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Arish
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{{about||the town in Australia|El Arish, Queensland|the village in Iran|Arish, Iran}}







factoids
List of sovereign states>Country| subdivision_name = {{EGY}}Governorates of Egypt>Governorate| subdivision_type2 = | subdivision_type3 = North Sinai Governorate>North Sinai| subdivision_name2 = | subdivision_name3 = | established_title = | established_date = | government_footnotes = | government_type = | leader_title = | leader_name = | leader_title1 = | leader_name1 = | area_footnotes = | area_magnitude = | area_total_km2 = | area_land_km2 = | elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = 32| elevation_ft = | population_total = 164830| population_as_of = 2012| population_footnotes = | population_density_km2 = auto| population_density_sq_mi = | population_metro = | population_density_metro_km2 = | population_density_metro_sq_mi = | population_blank1_title = Ethnicities| population_blank1 = | population_density_blank1_km2 = | population_density_blank1_sq_mi = | population_note = | postal_code_type = | postal_code = | area_code = (+20) 68| website = Eastern European Time>EET| utc_offset = +2| timezone_DST = | utc_offset_DST = | blank_name = | blank_info = | blank1_name = | blank1_info = }}
Ê»Arish or el-Ê»ArÄ«sh ( {{transl|ar|DIN|al-Ê¿ArÄ«Å¡ }} {{IPA-arz|elʕæˈɾiːʃ}}, Hrinokorura) is the capital and largest city (with 164,830 inhabitants {{As of|2012|lc=on}}) of the North Sinai Governorate of Egypt, as well as the largest city on the entire Sinai Peninsula, lying on the Mediterranean coast {{convert|344|km|mi|sp=us}} northeast of Cairo. It borders the Gaza Strip and Israel.Ê»ArÄ«sh is distinguished by its clear blue water, widespread fruitful palmy wood on its coast, and its soft white sand. It has a marina, and many luxury hotels. The city also has some of the faculties of Suez Canal University.Ê»ArÄ«sh is by a big wadi, the WādÄ« al-Ê»ArÄ«sh, which receives flash flood water from much of north and central Sinai. The Azzaraniq Protectorate is on the eastern side of Ê»ArÄ«sh.Arish. Britannica.com

History

(File:13pdr6cwtAAgunsElArishWWI.jpeg|thumb|right|250px|Australian Light Horse camp beside the seaside at ʻArīsh, 1915–18)File:Staff of von Kressenstein at El Arish, 1916.JPG|thumbnail|Staff of Friedrich Freiherr Kress von KressensteinFriedrich Freiherr Kress von KressensteinFile:El Arish airfield.jpg|thumb|right|El-ʻArīsh airfield, World War IIWorld War II The city grew around a Bedouin settlement near the ancient Ptolemaic outpost of Rhinocorura (in Greek "the place where noses (of criminals) are cut off")JOURNAL, Meer, Michaël N. van der, The Natural and Geographical Context of the Septuagint: Some Preliminary Observations,weblink Published in: W. Kraus, M. Karrer, M. Sigismund (eds.), Die Septuaginta. Entstehung, Sprache, Geschichte. 3. Internationale Fachtagung veranstaltet von Septuaginta Deutsch (LXX.D), Wuppertal 22.-25. Juli 2010 (WUNT I 286; Tübingen; Mohr-Siebeck, 2012), pp. 387-421., en, . In the Middle Ages, pilgrims misidentified [ no evidence for this claim ] the site as the Sukkot of the Bible. {{transl|ar|ALA|ʻArīsh}} means "palm huts" in Modern Standard Arabic.New fortifications were constructed at the original site by the Ottoman Empire in 1560. During the Napoleonic Wars, the French laid siege to the fort, which fell after 11 days on February 19, 1799. During World War I, the fort was destroyed by British bombers. It was later the location of the 45th Stationary Hospital which treated casualties of the Palestine campaign. The remains of those who died there were later moved to Kantara Cemetery. Theodor Herzl, the founder of Zionism, proposed ʻArīsh as a Jewish homeland since neither the Sultan nor the Kaiser supported settlement in Palestine. In 1903, Joseph Chamberlain, the British colonial secretary, agreed to consider ʻArīsh, and Herzl commissioned the lawyer David Lloyd George a charter draft, but his application was turned down once an expedition, led by Leopold Kessler had returned and submitted a detailed report to Herzl, which outlined a proposal to divert some of the Nile waters to the area for the purpose of settlement.(Jerusalem: The Biography), page 380–381, Simon Sebag Montefiore, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2011. {{ISBN|978-0-297-85265-0}}El-ʻArīsh Military Cemetery was built in 1919 marked the dead of World War I. It was designed by Robert Lorimer.Dictionary of Scottish Architects: Robert LorimerOn December 8, 1958, an air battle occurred between Egyptian and Israeli air forces over ʻArīsh.until returnʻArīsh was under military occupation by Israel briefly in 1956 and again from 1967 to 1979. It was returned to Egypt in 1979 after the signing of the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty.In the Sinai mosque attack of 24 November 2017, 305 people were killed in a bomb and gun attack at the mosque in Bir al-Abd in al-Rawda, North Sinai near ʻArīsh.NEWS,weblink Egypt mosque attack kills at least 184, 2017-11-24, BBC News, 2017-11-24, en-GB, NEWS,weblink Egypt mosque attack: Death toll rises to 235, state media says, 24 November 2017,

Geography

Arish is in the northern Sinai and is about {{convert|50|km|mi}} from the Rafah border crossing with the Gaza Strip."Palestinian airline resumes flights." Agence France-Presse with the Khaleej Times. 10 May 2012. Retrieved on 10 May 2012.Arish is the closest larger settlement to Lake Bardawil.

Transport

The city is served by el Arish International Airport. The construction of the northern coast highway in Egypt (North Sinai part) was expected to be finished by 2008 linking El-Qantarah at the Suez Canal in the west to the Gaza Strip border passing by Arish. The railway line from Cairo is also under re-construction and it recently reached the "Ser and Qawarir zone" west of Arish. This route was formerly part of the Palestine Railways built during World War I and World War II to connect Egypt with Turkey. The railway was cut during the formation of Israel. The North Sinai is a milestone for the Egyptian government planners to redistribute the high-density population in the Nile Delta, and it is expected that by accomplishing the transportation and irrigation projects, three million Egyptians will settle in North Sinai.{{Citation needed|date=May 2012}}

Climate

Its Köppen climate classification is hot desert (BWh), although prevailing Mediterranean winds moderate its temperatures, typical to the rest of the northern coast of Egypt.The highest record temperature was {{convert|45|C}}, recorded on May 29, 2003, while the lowest record temperature was {{convert|-6|C}}, recorded on January 8, 1994.WEB,weblink Al Arish, Egypt, Voodoo Skies, 13 August 2013, 13 August 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141012194824weblink">weblink 12 October 2014, dead, {{Weather box|width=auto|metric first=yes|single line=yes|location= Arish|Jan record high C = 30.5|Feb record high C = 31.7|Mar record high C = 38.1|Apr record high C = 41.0|May record high C = 44.2|Jun record high C = 45.0|Jul record high C = 38.8|Aug record high C = 36.4|Sep record high C = 39.2|Oct record high C = 38.4|Nov record high C = 36.0|Dec record high C = 32.6|year record high C = 45.0|Jan high C = 18.8|Feb high C = 19.3|Mar high C = 21.3|Apr high C = 25.4|May high C = 27.6|Jun high C = 30.4|Jul high C = 31.6|Aug high C = 29.3|Sep high C = 30.2|Oct high C = 28.2|Nov high C = 24.8|Dec high C = 20.5|year high C = 25.6|Jan mean C = 12.6|Feb mean C = 13.1|Mar mean C = 15.0|Apr mean C = 18.4|May mean C = 21.0|Jun mean C = 24.3|Jul mean C = 26.0|Aug mean C = 26.2|Sep mean C = 24.4|Oct mean C = 21.8|Nov mean C = 17.7|Dec mean C = 13.9|year mean C = 19.5|Jan low C = 7.6|Feb low C = 7.9|Mar low C = 9.3|Apr low C = 12.1|May low C = 14.5|Jun low C = 17.8|Jul low C = 20.2|Aug low C = 19.1|Sep low C = 19.3|Oct low C = 16.3|Nov low C = 12.0|Dec low C = 8.9|year low C = 13.7|Jan record low C = 1.6|Feb record low C = 0.9|Mar record low C = 2.0|Apr record low C = 5.6|May record low C = 8.2|Jun record low C = 10.9|Jul record low C = 16.3|Aug record low C = 19.5|Sep record low C = 15.1|Oct record low C = 11.0|Nov record low C = 1.7|Dec record low C = 3.0|year record low C = 0.9|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 28|Feb precipitation mm = 16|Mar precipitation mm = 13|Apr precipitation mm = 11|May precipitation mm = 1|Jun precipitation mm = 0|Jul precipitation mm = 0|Aug precipitation mm = 0|Sep precipitation mm = 0|Oct precipitation mm = 6|Nov precipitation mm = 9|Dec precipitation mm = 22|year precipitation mm = 106|unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm|Jan precipitation days = 1.7|Feb precipitation days = 1.2|Mar precipitation days = 1.0|Apr precipitation days = 0.3|May precipitation days = 0.1|Jun precipitation days = 0.0|Jul precipitation days = 0.0|Aug precipitation days = 0.0|Sep precipitation days = 0.0|Oct precipitation days = 0.3|Nov precipitation days = 0.5|Dec precipitation days = 1.0|year precipitation days = 6.1|Jan humidity = 71|Feb humidity = 70|Mar humidity = 71|Apr humidity = 67|May humidity = 68|Jun humidity = 68|Jul humidity = 70|Aug humidity = 71|Sep humidity = 73|Oct humidity = 72|Nov humidity = 70|Dec humidity = 72|year humidity = 70|source 1 = NOAAWEB,weblink El Arish Climate Normals 1961–1990, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, June 25, 2015, PUBLISHER=CLIMATE CHARTS, 8 July 2013, }}

See also

References

{{Commons category|Arish}}{{Egyptian Cities}}{{Authority control}}

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