Süddeutsche Zeitung, Finanzvorstand Rabe löst Konzernchef Ostrowski ab, 10 October 2011, 24 November 2015, In 2013, Bertelsmann floated part of its shares in the RTL Group on the stock exchange,NEWS, de, Bertelsmann muss sich bei RTL bescheiden, Börsen-Zeitung, 30 April 2013, 9, NEWS, Digital TV Europe,weblink RTL Group raises €1.4 billion through secondary IPO, 30 April 2013, 21 May 2016, in order to finance additional growth from the proceeds of the sale.NEWS, Hollywood Deadline, Nancy Tartaglione,weblink Bertelsmann Eyes $3.9B In Acquisitions Over Next Three Years, But No IPO, 26 March 2013, 21 May 2016, NEWS, de,weblink Bertelsmann nimmt 1,4 Milliarden Euro ein, Handelsblatt, 29 April 2013, 29 March 2016, In the year 2013, Penguin Random House became the world's largest publishing company.NEWS,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Penguin and Random House complete merger, 1 July 2013, 21 May 2016, NEWS, de,weblink Börsenblatt, 1 July 2013, 24 November 2015, Die Fusion ist besiegelt, Gruner + Jahr was taken over completely by Bertelsmann in 2014.NEWS, de, 6 October 2014, 1 October 2015,weblink Zeit Online, Medienkonzern: Bertelsmann übernimmt Gruner + Jahr komplett, NEWS, de,weblink Bertelsmann schluckt Gruner + Jahr ganz, Manager Magazin, 6 October 2014, 1 October 2015, Furthermore, under the leadership of Thomas Rabe, Bertelsmann increasingly invested in the education sector:NEWS, de,weblink Bildung als dritte Geschäftssäule, Handelsblatt, 3 June 2015, 24 November 2015, In 2014, for example, Relias Learning was acquired.NEWS, The Wall Street Journal,weblink Bertelsmann To Buy Relias Learning, Ellen Emmerentze Jervell, 21 October 2014, 21 May 2016, NEWS, Reuters,weblink Bertelsmann to buy Relias Learning from Vista Equity, Liana B. Baker, Jörn Poltz, 21 October 2014, 21 May 2016, The company belongs to the Bertelsmann Education Group, established in 2015.NEWS, de, Börsenblatt,weblink Bertelsmann Education Group bündelt Bildungsgeschäfte, 10 September 2015, 5 January 2016, The Club Bertelsmann was wound up,NEWS, de,weblink Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Bis Ende 2015: Bertelsmann schließt seinen Buchclub, 17 June 2014, 24 November 2015, and individual distribution partners are taking legal action against it.NEWS, de, Manfred Schneider, Vergessen, was man nicht wissen muss – über das Ende der Buchklubs, Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 18 July 2014, 19, NEWS, de,weblink Handelsblatt, Klage gegen Aus für Bertelsmann-Buchclub, 26 August 2014, 24 November 2015, In 2016, the printing business was bundled in the Bertelsmann Printing Group.NEWS,weblink PrintWeek, Jo Francis, 5 November 2015, 21 May 2016, Bertelsmann to merge print operations,

Divisions

{{see also|List of assets owned by Bertelsmann}}Bertelsmann is a decentralized organization.WEB, PDF, Bertelsmann, Bertelsmann Essentials,weblink 21 May 2016, This means that the divisions largely work independently. The holding handles central tasks, in the field of corporate finance, for example.NEWS, de, 21 August 2012, Bertelsmann ist keine Aktiengesellschaft mehr,weblink Handelsblatt, 1 October 2015, In 2016, Bertelsmann introduced a new structure of eight divisions:NEWS,weblink Bertelsmann Reports Highest Profit in a Decade, CEO Rabe Talks China Strategy and Music Investment Numbers, Wolfgang Spahr, Billboard (magazine), Billboard, 22 March 2016, 21 May 2016, RTL Group (television and radio), Penguin Random House (book publishing), Gruner + Jahr (magazines), BMG (music rights), Arvato (services), Bertelsmann Education Group (education), Bertelsmann Printing Group (printing) and Bertelsmann Investments (investments).WEB, PDF, Bertelsmann, The new Bertelsmann,weblink 29 March 2016, 16–17,

RTL Group

(File:RTL_Group_Logo_2016.png|frameless|right|RTL Group logo|150px)The RTL Group is one of the leading European entertainment providers, based in Luxembourg.NEWS, Gelingt der digitale Umbruch?, Handelsblatt, 3 September 2015, de, 36, The company runs a commercial private television and radio channels in several countries, including RTL and VOX in Germany.WEB,weblink PDF, 1 October 2015, Companies (Selection), RTL Group, NEWS, de,weblink Handelsblatt, Der Medien-Kommissar: Die Börsenwette namens RTL, Hans-Peter Siebenhaar, 14 September 2015, 1 October 2015, In 2015, with the RTL Digital Hub, the company launched a dedicated unit for web videos.NEWS,weblink European Broadcaster RTL Starts Formalizing Web Video Plans, The Wall Street Journal, Mike Shields, 8 June 2015, 21 May 2016, In addition, production companies, such as FremantleMedia, are part of the RTL Group.NEWS, de,weblink DWDL, Zukauf in den USA: RTL-Tochter FremantleMedia übernimmt 495 Productions, Thomas Lückerath, 26 March 2014, 1 October 2015, In January 1997, Bertelsmann merged the UFA film and television company with Compagnie Luxembourgeoise de Télédiffusion (CLT). The merger of CLT-UFA with Pearson TV in the year 2000 marked the beginning of the RTL Group.NEWS, de, James Harding, Lutz Meier, Heute entsteht Europas größter TV-Konzern, Financial Times, 7 April 2000, 1, The company is listed on the stock exchange and has been majority-owned by Bertelsmann since 2001.NEWS, Los Angeles Times,weblink Bertelsmann Takes Control of RTL Group, 6 February 2001, 21 May 2016, NEWS,weblink The Daily Telegraph, George Trefgarne, Bertelsmann share swap lifts stake in RTL to 67pc, 6 February 2001, 21 May 2016, Following the sale of shares in 2013, the stake is 75.1%.NEWS, de,weblink Bertelsmann verkauft Teile von RTL, n-tv, 29 April 2013, 29 March 2016, In 2018, sales of the RTL Group were €6.505 billion.

Penguin Random House

(File:Penguin_Random_House_Logo_2016.png|frameless|right|Penguin Random House logo|150px)Penguin Random House is the world's largest book publishing company.NEWS, de, Rüdiger Wischenbart, 13 October 2015, Die Welt, 22, Das Goldene Zeitalter für Buchverlage beginnt, The company was created in 2013 through the merger of the publishing businesses of Bertelsmann and Pearson.NEWS, de, 1 July 2013, Fusion abgeschlossen: Bertelsmann und Pearson gründen Buchgiganten,weblink Handelsblatt, 1 October 2015, With the acquisition of Random House in 1998, Bertelsmann already became the largest book publisher in the English-speaking world.NEWS, de, 24 March 1998, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 23, Bertelsmann wird größter Verleger von Büchern in englischer Sprache, 250 publishing houses on five continents are part of the company, including Random House and Penguin Books, but also Doubleday, Knopf and Viking.NEWS, de, Wieland Freund, 29 October 2012, Jetzt machen es die Bücher wie die Autos,weblink Die Welt, 1 October 2015, The German Verlagsgruppe Random House (Goldmann, Heyne and others), based in Munich, is not part of Penguin Random House,NEWS, de, 29 October 2012, Fusion mit britischem Konkurrenten: Bertelsmann schmiedet weltgrößten Buchverlag,weblink Spiegel Online, 1 October 2015, yet it does belong to the same division at Bertelsmann.NEWS, Global Publishing Leaders 2015: Penguin Random House,weblink Publishers Weekly, 1 October 2015, Penguin Random House has its main headquarters in the Penguin Random House Tower in New York City.WEB,weblink Offices, Penguin Random House, 20 March 2016, Bertelsmann currently has a 53% stake in the company.NEWS,weblink de, Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Funke Mediengruppe, Bertelsmann könnte Anteil an Penguin/Random House ausweiten, 15 February 2016, 29 March 2016, In 2018, the company achieved sales of €3.424 billion.

Gruner + Jahr

(File:Gruner_und_Jahr_Logo_2016.png|frameless|right|Gruner + Jahr logo|150px)Gruner + Jahr is an internationally operating magazine publisher based in Hamburg. Its publications include Brigitte, Geo and Stern,NEWS, de,weblink Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Zeitschriftenverlag: Bertelsmann übernimmt Gruner + Jahr vollständig, 6 October 2014, 1 October 2015, and the company also has a majority stake in Motor Presse Stuttgart and Dresdner Druck- und Verlagshaus.NEWS, de, Süddeutsche Zeitung,weblink Gruner + Jahr streicht 400 Arbeitsplätze, 27 August 2014, 21 May 2016, In 2015, Gruner + Jahr had a presence in 20 countries.WEB,weblink Finanzdaten, de, Gruner + Jahr, 1 October 2015, The businesses in the United States have been sold in the meantime,NEWS, de,weblink Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Abschied von Amerika: Gruner + Jahr verkauft das Druckgeschäft, Johannes Ritter, 7 April 2014, 1 October 2015, and in terms of revenue, Germany and France are the most important markets.NEWS, de,weblink Trotz Minusbilanz: Warum Bertelsmann-Chef Rabe Gruner + Jahr auf Kurs sieht, Meedia, 31 March 2015, 1 October 2015, Georg Altrogge, Bertelsmann has had a stake in Gruner + Jahr since 1969.NEWS, de, Gruner + Jahr: Das lechzt,weblink Der Spiegel, 26 May 1969, 1 October 2015, Bertelsmann gradually purchased shares from Richard Gruner, Gerd Bucerius and John Jahr.NEWS, de, Das Nokia unter den Verlagen, Kress Report, 17 October 2014, 6, In 1976, Bertelsmann held 74.9% of Gruner + Jahr.NEWS, de, Caspar Busse, Verlegte Geschäfte, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 7 October 2014, 31, In 2014, Bertelsmann took over the company completely.NEWS,weblink The Wall Street Journal, Bertelsmann to Take Full Control of Stern Publisher Gruner + Jahr, Natalia Drozdiak, Archibald Preuschat, 6 October 2014, 21 May 2016, In 2018, sales of Gruner + Jahr totaled €1.440 billion.

BMG

(File:BMG Rectange Logo Red RGB.png|right|frameless|150x150px|BMG logo)BMG is a music publishing company based in Berlin. The BMG catalog encompasses rights to works by artists such as Céline Dion, Jennifer Lopez, Ronan Keating and Britney Spears.NEWS, de, Bertelsmann geht auf Einkaufstour, Neue Westfälische, 24 July 2009, In 2008, the company was created after the group divested from the music market.NEWS, de, Bertelsmann gibt das Musikgeschäft auf, Der Tagesspiegel, 6 August 2008, 15, NEWS, de, Wachsen mit der Musik, Neue Westfälische, 31 August 2009, Following the sale of Sony BMG, Bertelsmann had retained the rights to 200, mainly European, artists.NEWS, de,weblink Die Welt, Bertelsmann kauft Musikrechteverlag BMG ganz, 1 March 2013, 30 March 2016, In 2009, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts came on board with BMG, retaining a 51% majority in the company, and Bertelsmann held 49%.NEWS,weblink Bertelsmann forms music duo with KKR, 7 July 2009, 22 May 2016, Financial Times, Since 2013, BMG has once again become a fully owned subsidiary of Bertelsmann.NEWS,weblink Variety (magazine), Variety, Bertelsmann Takes Full Ownership of BMG, Christopher Morris, 1 March 2013, 22 May 2016, NEWS,weblink The Hollywood Reporter, Bertelsmann to Acquire Full Control of BMG, Georg Szalai, Scott Roxborough, 1 March 2013, 22 May 2016, In 2016, BMG became a division of Bertelsmann.NEWS, de, Da steckt Geld drin, Stefan Schelp, Neue Westfälische, 23 March 2016, 27, In 2018, BMG had revenues of €545 million.

Arvato

(File:Arvato_Logo_2016.png|frameless|right|Arvato logo|150px)Arvato is an international service provider. In its current form, the company originated in the year 1999.NEWS, de, Bertelsmann Industrie heißt künftig Arvato, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 9 June 1999, 28, At that time, the print and industry sectors at Bertelsmann were restructured, whereby services received a higher priority than the print and machinery sector back then.NEWS, de, Bertelsmann Drucksparte setzt verstärkt auf Dienstleistungen, Die Welt, 9 June 1999, 24, NEWS, de, Arvato auf Wachstumskurs, Handelsblatt, 9 June 1999, 19, Since the 1950s, Bertelsmann has been an active service provider,NEWS, de, Michael Delker, Der größte Arbeitgeber in Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Westfalen-Blatt, 1 July 2010, delivering books for other publishing companies, for example.WEB,weblink About Arvato: History, Arvato, 1 October 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151215060322weblink">weblink 15 December 2015, dmy-all, To this day, Vereinigte Verlagsauslieferung (VVA) has belonged to Arvato.NEWS, de, Arvatos neuer Buch-Rekord, Westfalen-Blatt, 22 December 2011, What's more, today Arvato offers services, for example, in the areas of Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Supply Chain Management (SCM) and finance, as well as information technology.NEWS, de, Zuwachs in verschiedenen Sparten, Neue Westfälische, 23 March 2016, 13, NEWS, Arvato expandiert nach Bielefeld, de, Neue Westfälische, 14 November 2013, The main headquarters of Arvato is Gütersloh, and additional locations exist in 22 countries, including China and the United States.NEWS, de, Stefan Schelp, Neuer Chef verordnet Arvato mehr Wachstum, Neue Westfälische, 24 October 2015, 10, In 2018, sales of Arvato reached a volume of €4.100 billion.

Bertelsmann Printing Group

(File:Bertelsmann_Printing_Group_Logo_2016.png|frameless|right|Bertelsmann Printing Group logo|150px)In January 2016, Bertelsmann bundled its printing activities in digital, offset and gravure in the Bertelsmann Printing Group.NEWS, de, Bertelsmann bündelt Druckgeschäft, Südwest Presse, 6 November 2015, 10, WEB, Prolific North,weblink Bertelsmann merges entire print operation, 6 November 2015, 22 May 2016, Stephen Chapman, It is Europe's largest player in the industry.NEWS, de, Eike Horstmann, Neue Westfälische, Europas größte Druckereigruppe, 6 November 2015, 11, The corporate group is located in Gütersloh.NEWS, de, Druck-Gigant entsteht in Gütersloh, Neue Westfälische, 6 November 2015, 9, Bertelsmann Printing Group includes not only GGP Media, Mohn Media, Prinovis, Sonopress, Vogel Druck and several other companies, but also Be Printers.NEWS, de,weblink Bertelsmann baut neue Print-Einheit auf, Der Standard, 5 November 2015, 5 January 2016, Be Printers is in turn a spin-off of Arvato, created in 2012, in order to consolidate the group's printing business.NEWS, de, Bertelsmann tauft Drucksparte Be Printers, Neue Westfälische, 1 November 2012, The business has been under pressure for years due to declining print editions.NEWS, de,weblink Deutscher Drucker, Gerd Bergmann, Umsatz bei Be Printers stagniert, 27 March 2013, 1 October 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150427051258weblink">weblink 27 April 2015, yes, dmy-all, In 2018, the Bertelsmann Printing Group achieved sales of €1.639 billion.

Bertelsmann Education Group

(File:Bertelsmann_Education_Group_Logo_2016.png|frameless|right|Bertelsmann Education Group logo|150px)The Bertelsmann Education Group is dedicated to the education sector.NEWS, The Wall Street Journal,weblink Bertelsmann to Launch Education Activities Unit, 10 September 2015, 22 May 2016, It was established in 2015 and has its headquarters in New York City.NEWS, de,weblink Bertelsmann bündelt Bildungsgeschäft in eigener Sparte, Focus (German magazine), Focus Online, 10 September 2015, 29 March 2016, It includes, for example, the Alliant International University and Relias Learning.NEWS, de,weblink Handelsblatt, Bertelsmann: Bildungsgeschäft jetzt unter einem Dach, 10 September 2015, 29 March 2016, The acquisition of Relias Learning in 2014 formed the cornerstone for the Bertelsmann Education Group and was the largest acquisition by Bertelsmann since the purchase of Random House.NEWS,weblink Bloomberg, Bertelsmann Pushes Into Education With Relias Purchase, Kristen Schweizer, 21 October 2014, 22 May 2016, NEWS, Cary's Relias Learning acquired by Bertelsmann for $540M, Jason deBruyn, 23 October 2014, Triangle Business Journal, In 2017, the Bertelsmann Education Group generated sales of €189 million.

Bertelsmann Investments

(File:Bertelsmann_Investments_Logo_2016.png|frameless|right|Bertelsmann Investments logo|150px)The Bertelsmann Investments division bundles Bertelsmann's startup investments. The main focus is on Brazil, China, India, Europe and the United States. Bertelsmann Digital Media Investments is based in Gütersloh and since 2014 has concentrated mainly on the United States.WEB, Gründerszene, de,weblink Bertelsmann Digital Media Investments, 20 March 2016, NEWS, de,weblink Gründerszene, Niklas Wirminghaus, 21 November 2014, 20 March 2016, Bertelsmann-Fonds BDMI schließt Berliner Büro, With Bertelsmann Asia Investments,NEWS,weblink Bertelsmann Asia launches angel fund in China, Winnie Liu, 13 October 2014, 22 May 2016, Asian Venture Capital Journal, Bertelsmann Brazil Investments and Bertelsmann India Investments,NEWS,weblink The Economic Times, Roposo bags $5 million from Bertelsmann India Investments, Biswarup Gooptu, 26 April 2016, 22 May 2016, three additional funds exist that are active in the growth regions defined by the holding.WEB,weblink Bertelsmann, Bertelsmann Investments, 22 May 2016, Bertelsmann Investments holds equity positions in a total of over 100 startup companies, almost all from the digital economy.NEWS, de, Antje Kullrich, Gewinnsprung bei Bertelsmann, Börsen-Zeitung, 23 March 2016, 8,

Ownership

From 1971 to 2012, Bertelsmann was a joint stock company under German law (Aktiengesellschaft).NEWS, de, Martin Krause, 22 August 2012, Neue Westfälische, Bertelsmann sucht Strategie, Subsequently, the company was transformed into a partnership limited by shares (Kommanditgesellschaft auf Aktien). The general partner is a European stock corporation (Societas Europaea).NEWS, de, 22 August 2012, Börsen-Zeitung, 11, Neue Rechtsform von Bertelsmann jetzt amtlich, Bertelsmann's rationale for this move, among others, was the aim of opening up for investors,NEWS, de, 29 March 2012, Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger, Bertelsmann lockt neue Investoren, thus enabling them to participate in the financing of additional growth.NEWS, Stephan Rechlin, 30 March 2012, Westfalen-Blatt, Liz Mohn lässt Fremdkapital zu, The media commented the change of the legal structure "the turn of an era",NEWS, 29 March 2012, Sächsische Zeitung, de, 24, Zeitenwende bei Medienriese Bertelsmann, as it essentially also enables the company to go public.NEWS, de, Ileana Grabitz, 29 March 2012, Die Welt, 12, Bertelsmann liebäugelt mit der Börse, NEWS, de, 22 August 2012, Frankfurter Rundschau, 37, Bertelsmann öffnet sich für Börsengang, This move was not ultimately implemented, however.NEWS, de, Oliver Horst, 4 September 2012, Westfalen-Blatt, Bertelsmann bleibt Börse fern, NEWS, de, Caspar Busse, 1 February 2013, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 21, Bertelsmann sagt Börsengang ab, Today, Bertelsmann is a company active in capital markets, issuing bonds, for example.NEWS, Bloomberg,weblink Bertelsmann to Market Hybrid Bonds as Europe QE Spurs Demand, 8 April 2015, 22 May 2016, NEWS, de, 16 April 2015, Anleihen vierfach überzeichnet: Bertelsmann holt sich bei Investoren Geld,weblink n-tv, 1 October 2015, Since 2001, the company has prepared its financial statements according to International Financial Reporting Standards.WEB, Bertelsmann, Capital Market Orientation, Investor Relations,weblink 22 May 2016, The new legal entity does not change any of the ownership of Bertelsmann.NEWS, de, Bernhard Hertlein, 22 August 2012, Westfalen-Blatt, Bereit zu großen Übernahmen, As early as the 1970s and 1980s, the Mohn family built up the Bertelsmann Stiftung,NEWS, Ralph Gerstenberg, de, 23 August 2010, Nur im eigenen Interesse, Deutschlandfunk, 1 October 2015,weblink which has owned the majority of shares in Bertelsmann since 1993.NEWS, de, 24 September 1993, Handelsblatt, 23, Bertelsmann-Gruppe: Rezension bei Printmedien und Fernsehbeteiligungen, In addition to social responsibility, tax considerations played a role in this.WEB, de,weblink Bertelsmann Stiftung, Von der Welt lernen: Warum Reinhard Mohn die Bertelsmann Stiftung gründete, 24 November 2015, NEWS, de,weblink Die Methode Bertelsmann: Eine Stiftung regiert das Land, Die Tageszeitung, Thomas Schuler, 9 August 2010, 1 October 2015, Moreover, this strategy was intended to preserve the continuity of the company.NEWS, de,weblink n-tv, Bertelsmann bewahrt Tradition, 5 October 2009, 24 November 2015, Today, according to Bertelsmann, the Mohn family holds 19.1% of the shares. The three foundations, Bertelsmann Stiftung, Reinhard Mohn Stiftung and BVG Stiftung, together own 80.9%.WEB, Bertelsmann,weblink Shareholder Structure, 1 October 2015, The Bertelsmann Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH (BVG) has key influence on the whole group: It bundles all the voting rights of the Mohn family and foundations with ownership shares. Together, they own 100 percent in the general assemblies of the group company (Bertelsmann SE & Co. KGaA) and its general partner (Bertelsmann Management SE).Bertelsmann SE & Co. KGaA is managed by the Bertelsmann Management SE. The Chairman of the executive board of Bertelsmann Management SE is Thomas Rabe.NEWS, de,weblink Spitzenwechsel: Thomas Rabe neuer Bertelsmann-Chef, Hamburger Abendblatt, 11 October 2011, 1 October 2015, NEWS, Der Spiegel, de, Man kann alles verkaufen, 13 February 2012, 22 May 2016,weblink Other members of the executive board include Markus Dohle, Immanuel Hermreck, Bernd Hirsch and Anke Schäferkordt.WEB, Bertelsmann,weblink Management, 20 July 2017, In 2012, Bertelsmann created the additional so-called Group Management Committee, in order to advise the executive board in important matters.NEWS, de, Hans-Peter Siebenhaar, 5 December 2011, Handelsblatt, 54, Der neue Machtzirkel, Some members of the media noted that a relatively large number of women have been appointed to the Group Management Committee.NEWS, de, Bernhard Hertlein, 6 December 2011, Westfalen-Blatt, Bertelsmann wird weiblicher, NEWS, de,weblink Neuordnung: Bertelsmann-Vorstand wird feminisiert, Handelsblatt, Hans-Peter Siebenhaar, 5 December 2011, 1 October 2015, Bertelsmann SE & Co. KGaA and Bertelsmann Management SE each have a supervisory board that oversees the management. In 2013, Christoph Mohn assumed the chairmanship of both bodies.NEWS,weblink Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Funke Mediengruppe, Christoph Mohn übernimmt Aufsichtsratsvorsitz bei Bertelsmann, de, 2 January 2013, 1 October 2015, From the family, Liz Mohn and Brigitte Mohn are also members of the supervisory boards of both companies.WEB, Bertelsmann,weblink Supervisory Board, 1 October 2015,

Locations

Since the 1970s, the Bertelsmann headquarters have been in the Gütersloh district of Avenwedde, and its layout encompasses some 26,100 square meters. The office buildings were erected in 1976 and expanded in 1990.BOOK, de, Ottomar Gottschalk, 220, Verwaltungsbauten: flexibel, kommunikativ, nutzerorientiert, Bauverlag, Berlin, Wiesbaden, 3-7625-3085-8, 1994, 4th, In addition to the typical facilities, the headquarters in Gütersloh also feature the Bertelsmann University, an academic institution for Bertelsmann executives.NEWS, de,weblink Brand Eins, Büffeln fürs Business, 2000, 1 October 2015, In 1992, Bertelsmann purchased the Bertelsmann Building in New York City and located its North American headquarters there.NEWS, de, Bertelsmann Inc.: Büroturm am Times Square preisgünstig erworben, Handelsblatt, 5 March 1992, 25, The building was re-sold in 2004.NEWS,weblink Bertelsmann Building Sold, Charles Bagli, 25 June 2004, 17 November 2015, The New York Times, The Berlin representative office was opened in 2003 in the Kommandantenhaus in the historic center of Berlin.NEWS, de, Rainer Haubrich, Berlins erste Rekonstruktion seit der Wende: Heute weiht Bertelsmann das Kommandantenhaus ein, Die Welt, 6 November 2003, 27, As part of international activities, Bertelsmann established additional locations at the corporate level (Corporate Centers) in Beijing (2006), New Delhi (2012) and São Paulo (2012).NEWS, de,weblink Bertelsmann expandiert nach Südamerika, Börsenblatt, 28 June 2012, 1 October 2015, Worldwide, with all divisions, Bertelsmann has almost 350 locations.WEB, Locations, Bertelsmann,weblink 22 May 2016, The majority are in Europe, where the Group earns the largest share of its revenues.NEWS, de, Stefan Schelp, Weltweit unterwegs, in Europa verwurzelt, Neue Westfälische, 25 June 2014, 5, Over the past years, the Group has increasingly focused on the newly industrialized nations of Brazil, China and India.NEWS, de, Bertelsmann plant Wachstum in Schwellenländern, Neue Westfälische, 13 February 2015, 6, In Brazil, efforts have been aimed at expanding activities above all in the field of education.NEWS,weblink Bertelsmann forciert Bildungsgeschäft, investiert in Brasilien, Der Standard, de, 16 July 2015, 1 October 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151002045752weblink">weblink 2 October 2015, dmy-all, NEWS, de,weblink Brain und Business: Bertelsmann forciert Bildungsgeschäft in Brasilien, Buchreport, 20 July 2015, 1 October 2015, Bertelsmann has already been involved in China since 1992,NEWS, de, Bertelsmann will in China wachsen, Westfalen-Blatt, 27 October 2012, and today all divisions are represented there.NEWS, de,weblink Bertelsmann verdient gut in China, Petra Schwengler, Werben & Verkaufen, 16 January 2014, 1 October 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160429083111weblink">weblink 29 April 2016, dmy-all, In India, Bertelsmann is focused on growth in the e-commerce sector, among others.NEWS, de, Bertelsmann setzt in Indien auf E-Commerce, Börsen-Zeitung, 28 May 2014, 11, NEWS, de,weblink turi2, Bertelsmann investiert in E-Commerce in Indien, Markus Trantow, 28 July 2015, 1 October 2015,

Criticism

In the 1990s, critical questions arose as to the role of Bertelsmann in the Third Reich.NEWS, de, Andreas Puff-Trojan, Papier ist geduldig, Profil (magazine), profil, 14 October 2002, 164, It was precipitated by a speech given by the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Thomas Middelhoff, on the occasion of his receiving the Vernon A. Walters Award 1998 in New York City.NEWS, de, Ein Adler für die Bertelsfrau, Stefan Brams, 10 June 2008, Neue Westfälische, Thomas Middelhoff portrayed Bertelsmann as one of the few non-Jewish media companies shut down by the National Socialists because it allegedly published subversive literature.NEWS, de, Gerhard Hegmann, Bertelsmann gesteht Fehler in NS-Zeit ein, 8 October 2002, 5, Financial Times, This interpretation was severely criticized, for example, by publicist Hersch Fischler.NEWS, de, Ganz geringe Beträge, Stuttgarter Zeitung, 24 January 2000, 13, The speech led to a broad public debate and ultimately in 1998 to the establishment of an independent historical commission (IHC) by the group.NEWS, de, Siegfried Lokatis, Feldpost von Bertelsmann, Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 8 March 1999, 27, This was headed by Saul Friedländer, and additional members were Norbert Frei, Trutz Rendtorff and Reinhard Wittmann. The IHC presented an interim report in the year 2000 and issued a final report in 2002.NEWS, de, Wieland Freund, Bertelsmann im Dritten Reich: Der Abschlussbericht der Kommission, Die Welt, 8 October 2002,weblink 2 May 2016, It stated, for example, that the suggestion that the C. Bertelsmann Verlag mounted resistance against National Socialism was clearly not accurate.NEWS, de, Nicole Adolph, Widerstandslegende enttarnt, Der Tagesspiegel, 8 October 2002, 27, The company's "shut-down as a publisher of the resistance" could not be proven.NEWS, de, Dirk Fuhrig, Legende vom Widerstandsverlag, Frankfurter Rundschau, 18 January 2000, 13, Historian Volker Ullrich proclaimed in the weekly Die Zeit that the notion of the company's being "a resistance publisher" was clearly baseless.NEWS, de, Volker Ullrich, Ein Musterbetrieb, Die Zeit, 10 October 2002,weblink 1 June 2015, The files of the IHC have been publicly available in the company archives of Bertelsmann in Gütersloh since 2003.NEWS, de, Stefan Brams, Bertelsmanns Gedächtnis, Neue Westfälische, 31 May 2003, In October 2002 the Bertelsmann conglomerate publicly expressed regret for its "conduct under the Nazis, and for later efforts to cover it up".NEWS, Landler, Mark, Bertelsmann Offers Regret For Its Nazi-Era Conduct,weblink 26 September 2017, The New York Times, 8 October 2002,

See also

References

WEB, PDF, Bertelsmann, Annual Report 2018,weblink 26 March 2019, 28 March 2019,

Further reading

  • NEWS, Freundlicher Moloch, Der Spiegel, 11, 1970,weblink 1 October 2015, de,
  • {{citation|language=de|author=Jörg Becker|title=Konzerne, Macher, Kontrolleure: Der Bertelsmann-Konzern|work=Medienforschung|issue=1|publisher=S. Fischer|location=Frankfurt am Main|year=1985|isbn=3-596-26551-7}}
  • NEWS, de, Siegfried Lokatis, Feldpost von Bertelsmann: Die Editionspraxis des Gütersloher Verlags im Dritten Reich, Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 8 March 1999,weblink 1 October 2015,
  • BOOK, de, Norbert Frei, Saul Friedländer, Trutz Rendtorff, Reinhard Wittmann, Bertelsmann im Dritten Reich, Bertelsmann, Munich, 2002, 3-570-00713-8,
  • BOOK, de, Frank Böckelmann, Hersch Fischler, Bertelsmann: Hinter der Fassade des Medienimperiums, Eichborn, Frankfurt am Main, 2004, 3-8218-5551-7,
  • BOOK, de, Thomas Lehning, Das Medienhaus: Geschichte und Gegenwart des Bertelsmann-Konzerns, Fink, Paderborn, Munich, 2004, 3-7705-4035-2,
  • WEB, Bertelsmann Timeline,weblink The Academic Publishing Industry: A Story of Merger and Acquisition, Mary H. Munroe, 2004, Northern Illinois University, 22 May 2016,
  • BOOK, de, Thomas Schuler, Die Mohns: Vom Provinzbuchhändler zum Weltkonzern, Campus, Frankfurt am Main, 2004, 3-593-37307-6,
  • JOURNAL, de, Thomas Barth, Oliver Schöller, Der Lockruf der Stifter: Bertelsmann und die Privatisierung der Bildungspolitik, Blätter für deutsche und internationale Politik, 11, 2005, 0006-4416, 1339–1348,weblink 22 May 2016,
  • BOOK, de, Thomas Barth, Bertelsmann: Ein Medienimperium macht Politik, Anders, Hamburg, 2006, 3-939594-01-6,
  • BOOK, de, Werner Biermann, Arno Klönne, Agenda Bertelsmann: Ein Konzern stiftet Politik, PapyRossa, Cologne, 2007, 978-3-89438-372-5,
  • BOOK, de, Jan Philip Holtman, Pfadabhängigkeit strategischer Entscheidungen: Eine Fallstudie am Beispiel des Bertelsmann-Buchclubs Deutschland, Kölner Wiss., Cologne, 2008, 3-937404-57-0,weblink 1 October 2015,
  • BOOK, 175 Years of Bertelsmann: The Legacy for Our Future, C. Bertelsmann, Munich, 2010, 978-3-570-10175-9,

External links

{{Commons category}}
  • {{Official website|bertelsmann.com}}
{{Bertelsmann|state=expand}}{{Coord|51|54|29|N|8|25|09|E|region:DE-NW_type:landmark|display=title}}{{Authority control}}

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