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Bab-el-Mandeb

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Bab-el-Mandeb
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{{redirect|Gate of Grief|the album by White Ring|Gate of Grief (album)}}{{short description|Strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa}}







factoids
| type =-609abbr=on}}| inflow =| outflow =| catchment =| basin_countries = Djibouti, Eritrea and Yemen31abbr=on}}| width = 16abbr=on}}Seven Brothers Islands>Seven Brothers, Doumeira, Perim}}The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: , {{abbr|lit.|literally}} "Gate of Tears")EB9, cs2, Bab-el-Mandeb, 3, {{harvid, EB, 1878, |page=179 }} is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa. It connects the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden.{{anchor|Toponymy|Etymology}}

Name

File:Red Sea topographic map-en.svg|thumb|right|Bathymetric map of the Red SeaRed SeaThe strait derives its name from the dangers attending its navigation or, according to an Arab legend, from the numbers who were drowned by the earthquake that separated the Arabian Peninsula from the Horn of Africa.

Geography

The Bab-el-Mandeb acts as a strategic link between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea via the Red Sea and the Suez Canal. In 2006, an estimated {{convert|3.3|Moilbbl|m3}} of oil passed through the strait per day, out of a world total of about {{convert|43|Moilbbl/d|m3/d}} moved by tankers.World Oil Transit Chokepoints {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150218222232weblink |date=February 18, 2015 }}, Energy Information Administration, US Department of EnergyThe distance across is about 20 miles (30 km) from Ras Menheli in Yemen to Ras Siyyan in Djibouti. The island of Perim divides the strait into two channels, of which the eastern, known as the Bab Iskender (Alexander's Strait), is 2 miles (3 km) wide and 16 fathoms (30 m) deep, while the western, or Dact-el-Mayun, has a width of about 16 miles (25 km) and a depth of 170 fathoms (310 m). Near the coast of Djibouti lies a group of smaller islands known as the "Seven Brothers". There is a surface current inwards in the eastern channel, but a strong undercurrent outwards in the western channel.

History

File:Total_petroleum_and_LNG_flows_through_the_Bab_el-Mandeb_Strait_in_2014_through_2018_(48671783212).png|thumb|upright=1.3|Flows of petroleum products and liquefied natural gasliquefied natural gasPaleo-environmental and tectonic events in the Miocene epoch created the Danakil Isthmus, a land bridge forming a broad connection between Yemen and Ethiopia.BOOK, The Nile: Origin, Environments, Limnology and Human Use, Henri J. Dumont, Springer Science & Business Media, 2009, Monographiae Biologicae, 89, 9781402097263,weblink 603, During the last 100,000 years eustatic sea level fluctuations have led to alternate opening and closing of the straits.BOOK, Climate in Earth History, National Academies, 1982,weblink 124, According to the recent single origin hypothesis, the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb were probably witness to the earliest migrations of modern humans. It is presumed that the oceans were then much lower and the straits were much shallower or dry, which allowed a series of emigrations along the southern coast of Asia.According to Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church tradition, the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb were witness to the earliest migrations of Semitic Ge'ez speakers into Africa, occurring {{circa|lk=no|1900}} BC, roughly around the same time as the Hebrew patriarch Jacob.Official website of EOTC {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100625174828weblink |date=June 25, 2010}} The Kingdom of Aksum was a major regional power in the Horn of Africa. It extended its rule across the strait with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom shortly before the rise of Islam.The British East India Company unilaterally seized the island of Perim in 1799 on behalf of its Indian empire. The government of Britain re-asserted its ownership in 1857 and erected a lighthouse there in 1861, using it to command the Red Sea and the trade routes through the Suez Canal.{{anchor|Bridge}}On February 22, 2008, a company owned by Tarek bin Laden unveiled plans to build a bridge named Bridge of the Horns across the strait, linking Yemen with Djibouti.BBC NEWS | Africa | Tarek Bin Laden's Red Sea bridge Middle East Development LLC has issued a notice to construct a bridge passing across the Red Sea that would be the longest suspended passing in the world.WEB, Tom Sawyer, Notice-to-Proceed Launches Ambitious Red Sea Crossing,weblink Engineering News-Record, May 1, 2007, The project has been assigned to engineering company COWI in collaboration with architect studio Dissing+Weitling, both from Denmark. It was announced in 2010 that Phase 1 had been delayed and as of mid-2016 nothing more has been heard about the project.

Sub-region

The Bab-el-Mandeb is also a sub-region in the Arab League, which includes Djibouti, Yemen, and Eritrea.{{cn|date=March 2019}}

Demographics{| class"wikitable"

Bab-el-Mandeb:CIA WORLD FACTBOOK>WORK=THE WORLD FACTBOOKLOCATION=LANGLEY, VIRGINIA,weblink bgcolor="#ECECEC"! Country! Area(km2)! Population(2016 est.)! Population density(per km2)! Capital! GDP (PPP) $M USD! GDP per capita (PPP) $ USDDjibouti}} Djibouti 23,200 846,687 37.2| Djibouti City $3.327 $3,351Eritrea}} Eritrea 117,600 6,380,803 51.8| Asmara $9.121 $1,314Yemen}} Yemen 527,829 27,392,779 44.7| Sana'a $58,202 $2,249! Total! align="right" | 668,629! align="right" | 34,620,269! align="right" | 29.3 / km2! align="right" | Various! align="right" | $70,650! align="right" | $1841

Population centers

The most significant towns and cities along both the Djiboutian and Yemeni sides of the Bab-el-Mandeb

Djibouti

Yemen

See also

Strait: Region:

References

{{reflist|30em}}

External links

{{List of African seas}}{{Authority control}}

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