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Art movement
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{{History of art sidebar}}An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years. Art movements were especially important in modern art, when each consecutive movement was considered as a new avant-garde.

Concept

According to theories associated with modernism and the concept of postmodernism, art movements are especially important during the period of time corresponding to modern art.Man of his words: Pepe Karmel on Kirk Varnedoe â€” Passages – Critical Essay Artforum, Nov, 2003 by Pepe Karmel The period of time called "modern art" is posited to have changed approximately halfway through the 20th century and art made afterward is generally called contemporary art. Postmodernism in visual art begins and functions as a parallel to late modernismThe Originality of the Avant Garde and Other Modernist Myths Rosalind E. Krauss, Publisher: The MIT Press; Reprint edition (July 9, 1986), Part I, Modernist Myths, pp.8–171 and refers to that period after the "modern" period called contemporary art.The Citadel of Modernism Falls to Deconstructionists, – 1992 critical essay, The Triumph of Modernism, 2006, Hilton Kramer, pp 218–221. The postmodern period began during late modernism (which is a contemporary continuation of modernism), and according to some theorists postmodernism ended in the 21st century.Post-Modernism: The New Classicism in Art and Architecture Charles JencksWilliam R. Everdell, (The First Moderns|The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of Twentieth-century Thought''), University of Chicago Press, 1997, p4. {{ISBN|0-226-22480-5}} During the period of time corresponding to "modern art" each consecutive movement was often considered a new avant-garde.Also during the period of time referred to as "modern art" each movement was seen corresponding to a somewhat grandiose rethinking of all that came before it, concerning the visual arts. Generally there was a commonality of visual style linking the works and artists included in an art movement. Verbal expression and explanation of movements has come from the artists themselves, sometimes in the form of an art manifesto,"Poetry of the Revolution. Marx, Manifestos, and the Avant-Gardes" introduction, Martin Puchner {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20051227195629weblink |date=2005-12-27 }} Retrieved April 4, 2006"Looking at Artists' Manifestos, 1945–1965", Stephen B. Petersen {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110927185416weblink |date=September 27, 2011 }} Retrieved April 4, 2006 and sometimes from art critics and others who may explain their understanding of the meaning of the new art then being produced.In the visual arts, many artists, theorists, art critics, art collectors, art dealers and others mindful of the unbroken continuation of modernism and the continuation of modern art even into the contemporary era, ascribe to and welcome new philosophies of art as they appear.Clement Greenberg: Modernism and Postmodernism, seventh paragraph of the essay. URL accessed on June 15, 2006Clement Greenberg: Modernism and Postmodernism, William Dobell Memorial Lecture, Sydney, Australia, Oct 31, 1979, Arts 54, No.6 (February 1980). His final essay on modernism Retrieved October 26, 2011 Postmodernist theorists posit that the idea of art movements are no longer as applicable, or no longer as discernible, as the notion of art movements had been before the postmodern era.Ideas About Art by Desmond, Kathleen K. weblink, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, p.148International postmodernism: theory and literary practice, Bertens, Hans weblink, Routledge, 1997, p.236 There are many theorists however who doubt as to whether or not such an era was actually a fact; or just a passing fad.WEB,weblink The Death of Postmodernism And Beyond | Issue 58 | Philosophy Now, philosophynow.org, The term refers to tendencies in visual art, novel ideas and architecture, and sometimes literature. In music it is more common to speak about genres and styles instead. See also cultural movement, a term with a broader connotation.As the names of many art movements use the -ism suffix (for example cubism and futurism), they are sometimes referred to as isms.

19th-,20th- and 21st-century art movements

19th century

File:Jacques-Louis David - The Coronation of Napoleon (1805-1807).jpg|Jacques-Louis David, The Coronation of Napoleon, (1806), Musée du Louvre, NeoclassicismFile:Eugène Delacroix - La liberté guidant le peuple.jpg|Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People 1830, RomanticismFile:Cole Thomas The Course of Empire The Savage State 1836.jpg|Thomas Cole, The Course of Empire: The Savage State 1836, Hudson River SchoolFile:Gustave Courbet 018.jpg|Gustave Courbet, Stone-Breakers, 1849, Realist SchoolFile:corot.villedavray.750pix.jpg|Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, c. 1867, Ville d'Avray National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Barbizon SchoolNational Gallery of ArtFile:Claude Monet - Graystaks I.JPG|Claude Monet, Haystacks, (sunset), 1890–1891, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, ImpressionismFile:Van Gogh - Starry Night - Google Art Project.jpg|Vincent van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889, Post-ImpressionismFile:The Scream.jpg|Edvard Munch, 1893, early example of Expressionism{{columns |width=25em|col1 = }}

20th century

1900–1921

File:Wassily Kandinsky, 1903, The Blue Rider (Der Blaue Reiter), oil on canvas, 52.1 x 54.6 cm, Stiftung Sammlung E.G. Bührle, Zurich.jpg|Wassily Kandinsky, 1903, Der Blaue Reiter {{convert|21.1|x|54.6|cm|1|abbr=on}}File:Family of Saltimbanques.JPG|Pablo Picasso, Family of Saltimbanques, 1905, Picasso's Rose PeriodFile:Matisse-Open-Window.jpg|Henri Matisse 1905, FauvismFile:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg|Pablo Picasso 1907, Proto-CubismFile:Violin and Candlestick.jpg|Georges Braque 1910, Analytic CubismFile:Supremus 55 (Malevich, 1916).jpg|Kazimir Malevich, (Supremus No. 58), Museum of Art, 1916, SuprematismFile:Marcel Duchamp, 1917, Fountain, photograph by Alfred Stieglitz.jpg|Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917, photograph by Alfred Stieglitz, DadaFile:Albert Gleizes, 1920, Femme au gant noir (Woman with Black Glove), oil on canvas, 126 x 100 cm. Private collection.jpg|Albert Gleizes, Woman with Black Glove, 1920, Crystal CubismFile:Tableau I, by Piet Mondriaan.jpg|Piet Mondrian, Tableau I, 1921, De Stijl{{columns |width=25em|col1 = }}

1920–1945

File:Theo van Doesburg Composition XX.jpg|Theo van Doesburg, Composition XX, 1920, De StijlFile:The Elephant Celebes.jpg|Max Ernst, The Elephant Celebes (1921), Tate, SurrealismFile:NY Met demuth figure 5 gold.JPG|Charles Demuth, I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold, 1928, Metropolitan Museum of Art, PrecisionismFile:Grant Wood - American Gothic - Google Art Project.jpg|Grant Wood, American Gothic, 1930, Social Realism{{columns |width=25em|col1 = }}

1940–1965

File:Gorky-The-Liver.jpg|thumb|Arshile Gorky, The Liver is the Cock's Comb (1944), oil on canvas, 73{{fraction|1|4}} × 98" (186 × 249 cm) Albright–Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York. Gorky was an Armenian-born American painter who had a seminal influence on (Abstract Expressionism]]. De Kooning said: "I met a lot of artists — but then I met Gorky... He had an extraordinary gift for hitting the nail on the head; remarkable. So I immediately attached myself to him and we became very good friends."Willem de Kooning (1969) by Thomas B. Hess){{columns |width=25em|col1 = }}

1965–2000

File:Art & Language, Untitled Painting (1965), Tate Modern, London - 20130627.jpg|Art & Language, Untitled Painting (1965), Tate, Conceptual art File:Art-LanguageV3No1-1974.jpg|Art & Language, ''Art-Language Vol.3 No.1 (1974), Château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art, Conceptual artFile:She Who Must Be Obeyed tony smith007.JPG|Tony Smith, She Who Must Be Obeyed, 1975, Tony Smith Department of Labour Building, MinimalismFile:Unititled (Corner Piece) by Dan Flavin, Tate Liverpool.jpg|Dan Flavin, Untitled (Corner Piece), 1930, Tate Liverpool, Installation art{hide}columns |width=25em|col1 = {edih}

21st century

{hide}columns |width=25em|col1 = {edih}

See also

References

{{Reflist|32em}}

External links

{{-}}{{Westernart}}{{Avant-garde}}{{Modernism}}

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