Arc de Triomphe

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Arc de Triomphe
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{{About||the horse race in Paris|Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe||Arch of Triumph (disambiguation)}}{{distinguish|text = the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, which stands west of the Louvre Palace}}{{short description|Triumphal arch in Paris, France}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{Use dmy dates|date=February 2015}}

| altitude =TITLE=HISTORICAL DICTIONARY OF FRANCEACCESSDATE=28 JULY 2011PUBLISHER=SCARECROW PRESSPAGE=9, | completion_date =TITLE=AN UNKNOWN SON OF NAPOLEONACCESSDATE=28 JULY 2011PUBLISHER=JOHN LANE COMPANY, 204, | demolition_date =50ftabbr=on}}| diameter =45ftabbr=on}}Deep: {{Convertm0|abbr=on}}| floor_count =| floor_area =| main_contractor =| architect = Jean ChalgrinLouis-Étienne Héricart de Thury| structural_engineer =| services_engineer =| civil_engineer =| other_designers =| quantity_surveyor =| awards =| references =}}The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile ({{IPAc-en|UK|ˌ|ɑːr|k|_|d|ə|_|ˈ|t|r|iː|ɒ|m|f|,_|-|_|ˈ|t|r|iː|oʊ|m|f}},OXFORD DICTIONARIES, Arc de Triomphe, 22 August 2019, WEB,weblink Arc de Triomphe, Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins, 22 August 2019, {{IPAc-en|US|-|_|t|r|iː|ˈ|oʊ|m|f}},MERRIAM-WEBSTER, arc de triomphe, 22 August 2019, {{IPA-fr|aʁk də tʁijɔ̃f də letwal|lang|Arc de Triomphe.oga|}}; {{literal translation|"Triumphal Arch of the Star"}}) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, France, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the centre of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues. The location of the arc and the plaza is shared between three arrondissements, 16th (south and west), 17th (north) and 8th (east). The Arc de Triomphe honours those who fought and died for France in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, with the names of all French victories and generals inscribed on its inner and outer surfaces. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I.As the central cohesive element of the Axe historique (historic axis, a sequence of monuments and grand thoroughfares on a route running from the courtyard of the Louvre to the Grande Arche de la Défense), the Arc de Triomphe was designed by Jean Chalgrin in 1806, and its iconographic program pits heroically nude French youths against bearded Germanic warriors in chain mail. It set the tone for public monuments with triumphant patriotic messages. Inspired by the Arch of Titus in Rome, Italy, the Arc de Triomphe has an overall height of {{Convert|50|m|ft|0}}, width of {{Convert|45|m|ft|abbr=on}} and depth of {{Convert|22|m|ft|abbr=on}}, while its large vault is {{Convert|29.19|m|ft|abbr=on}} high and {{Convert|14.62|m|ft|abbr=on}} wide. The smaller transverse vaults are {{Convert|18.68|m|ft|abbr=on}} high and {{Convert|8.44|m|ft|abbr=on}} wide. Three weeks after the Paris victory parade in 1919 (marking the end of hostilities in World War I), Charles Godefroy flew his Nieuport biplane under the arch's primary vault, with the event captured on newsreel.Melville Wallace, La vie d'un pilote de chasse en 1914–1918, Flammarion, Paris, 1978. The film clip is included in The History Channel's Four Years of Thunder.This film is thought still to be subject to copyright.(:File:Godefroy flight.jpg|Photograph of the first flight through the Arc)Paris's Arc de Triomphe was the tallest triumphal arch until the completion of the Monumento a la Revolución in Mexico City in 1938, which is {{Convert|67|m|ft|0}} high. The Arch of Triumph in Pyongyang, completed in 1982, is modelled on the Arc de Triomphe and is slightly taller at {{Convert|60|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}. La Grande Arche in La Defense near Paris is 110 metres high. Although it is not named an Arc de Triomphe, it has been designed on the same model and in the perspective of the Arc de Triomphe. It qualifies as the world's tallest arch.WEB,weblink Arc de Triomphe facts, 2018, Paris Digest, 2018-09-06,


Construction and late 19th century

(File:Collier's 1921 Vol 4 Frontispiece -- Paris.jpg|thumb|left|A colourised aerial photograph of the southern side (published in 1921))The Arc de Triomphe is located on the right bank of the Seine at the centre of a dodecagonal configuration of twelve radiating avenues. It was commissioned in 1806 after the victory at Austerlitz by Emperor Napoleon at the peak of his fortunes. Laying the foundations alone took two years and, in 1810, when Napoleon entered Paris from the west with his bride Archduchess Marie-Louise of Austria, he had a wooden mock-up of the completed arch constructed. The architect, Jean Chalgrin, died in 1811 and the work was taken over by Jean-Nicolas Huyot.File:Sylvestre Rude sur Arc de Triomphe 1893.jpg|left|thumb|François Rude working on the Arc de Triomphe, 1893 painting by Joseph-Noël SylvestreJoseph-Noël SylvestreDuring the Bourbon Restoration, construction was halted and it would not be completed until the reign of King Louis-Philippe, between 1833 and 1836, by the architects Goust, then Huyot, under the direction of Héricart de Thury. On 15 December 1840, brought back to France from Saint Helena, Napoleon's remains passed under it on their way to the Emperor's final resting place at the Invalides.Hôtel des Invalides website {{webarchive |url= |date=25 July 2008 }} Prior to burial in the Panthéon, the body of Victor Hugo was displayed under the Arc during the night of 22 May 1885.

20th century

(File:Paris. Arc de Triomphe. Postcard, c.1920.jpg|thumb|Arc de Triomphe, postcard, circa 1920)(File:Paris_1939.jpg|thumb|Arc de Triomphe, 1939)File:Crowds of French patriots line the Champs Elysees-edit2.jpg|thumb|Free French forces on parade after the liberation of Parisliberation of ParisThe sword carried by the Republic in the Marseillaise relief broke off on the day, it is said, that the Battle of Verdun began in 1916. The relief was immediately hidden by tarpaulins to conceal the accident and avoid any undesired ominous interpretations.WEB,weblink History of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, Places in France, 28 December 2013, On 7 August 1919, Charles Godefroy successfully flew his biplane under the Arc.WEB,weblink Les débuts de l'aviation : Charles Godefroy – L'Histoire par l'image,, 13 August 2014, Jean Navarre was the pilot who was tasked to make the flight, but he died on 10 July 1919 when he crashed near Villacoublay while training for the flight.Following its construction, the Arc de Triomphe became the rallying point of French troops parading after successful military campaigns and for the annual Bastille Day military parade. Famous victory marches around or under the Arc have included the Germans in 1871, the French in 1919, the Germans in 1940, and the French and Allies in 1944Image of Liberation of Paris parade {{webarchive|url= |date=28 September 2007 }} and 1945. A United States postage stamp of 1945 shows the Arc de Triomphe in the background as victorious American troops march down the Champs-Élysées and U.S. airplanes fly overhead on 29 August 1944. After the interment of the Unknown Soldier, however, all military parades (including the aforementioned post-1919) have avoided marching through the actual arch. The route taken is up to the arch and then around its side, out of respect for the tomb and its symbolism. Both Hitler in 1940 and de Gaulle in 1944 observed this custom.By the early 1960s, the monument had grown very blackened from coal soot and automobile exhaust, and during 1965–1966 it was cleaned through bleaching. In the prolongation of the Avenue des Champs-Élysées, a new arch, the Grande Arche de la Défense, was built in 1982, completing the line of monuments that forms Paris's Axe historique. After the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel and the Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile, the Grande Arche is the third arch built on the same perspective.In 1995, the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria placed a bomb near the Arc de Triomphe which wounded 17 people as part of a campaign of bombings.NEWS,weblink Bomb Near Arc De Triomphe wounds 17, New York Times, 8 January 2015,

21st century

In late 2018, the Arc de Triomphe suffered acts of vandalism as part of the Yellow vests movement protests.WEB, Irish, John, Macron mulls state of emergency after worst unrest in decades,weblink Reuters, 2 December 2018,



File:Eugène Galien-Laloue Paris Arc de Triomphe 2.jpg|thumb|left|The Arc de Triomphe by Eugène Galien-LaloueEugène Galien-LaloueFile:ParisPlaceEtoile.jpg|right|thumb|Avenues radiate from the Arc de Triomphe in Place Charles de GaullePlace Charles de GaulleFile:Avenue des Champs-Élysées 01.jpg|thumb|right|The Arc de Triomphe is located on Paris's Axe historique, a long perspective that runs from the Louvre to the Grande Arche de la Défense.]]The astylar design is by Jean Chalgrin (1739–1811), in the Neoclassical version of ancient Roman architecture. Major academic sculptors of France are represented in the sculpture of the Arc de Triomphe: Jean-Pierre Cortot; François Rude; Antoine Étex; James Pradier and Philippe Joseph Henri Lemaire. The main sculptures are not integral friezes but are treated as independent trophies applied to the vast ashlar masonry masses, not unlike the gilt-bronze appliqués on Empire furniture. The four sculptural groups at the base of the Arc are The Triumph of 1810 (Cortot), Resistance and Peace (both by Antoine Étex) and the most renowned of them all, Departure of the Volunteers of 1792 commonly called La Marseillaise (François Rude). The face of the allegorical representation of France calling forth her people on this last was used as the belt buckle for the honorary rank of Marshal of France. Since the fall of Napoleon (1815), the sculpture representing Peace is interpreted as commemorating the Peace of 1815.In the attic above the richly sculptured frieze of soldiers are 30 shields engraved with the names of major French victories in the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars.The Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro is inscribed as a French victory, instead of the tactical draw that it actually was. The inside walls of the monument list the names of 660 people, among which are 558 French generals of the First French Empire;Among the generals are at least two foreign generals, Venezuelan Francisco de Miranda and German born Nicolas Luckner. The names of those generals killed in battle are underlined. Also inscribed, on the shorter sides of the four supporting columns, are the names of the major French victories in the Napoleonic Wars. The battles that took place in the period between the departure of Napoleon from Elba to his final defeat at Waterloo are not included.For four years from 1882 to 1886, a monumental sculpture by Alexandre Falguière topped the arch. Titled Le triomphe de la Révolution ("The Triumph of the Revolution"), it depicted a chariot drawn by horses preparing "to crush Anarchy and Despotism". It remained there only four years before falling in ruins.Inside the monument, a permanent exhibition conceived by the artist Maurice Benayoun and the architect Christophe Girault opened in February 2007.WEB,weblink Between War and Peace, 15 September 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 16 December 2014, The steel and new media installation interrogates the symbolism of the national monument, questioning the balance of its symbolic message during the last two centuries, oscillating between war and peace.

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

File:Soldat inconnu 14 07 2006.jpg|thumb|Tomb of the Unknown SoldierTomb of the Unknown SoldierFile:Secretary Kerry, French Foreign Minister Fabius, Ambassador Hartley Pause After 70th Anniversary VE Day Wreath-Laying Ceremony in Paris (17421255431).jpg|thumb|Laurent Fabius, Minister of Foreign Affairs, with John KerryJohn KerryBeneath the Arc is the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I. Interred on Armistice Day 1920,BOOK, Naour, Jean-Yves Le, Allen, Penny, The Living Unknown Soldier: A Story of Grief and the Great War,weblink 28 July 2011, 16 August 2005, Macmillan, 978-0-8050-7937-1, 74, it has the first eternal flame lit in Western and Eastern Europe since the Vestal Virgins' fire was extinguished in the fourth century. It burns in memory of the dead who were never identified (now in both world wars).A ceremony is held at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier every 11 November on the anniversary of the Armistice of 11 November 1918 signed by the Entente Powers and Germany in 1918. It was originally decided on 12 November 1919 to bury the unknown soldier's remains in the Panthéon, but a public letter-writing campaign led to the decision to bury him beneath the Arc de Triomphe. The coffin was put in the chapel on the first floor of the Arc on 10 November 1920, and put in its final resting place on 28 January 1921. The slab on top bears the inscription ICI REPOSE UN SOLDAT FRANÇAIS MORT POUR LA PATRIE 1914–1918 ("Here lies a French soldier who died for the fatherland 1914–1918").In 1961, U.S. President John F. Kennedy and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy paid their respects at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, accompanied by President Charles de Gaulle. After the 1963 assassination of President Kennedy, Mrs Kennedy remembered the eternal flame at the Arc de Triomphe and requested that an eternal flame be placed next to her husband's grave at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. President Charles de Gaulle went to Washington to attend the state funeral, and witnessed Jacqueline Kennedy lighting the eternal flame that had been inspired by her visit to France.


File:Le Départ des Volontaires (La Marseillaise) par Rude, Arc de Triomphe Etoile Paris.jpg|Le Départ de 1792 (La Marseillaise)File:Le triomphe de 1810, Jean-Pierre Cortot, Arc triomphe Paris.jpg|Le Triomphe de 1810File:Arc de Triomphe, la Résistance de 1814, Antoine Etex.jpg|La Résistance de 1814File:Arc de Triomphe Etoile, Antoine Etex, la Paix de 1815.jpg|La Paix de 1815 Image:Paris Arc de Triomphe Mort de Marceau.jpg|Les funérailles du général Marceau, 20 September 1796Image:Paris Arc de Triomphe Bataille d'Aboukir.jpg|La bataille d'Aboukir,25 July 1799Image:Bas-Relief Jemmapes.jpg|La bataille de Jemmappes, 6 November 1792Image:Paris Arc de Triomphe 05.jpg|Le passage du pont d'Arcole, 15 November 1796Image:Paris Arc de Triomphe 04.jpg|La prise d'Alexandrie, 3 July 1798Image:Bas-Relief Austerlitz.jpg|La bataille d'Austerlitz, 2 December 1805
  • The names of some great battles of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars are engraved on the attic, including
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- Batailles gravées sur atique ADT.jpg -
  • A list of French victories is engraved under the great arches on the inside façades of the monument.
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- Batailles gravées sous grandes arcades.jpg -
Image:Paris Arc de Triomphe inscriptions 2.jpg|NORTH pillarImage:Paris Arc de Triomphe inscriptions 7.jpg|SOUTH pillarImage:Paris Arc de Triomphe inscriptions 3.jpg|EAST pillarImage:Paris Arc de Triomphe inscriptions 6.jpg|WEST pillar Image:Paris Arc de Triomphe 06.jpg|Image:Paris Arc de Triomphe 07B.jpg|Image:Figure allégorique 2 grande arche.jpg|Image:Figure allégorique 1 grande arche.jpg|
  • The ceiling with 21 sculpted roses
File:Paris July 2011-11a.jpg
  • Interior of the Arc de Triomphe
File:Paris (75), arc de Triomphe, soldat d'un monument aux morts à l'intérieur 5.jpg|First World War monumentFile:DecorSculpteMB.jpg|Permanent exhibition about the design of the Arch
  • There are several plaques at the foot of the monument
File:De Gaulle speech plaque in Arc de Triomphe.jpg|De Gaulle speech plaqueFile:Proclamation of Republic plaque in Arc de Triomphe.jpg|Proclamation of Republic plaque


File:World War I centenary.jpg|thumb|The Arc de Triomphe during the World War I centenaryWorld War I centenaryThe Arc de Triomphe is accessible by the RER and Métro, with exit at the Charles de Gaulle—Étoile station. Because of heavy traffic on the roundabout of which the Arc is the centre, it is recommended that pedestrians use one of two underpasses located at the Champs Élysées and the Avenue de la Grande Armée. A lift will take visitors almost to the top – to the attic, where there is a small museum which contains large models of the Arc and tells its story from the time of its construction. Another 40 steps remain to climb in order to reach the top, the terrasse, from where one can enjoy a panoramic view of Paris. WEB,weblink Offer to everyone the best view on Paris, Centre des Monuments Nationaux, 18 July 2019, The location of the arc, as well as the Place de l'Étoile, is shared between three arrondissements, 16th (south and west), 17th (north), and 8th (east).(File:ArcTriompheParis.jpg|thumb|center|797px|Paris seen from the top of the Arc de triomphe)

See also



External links

{{sisterlinks|d=Q64436|c=Category:Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile|s=no|wikt=no|b=no|v=no|q=no|n=no|m=no|mw=no|species=no|voy=Paris/8th_arrondissement}} {{8th arrondissement of Paris}}{{16th arrondissement of Paris}}{{Visitor attractions in Paris}}{{Authority control}}

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