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Barnes & Noble
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{{short description|American bookseller and retailer}}{{Use mdy dates|date=August 2015}}{{stack begin}}







factoids
S&P 600 Component| ISIN = US0677741094| predecessor = Arthur Hinds & CompanyNew York City, New York, U.S.Leonard RiggioHTTP://WWW.BARNESANDNOBLEINC.COM/OUR_COMPANY/MANAGEMENT_TEAM/MANAGEMENT_TEAM.HTMLPUBLISHER=BARNES & NOBLE, September 25, 2015, | location_city = New York City, New York| location_country = U.S.20197WORK=BARNES & NOBLE, March 7, 2019, (Chairman)}}Barnes & Noble Nook>NookSparkNotes| brands = Barnes & Noble Booksellers'Nook Digital, LLC'Sterling PublishingUS$ 4.164 billion (FY 2016){{Update inline>date=March 2019}}{{citation needed|date=March 2019}}date=March 2019}}{{citation needed|date=March 2019}}date=March 2019}}{{citation needed|date=March 2019}}date=March 2019}}{{citation needed|date=March 2019}}date=March 2019}}{{citation needed|date=March 2019}}WEBSITE=FORTUNE (MAGAZINE)>ACCESSDATE=JUNE 16, 2019, | slogan = | owner = Public company / Leonard Riggio - largest shareholder (11.8%)| parent = Elliott Management Corporation (pending)weblink}} (corporate site){{URLweblink}} (consumer site) {{URLweblink}} (consumer site)}}Barnes & Noble, Inc., a Fortune 1000 company, is the bookseller with the largest number of retail outlets in the United States and a retailer of content, digital media, and educational products. As of March 7, 2019, the company operates 627 retail stores in all 50 U.S. states. On June 7, 2019, it was announced the company would be acquired by Elliott Management Corporation for $638 million and would be taken private. WEB,weblink Barnes & Noble Is Sold to Hedge Fund After a Tumultuous Year, June 7, 2019, Barnes & Noble operates mainly through its Barnes & Noble Booksellers chain of bookstores. The company's headquarters are at 122 Fifth Avenue in New York City.WEB,weblink National Sponsorships and Donations, January 29, 2010, After a series of mergers and bankruptcies in the American bookstore industry since the 1990s, Barnes & Noble stands alone as the United States' largest national bookstore chain.WEB, DePillis, Lydia, Barnes & Noble's troubles don't show why bookstores are doomed. They show how they'll survive.,weblink The Washington Post, October 30, 2013, July 10, 2013, it's now the only national bookstore chain in the country, WEB, Townsend, Matt, Bookstores Not Dead Yet as Riggio Bets on Barnes & Noble,weblink Bloomberg Businessweek, October 30, 2013, July 10, 2013, the last national bookstore chain, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130916111734weblink">weblink September 16, 2013, mdy, Previously, Barnes & Noble operated the chain of small B. Dalton Bookseller stores in malls until they announced the liquidation of the chain. The company was also one of the nation's largest manager of college textbook stores located on or near many college campuses when that division was spun off as a separate public company called Barnes & Noble Education in 2015.The company is known for large retail outlets, many of which contain a café serving Starbucks coffee and other consumables. Most stores sell books, magazines, newspapers, DVDs, graphic novels, gifts, games, toys, music, and Nook e‑readers and tablets.

History

19th century: Foundations

(File:Clifford Noble in 1893.jpg|left|upright|thumb|Clifford Noble in 1893)Barnes & Noble began in 1886 as a bookstore called Arthur Hinds & Company, located in the Cooper Union Building in New York City."Barnes & Noble to Move." The Bookseller and Stationer, January 1. 1922 p. 13The Noble Legacy: The Story of Gilbert Clifford Noble, Cofounder of the Barnes & Noble and Noble & Noble Book Companies by Betty N. Turner. iUniverse: 2006 {{ISBN|0595374786}}, 9780595374786 page 71 In the fall of 1886, Gilbert Clifford Noble, a then-recent Harvard graduate from Westfield, Massachusetts, was hired to work there as a clerk.The Noble Legacy: The Story of Gilbert Clifford Noble, Cofounder of the Barnes & Noble and Noble & Noble Book Companies by Betty N. Turner. iUniverse: 2006 {{ISBN|0595374786}}, 9780595374786 page 65 In 1894, Noble was made a partner, and the name of the shop was changed to Hinds & Noble.The Noble Legacy: The Story of Gilbert Clifford Noble, Cofounder of the Barnes & Noble and Noble & Noble Book Companies by Betty N. Turner. iUniverse: 2006 {{ISBN|0595374786}}, 9780595374786 page 101

20th century: Expansion

1900–1919

In 1901, Hinds & Noble moved to 31–35 W. 15th Street."Barnes & Noble to Move." The Bookseller and Stationer, January 1. 1922 p. 13In 1917, Noble bought out Hinds and entered into a partnership with William Barnes, son of his old friend Charles Barnes; the name of the store was changed to Barnes & Noble soon after.The Noble Legacy: The Story of Gilbert Clifford Noble, Cofounder of the Barnes & Noble and Noble & Noble Book Companies by Betty N. Turner. iUniverse: 2006 {{ISBN|0595374786}}, 9780595374786 page 151NEWS, Cynthia, Blair, 1917: First Barnes & Noble Bookstore Opens in Manhattan,weblink Newsday, 2007-08-01,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071001000727weblink">weblink October 1, 2007, yes, mdy, Charles had previously opened a book-printing business in Wheaton, Illinois in 1873, named the C. M. Barnes-Wilcox Company; William Barnes, however, divested himself of his ownership interest in his father's business shortly before his partnership with Noble. (His father's company would go on to become the Follett Corporation.) Although the flagship store once featured the motto "Founded in 1873," the C. M. Barnes-Wilcox Company never had any connection with Barnes & Noble, save for the fact that both were partly owned (at different times) by William Barnes.

1920–1939

File:Barnes & Noble Fifth Ave flagship.jpg|thumb|right|Barnes & Noble's former flagship store at 105 Fifth Avenue in ManhattanManhattanIn 1930, Noble sold his share of the company to William Barnes' son, John Wilcox Barnes.The Late Age of Print: Everyday Book Culture from Consumerism to Control by Theodore G. Striphas. Columbia University Press: 2009. 978-0-231-14814-6 p. 62 Noble died on June 6, 1936, at the age of 72.The Noble Legacy: The Story of Gilbert Clifford Noble, Cofounder of the Barnes & Noble and Noble & Noble Book Companies by Betty N. Turner. iUniverse: 2006 {{ISBN|9780595374786}} page 153 In the long history of the bookstore, the namesake partnership was a brief interlude of thirteen years. In 1932, at the height of the Great Depression, the bookstore moved its flagship location to 18th Street and Fifth Avenue,WEB,weblink The Encyclopedia of New York State, Eisenstadt, Peter, Syracuse University Press, 1266, 2004, which served as the company's flagship location until its closure in 2014. The Noble family retained ownership of an associated publishing business, and Barnes & Noble opened a new publishing division in 1931.

1940–1959

In 1940, the store was one of the first businesses to feature Muzak and it underwent a major renovation the following year.The Late Age of Print: Everyday Book Culture from Consumerism to Control by Theodore G. Striphas. Columbia University Press: 2009. 978-0-231-14814-6 p. 64 That decade the company opened stores in Brooklyn and Chicago.Barnes & Noble: Groundbreaking Entrepreneurs by Kayla Morgan. Abdo Publishing: 2000 {{ISBN|9781604537581}} p. 78 William Barnes died in 1945, at the age of 78, and his son John Wilcox Barnes assumed full control. The company underwent a significant expansion between the 1950s and the 1960s, opening an additional retail store on 23rd Street in Manhattan, as well as shops near the City University of New York, Harvard, and other Northeast college campuses.The Late Age of Print: Everyday Book Culture from Consumerism to Control by Theodore G. Striphas. Columbia University Press: 2009. 978-0-231-14814-6 p. 65

1960–1979

(File:122 Fifth Avenue.jpg|left|thumb|167px|Barnes & Noble corporate headquarters, 122 (122–124) Fifth Avenue between West 17th and 18th Streets in the Flatiron District neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City)(File:Barnes & Noble sign.jpg|thumb|right|200px|5th Avenue store sign)John Barnes died in 1964, and the company was sold to the conglomerate Amtel two years later.Reluctant Capitalists: Bookselling and the Culture of Consumption by Laura J. Miller. University Of Chicago Press: 2007 p. 47 The business was then purchased in 1971 by Leonard Riggio for $1.2 million. By then, it had been mismanaged and consisted only of "a significantly reduced wholesale operation and a single retail location—the flagship store at 105 Fifth Avenue." The publishing operation was sold separately by Amtel to Harper & Row.BOOK, Gale Research Company, 0-8103-1724-9, 46, 40, Peter Dzwonkoski (ed.), Wilkinson, Carol, American literary publishing houses, 1900-1980. edited by Peter Dzwonkoski., Barnes & Noble Books, Detroit, Mich., Dictionary of literary biography, 1986, In 1974, Barnes & Noble became the first bookstore chain to advertise on television and a year later, the company became the first bookseller in the United States to discount books, by selling The New York Times best-selling titles at 40% off the publishers' list price.JOURNAL, Barnes & Noble History,weblink 2008-06-13, Barnes & Noble,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080509130810weblink">weblink May 9, 2008, no, mdy, Between the 1970s and the 1980s, Barnes & Noble opened smaller discount stores, which were eventually phased out in favor of larger stores. They also began to publish their own books to be sold to mail-order customers. These titles were primarily affordable reissues of out-of-print titles and selling them through mail-order catalogs allowed Barnes & Noble to reach new customers nationwide.In November 1974, editors of the British-produced Guinness Book of Records, claimed on the BBC One television programme Record Breakers that the Fifth Avenue store of Barnes & Noble had overtaken that of London's Foyles bookshop to become the world's biggest bookstore.Record Breakers. Presented by Roy Castle. Co-presented by Norris and Ross McWhirter. BBC 1. Broadcast on Tuesday November 19, 1974.

1980–1999

Barnes & Noble continued to expand throughout the 1980s, and it purchased the primarily shopping mall-based B. Dalton chain from Dayton Hudson in 1986, for an estimated $275 million to $300 million.NEWS, Stephen, Miller, Bruce Dayton, CEO of Retailer That Became Target, Dies at 97,weblink Bloomberg News, 2015-10-13, 2015-11-15, Solveig Robinson, author of The Book in Society: An Introduction to Print Culture, wrote that the purchase "gave [Barnes & Noble] the necessary know-how and infrastructure to create what, in 1992, became the definitive bookselling superstore."Robinson, Solveig. The Book in Society: An Introduction to Print Culture. Broadview Press, November 15, 2013. {{ISBN|1770484310}}, 9781770484313. p. 260. The acquisition of the 797 B. Dalton bookstores turned the company into a nationwide retailer, and by the end of fiscal year 1999, the second-largest online bookseller in the United States.WEB,weblink BarnesAndNobleInc.com, PDF, 2012-09-18,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116003831weblink">weblink January 16, 2013, yes, mdy-all, B&N's critics claim that it has contributed to the decline of local and independent booksellers.MAGAZINE, Warren, St. John, Barnes & Noble's Epiphany,weblink July 6, 1999, Wired (magazine), Wired, 2008-05-19,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080506092855weblink">weblink May 6, 2008, no, The last B. Dalton stores were scheduled to close in January 2010. In 1989, Barnes & Noble purchased the 22-store chain Bookstop. Before Barnes & Noble created its official website, it sold books directly to customers through mail-order catalogs. It first began selling books online through an early videotex service called "Trintex," a joint venture between Sears and IBM, but the company's website was not launched until May 1997. BarnesandNoble.com went public in 1999.WEB,weblink Barnesandnoble sets IPO at $18 - May 24, 1999, money.cnn.com, 2018-08-22,

21st century: Operating in an electronic environment

2000s

In 2004, it was reported that the reading of books was on the decline in America, with the number of non-reading adults increasing by 17 million between 1992 and 2002. Despite this, Barnes & Noble claimed that its retail store business was expanding in the book market.NEWS,weblink Huge Decline In Book Reading, 2018-08-22, en, Beginning in 1999, Barnes & Noble owned GameStop, a video game and electronics retail outlet. The company distributed its shares in GameStop in late 2004, spinning it off into its own company in an attempt to simplify its corporate structure.NEWS, Barnes & Noble Pares GameStop, Jeffrey A. Trachtenberg, October 5, 2004, The Wall Street Journal, CEO Leonard Riggio stepped down in 2002, naming his younger brother and former acting chief executive of BarnesandNoble.com, Stephen Riggio, to succeed him. Some corporate governance experts noted that this appointment could potentially cause conflict of interest, but the company board noted that Riggio's experience at the company made him the right person for the job.NEWS,weblink A Shifting Of Leadership At Bookseller; Barnes & Noble Chief Steps Aside for Brother, Kirkpatrick, David D., 2018-08-22, en, Stephen Riggio stepped down from the position in 2010.NEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble CEO Steps Down, BN.com President William Lynch Takes Over, TechCrunch, 2018-08-22, en-US,

2010s

In 2010, website president William Lynch was named CEO. He is credited with helping launch the company's electronic book store and overseeing the introduction of its electronic book reader, the Nook. Many observers saw his appointment as underscoring the importance of digital books to Barnes & Noble's future. Steve Riggio stayed on as vice chairman.NEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble names website head William Lynch as CEO, USA Today, March 18, 2010, When Lynch resigned in mid-2013,WEB, Brown, Abram, Barnes & Noble CEO Lynch Out After Nook Woes Deepen,weblink Forbes, July 8, 2013, August 20, 2013, he was replaced by Chief Financial Officer Michael Huseby early the next year.NEWS,weblink Market Watch, Barnes & Noble points Michael P. Huseby CEO, January 8, 2014, Following the spinoff of Barnes & Noble Education, Huseby departed to head the new firm; his place was filled in mid-2015 by Ronald Boire,WEB,weblink Barnes & Noble Names Ronald Boire of Sears Canada as C.E.O., July 3, 2015, The New York Times, WEB, Barnes & Noble Completes Spin-Off of Barnes & Noble Education,weblink who departed one year later.WEB, Barnes & Noble Says CEO Boire ‘Not a Good Fit’ and Will Step Down,weblink Demos Parneros was named Barnes & Noble’s Chief Executive Officer in April 2017 after having joined the company as Chief Operating Officer in November 2016; however, he was fired in July 2018 for "company policy violations" without severance and was immediately removed from the company's board, at the advice of a law firm hired by Barnes & Noble.NEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble fires CEO for violating company policy, Isidore, Chris, 2018-07-03, CNNMoney, 2018-07-04, On August 28, 2018, Parneros filed a lawsuit against Barnes & Noble, claiming wrongful termination.NEWS,weblink A lawsuit by a fired Barnes & Noble CEO is a spectacular example of not going quietly, Quartz at Work, 2018-08-30, en-US, After the bankruptcy and closure of its chief competitor, Borders Group, in 2011,WEB, Leopold, Todd, The death and life of a great American bookstore,weblink CNN, October 30, 2013, September 12, 2011, Barnes & Noble became the last remaining national bookstore chain in the United States. This followed a series of mergers and bankruptcies in the American bookstore industry since the 1990s, which also saw the demise of Waldenbooks, Barnes & Noble's own subsidiary B. Dalton, and Crown Books, among others. Barnes & Noble's largest physical bookstore rival is now Books-A-Million, which does not operate in the Western US. Barnes & Noble also faces competition from general retailers, especially from Amazon.com, and from regional and independent booksellers. Amazon has even opened its own physical bookstores, once again creating a second national bookstore chain.WEB,weblink Amazon Will Be the Fifth Largest Bookstore Chain, Publisher's Weekly, June 1, 2017, November 7, 2017, Barnes & Noble began reducing its overall presence in the 2010's, closing its original flagship store in early 2014.NEWS, Adrianne, Pasquarelli, Barnes & Noble closes the book on Fifth Ave. store,weblink Crain Communications, Crain's New York Business, January 7, 2014, 2015-09-01, In mid-2014, the company announced it would separate its Nook Media division from its retail store division.WEB, Franzen, Carl, Barnes & Noble is splitting into two companies: one for Nooks and one for books,weblink In February 2018, Barnes & Noble permanently laid off 1,800 full time employees at an annual cost savings of $40 million per year.NEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble confirms job cuts, expects $40 million in annual cost savings, Thomas, Lauren, 2018-02-13, CNBC, 2018-08-22, According to TechCrunch, the company essentially fired their entire full time staff at all their stores, who would be making an average of $22,000 per year (~$11 per hour), and were replaced by part time workers earning close to minimum wage.NEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble is killing itself, TechCrunch, February 16, 2018, John, Biggs, In the 2018 fiscal year that ended in July, the company overall losses reached $17 million.NEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble's Problem Is No Longer Just Amazon, Forbes, September 6, 2018, Andria, Cheng, In early July 2018, Barnes & Noble fired Demos Parneros, for unspecified violation of company policy, which was later revealed to be over sexual abuse claims.NEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble's losses widen; leaders blame lack of foot-traffic in stores, CNN, 2018-09-06, KNXV-TV, 2018-09-20, en-US, On October 3, 2018, the board of directors announced that they would entertain offers to buy the company. Among the potential buyers was Leonard Riggio, who owns approximately 19% of Barnes & Noble stock. As a result of the news, the company’s stock price jumped by nearly 30%.NEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble Considers Selling Itself Yet Again, Fortune (magazine), Fortune Magazine, October 3, 2018, Phil, Wahba, Just about eight months after Barnes & Noble revealed it was exploring a possible sale, Barnes & Noble announced June 7, 2019 that Elliott Management Corporation has agreed to acquire them for around $683 millionNEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble Set To Be Sold To Elliott Management For About $683 Million, Dwyer, Colin, June 7, 2019, NPR, June 7, 2019,

Publishing

Barnes & Noble maintains a separate publishing business in addition to its retail stores and other entities. Barnes & Noble's publishing company got its start by reissuing inexpensive versions of out-of-print books, and made a push to expand the unit in 2003. The company saw success the following year; in September 2004, its book, "Hippie," reached the New York Times best-seller list.NEWS,weblink Huge Book Retailer Expands Its Publishing Role, Wyatt, Edward, 2018-08-22, en, Barnes & Noble often publishes and sells books at a lower cost than competitors, and sells lines of inexpensive books like Barnes & Noble Classics. In addition, the company has a second paperback series called the Barnes & Noble Library of Essential Reading.WEB,weblink Barnes & Noble Library of Essential Reading, Barnes & Noble, April 8, 2012, Barnes & Noble's edition of The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense by Suzette Haden Elgin, has sold over 250,000 copies, and its reissued edition of The Columbia History of the World by John Garrity, has sold over 1 million copies.WEB,weblink Barnes & Noble History, Barnes & Noble Inc., September 4, 2010, NEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble: a history, 2011-05-20, 2018-08-22, en-GB, 0307-1235, The company has expanded business by acquiring several firms over the years, including SparkNotes, an educational website and publishing company, in 2001WEB,weblink Barnes & Noble inc - BKS Quarterly Report (10-Q) Item 1: Financial Statements, 2008-02-05, 18 June 2001, Edgar Online, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071224133049weblink">weblink December 24, 2007, and Sterling Publishing in 2003.

Food service

File:6.25.11SpringfieldBarnes&NobleByLuigiNovi.jpg|thumb|left|The Barnes & Noble café in Springfield, New Jersey ]]In 1993, Barnes & Noble signed an agreement to serve Starbucks coffee in each of its existing and future cafes.WEB,weblink Business {{!, Starbucks Co. Books Space In Barnes & Noble Chain {{!}} Seattle Times Newspaper|website=community.seattletimes.nwsource.com|access-date=2018-08-22}}NEWS,weblink The Barista Principle — Starbucks and the Rise of Relational Capital, Neilson, Ranjay Gulati, Sarah Huffman, and Gary L., strategy+business, 2017-08-09, In 2004, Barnes & Noble began offering Wi-Fi in the café area of selected stores, using SBC FreedomLink (now the AT&T Wi-Fi network). All stores offered Wi-Fi as of 2006 and as of July 27, 2009, Wi-Fi is offered for free to all customers.Colker, David. "Internet wants to be free at Barnes & Noble", Los Angeles Times, July 29, 2009File:Barnes & Noble Interior.JPG|thumb|right|The Barnes & Noble at The Grove at Farmers Market, Los AngelesLos Angeles
missing image!
- Bnlynnwood.jpg -
Barnes & Noble in Lynnwood, Washington, using the former 1990s era logo.
In 2016, Barnes & Noble announced plans to open four concept stores in 2017 that featured cafés twice the size of its usual food spots, as well as bars offering wine and beer. Restaurants would also include a waitstaff and a full menu for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The restaurants were expected to revive sales growth. Company executives planned to open additional concept stores if sales met expectations.NEWS,weblink Cheers? Barnes & Noble Is Getting Into the Bars and Restaurant Business, Fortune, 2018-08-22, en, The first stores were opened in Scarsdale, New York, Edina, Minnesota, Plano, Texas, and Folsom, California.NEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble continues to expand full-service Kitchen, 2017-11-10, Nation's Restaurant News, 2018-03-16,

Community involvement

Barnes & Noble hires community business development managers to engage in community outreach.NEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble voted best local bookstore, intern, David Jones, News-Miner, Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, 2018-08-22, en, WEB,weblink Pick up a page-turner: Book-sellers name their summer reading picks, 8 August 2018, Barnes & Noble also gives back to the community to increase literacy and education. The Barnes & Noble located in Fairbanks, Alaska gave over $80,000 to the community between 2015 and 2018 through book fair fundraising programs. To promote nationwide literacy among 1st through 6th graders and encourage more reading during the summer, Barnes & Noble has implemented a summer challenge.WEB,weblink Summer Reading Challenge, Barnes & Noble website, 2009-05-08,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090430094614weblink">weblink April 30, 2009, no, NEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble (BKS) Q4 2018 Earnings Conference Call Transcript, Staff, Motley Fool, The Motley Fool, 2018-08-22, en, WEB,weblink Fun Stuff for Kids Online, Sioux City Journal, en, 2018-08-31,

The Barnes & Noble Review

The Barnes & Noble Review is an online magazine, hosted on Barnes & Noble's website, that publishes evaluations of both fiction and nonfiction works, along with essays, interviews, and pieces on other topics. It was launched in October 2007 by Barnes & Noble CEO Steve Riggio and James Mustich, Jr., publisher of the book catalog A Common Reader. Regular contributors to the magazine have included book critics Michael Dirda, Brooke Allen, Laura Miller, and Adam Kirsch, as well as prominent writers in fields outside of literary criticism, such as political journalists Christopher Hayes and Ezra Klein, philosopher A. C. Grayling, music critic Robert Christgau, and cartoonist Ward Sutton. Miller, who has written for Salon and Mustich's Common Reader, said, "The reviews [at BNR] are the same as anywhere else", adding that the tone and length of the pieces evoke The New York Times Book Review rather than the less formal Salon. The magazine's web traffic flourished during its first few years. According to Compete.com, it amassed 50,000 unique visitors in December 2009.MAGAZINE, Smith, Jordan Michael, April 2010,weblink Critical Condition, Columbia Journalism Review, June 19, 2019, Some critics were originally skeptical of The Barnes & Noble Review. Art Winslow, former literary editor of The Nation, said that because Barnes & Noble is a brand name, BNR{{'}}s contributors are effectively endorsing the corporation, and that the motives behind the publication undermine its integrity: "Criticism’s content should be free of any commercialism. Barnes & Noble has found another way to sell books, and that’s the Review. ... I wouldn’t write there.” Mustich disputed the idea that the magazine serves as a corporate tactic: "We counter that skepticism with quality. If people read the site, they can determine that we are doing what we purport to do. They have never tried to influence my judgment. The first attempt would have been the last."

Barnes & Noble Nook

{{See also|Barnes & Noble Nook}}Barnes & Noble Nook (styled NOOK) is a suite of e-book readers developed by the company,NEWS, Jeffrey A. Trachtenberg and Geoffrey A. Fowler, B&N Reader Out Tuesday,weblink The Wall Street Journal, October 20, 2009, October 20, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091021225827weblink">weblink October 21, 2009, no, based on the Android platform. The first device was announced in the United States on October 20, 2009 and was released November 30, 2009, for $259.WEB, Ina Fried, Barnes & Noble's 'Nook' said to cost $259,weblink CNET Networks, cnet news, October 19, 2009, October 20, 2009, On June 21, 2010, Barnes & Noble reduced the Nook's price to $199, as well as launched a new Wi-Fi-only model, for $149, and released a Nook colored touch screen for $249.NEWS,weblink CBS News, Barnes & Noble Cuts Nook Price, June 21, 2010, The Nook competes with the Amazon Kindle, Kobo eReader, and other e-reader offerings and color tablets with reading apps, such as Apple's iBooks for iOS devices. Various Nook models feature a 6-inch, 7-inch, or larger touchscreen.WEB,weblink Barnes & Noble, Nook Features, Version 1.3 of the Nook introduced Wi-Fi connectivity, a web browser, a dictionary, chess, and sudoku games, and a separate, smaller color touchscreen that serves as the primary input device. The Nook also features a Read in Store capability that allows visitors to stream and read any book for up to one hour while shopping in a Barnes & Noble bookstore. According to a June 2010 CNet article, the company planned to expand this feature to include periodicals in the near future.WEB, David Carnoy, B&N delivers meaty Nook update, teases iPad app,weblink CNET Networks, cnet news, April 23, 2010, June 7, 2010, The color version of the Nook introduced a 7-inch color touchscreen and the ability to view at a portrait or landscape orientation.WEB,weblink Nook Color Features, Barnes &. Noble, August 3, 2011, On April 30, 2012, Microsoft invested $300 million for a 17.6% stake in Nook, which valued the business at about $1.7 billion.WEB, Ovide, Shira,weblink Microsoft to Invest in Barnes & Noble's Nook, Online.wsj.com, May 2, 2012, 2012-09-18, In November 2012, the technology publications Mashable and Techdirt criticized the license agreement with which Barnes & Noble sells ebooks to consumers, pointing out that the rights to re-download a purchased ebook expire when the customer's credit card expires, and a valid credit card must be added to the account to restore this functionality.NEWS, Rosen, Kenneth, November 28, 2012,weblink Barnes & Noble: That Ebook is Only Yours Until Your Credit Card Expires, Mashable, NEWS, Cushing, Tim, November 27, 2012,weblink Barnes & Noble Decides That Purchased Ebooks Are Only Yours Until Your Credit Card Expires, Techdirt, In June 2014, Barnes & Noble had previously announced that it would spin off its Nook Digital division into a separate publicly traded company,WEB,weblink B&N to Split Off College Stores, Retain Nook and Retail Stores, The Digital Reader, July 6, 2015, February 26, 2015, but as of 2016, Nook remains a part of Barnes & Noble. That same month, the company announced a partnership with Samsung Electronics to make Nook tablets, as the bookseller moved forward with plans to revamp its digital business.WEB, Barnes & Noble Partners With Samsung to Make Nook Tablets,weblink FOXBusiness, June 5, 2014, June 5, 2014, Samsung and Barnes & Noble introduced the Samsung Galaxy Tab 4 Nook 7.0 in August 2014, followed by the Samsung Galaxy Tab 4 Nook 10.1 in October 2014. In December 2014, Barnes & Noble announced that it had ended its Nook partnership with Microsoft by buying back its stake.WEB, Microsoft, Barnes & Noble bring their weird Nook "partnership" to a formal end,weblink Ars Technica, December 4, 2014, December 26, 2014, Samsung and Barnes & Noble continue to introduce new Nook tablets.NEWS, PC Magazine,weblink September 2015, Samsung and Barnes & Noble introduced the Samsung Galaxy Tab S2 NOOK, In March 2016, Barnes & Noble announced it would close the Nook App Store and Nook Video and in the UK close the Nook Store on March 15.Barnes & Noble is shutting down the Nook App Store on March 15th Retrieved March 4, 2016. It will continue to sell e-books as well as digital magazines and newspapers in the US.

{{anchor|Barnes & Noble Education}}College bookstores

{{See also|Barnes & Noble College Booksellers}}







factoids
| predecessor = Corporate spin-off from Barnes & Noble, Inc.Basking Ridge, New Jersey| location_country = United States| locations = 773 (December 2018)| key_people = Michael P. Huseby (CEO, chairman)| products = | brands = Yuzu digital textbook platform| revenue = | operating_income = | net_income = | assets = | equity = | num_employees = Barnes & Noble College BooksellersDigital Student Solutions}}weblink}}}}In February 2015, Barnes & Noble had announced plans to spin off its college bookstore assets and create a separate company called Barnes & Noble Education.NEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble is spinning off its college store business, Fortune (magazine), Fortune, 2018-08-30, John, Kell, February 26, 2015, August 3, 2015, Barnes & Noble Education, Inc. began trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol, "BNED".NEWS,weblink Barnes and Noble Education Spins Off, Looks for Growth in Digital Textbooks, Colleges: Barnes and Noble Education rang the opening bell at the New York Stock Exchange after spinning off from Barnes and Noble, and will have its own board and management team., TheStreet.com, August 3, 2015, Rhonda, Schaffler, NEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble Education shares plunge on earnings miss, USA Today, 2018-08-30, Kevin, McCoy, August 30, 2017, The company operated stores dedicated to selling college textbooks, both on and off campus.NEWS, Crain's New York,weblink Barnes & Noble closes the book on Fifth Avenue Store, January 6, 2014, In February 2017, Barnes & Noble Education had acquired MBS Textbook Exchange, a major textbook distributor based in Columbia, Missouri, for $174.2 million in cash.NEWS,weblink Barnes and Noble Education Buys MBS Textbook Exchange, KBIA, March 1, 2017, Beatriz Costa, Lima, PRESS RELEASE,weblink Barnes & Noble Education Acquires MBS for $174.2 Million, Business Wire, February 28, 2017, By December 2018, Barnes & Noble Education had operated or managed 773 campus bookstores under contracts.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Barnes & Noble Education Reports Second Quarter Fiscal Year 2019 Financial Results, Business Wire, December 4, 2018,

Digital Student Solutions division

In March 2016, Barnes & Noble Education enlarged their Digital Student Solutions online services division by acquiring LoudCloud Systems, a digital platform and analytics provider to clients in higher education, the for-profit sector, and K-12 segment.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Barnes & Noble Education, Inc. Announces the Acquisition of LoudCloud Systems, Business Wire, March 8, 2016, In August 2017, Barnes & Noble Education acquired Student Brands for $58.5 Million.NEWS,weblink B&N Education Buys Student Brands for $58.5 Million, Publishers Weekly, August 7, 2017, Jim, Milliot, In August 2018, Barnes & Noble Education acquired PaperRater, a service that help students write papers and identify plagiarism.NEWS,weblink Barnes & Noble Education Acquires PaperRater.com, MarketWatch, August 22, 2018,

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • NEWS, Kirkpatrick, David D.,weblink Barnes & Noble's Jekyll and Hyde, New York (magazine), New York magazine, July 19, 1999,
  • NEWS, Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A.,weblink What's Barnes & Noble's Survival Plan? Former CEO Cuts Holding to 20%, but Says, 'The Story Isn't Written Yet', The Wall Street Journal, April 18, 2014,
  • VIDEO,weblink The Rise And Fall Of Barnes & Noble, CNBC, 2018-11-08,

External links

{{Commons category|Barnes & Noble}} {{Bookstore Chains}}{{ebooks}}

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