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Baarle-Hertog
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{{redirect|Baerle-Duc|the French town|Bar-le-Duc}}







factoids
|community={{BE-NL}}|province={{BE-PROV-AN}} bgcolor="#ececec"!scope="col" width="275px"|Serial no. and local nameBOOK, Brendan, Whyte, "En Territoire Belge et à Quarante Centimètres de la Frontière" An historical and documentary study of the Belgian and Dutch enclaves of Baarle-Hertog and Baarle-Nassau, 0-7340-3032-0, The University of Melbourne, School of Anthropology, Geography and Environmental Studies, 2004, !scope="col" width="50px" data-sort-type="number"|Area (ha)!scope="col" width="525px" class="unsortable"|Notes
Arrondissement of Turnhout>Turnhout|nis=13002|pyramid-date=|0-19=|20-64=|65=|foreigners= |foreigners-date= |mayor=Leo van Tilburg (CDK)|majority=CDK|postal-codes=2387|telephone-area=014weblink}}51N56region:BE|display=inline,title}}}}Baarle-Hertog ({{IPA-nl|ËŒbaːrlÉ™ ˈɦɛrtÉ”x}}), known as Baerle-Duc in French, is a Flemish municipality of Belgium, much of which consists of a number of small Belgian exclaves in the Netherlands.While some of its territory consists of exclaves in the Dutch province of North Brabant, it is part of the Belgian province of Antwerp. On 1 January 2006 Baarle-Hertog had a population of 2,306. The total area is {{convert|7.48|km²|2|abbr=off}} which gives a population density of 308 inhabitants per km² (798 inhabitants/sq mi).

Geography

Border with Baarle-Nassau

(File:Baarle-Nassau - Baarle-Hertog-en.svg|thumb|Map showing the enclaves of Baarle-Hertog)Baarle-Hertog is noted for its complicated borders with Baarle-Nassau, Netherlands.{{es icon}} Map, pictures and infos on "Fronterasblog" The complex border was created after the Treaty of Maastricht was signed between the Netherlands and Belgium in 1843. In total it consists of 24 separate parcels of land, none of which is actually contiguous with the bulk of the territory of Belgium (to which it belongs). The main division of Baarle-Hertog is Zondereigen (named after its main hamlet), located north of the Belgian town of Merksplas. In addition there are twenty Belgian exclaves in the Netherlands and three other sections on the Dutch-Belgian border. There are also seven Dutch exclaves within the Belgian exclaves (i.e., counter-exclaves). Six of these Dutch enclaves are located within the largest Belgian enclave, and a seventh in the second-largest Belgian enclave. An eighth Dutch exclave is located nearby Ginhoven.During the First World War, this situation meant that the German Imperial Army could not occupy these parts of Belgium without crossing the Netherlands, which the Dutch government did not allow. Thus, these pieces of Belgium became a place where refugees could safely stay.An Apology of Enclaves A clandestine radio transmitter was smuggled in and from there worked with the Belgian resistance. The Dutch government fenced off these areas and controlled access in or out of them, building a church and school for the Belgian people who were effectively stranded within the enclaves.(:nl:Enclavegeschiedenis van Baarle#Baarle en de Eerste Wereldoorlog|Enclavegeschiedenis van Baarle (Dutch)){{Circular reference|date=March 2019}} This situation did not exist in the Second World War, as both countries were occupied by Nazi Germany.Some houses in the town of Baarle-Hertog/Baarle-Nassau are divided between the two countries. At one time, according to Dutch laws restaurants had to close earlier. For some restaurants on the border, this simply meant that the customers had to move to a table on the Belgian side.WEB,weblink The Curious Case of Baarle-Nassau and Baarle-Hertog, Amusingplanet.com, 2012-11-06, 2014-08-01, The border's complexity results from a number of equally complex medieval treaties, agreements, land-swaps and sales between the Lords of Breda and the Dukes of Brabant. Generally speaking, predominantly agricultural or built environments became constituents of Brabant and other parts devolved to Breda. These distributions were ratified and clarified as a part of the border settlements agreed under the Treaty of Maastricht in 1843. The tight integration of the European Union and in particular the Schengen Treaty have made many of the practicalities of the situation substantially simpler since the 1990s.Many fireworks shops are found in Baarle-Hertog, owing to Belgian laws controlling the sale of fireworks that are more lenient than those in the Netherlands. Close to the end of the year many Dutch tourists come to Baarle-Hertog to buy fireworks to celebrate the New Year.Two villages in the municipality, Zondereigen and Ginhoven, are located in the main territory of Belgium.File:Baarle-Nassau frontière café.jpg|Cafe in Baarle-Nassau, showing border between Belgium and the NetherlandsFile:P1020708Sint-Remigiuskerk.JPG|Church of Saint Remigius

List of enclaves

Netherlands enclaves

These are all part of Baarle-Nassau Commune.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left; font-size:87%; border:1; cellpadding:5; cellspacing:0;"
NED}} N1, De Loversche Akkers – De Tommelsche Akkers5.3667Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertog; contains a mix of dwellings and farmland; boundary of N1 and H1 runs through one building.
NED}} N2, De Tommelsche Akkers1.3751Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertog; contains 8 dwellings.
NED}} N3, De Tommelsche Akkers0.2863Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertog; boundary of N3 and H1 bisects the loading dock of a liquor store.
NED}} N4, De Rethsche Akkers1.2324Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertog; boundary of N4 and H1 runs through a warehouse, with vacant Dutch land to the rear of the warehouse.
NED}} N5, De Rethsche Akkers1.9212Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertog; boundary of N5 and H1 runs through a furniture showroom, a shed and a barn.
NED}} N6, Gierle Straat1.4527Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian exclave H1, in Baarle-Hertog; consists of farmland with two buildings.
NED}} N7, De Kastelein0.5812Counter-enclave surrounded by Belgian Oordeel exclave H8, in Baarle-Hertog; occupies part of a field.
NED}} N8, Vossenberg2.8528Farmland enclave situated within Zondereigen, Belgium, less than 50 meters south of the Dutch border.

Belgian enclaves

These are all part of Baarle-Hertog Commune, and are surrounded by Baarle-Nassau Commune (Netherlands).{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left; font-size:87%; border:1; cellpadding:5; cellspacing:0;" bgcolor="#ececec"!scope="col" width="350px"|Serial no. and local name!scope="col" width="50px" data-sort-type="number"|Area (ha)!scope="col" width="450px" class="unsortable"|NotesBEL}} H1, Aen het Klooster Straetje - Hoofdbraek - Loveren - De Boschcovensche Akkers - De Loversche Akkers - De Tommelsche Akkers - De Tommel - De Gierle Straat - De Reth - De Rethsche Akkers - Het Dorp - De Kapel Akkers - De Kastelein 153.6448Forms a quadripoint with enclave H2; largest Belgian exclave; encompasses six Dutch enclaves; consists of dwellings for the most part, with outlying farmland and an industrial area; boundary runs through numerous buildings; contains a portion of the former Turnhout-Tilburg rail line, now a cycle path.BEL}} H2, De Rethsche Akkers2.4116Consists of farmland with a single point of connection (quadripoint) between enclaves H1 and H2 in the middle of a corn field.BEL}} H3, De Rethsche Akkers0.3428Occupies part of a field; boundary runs through a shed in one instance.BEL}} H4, De Rethsche Akkers1.476Consists of farmland; boundary runs through a house and three sheds.BEL}} H5, De Kapel Akkers0.9245Consists of farmland with a dwelling.BEL}} H6, Hoofdbraek1.7461Mixed land usage; boundary runs through a warehouse/factory.BEL}} H7, De Loversche Akkers0.2469Boundary runs through two dwellings, including the middle of one front door (giving it two house numbers: Loveren 2, Baarle-Hertog / Loveren 19, Baarle-Nassau).BEL}} H8, Boschcoven - De Kastelein - De Oordelsche Straat41.8781Second-largest Belgian exclave, contains a mix of dwellings and farmland; boundary runs through a barn, a dwelling and two businesses.BEL}} H9, De Kapel Akkers0.4005Boundary runs through a printing factory/warehouse in an industrial area.BEL}} H10, De Oordelsche Straat0.65Consists of farmland.BEL}} H11, De Oordelsche Straat0.93Consists of farmland.BEL}} H12, Boschcoven0.2822Consists of farmland.BEL}} H13, Boschcoven1.5346Boundary runs through about 20 dwellings.BEL}} H14, Boschcoven0.7193Boundary runs through about 13 dwellings.BEL}} H15, Boschcoven1.7211Boundary runs through about 16 dwellings.BEL}} H16, Keizershoek - Oordelsche Straat4.4252Boundary runs through a house and three sheds, with three turning points{{clarify|date=July 2016}} inside just one shed.BEL}} H17, Moleriet Heide14.9248Rural area containing a portion of the former Turnhout-Tilburg rail line, now a cycle path.BEL}} H18, De Manke Gooren2.9247Consists of farmland.BEL}} H19, De Peruiters0.6851Consists of several ponds and a field.BEL}} H20, Wurstenbosch - Vossenberg1.1681Consists of farmland.BEL}} H21, Baelbrugsche Beemden1.1845Consists of farmland.BEL}} H22, De Wit Hagen0.2632South of the village of Ulicoten; occupies part of a field; nationality was contested from the 1830s until 1995 (remained unallocated to either country in boundary treaty of 26 April 1974)

Education

Baarle-Hertog has two schools: De Vlinder and De Horizon."scholen." Baarle-Hertog. Retrieved on January 6, 2017.It has a joint library with Baarle-Nassau with Belgian and Dutch staff."bibliotheek." Baarle-Hertog. Retrieved on January 6, 2017.

Famous inhabitants

See also

  • , an exclave of Germany surrounded by Switzerland
  • , an exclave of Italy surrounded by Switzerland
  • , an exclave of Spain surrounded by France
  • India–Bangladesh enclaves, 173 former enclaves (not including counter-enclaves)
  • The City & The City, a novel about two fictional co-existing city states.

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Commons category}} {{Geographic location|title = For main division of Zondereigen|Centre = Baarle-HertogBaarle-Nassau (Netherlands>NL-NB)Baarle-Nassau (Netherlands>NL-NB)|Southeast = Turnhout|South = MerksplasBaarle-Nassau (Netherlands>NL-NB)}}{{Antwerpen Belgium}}

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