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Arms of Canada

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Arms of Canada
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{{distinguish|Great Seal of Canada}}{{Use Canadian English|date=December 2010}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2012}}{{good article}}







factoids
|crest = Upon a Royal helmet, a lion passant guardant or imperially crowned proper and holding in the dexter paw a maple leaf Gules.|torse = Argent and gules, the mantling gules doubled argent.|shield = Tierced in fess, the first and second divisions containing the quarterly coat following, namely, 1st Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or, 2nd, Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules, 3rd, Azure a harp Or stringed Argent, 4th, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or, and the third division being Argent three maple leaves conjoined on one stem proper.|supporters = Dexter a lion Or holding a lance Argent, point Or, flying therefrom to the Dexter the Royal Union Flag, Sinister a unicorn Argent armed, crined and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet composed of crosses-patée and fleurs-de-lis a chain affixed thereto and reflexed Or, holding a like lance flying therefrom to the sinister a banner Azure charged with three fleurs-de-lis Or.Tudor Rose>roses, thistles, shamrocks and lilies proper.Order of Canada ()|other_elements = The whole ensigned by the Royal Crown proper.Arms of Canada, revised 1957)|use =}}The Arms of Canada (), also known as the Royal Coat of Arms of Canada ()JOURNAL,weblink The Canadian Heraldic Authority – Approvals, Cook, Sheila-Marie, Canada Gazette, March 2007, 141, 11, 586, 24 February 2015, JOURNAL, Department of Canadian Heritage, Department of Canadian Heritage, Canada: Symbols of Canada, Ottawa, Queen's Printer for Canada, 2016,weblink 3 September 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160624170537weblink">weblink 24 June 2016, yes, dmy-all, HANSARD, Statements by Members {{ndash, Royal Arms of Canada |url=http://www2.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=35&Ses=1&DocId=2332530#ROYALARMSOFCANADA |house=Commons |date=5 December 1995 |column_start=1410 |column_end=1415 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090310004425weblink |archivedate=10 March 2009 }}WEB,weblink Military Police Complaints Commission, The Commission > Publications > Outlook With Vision: Annual Report 2001, Queen's Printer for Canada, 28 June 2009, WEB,weblink Bank of Canada, Currency Museum > Learning Centre, Queen's Printer for Canada, 28 June 2009, {{Dead link|date=April 2012|bot=H3llBot}}JOURNAL, Reynolds, Ken, Pro Valore: Canada's Victoria Cross, Ottawa, Queen's Printer for Canada, 40, 2,weblink 31 July 2009, WEB,weblink Department of National Defence, Department of National Defence (Canada), Features > 2008 > Modern Canadian Victoria Cross unveiled at Rideau Hall, Queen's Printer for Canada, 4 August 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091202062236weblink">weblink 2 December 2009, BOOK, Bousfield, Arthur, Toffoli, Gary, Fifty Years the Queen, Dundurn Press, 2002, Toronto, 35,weblink 1-55002-360-8, BOOK, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Discover Canada, Ottawa, Queen's Printer for Canada, 2009, 38, 61,weblink 978-1-100-12739-2, 3 December 2009, CITEREF_Citizenship_and_Immigration_Canada_2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091122160954weblink">weblink 22 November 2009, no, or formally as the Arms of Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Canada (),WEB,weblink The Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges of Canada, Vol. IV, p. 457, The Canadian Heraldic Authority, 1 December 2011, WEB,weblink Federal Identity Program, Queen's Printer for Canada, 4 October 2016, Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, Treasury Board Secretariat, WEB,weblink The Coat of Arms of Canada – A Short History, Royal Heraldry Society of Canada, 28 June 2009,weblink 30 January 2012, yes, dmy-all, BOOK, Tidridge, Nathan, Canada's Constitutional Monarchy: An Introduction to Our Form of Government, Dundurn Press, Toronto, 71, 2011, 9781459700840,weblink is, since 1921, the official coat of arms of the Canadian monarch and thus also of Canada.WEB,weblink Canadian Flags of the Royal Family, Queen's Printer for Canada, 2 October 2014, 9 December 2015, Department of Canadian Heritage, Government of Canada,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160102234745weblink">weblink 2 January 2016, yes, dmy-all, It is closely modelled after the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom with French and distinctive Canadian elements replacing or added to those derived from the British version.The maple leaves in the shield, blazoned "proper", were originally drawn vert (green) but were redrawn gules (red) in 1957 and a circlet of the Order of Canada was added to the arms for limited use in 1987. The shield design forms the monarch's royal standard and is also found on the Canadian Red Ensign. The Flag of the Governor General of Canada, which formerly used the shield over the Union Flag, now uses the crest of the arms on a blue field.The arms are embossed on the covers of Canadian passports, in order to legally signify and symbolize that the bearer is travelling under the aid of the Crown of Canada.

History

missing image!
- Blason proposé pour la province royale de Canada en 1663.svg|thumb|left|150px|Blason proposed for the French Province of Canada in 1663.]]Prior to Confederation in 1867, the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom served in Canada as the symbol of royal authority.WEB,weblink Royal Heraldry Society of Canada: The Coat of Arms, RHSC, 8 November 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081201192257weblink">weblink 1 December 2008, yes, dmy-all, Arms had not been granted to any of the colonies in British North America, apart from 17th-century grants to Nova ScotiaWEB,weblink Canadian Symbols Promotion – Nova Scotia, Canadian Heritage, 21 May 2008, 21 November 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080925114721weblink">weblink 25 September 2008, and Newfoundland.WEB,weblink RSNL1990 CHAPTER C-20 – COAT OF ARMS ACT, 2006, Earl G. Tucker, Queen's Printer, 6 September 2008, WEB,weblink Heraldry and Flags: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 6 September 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080402042016weblink">weblink 2 April 2008, The year after Confederation, arms were granted by Royal Warrant on May 26, 1868 to Ontario,WEB,weblink Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion – Ontario, Canadian Heritage, 24 September 2007, 21 November 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081022064914weblink">weblink 22 October 2008, no, dmy, Quebec,WEB,weblink Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion – Quebec, Canadian Heritage, 21 May 2008, 21 November 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080910013110weblink">weblink 10 September 2008, Nova ScotiaWEB,weblink Nova Scotia/Nouvelle-Ecosse – Coat-of-Arms/Le blason, Government of Nova Scotia, 31 October 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081210064609weblink">weblink 10 December 2008, no, (that Nova Scotia had been granted arms was forgotten, and it took until 1929 for the historic arms granted in the 17th century to be reinstated) and New Brunswick.WEB,weblink Canadian Symbols Promotion – New Brunswick, Canadian Heritage, 24 September 2007, 21 November 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080606145242weblink">weblink 6 June 2008, In the Royal Warrant of 1868, Queen Victoria authorized the four arms of the first provinces to be quartered for use on the Great Seal of Canada and while this was not done for the first Great Seal, it is through this reference it became the de facto arms for Canada until 1921.BOOK, Use of Non-Traditional Evidence: A case study using heraldry to examine competing theories for Canada’s Confederation, Bruce M. Hicks, 2010, British Journal of Canadian Studies 43 (1), pp.87-117, 0269-9222, That is why it was in this form Canada was represented on the first Red Ensign carried by Canadian troops at Vimy Ridge in 1917.A shield of arms first quartered and then, over time, as more provinces and territories joined Canada, marshalled with the arms of the new members of Confederation emerged through popular and even Canadian governmental usage. This eventually resulted in a shield with nine quarterings, an arrangement that had never been approved by the monarch.Nine quarterings on a shield was considered too complex for a national symbol and by 1915 a push had begun to design a new coat of arms for Canada.BOOK, Fraser, Alistair B, The Flags of Canada, 30 January 1998, Chapter I, Canada's National Symbols,weblinkweblink 1 October 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080915061016weblink">weblink 15 September 2008, no, A committee was formed in 1919 to pursue the issue, eventually agreeing that the elements of the new arms would reference the Royal Arms of England, Ireland, Scotland, and France, with maple leaves representing Canada, though there was at the time no consensus on how the leaves were to be used. The decision was settled by 1920, and the committee conferred with the College of Arms in London, only to face resistance to the use of the Royal Arms from the Garter King of Arms. After some manoeuvring, including the personal intervention of Winston Churchill, the new arms of Canada were eventually formally requested by an Order in Council on 30 April 1921 and adopted on 21 November of the same year by proclamation of King George V as the Arms or Ensigns Armorial of the Dominion of Canada.WEB,weblink Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion – The arms of Canada, Canadian Heritage, 23 June 2008, 21 November 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080924075037weblink">weblink 24 September 2008, {{London Gazette|issue=32525|page=9242|date=22 November 1921}} The new layout closely reflected the arms of the United KingdomWEB,weblink Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion – The arms of Canada (page 2), Canadian Heritage, 23 June 2008, 21 November 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080924072609weblink">weblink 24 September 2008, with the addition of maple leaves in the base and the reference to the French royal arms in the fourth quarter.WEB,weblink Symbols of Canada, 2008, Canadian Heritage, 20 November 2008, 6, The proclamation also established white and red as the national colours of Canada.In 1931, with the passage of the Statute of Westminster, Canada and other Dominions became fully sovereign from the United Kingdom. This had the effect of elevating the Canadian coat of arms, which had been granted as deputed arms for particular uses in a colony, to the status of the royal arms of the King in right of the country, for general purposes throughout the country. They thus replaced the British coat of arms, which had previously been arms of general purpose throughout the British Empire, in court rooms and on government buildings to represent the ruling monarch. This change can be seen in the Great Seal of Canada of George VI, where the royal arms of Canada replaced the British arms, and is even more evident in the Great Seal of Canada for Elizabeth II, where the title has been redefined as Queen of Canada.BOOK, Swann, Conrad, Canada Symbols of Sovereignty: An investigation of the arms and seals borne from the earliest times to the present in connection with public authority in and over Canada. along with consideration of some connected flags, Chapter I, Arms of dominion and sovereignty and public authority, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, These are the coat of arms of the Queen of Canada.By 1957, the arms were redrawn by Alan Beddoe so as to have red leaves and to change the royal crown from one of a Tudor design to one more resembling St. Edward's Crown, as preferred by Queen Elizabeth II. To mark the 1982 patriation of the Canadian constitution, which finally ended the last vestiges of British authority over Canada, a McGill University student named Bruce Hicks proposed to Secretary of State Gerald Regan that the motto of the Order of Canada be placed around the shield in order to bring these royal arms into line with other royal arms, many of which have been displayed in Canada during French, Scottish, and English colonisation, where those countries' highest national order of honour appears around the shield of the arms (the British arms displayed the Order of the Garter, the Scottish royal arms the Order of the Thistle, and the royalist arms of the French Regime the Order of the Holy Spirit and Order of Saint Michael).BOOK, Hicks, Bruce, The Campaign to Change the Royal Arms of Canada (Hogtown Heraldry 12:4), While unsuccessful in this first attempt, Hicks continued his campaign and was joined by a number of other amateur and professional heraldists. As a journalist in the parliamentary press gallery in Ottawa in the late 1980s and early 90s, Hicks strategically recast the change as something worth doing to commemorate the 25th Anniversary of the Order of Canada in 1992, an idea that was endorsed by the Advisory Committee on the Order of Canada.BOOK, McCreery, Christopher, The Order of Canada: Its Origins, History and Development, 0-8020-3940-5, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, It took until 1994 for the Queen to approve the new design for general use, though the Canadian Heraldic Authority began to allow for its limited use beginning in 1987, where the arms were used to represent the Queen personally on letters patent granting new arms for distinguished Canadians. These letters patent carried the shield from the royal arms along with the annulus behind the shield bearing the motto of the Order of Canada—Desiderantes meliorem patriam. As soon as royal approval was forthcoming, the full achievement was redesigned for use by the federal government within the Federal Identity Program. The present design of the arms of Canada was drawn by Cathy Bursey-Sabourin, Fraser Herald at the Canadian Heraldic Authority.BOOK, Canadian Heritage, The Arms of Canada (Ottawa: Government of Canada), In June 2008, Member of Parliament Pat Martin introduced a motion into the House of Commons of Canada calling on the government to amend the coat of arms to incorporate symbols representing Canada's First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples.NEWS,weblink Coat of arms ignores aboriginal people, MP say, 20 June 2008, CBC,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080622224734weblink">weblink 22 June 2008, no, 20 June 2008,

Armorial evolution

Coat of arms of Canada (1868).svg|18681905 Canadian coat of arms postcard.jpg
-
(File:1914 Canadian $5 gold reverse.jpg|thumb|A 1914 Canadian $5 coin, minted 1912–1914, featuring the 1868 version of the arms)The arms of Canada are the arms of the sovereign and signify national sovereignty and ownership.BOOK, Ceremonial and Procedural Handbook of Canada, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2010, 106, They are used as a mark of authority by various government agencies and representatives, including the prime ministerWEB,weblink Prime Minister of Canada / Premier ministre du Canada, Office of the Prime Minister, 1 October 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080930004739weblink">weblink 30 September 2008, no, and Cabinet,WEB,weblink Prime Minister of Canada: The Ministry, Office of the Prime Minister, 1 October 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081002085203weblink">weblink 2 October 2008, yes, and most courts, including the Supreme Court,WEB,weblink Supreme Court of Canada – Welcome Page, 4 September 2008, Supreme Court of Canada, 1 October 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081009092236weblink">weblink 9 October 2008, no, as well as the Canadian Armed Forces and Royal Canadian Mounted Police.BOOK, Canadian Forces Dress Instructions, Canadian Armed Forces, Canadian Forces Department of History and Heritage, 2010, Ottawa, WEB,weblink National Defence and the Canadian Forces, Forces.gc.ca, 30 October 2008, 8 November 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080702084606weblink">weblink 2 July 2008, WEB,weblink RCMP Badges and Insignia, Her Majesty the Queen of Canada as represented by the Minister of Public Safety, 7 April 2014, 7 March 2016, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, It is also present on all pre-polymer denominations of Canadian banknotes (in fact, the way the arms were printed on each bill is a security feature),WEB,weblink Check to Protect, Bank of Canada / Banque du Canada, 1 October 2008, {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} as well as the 50¢ coin,WEB,weblink Royal Canadian Mint – Monnaie Royale Canadienne, Mint.ca, 21 November 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081204011602weblink">weblink 4 December 2008, no, and on the cover of Canadian passports.WEB,weblink Passport Canada: Features of the Passport, Passport Canada, 1 October 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090308035327weblink">weblink 8 March 2009, dmy-all, Since 1962, a banner of the arms, defaced with a variant of the Queen's cypher, has formed the sovereign's standard for Canada, for use by the Queen in her capacity as monarch of Canada.BOOK, Fraser, Alistair B, The Flags of Canada, 30 January 1998, Chapter II, Canada's Head of State,weblink 1 October 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080917025446weblink">weblink 17 September 2008, no, Since, six additional standards for use by other members of the Canadian Royal Family have been created.In the Canadian Armed Forces and Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the most senior non-commissioned ranks wear the 1957 version of the coat of arms as a badge of rank, representing the fact that they have received the Queen's warrant (as opposed |to the Queen's commission for officers). The revised 1957 and 1994 Arms of Canada are both protected official government symbols used to represent the state under the Federal Identity Program. Permanent resident cards issued from 2015 feature a holographic representation of the 1957 version of the coat of arms.WEB,weblink Permanent Resident Card, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, 12 July 2017, {{Dead link|date=August 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}The full achievement of the coat of arms has been used by the Canadian government on occasion on a plain red flag, such as in 1967 for the country's centennial celebrations.WEB,weblink Canadian Coat of Arms flag, Flags of the World, February 2004, 14 April 2007, It is also used on a flag in its full achievement in military ceremonies, such as Canadian Armed Forces Tattoo performances.WEB,weblink The Minute Book, The News and Eastern Townships Advocate, 25 May 1967, 15 May 2015, The personal flag of the Governor General has, since 1981, featured the crest of the royal arms of Canada on a blue background.WEB,weblink Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion – Personal Flags and Standards, Minister of Public Works and Government Services, 4 September 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080621163539weblink">weblink 21 June 2008, WEB,weblink Symbols of the Governor General, Rideau Hall, 4 September 2008, In response to a new campaign by Bruce Hicks for the Canadian Parliament to have a distinct heraldic symbols along the lines of the portcullis (variations of which are used by the Commons and Lords in the British Parliament),BOOK, Hicks, Bruce, A ‘Call to Arms’ for the Canadian Parliament" (Canadian Parliamentary Review 23:4), a proposal that was supported by Speakers of the House of Commons John Fraser and Gilbert Parent, a Commons committee was eventually struck following a motion by MP Derek Lee, before which Hicks and Robert Watt, the first Chief Herald of Canada, were called as the only two expert witnesses, though Senator Serge Joyal joined the committee ex-officio on behalf of the Senate. Commons' SpeakerWEB,weblink The Speaker – House of Commons Canada – Welcome, Parliament of Canada, 1 October 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080928141122weblink">weblink 28 September 2008, no, Peter Milliken then asked the Canadian Heraldic Authority to authorize such a symbol and, on 15 February 2008, the Governor General authorized the House of Commons to begin using a badge of the shield of the royal arms superimposed on the ceremonial mace assigned to the House of Commons as a symbol of the royal authority under which it operates.WEB,weblink Public Register of Arms- House of Commons, Governor General of Canada, 7 October 2010, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120919124424weblink">weblink yes, 19 September 2012, Library of Parliament – Canadian symbols at Parliament, 23 August 2010, Following the Commons example, the Senate then requested and obtained on 15 April 2008 a similar badge for itself with the shield of the royal arms surmounted on the mace assigned to the Senate.WEB,weblink Public Register of Arms- Senate, Governor General of Canada, 7 October 2010,

Blazon

The heraldic blazon of Canada's coat of arms, as declared in the 1921 proclamation, is:Tierced in fesse the first and second divisions containing the quarterly coat following, namely, 1st, gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or, 2nd, Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory gules, 3rd, azure a harp Or stringed argent, 4th, azure, three fleurs-de-lis Or, and the third division argent three maple leaves conjoined on one stem proper. And upon a royal helmet mantled argent doubled gules the crest, that is to say, on a wreath of the colours argent and gules a lion passant guardant Or imperially crowned proper and holding in the dexter paw a maple leaf gules. And for supporters on the dexter a lion rampant Or holding a lance argent, point Or, flying therefrom to the dexter the Union Flag, and on the sinister a unicorn argent armed crined and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet composed of crosses-patée and fleurs-de-lis a chain affixed thereto reflexed of the last, and holding a like lance flying therefrom to the sinister a banner azure charged with three fleurs-de-lis Or; the whole ensigned with the Imperial Crown proper and below the shield upon a wreath composed of roses, thistles, shamrocks and lillies a scroll azure inscribed with the motto A mari usque ad mare.The circlet of the Order of Canada was added around the shield for limited use in 1987, and for general use in 1994.

Symbolism{| class"wikitable noresize"

! Element! Description! Image! Crown| The coat of arms are surmounted by a rendition of St. Edward's Crown, which has been used in the coronations of Canada's monarchs. This element represents Canada's status as a constitutional monarchy headed by a sovereign king or queen. This style of crown is that preferred by Queen Elizabeth II, and was modernized in 1957 from the 1921 design, which used the Tudor crown.{{-}}center|130x130px)! Crestcrest (heraldry)>crest is based on the Royal Crest of the United Kingdom but differenced by the addition of a maple leaf, and symbolizes the sovereignty of Canada.HTTP://ARCHIVE.GG.CA/HERALDRY/EMB/INDEX_E.ASP>TITLE=SYMBOLS OF THE GOVERNOR GENERALACCESSDATE=21 NOVEMBER 2008, It appears on the Flag of the Governor General of Canada, symbolizing that the Governor General is a representative of the Sovereign. The crest consists of a crowned gold lion standing on a twisted Torse>wreath of red and white silk and holding a maple leaf in its right paw.{{-}}center|130x130px)! HelmHelmet#Heraldry>helmet, which is a barred helm of gold embossed with a maple leaf design looking outward, with mantling of white and red, stylized in the official version to look like maple leaves. {{-}}center|130x130px)! EscutcheonEscutcheon (heraldry)>escutcheon is divided into five sections. The first Division of the field at the viewer's top left contains the three golden Lion (heraldry)>lions that have been a symbol of England since at least the reign of Richard I of England.HTTP://WWW.HERALDICA.ORG/TOPICS/BRITAIN/ROYALARM.HTM PUBLISHER=HERALDICA.ORG ACCESSDATE=21 NOVEMBER 2008 ARCHIVEDATE= 6 DECEMBER 2008charge (heraldry)>rampant of Scotland in a double tressure border with fleur-de-lis, used as a symbol of Scotland since at least the reign of William I of Scotland>William I. The third quarter shows the Coat of arms of Ireland of Tara, Ireland>Tara. The gold fleurs-de-lis of royal France, the first post-Middle Ages European emblem raised in Canada by Jacques Cartier, during his landing at Gaspé,HTTP://WWW.HERALDRY.CA/TOP_EN/TOP_HISTORYHER.HTMPUBLISHER=ROYAL HERALDRY SOCIETY OF CANADAACCESSDATE=21 AUGUST 2008ARCHIVE-DATE=6 MARCH 2009DF=DMY-ALL, fill the fourth quarter.The fifth charge, a sprig of red maple leaves at the bottom, is a distinctly Canadian symbol that became gradually identified with the country throughout the 19th century.WEB,weblink Symbols of Canada, 2008, Canadian Heritage, 20 November 2008, 9, They were first proposed as a symbol in 1834, were established in 1868 on the arms of Quebec and Ontario and officially became the national emblem in 1965, with the proclamation of the Flag of Canada.WEB,weblink Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion – You were asking, Canadian Heritage, 24 September 2007, 21 November 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080924102524weblink">weblink 24 September 2008, Initially, the leaves were depicted as coloured green on the coat of arms because it was thought to represent youth, as opposed to the red colour of dying leaves in autumn. However, they are blazoned as "proper", so could be shown as either red or green, and it is the blazon, rather than any depiction, which is regarded as authoritative. The leaves were later redrawn in official depictions in 1957 with the current colour to be in line with the official colours of Canada. They are further stylized in that natural maple leaves do not grow in sprigs of three. The shield forms the basis of the royal standard of Canada.center|130x130px)! Ribbondesiderantes meliorem patriam, meaning "desiring a better country," which is the motto of the Order of Canada, taken from Epistle to the Hebrews>Hebrews 11:16. This component was added by the Queen in 1987 on the Advice (constitutional) of her Brian Mulroney>Prime Minister. With the patriation of oversight of arms to Canada through the Canadian Heraldic Authority the following year,HTTP://ARCHIVE.GG.CA/HERALDRY/CHA/INDEX_E.ASP>TITLE=THE CANADIAN HERALDIC AUTHORITYDATE=27 SEPTEMBER 2005 ACCESSDATE=2 SEPTEMBER 2008, the constitution of the Order of Canada was amended to include entitlement by all recipients to encircle their own arms with the ribbon, if arms are granted to them.HTTP://ARCHIVE.GG.CA/HONOURS/NAT-ORD/OC/OC-CON_E.ASP >TITLE=THE CONSTITUTION OF THE ORDER OF CANADA GOVERNOR GENERAL OF CANADA >DATE=6 DECEMBER 2005 DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=30 MAY 2011, Since 1994 the arms used by government ministers and institutions have slowly changed to reflect the new version with the ribbon.center|130x130px)! Mottomotto of Canada is in Latin a mari usque ad mare (From sea to sea), a part of Psalms>Psalm 72:8.HTTPS://THECANADIANENCYCLOPEDIA.CA/EN/ARTICLE/A-MARI-USQUE-AD-MARE/ >TITLE=A MARI USQUE AD MARE FIRST=W. KAYE PUBLISHER=HISTORICA FOUNDATION OF CANADA DEADURL=NO ARCHIVEDATE=17 AUGUST 2007 Joseph Pope (public servant)>Joseph Pope, then-Under Secretary of State, when the Arms were redesigned in 1921. The motto was originally used in 1906 on the head of the mace of the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan.In March 2006, the premiers of Canada's three territories called for the amendment of the motto to better reflect the vast geographic nature of Canada's territory,NEWS,weblink Time to herald our northern coast?, 28 October 2007, Andrew Chung, 21 November 2008, Toronto, The Star,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081013082850weblink">weblink 13 October 2008, no, as Canada has coastlines on the Arctic, Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans. Two suggestions for a new motto are A mari ad mare ad mare (from sea to sea to sea) and A mari usque ad maria (from the sea to the other seas).NEWS, Deveau, Scott,weblink From sea to sea to sea, Theglobeandmail.com, 3 September 2006, 21 November 2008, yes,weblink 30 January 2012, dmy-all, NEWS, CBC News,weblink 'To sea' or not 'to sea': that is the question, Cbc.ca, 10 March 2006, 21 November 2008, center|130x130px)! SupportersSupporters>Supporting the shield on either side are the English lion and Scottish unicorn, which are also the supporters of the UK coat of arms. The English lion stands on the viewer's left and holds a gold-pointed silver lance flying the Union Flag. The Scottish unicorn has a gold horn, a gold mane, gold hooves, and around its neck a gold, chained coronet of crosses and fleurs-de-lis; it holds a lance flying the three gold fleurs-de-lis of royal France on a blue background. Unlike the British version, the lion is not crowned, nor is it facing the viewer. The broken chain on the unicorn symbolizes the unicorn's resistance to oppression.center|130x130px)! CompartmentCompartment (heraldry)>compartment, which is made up of the floral emblems of the founding nations. The Tudor rose is the floral badge of England and Wales, combining the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster. The thistle and shamrock are the symbols of Scotland and Ireland, respectively, while the fleur-de-lis has been the royal symbol of France since the 12th century.LEWIS>FIRST=PHILIPPATITLE=DICTIONARY OF ORNAMENTYEAR=1986, 978-0394509310, center|130x130px)

Legal

As the Royal Arms are personal to the sovereign they cannot be used without consent.WEB,weblink Royal arms and insignia, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 1 June 2012, 20 January 2014, Government of Canada,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160102234745weblink">weblink 2 January 2016, yes, dmy-all, The coat of arms "as designed in 1921 and revised in 1957...(and) in 1994" are "protected under the Trade-marks Act and the Copyright Act and cannot be used or reproduced without authorization".WEB,weblink Legal Protection (Canada), Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 10 May 2012, 23 April 2015, Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (Government of Canada), Further, "Marks and designs similar to the official symbols are pursued as a copyright or trade-mark infringement". The Trade-marks Act further states that "No person shall adopt in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise, any mark consisting of, or so nearly resembling as to be likely to be mistaken for... the arms, crest or flag adopted and used at any time by Canada".CANLAW, Trade-marks Act, R.S.C., 1985, T-13, 9, 1(e),weblink Department of Justice Canada, Canadian trade-mark law, In addition, under Crown copyright, "permission is always required when the work is being revised, adapted, or translated regardless if the purpose of the reproduction is for personal or public non-commercial distribution".WEB,weblink About Crown Copyright, Government of Canada Publications, 5 March 2013, 1 July 2013, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130604180718weblink">weblink 4 June 2013,

See also

{{Wikipedia books|Canada}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Commons category|Coats of arms of Canada}} {{List of official Canadian national symbols}}{{Heraldry in Canada}}{{Canadian royal symbols}}{{Canada topics}}{{Canadian monarchy}}{{Coats of arms of North America}}{{Heraldry}}

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