Aram Khachaturian

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Aram Khachaturian
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Tiflis, Tiflis Governorate, Russian Empire (present-day Tbilisi, Georgia (country)>Georgia)19780106df=yes}}| death_place = Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union| burial_place = Komitas Pantheon, Yerevan| citizenship = SovietGnessin State Musical College>Gnessin Musical Institute, Moscow Conservatory| years_active = 1926–1978| era = 20th-century classical music| style = | party = Communist Party of the Soviet Union (from 1943)| movement = | spouse = Nina Makarova (1933–1976; her death)| children = 232px|link=Hero of Socialist Labor) (File:Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png|32px|link=Order of Lenin) (File:Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png|32px|link=Order of Lenin) (File:Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png|32px|link=Order of Lenin) (File:Order_october_revolution_rib.png|32px|link=Order of the October Revolution) (File:Orderredbannerlabor rib.png|32px|link=Order of the Red Banner of Labour) (File:Orderredbannerlabor rib.png|32px|link=Order of the Red Banner of Labour) (File:100_lenin_rib.png|32px|link=Jubilee Medal "In Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin") (File:Ribbon_bar_for_the_medal_for_the_Defense_of_Moscow.png|32px|link=Medal "For the Defence of Moscow") (File:Defcaucasus_rib.png|32px|link=Medal "Medal "For the Defence of the Caucasus"") (File:30_years_of_victory_rib.png|32px|link=Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945") (File:RibbonLabourDuringWar.png|32px|link=Medal "For Valiant Labour in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945") (File:800thMoscowRibbon.png|32px|link=Medal "In Commemoration of the 800th Anniversary of Moscow") (File:Ordre_des_Arts_et_des_Lettres_Commandeur_ribbon.svg|40px|link=Ordre des Arts et des Lettres) (File:People_Artist_of_the_USSR1.jpg|25px|People's Artist of the USSR) (File:Narodny_artist_RSFSR.png|25px|People’s Artist of the RSFSR) (File:%D0%9D%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9_%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%82%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%82_%D0%90%D1%80%D0%BC%D1%8F%D0%BD%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B9_%D0%A1%D0%A1%D0%A0.png|25px|People's Artist of the Armenian SSR) (File:Lenin_Prize_Medal.JPG|30px|Lenin prize)(File:Medal Stalin Prize.png|25px|Stalin prize) (File:Medal Stalin Prize.png|25px|Stalin prize) (File:Medal Stalin Prize.png|25px|Stalin prize) (File:Medal Stalin Prize.png|25px|Stalin prize)Full list| signature = Aram Khachaturian signature.svg| signature_size = 150px}}Aram Il'yich Khachaturian ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|ær|ə|m|_|ˌ|k|ɑː|tʃ|ə|ˈ|t|ʊər|i|ə|n}};WEB, Khachaturian,weblink Collins English Dictionary Complete & Unabridged 10th ed., 2009, ; , Aram Xačatryan;{{efn-ua|Xačatryan is the standard transliteration of his last name.WEB, Khatchatourian, Aram (1903–1978),weblink Bibliothèque nationale de France, Xačatryan, Aram (1903–1978) forme internationale translit.-ISO arménien, . It is sometimes spelled Khachatryan by official Armenian sources.WEB, Aram Khachatryan 110-Anniversary Celebrations Committee Holds Meeting,weblink Government of the Republic of Armenia, 27 March 2013, NEWS, 110th anniversary of Aram Khachatryan celebrated in Yerevan,weblink Armenpress, 6 June 2013, }} {{IPA-hy|ɑˈɾɑm χɑt͡ʃʰɑt(ə)ɾˈjɑn|pron}}; {{OldStyleDate|6 June|1903|24 May}}{{spaced ndash}}1 May 1978) was a Soviet Armenian composer and conductor. He is considered one of the leading Soviet composers.{{sfn|New York Times obituary|1978}}Born and raised in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, Khachaturian moved to Moscow in 1921 following the Sovietization of the Caucasus. Without prior music training, he enrolled in the Gnessin Musical Institute, subsequently studying at the Moscow Conservatory in the class of Nikolai Myaskovsky, among others. His first major work, the Piano Concerto (1936), popularized his name within and outside the Soviet Union. It was followed by the Violin Concerto (1940) and the Cello Concerto (1946). His other significant compositions include the Masquerade Suite (1941), the Anthem of the Armenian SSR (1944), three symphonies (1935, 1943, 1947), and around 25 film scores. Khachaturian is best known for his ballet music—Gayane (1942) and Spartacus (1954). His most popular piece, the "Sabre Dance" from Gayane, has been used extensively in popular culture and has been covered by a number of musicians worldwide. His style is "characterized by colorful harmonies, captivating rhythms, virtuosity, improvisations, and sensuous melodies".{{sfn|Bakst|1977|p=339}}During most of his career, Khachaturian was approved by the Soviet government and held several high posts in the Union of Soviet Composers from the late 1930s, although he joined the Communist Party only in 1943. Along with Sergei Prokofiev and Dmitri Shostakovich, he was officially denounced as a "formalist" and his music dubbed "anti-people" in 1948 but was restored later that year. After 1950 he taught at the Gnessin Institute and the Moscow Conservatory and turned to conducting. He traveled to Europe, Latin America and the United States with concerts of his own works. In 1957 Khachaturian became the Secretary of the Union of Soviet Composers, a position he held until his death.Khachaturian, who created the first Armenian ballet music, symphony, concerto, and film score,{{efn-ua|"Նա ազգային առաջին բալետի, սիմֆոնիայի, գործիքային կոնցերտների հեղինակն է, հայկ. կինոերաժշտության հիմնադիրը:" He is the author of the first national ballet, symphony, concerto, first Arm. film score.{{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|p=19}}"В 1939 году Арам Хачатурян сочинил музыку к первому армянскому балету «Счастье»." In 1939 Aram Khachaturian wrote the music to the first Armenian ballet Happiness.WEB, Гаянэ [Gayane],weblink Mariinsky Theatre,weblink" title="">weblink 17 August 2014, ru, 22 July 2014, }} is considered the most renowned Armenian composer of the 20th century. While following the established musical traditions of Russia, he broadly used Armenian and, to lesser extent, Caucasian, Eastern and Central European, and Middle Eastern peoples' folk music in his works. He is highly regarded in Armenia, where he is considered a "national treasure".{{sfn|Frolova-Walker|1998|p=371}}


Background and early life (1903–21)

Aram Khachaturian was born on 6 June (24 May in Old Style){{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|p=18}} 1903 in the city of Tiflis (present-day Tbilisi, Georgia) into an Armenian family.WEB, Dutta, Promeet, Aram Khachaturian,weblink 18 November 2013, Encyclopædia Britannica,weblink" title="">weblink 13 March 2014, Some sources indicate Kojori, a village near Tiflis (now in Georgia's Gardabani Municipality), as his birthplace.WEB, Хачатурян Арам Ильич [Khachaturian Aram Ilyich],weblink Moscow Conservatory,weblink" title="">weblink 15 August 2014, ru, BOOK, Musicians and Composers of the 20th Century-Volume 3, 2009, Salem Press, 9781587655159, 766, Cramer, Alfred W., The Life Aram Ilich Khachaturian was born on June 6, 1903, in Kodjori, a suburb of Tbilisi., His father, Yeghia (Ilya), was born in the village of Upper Aza near Ordubad in Nakhichevan (present-day Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Azerbaijan) and moved to Tiflis at the age of 13; he owned a bookbinding shop by the age of 25. His mother, Kumash Sarkisovna, was from Lower Aza, also a village near Ordubad. Khachaturian's parents were betrothed before knowing each other, when Kumash was 9 and Yeghia was 19. They had 5 children, one daughter and four sons, of whom Aram was the youngest.WEB,weblink Family tree, Virtual Museum of Aram Khachaturian,weblink" title="">weblink 12 March 2014, Khachaturian received primary education at the commercial school of Tiflis, a school for merchants.{{sfn|Tomoff|2006|p=34}} He considered a career either in medicine or engineering.In the 19th and early 20th centuries and throughout the early Soviet period, Tiflis (known as Tbilisi after 1936) was the largest city and the administrative center of the Caucasus. In Tiflis, which has historically been multicultural, Khachaturian was exposed to various cultures. The city had a large Armenian population and was a major Armenian cultural center until the Russian Revolution and the following years. In a 1952 article "My Idea of the Folk Element in Music", Khachaturian described the city environment and its influence on his career: In 1917, the Bolsheviks rose to power in Russia in the October Revolution. After over two years of fragile independence, Armenia fell to Soviet rule in late 1920. Georgia was also Sovietized by the spring of 1921. Both countries formally became part of the Soviet Union in December 1922.BOOK, Minahan, James, The Former Soviet Union's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook, 2004, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, California, 9781576078235, 160, Khachaturian later wrote that "the October Revolution fundamentally changed my whole life and, if I have really grown into a serious artist, then I am indebted only to the people and the Soviet Government. To this people is dedicated my entire conscious life, as is all my creative work." Khachaturian always remained enthusiastic about communism,{{sfn|Steyn|2009|p=13}} and was an atheist.BOOK, Leo, Hamalian, As others see us: the Armenian image in literature, 1980, Ararat Press, New York, 978-0933706170, 46, Aram Khachaturian ... Besides his being an atheist, his Armenian descent..., When asked about his visit to the Vatican, Khachaturian responded: "I'm an atheist, but I'm a son of the [Armenian] people who were the first to officially adopt Christianity and thus visiting the Vatican was my duty."NEWS, Solomon Volkov, Solomon, Volkov, ru:Они сократили целых 4 такта моей музыки!,weblink The New Times (Russia), Novoye Vremya,weblink" title="">weblink 22 August 2014, Yerevan, ru, По поводу поездки в Рим композитор отметил: “Я — атеист, но являюсь сыном народа, первым в истории официально принявшим христианство, и потому посещение Ватикана было моим долгом”., NEWS, Arakelov, Sergey, Воспоминания о маэстро,weblink Noev Kovcheg Magazine, April 2006,weblink" title="">weblink 27 December 2014, ru,

Education (1922–36)

(File:Aram Khachaturian.jpg|thumb|upright|Khachaturian in the 1930s)In 1921, the eighteen-year-old Khachaturian moved to Moscow to join his oldest brother, Suren, who had settled in Moscow earlier and was a stage director at the Moscow Art Theatre by the time of his arrival.{{sfn|Tomoff|2006|p=34}} He enrolled at the Gnessin Musical Institute in 1922, simultaneously studying biology at the Moscow University. He initially studied the cello under Sergei Bychkov and later under Andrey Borysyak.{{sfn|Shneerson|1959|p=24}} In 1925, Mikhail Gnessin started a composition class at the institute, which Khachaturian joined.{{sfn|Shneerson|1959|p=25}}{{sfn|Tomoff|2006|p=34}} He also took lessons from Reinhold Glière. In this period, he wrote his first works: the Dance Suite for violin and piano (1926) and the Poem in C Sharp Minor (1927). Beginning with his earliest works, Khachaturian extensively used Armenian folk music in his compositions.In 1929, Khachaturian entered the Moscow Conservatory to study composition under Nikolai Myaskovsky and orchestration under Sergei Vasilenko.{{sfn|Shneerson|1959|p=29}} In 1933, he married the composer Nina Makarova, a fellow student from Myaskovsky's class. He finished the conservatory in 1934 and went on to complete his graduate work in 1936.{{sfn|Tomoff|2006|p=34}}

Early career (1936–48)

His Armenian-influenced First Symphony, which Khachaturian composed as a graduation work from the Moscow Conservatory in 1935, "drew the attention of prominent conductors and was soon performed by the best Soviet orchestras" and was admired by Shostakovich. He began an active creative career upon completing his graduate studies at the conservatory in 1936. He wrote his first major work, the Piano Concerto, that year. It proved to be a success, establishing him as a respected composer in the Soviet Union. It was "played and acclaimed far beyond the borders of the Soviet Union," and "established his name abroad."His Piano Concerto, along with the two later concertos—the Violin Concerto (1940), for which he won a State Prize (called the Stalin Prize then, the highest artistic award in the Soviet Union), and the Cello Concerto (1946)—are "often considered a kind of a grand cycle." The Violin Concerto "gained international recognition" and became part of the international repertory. It was first performed by David Oistrakh.Khachaturian held important posts at the Composers' Union, becoming deputy chairman of the Moscow branch in 1937. He subsequently served as the Deputy Chairman of the Organizing Committee (Orgkom) of the Union between 1939 and 1948.JOURNAL, Schwarz, Boris, Khachaturian, Aram, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, London, 1980, Oxford University Press, He joined the Communist Party in 1943.{{sfn|Tomoff|2006|p=34}} "Throughout the early and mid-1940s, Khachaturian used that position to help shape Soviet music, always stressing but technically masterful composition. In fact, in his memoirs he reported pride about leading an institution that organized creative work in many musical genres and especially in all Soviet republics."{{sfn|Tomoff|2006|pp=34–35}}The years preceding and following World War II proved to be very productive for Khachaturian. In 1939 Khachaturian made a six-month trip to his native Armenia "to make a thorough study of Armenian musical folklore and to collect folk-song and dance tunes" for his first ballet, Happiness which he completed in the same year. "His communion with Armenia's national culture and musical practice proved for him as he put it himself, 'a second conservatoire'. He learned a lot, saw and heard many things anew, and at the same time he had an insight into the tastes and artistic requirements of the Armenian people."{{sfn|Steyn|2009|p=11}} In 1942, at the height of the Second World War, he reworked it into the ballet Gayane.{{sfn|Yuzefovich|1985|p=127}} It was first performed by the Kirov Ballet (today known as Mariinsky Ballet) in Perm, while Leningrad was under siege. It was a great success that earned Khachaturian a Soviet State Prize. Khachaturian returned the money of the prize to the state with a request to use it for building a tank for the Red Army.JOURNAL, Slonimsky, Nicolas, Nicolas Slonimsky, Soviet Music and Musicians, The Slavonic and East European Review, 1944, 3, 4, 15, 3020186, He composed the Second Symphony (1943) on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the October Revolution and incidental music to Masquerade (1944), "a symphonic suite in the tradition of lavish classical Russian music", on Mikhail Lermontov's play of the same title. Both the ballet Gayane and the Second Symphony were "successful and were warmly praised by Shostakovich." In 1944, Khachaturian composed the largely symbolic Anthem of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic.{{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|p=19}}

Denunciation and restoration (1948)

(File:Aankomst Russische dirigent Khatsjatoerian op Schiphol, Khatsjatorian, Bestanddeelnr 916-6862.jpg|thumb|upright|Khachaturian in 1964)In mid-December 1947, the Department for Agitation and Propaganda (better known as Agitprop) submitted to Andrei Zhdanov, the secretary of the Communist Party's Central Committee, a document on the "shortcomings" in the development of Soviet music. On 10–13 January 1948, a conference was held at the Kremlin in the presence of seventy musicians, composers, conductors and others who were confronted by Zhdanov:BOOK, Fay, Laurel E., Shostakovich: A Life, 2005, Oxford University Press, New York, 9780195182514, 155–157, 160, Thus, Khachaturian and other leading composers were denounced by the Communist Party as followers of the alleged formalism (i.e. "[a type of] music that was considered too advanced or difficult for the masses to enjoy") and their music was dubbed "anti-people".BOOK, Mazullo, Mark, Shostakovich's Preludes and Fugues: Contexts, Style, Performance, 2010, Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, 9780300149432, 14, It was the Symphonic Poem (1947), later titled the Third Symphony, that officially earned Khachaturian the wrath of the Party. Ironically, he wrote the work as a tribute to the 30th anniversary of the October Revolution. He stated: "I wanted to write the kind of composition in which the public would feel my unwritten program without an announcement. I wanted this work to express the Soviet people's joy and pride in their great and mighty country."{{sfn|Yuzefovich|1985|p=191}}Musicologist Blair Johnston believes that his "music contained few, if any, of the objectionable traits found in the music of some of his more adventuresome colleagues. In retrospect, it was most likely Khachaturian's administrative role in the Union [of Soviet Composers], perceived by the government as a bastion of politically incorrect music, and not his music as such, which earned him a place on the black list of 1948." In March 1948, Khachaturian "made a very full and humble apology for his artistic "errors" following the Zhdanov decree; his musical style, however, underwent no changes." He was sent to Armenia as a "punishment", and continued to be censured. By December 1948, he was "restored to favor later that year when he was praised for his film biography of Lenin"—Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ((:ru:Владимир Ильич Ленин (фильм)|ru)).

Later life (1950–78)

In 1950, Khachaturian began conducting and started teaching composition at his alma maters—the Gnessin Institute (since 1950), and later at the Moscow Conservatory (since 1951). Some of his notable students include Aziz El-Shawan,WEB, Aziz El-Shawan,weblink OVGuide, 2014-02-01,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-07-14, yes, Andrei Eshpai,{{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|p=19}} Anatol Vieru,{{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|p=19}} Edgar Hovhannisyan, Mikael Tariverdiev,{{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|p=19}} Mark Minkov,NEWS, ru:Музыку Люблю Даже Больше, Чем Себя,weblink Novaya Gazeta, 17 March 2003, ru, Alexey Rybnikov,NEWS, Vasyanin, Andrey, ru:Авось, все будет хорошо,weblink Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 16 July 2010, ru, Tolib Shakhidi,NEWS, ru:Европейскую классическую музыку лучше всех теперь пишут сыны Востока,weblink, 10 May 2006, ru, Georgs Pelēcis,WEB, Арам Ильич Хачатурян и его ученики [Aram Ilyich Khachaturian and his students],weblink Moscow Conservatory, ru, 16 June 2013, Rostislav Boiko ((:ru:Бойко, Ростислав Григорьевич|ru)), and Nodar Gabunia ((:ru:Габуния, Нодар Калистратович|ru)). During his career as a university professor, Khachaturian emphasized the role of folk music to his students and instilled the idea that composers should master their nations' folk music heritage.In 1950, he began working on his third and last ballet, Spartacus (1950–54), which later proved to be his last internationally acclaimed work. He was named People's Artist of the Soviet Union in 1954. He revised Spartacus in 1968.(File:Pantheon cemetery in Yerevan 19.JPG|thumb|Khachaturian's grave at the Komitas Pantheon in Yerevan)"Following the success of Spartacus towards the end of the fifties, his remaining years were devoted less to composition, and more to conducting, teaching, bureaucracy and travel." He served as the President of the Soviet Association of Friendship and Cultural Cooperation with Latin American States from 1958{{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|p=18}} and was a member of the Soviet Peace Committee (since 1962). "He frequently appeared in world forums in the role of champion of an apologist for the Soviet idea of creative orthodoxy." Khachaturian toured with concerts of his own works in around 30 countries, including in all the Eastern Bloc states,{{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|p=19}} Italy (1950), Britain (1955, 1977), Latin America (1957) and the United States (1960, 1968).{{sfn|New York Times obituary|1978}} His January 1968 visit to U.S. capital of Washington, D.C. was a significant one. He conducted the National Symphony Orchestra in a program of his own works.Khachaturian went on to serve again as Secretary of the Composers Union, starting in 1957 until his death.{{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|p=18}} He was also a deputy in the fifth Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union (1958–62). In the last two decades of his life, Khachaturian wrote three concert rhapsodies—for violin (1961–62), cello (1963) and piano (1965)—and solo sonatas for unaccompanied cello, violin, and viola (1970s), which are considered to be his second and third instrumental trilogies.Khachaturian died in Moscow on 1 May 1978, after a long illness,{{sfn|New York Times obituary|1978}} just short of his 75th birthday. He was buried at the Komitas PantheonKhachaturian's memorial tombstone at Komitas Pantheon in Yerevan on 6 May, next to other distinguished Armenians.{{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|p=19}} He was survived by his son, Karen, and daughter, Nune, and his nephew, Karen Khachaturian, who was also a composer.


{{See also|List of compositions by Aram Khachaturian}}{{Listen|type=music|filename=Sabre Dance by Khachaturian.ogg|title="Sabre Dance"|description=14-second sample}}Khachaturian's works span a broad range of musical types, including ballets, symphonies, concertos, and film scores. Music critic Edward Greenfield expresses the opinion that Khachaturian "notably outshone other Soviet contemporaries in creating a sharply identifiable style, something which his successors have found impossible to emulate". He composed a great portion of his works in a ten-year span between 1936 and 1946, preceding and following the Second World War.{{sfn|Lebrecht|1996|p=431}} Despite his formal restoration after the 1948 denunciation, Khachaturian only succeeded in composing one internationally acclaimed work in the last 30 years of his life, the ballet Spartacus.According to James Bakst, what made Khachaturian unique among Soviet composers is "the blending of national Armenian vocal and instrumental intonations with contemporary orchestral techniques".{{sfn|Bakst|1977|p=336}} Khachaturian's music is characterized by an active rhythmic development, which reaches either a mere repetition of the basic formula (ostinato) or "a game of emphasis within this formula".WEB, Хачатурян, Арам Ильич [Khachaturian, Aram Ilyich],weblink Krugosvet, ru, Характернейшим качеством музыки Хачатуряна является активное ритмическое развитие, достигающееся часто простым повторением основной формулы (остинато) или игрой акцентов внутри этой формулы., yes,weblink" title="">weblink August 21, 2014, File:RR5217-0028R.gif|thumb|175px|The Central Bank of RussiaCentral Bank of Russia



Khachaturian is best known internationally for his ballet music.{{efn-ua|"Khachaturian's world renown ... was due to his two Romantic ballets Gayaneh and Spartacus, and his attractively melodious concertos.""Khachaturian is principally known for his ballet music..."{{sfn|Rosenberg|1987|p=112}}" is for his ballet music that he was and remains best known both in the Soviet Union and in the West."{{sfn|Tomoff|2006|p=34}}"...his fame in the West rests chiefly on two ballets, Gayane (1942) and Spartacus (1954)...}} His second ballet, Gayane, was largely reworked from his first ballet, Happiness. Spartacus became his most acclaimed work in the post-Stalin period. These two compositions "remain his most successful compositions". According to Jonathan McCollum and Andy Nercessian, his music for these two ballets "can safely be included among the best known pieces of classical music throughout the world, a fact that is vitalized by perception that these are perhaps the only works through that the world really knows Armenian music".{{sfn|McCollum|Nercessian|2004|pp=95–96}} Ann Haskins of LA Weekly suggests that he has thus "made an indelible mark on the world of ballet".NEWS, Media City Ballet Pays Tribute to Aram Khachaturian, Ann, Haskins,weblink LA Weekly, 11 August 2008, Spartacus was popularized when the "Adagio of Spartacus and Phrygia" was used as the theme for a popular BBC drama series The Onedin Line during the 1970s. The climax of Spartacus was also used in films such as Caligula (1979)BOOK, Film and Television Scores, 1950–1979: A Critical Survey by Genre, Kristopher, Spencer, 2008, 125, McFarland & Company, McFarland, 9780786452286, and (Ice Age: The Meltdown) (2006).WEB, Aram Khachaturyan,weblink Internet Movie Database, Joel Coen's The Hudsucker Proxy (1994) also prominently featured music from Spartacus and Gayane (the "Sabre Dance" included). Gayane{{'}}s "Adagio" was used, among other films, in Stanley Kubrick's futuristic film (2001: A Space Odyssey (film)|2001: A Space Odyssey).NEWS, Why I love: the music in 2001: A Space Odyssey,weblink The Daily Telegraph, 4 June 2010,

Orchestral music

Khachaturian wrote three symphonies: the First in 1934/5, the Second in 1943, and the Third in 1947.BOOK,weblink Aram Ilich Khachaturian, Merriam Webster's Biographical Dictionary, Springfield, Massachusetts, Merriam-Webster, 1995, He also wrote three concertos: the Piano Concerto (1936), the Violin Concerto (1940), and the Cello Concerto (1946).

Other compositions

Khachaturian wrote incidental music for several plays, including Macbeth (1934, 1955), The Widow from Valencia (1940), Masquerade (1941), King Lear (1958).He produced around 25 film scores. Among them is Pepo (1935), the first Armenian sound film. In 1950 he was awarded the USSR State Prize (Stalin Prize) for the score of The Battle of Stalingrad (1949).{{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|p=19}}


| align = right| width = 28%}}Musicologist Marina Frolova-Walker describes Khachaturian as the only internationally renowned Soviet composer "who emerged from the nationalist project".{{sfn|Frolova-Walker|1998|p=362}} James Bakst interpreted Khachaturian's views as follows: "Music is a language created by the people. The people create intonational music forms which reveal at once his national elements of an art work."{{sfn|Bakst|1977|p=337}}Composer Tigran Mansurian suggested that Khachaturian's music incorporates American characteristics and called the United States his "second homeland" in terms of musical influences, especially due to the sense of optimism in his works and lifestyle.In the documentary Khachaturian (2003, directed by Peter Rosen), Tigran Mansurian states: "Every artist has a second homeland. When I think of Shostakovich Russia is his first homeland. But I can't help but think of Austro-Germanic music, which is his foundation. Prokofiev's second homeland is, of course, France. Khachaturian's second homeland, in my opinion, is America. That happiness, that health, that love of life, that way of saying 'No' to death, that strength that America has in its music." The film is available online here {{webarchive|url= |date=2014-10-06 }}. Mansurian appears at around 33:50—34:30.

Armenian folk music

File:Komitas 1902.jpg|thumb|200px|Khachaturian used the "raw material" made available by KomitasKomitasKhachaturian is widely known for his use of folk songs of various ethnic groups in his compositions, most notably those of Armenians.{{efn-ua|"Khachaturian's characteristic musical style draws on the melodic and rhythmic vitality of Armenian folk music.""...Armenian folk [music] ... can be heard in nearly all Khachaturian's works.""In these Khachaturian displays a characteristic vitality of rhythm, a penchant for rich orchestration and an effulgent melodic style, frequently owing much to the inflections of the folk music of his native Armenia.""The exotic lyrical patterns and improvisatory characteristics of Khachaturyan's music are the result of national Armenian intonations."{{sfn|Bakst|1977|p=336}}"The influence of Armenian folk music can be seen in the frequent hectic ostinatos, in chords based on fourths and fifths (inspired by the open strings of the Armenian saz), and a rhapsodic improvisational form of melody."}} Despite not having been born in Armenia, Khachaturian was "essentially an Armenian composer whose music exhibits his Armenian roots".{{sfn|Rosenberg|1987|p=112}} "[M]any of his compositions evoke an Armenian melodic line. However, his works markedly differed from the conventional orchestrations of folk themes," writes Rouben Paul Adalian. He suggests that Khachaturian's works carry "the vibrant rhythms and stirring pace of Caucasian dance music", but at the same time are "original compositions that reworked that cultural material through new instrumentation and according to European musical canons, resulting in a sound unique to the composer". He was particularly influenced by the folk-song collector, musicologist Komitas,BOOK, Soulahian Kuyumjian, Rita, Archeology of Madness: Komitas, Portrait of an Armenian Icon, 2001, Gomidas Institute, Princeton, New Jersey, 1-903656-10-9, 26, In the following decades [the songs of the Armenian peasantry transcribed by Komitas] served as a fertile source of raw material for future Armenian composers, among them Aram Khachadourian, whose ballets Kayane [Gayane] and Symphony No.2 contain important elements of folk melodies., and composers Alexander Spendiaryan and Romanos Melikian.{{efn-ua|"Նրա արվեստը սերտորեն առնչվում է Կոմիտասի, Ա. Սպենիարյանի, Ռ. Մելիքյանի ստեղծագործություններին, հատկապես հայ ժող. երաժշտությանը:"{{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|pp=18–19}}"... he repeatedly acknowledged his Armenian predecessors (Komitas, for instance), he evolved his musical language from ethnic models, and he took as his creed the words of the Armenian pioneer Spendarian, who advised him to "study the music of your own people and drink in the sound of life".}} Khachaturian acknowledged that Komitas "singlehandedly laid the foundations for Armenia's classical tradition".NEWS, Church, Michael, Komitas Vardapet, forgotten folk hero,weblink The Guardian, 21 April 2011, In a 1969 article about Komitas, Khachaturian called him his "greatest teacher".JOURNAL, none, (:ru:Культура (газета), Sovetskoe iskusstvo), Moscow, ru, 1969, 10, 1–2, His plans to write an opera "on the destiny of the Armenian people, the tragic fate of Armenians scattered all over the world, their suffering and the struggle" never realized, and his "Armenian Rhapsody for mouth-organ and orchestra, intended for his close friend Larry Adler and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra" remained uncompleted. "Yet the intention, the spirit, was always there." Khachaturian emphasized his Armenian origin, stating:File:Rimsky-Korsakov Serow crop.png|thumb|Nikolai Rimsky-KorsakovNikolai Rimsky-Korsakov

Other folk music

During his university years, Khachaturian transcribed Armenian, Russian, Hungarian, Turkish and other folk songs.{{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|p=18}} In his mature works, Khachaturian used elements from folk songs of Caucasian (including, but not limited to Georgians), Eastern European (Ukrainians, Poles) and Middle Eastern (Turks, Kurds) peoples.{{efn-ua|" which not only makes use of the folklore of Armenia, but also draws upon the national characteristics of Georgia, the Ukraine, Turkey, etc."{{sfn|Rosenberg|1987|p=112}}}} His first ballet, Happiness, incorporates a Ukrainian gopak, Georgian, Armenian and Russian dances and a Lezginka, an energetic dance of many Caucasian peoples.{{sfn|Robinson|2013|p=25}} The Masquerade Suite includes a Mazurka, a Polish folk dance music. The ballet Gayane, like its predecessor, features a Lezginka.BOOK, Manning, Lucy, Orchestral "Pops" Music: A Handbook, 2013, Scarecrow Press, 9780810884236, 140, 2nd, Act II of Gayane "is filled with Kurdish dances".{{sfn|Robinson|2013|p=26}}

Russian classical music

Khachaturian is cited by musicologists as a follower of Russian classical traditions.{{efn-ua|"At the same time, Khachaturyan is closely associated with Russian music as an outstanding school of artistic craftsmanship, and with its humane lyricism."{{sfn|Bakst|1977|p=336}}"Khachaturian's own musical style reflected his background. He was highly skilled and well trained in the Russian classical tradition, and he frequently utilize the rich folk music traditions of the Caucasus in his original compositions, especially the ballet."{{sfn|Tomoff|2006|p=34}}"Khachaturian became a manifestation of one of the cornerstones of Soviet arts policy – the combination of the folk heritage of the various Socialist Republics with Russia's artistic traditions, embodied in music by composers such as Tchaikovsky and Rimsky-Korsakov."}} According to the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, he "carried forward into the twentieth century the colourful, folk-inspired style of such nineteenth-century Russian composers as Rimsky-Korsakov and Tchaikovsky".WEB, Khachaturian: Waltz from Masquerade,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 2014-03-10, Toronto Symphony Orchestra, Like the members of The Five, especially Alexander Borodin and Rimsky-Korsakov, whose works to some extent served him as a model, Khachaturian drew heavily upon "Eastern" and "Oriental" material in creating compositions in various classical genres and styles of European origin. But Khachaturian's cultural identity and rigorous musical training within the Soviet establishment allowed him to penetrate more deeply to the essence of Eastern and Caucasian music and to incorporate it more fully in his mature work, including the ballets.{{sfn|Robinson|2013|p=24}} "Never dissociating himself from the traditions of Russian music, he came to be regarded in Moscow as a mouthpiece of the entire Soviet Orient, gathering up all the diverse traditions into a grand generalization," concludes Marina Frolova-Walker.{{sfn|Frolova-Walker|1998|p=362}}


{{multiple image|align=right|direction=horizontal|footer=From left to right: Khachaturian depicted on Soviet (1983), Russian (2003) and Armenian (2003) postage stamps|image1=1983 CPA 5394.jpg|width1=200|image2=StampRussia845.jpg|width2=190|image3=ArmenianStamps-284.jpg|width3=87}}


Khachaturian is generally considered one of the leading composers of the Soviet Union.BOOK, Huang, Hao, Hao Huang, Music in the 20th century: Volume 2, 1999, M. E. Sharpe, 9780765680129, 341, Aram Khachaturian was a leading Soviet composer..., Alongside Dmitri Shostakovich and Sergei Prokofiev, he has been generally cited as one of the three greatest composers of the Soviet era.{{sfn|Steyn|2009|p=9|ps=: "Along with Sergei Prokofiev and Dmitri Shostakovich, Aram Khachaturyan is one of the great masters of the Soviet school of composition."}}WEB, Арам Хачатурян [Aram Khachaturian],weblink Moscow State Academic Philharmonic Society,weblink" title="">weblink 21 August 2014, ru, Один из самых известных композиторов ХХ века, А. И. Хачатурян вместе с С. С. Прокофьевым и Д. Д. Шостаковичем вошел в блистательную триаду композиторов, ставших гордостью отечественной музыки ХХ века и определивших на многие годы ее облик., As early as 1957 Time magazine called Prokofiev, Shostakovich and Khachaturian "the three modern giants" of Soviet music.NEWS, Music: Moscow Music Congress,weblink Time (magazine), Time, 15 April 1957, They are sometimes collectively referred to as the three "titans" of Soviet music.BOOK, Volkov, Solomon, Testimony: The Memoirs of Dmitri Shostakovich, Hal Leonard Corporation, 9781617747717, 86, Solomon Volkov, 2004, NEWS, Remembering Aram Khachaturian, A 'Titan' Of Soviet Music,weblink Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 5 June 2013, "Whether or not history will support the verdict, Khachaturian in his lifetime ranked as the third most celebrated Soviet composer after Shostakovich and Prokofiev," wrote the music critic Ronald Crichton in 1978. According to the Los Angeles Philharmonic, "his works do not enjoy the international reputation that those of" Shostakovich and Prokofiev do. With the two aforementioned composers and Dmitry Kabalevsky, Khachaturian "was one of the few Soviet composers to have become known to the wider international public".JOURNAL, Aram Ilyich Khachaturian, Tempo (journal), Tempo, 125, 46, June 1978, 10.1017/S004029820003028X, According to music historian Harlow Robinson, "his proletariat origins, non-Russian ethnic origins and Soviet training [made him] a powerful symbol within the Soviet musical establishment of the ideal of a multinational Soviet cultural identity, an identity which the composer enthusiastically embraced and exploited both at home and abroad". Unlike Prokofiev and Shostakovich, Khachaturian was "entirely a creation of the Soviet musical and dance establishment".{{sfn|Robinson|2013|p=23}}

Reputation in the West

Josef Woodard, writing for the Los Angeles Times, suggests that he has "long [been] considered a lighter-weight participant among 20th-century composers,"NEWS, Woodard, Josef, Khachaturian a la Thibaudet,weblink Los Angeles Times, 23 August 2008, while classic music broadcaster Norman Gilliland describes him as a "major" composer of the 20th century.BOOK, Gilliland, Norman, Scores to Settle: Stories of the Struggle to Create Great Music, 2009, NEMO Productions, Madison, Wisconsin, 9780971509337, 1st, Norman Gilliland, He would go on to become a teacher there on his way to becoming a major composer of the twentieth century., Although describing him as an important and highly popular composer and a "man of pronounced gifts", Harold C. Schonberg argued in 1978 that Khachaturian "frankly composed popular music" and that after being exposed to his work it becomes evident that it is mostly "formula writing." While praising his work as exotic and colorful, he downgraded Khachaturian to a "bureaucratic composer, turning out well-crafted pieces of no particular personality, and certainly nothing that would rock the boat."NEWS, Schonberg, Harold C., Harold C. Schonberg, Exemplar of Socialist Realism,weblink The New York Times, 3 May 1978, (archived)Tim Ashley wrote in The Guardian in 2009 that Khachaturian's popularity fell in the West, because of his image as one of Soviet music's "(:wikt:yes man#English|yes-men)". He argued, "Such a view is simplistic, given that he had a major brush with the authorities in 1948. But it's also easy to see how he acquired his awkward reputation when you hear his Violin Concerto, dating from 1940. It's an immensely attractive work, full of his trademark Armenian folk flourishes, and the swaying, hypnotic Andante is notably beautiful. But the unforced optimism of the outer movements now seems unthinking when we realise it was composed at a time when Stalin was giving Prokofiev and Shostakovich hell."NEWS, Ashley, Tim, Khachaturian: Violin Concerto; Concerto-Rhapsody for Violin and Orchestra,weblink The Guardian, 11 June 2009, In 2003 conductor Marin Alsop opined that Khachaturian is "very underperformed" and "somewhat underrated". She commented further: "His music, of course, has a little bit of the edginess of the 20th-century sound, the dissonances coming in. But at the same time it marries this beautiful neo-romanticism and lush orchestration and the over-the-top approach, so I think, he can be quite relevant these days."

In Armenia

File:Aram khachaturian yerevan opera.jpg|thumb|325px|Khachaturian's statue near the Yerevan Opera TheaterYerevan Opera TheaterKhachaturian was the most renowned Armenian composer of the 20th century,NEWS, Ricci, James, Bustling Outpost of Armenian Culture,weblink Los Angeles Times, 10 August 2006, ...Aram Khachaturian, the most famous Armenian composer of the 20th century., and the most famous representative of Soviet Armenian culture.BOOK, Herzig, Edmund, Kurkchiyan, Marina, The Armenians: Past and Present in the Making of National Identity, Ronald Grigor Suny, Ronald G., Suny, Soviet Armenia, 1921–91, 120, The achievements of Soviet Armenian culture were respected both within the USSR and throughout the world. Most famous was the composer Aram Khachaturian..., Routledge, 978-0700706396, He has been described as "by far the most important Armenian composer",{{sfn|McCollum|Nercessian|2004|pp=95-96}} the "Armenian Tchaikovsky",NEWS, Ginell, Richard S., Making sure Khachaturian gets his due,weblink Los Angeles Times, 1 October 2003, and deemed a key figure in 20th-century Armenian culture.JOURNAL, Aram Khatchaturian,weblink Hye Sharzhoom, California State University, Fresno, 25, October 2003,weblink" title="">weblink 13 March 2014, He remains the only Armenian composer to rise to international significance.{{efn-ua|"Aram Khachaturian was the first, and so far the only, Armenian composer to achieve world renown."}} Khachaturian is highly regarded in ArmeniaBOOK, Staines, Joe, The Rough Guide to Classical Music, 2010, Rough Guides, London, 9781405383219, 279–280, 5th revised and expanded, Armenians are extremely proud of Khachaturian..., and considered a national treasure.{{sfn|Frolova-Walker|1998|p=371}} Khachaturian is embraced and celebrated by the Armenian people "as a famous son who earned world-wide recognition".{{sfn|Steyn|2009|pp=21–22}} Şahan Arzruni has described Khachaturian as "the musical ambassador of Armenian culture".NEWS, Ziflioğlu, Vercihan, Virtuosos to sing works by Armenian musicians,weblink Hürriyet Daily News, 12 October 2012, David Marshall Lang noted in his 1970 book on Armenia that "For making Armenia's popular musical heritage known all over the world, his homeland pays him well deserved acclaim."BOOK, Lang, David Marshall, David Marshall Lang, Armenia: Cradle of Civilization, 190, Allen & Unwin, London, 262, He had a great influence on the development of Armenian music in the 20th century. "Naturally, he immediately became an example for young national composers and a hero in Armenia," suggests Maya Pritsker. Khachaturian's influence can be traced in nearly all trends of Armenian classical music traditions (symphonic and chamber), including on Arno Babajanian, a significant Armenian composer of the late Soviet period.WEB, hy:Բաբաջանյան Առնո, Babajanyan Arno,weblink Yerevan State University Armenian Studies Institute,weblink" title="">weblink 13 March 2014, hy, His unique symphonic interpretation has influenced Edvard Mirzoyan, Konstantin Orbelyan and others.JOURNAL, Rukhkian, Margarita, Идея формы или миф армянского симфонизма (к 100-летию со дня рождения Арама Ильича Хачатуряна) [The idea of form or the myth of Armenian symphonism (to Aram Khachatrian's 100th birth anniversary)], Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri, 2003, 3, 149,weblink Armenian Academy of Sciences, Yerevan, ru, 0320-8117, Khachaturian is credited for bringing Armenian music worldwide recognition.{{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|p=18}} Poet Hamo Sahyan said about Khachaturian: "He became the big denial of our myth of smallness, [he] became the symbol of measuring our small people with the great ones... [He] became our certificate of civilization."NEWS, "Aram Khachaturian became our certificate of civilization": today is composer's birthday,weblink Armenpress, 6 June 2014,

Posthumous honors and tribute

The philharmonic hall of the Yerevan Opera Theater has been officially called the Aram Khachaturian Grand Concert Hall since 1978.{{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|p=19}} The House-Museum of Aram Khachaturian in Yerevan was inaugurated in 1982.WEB, House-Museum of Aram Khachaturian,weblink Virtual Museum of Aram Khachaturian, Music schools are named after Khachaturian in Tbilisi,WEB, A. Khachaturiani Musical School #10 in Tbilisi,weblink Georgia Yellow Pages, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-04-13, Moscow (established in 1967, named after him in 1996),WEB, История школы [School's history],weblink Moscow City Department of Culture,weblink" title="">weblink 13 March 2014, ru, Yerevan, Martuni in Nagorno-Karabakh,NEWS, Balayan, Emma, hy:Մարտունու երաժշտական դրպոցը ապահովում է կայուն մակարդակ,weblink Azat Artsakh, 26 November 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 13 March 2014, hy, yes, and Watertown, Massachusetts, US (run by the Hamazkayin Armenian Educational and Cultural Society).WEB, Aram Khachaturian School of Music,weblink Hamazkayin USA, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-12-30, Streets in Yerevan,WEB, Aram Khachatrian St Erevan, Armenia,weblink Google Maps, Tbilisi,WEB, Aram Khachaturiani St T'bilisi, Georgia,weblink Google Maps, Moscow ((:ru:Улица Хачатуряна (Москва)|ru)), Astana (Kazakhstan)WEB, ru:ул. Хачатуряна, Астана,weblink, ru, and Simferopol (Crimea)WEB, ulitsa Khachaturyana, Simferopol', Crimea, Ukraine,weblink Google Maps, are named after Khachaturian.On 31 July 1999 a three-and-a-half meter high statue of Khachaturian in 19th-century realist style{{sfn|Steyn|2009|p=19}} by Yuri Petrosyan was unveiled before the Khachaturian Hall of the Yerevan Opera Theater in attendance of President Robert Kocharyan, Speaker Karen Demirchyan and leading poet Silva Kaputikyan.BOOK, hy:Մայրաքաղաքի քարե վկաները. Արամ Խաչատրյան, The Capital's Stone Witnesses. Aram Khachaturian,weblink Khanjyan, Artyush, hy:Երևանի արձանները, Statues of Yerevan, VMV Print, Yerevan, hy, 99941-920-1-9, A statue of Khachaturian by Georgiy Frangulyan was unveiled in Moscow on 31 October 2006. Notable attendees included Armenian President Kocharyan, Moscow Mayor Yury Luzhkov and Russia's First Lady Lyudmila Putina.NEWS, В Москве открыт памятник композитору Араму Хачатуряну [Statue of Aram Khachaturian unveiled in Moscow],weblink 31 October 2006, RIA Novosti, ru, On 30 April 2013, a bust of Khachaturian erected by sculptor Gevorg Gevorgyan was opened in the street named after him in Yerevan's Arabkir district by Yerevan Mayor Taron Margaryan on his 110th anniversary.NEWS, hy:Արաբկիր վարչական շրջանում բացվեց Արամ Խաչատրյանի կիսանդրին, Aram Khachatryan's bust erected in Arabkir district,weblink 30 April 2013, PanARMENIAN.Net, hy, {{multiple image|align=right|direction=vertical|width=200|image1=50 Armenian dram - 1998 (obverse).png|image2=50 Armenian dram - 1998 (reverse).png|footer=Khachaturian appeared on the 50-dram banknote (1998–2004)|footer_align=center}}In 1998, the Central Bank of Armenia issued 50-dram banknotes depicting Khachaturian's portrait and the Yerevan Opera Theater on the obverse and an episode from the ballet Gayane and Mount Ararat on the reverse. It remained in use until 2004 when it was replaced by a coin.WEB, Banknotes out of circulation – 50 drams,weblink Central Bank of Armenia,weblink 13 March 2014, He is the only composer to be depicted on Armenian currency.In 1983, the Yerevan Studio produced a TV documentary film on Khachaturian.WEB, hy:Արամ Խաչատրյան` արվեստագետ քաղաքացին, Aram Khachaturian the artist citizen,weblink Public Television of Armenia Archives,weblink" title="">weblink 13 March 2014, hy, In 2003, an 83-minute-long documentary about Khachaturian with unique footage was directed by Peter Rosen and narrated by Eric Bogosian.NEWS, Kehr, Dave, Dave Kehr, A Composer's Life, Beyond Vaudeville and Stalin,weblink New York Times, 17 October 2003, The film won the Best Documentary at the 2003 Hollywood Film Festival.NEWS, Khachaturian,weblink University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, 2003, In 2004, TV Kultura, Russia's government-owned art channel, made a documentary on Khachaturian entitled Century of Aram Khachaturian (Век Арама Хачатуряна).WEB, Век Арама Хачатуряна [Century of Aram Khachaturian],weblink TV Kultura,weblink" title="">weblink 13 March 2014, ru, In 1993 the festival of symphonic music Aram Khachaturian-93 was held in Yerevan. The Aram Khachaturian International Competition (Արամ Խաչատրյանի անվան միջազգային մրցույթ) is held annually in Yerevan since 2003.WEB, Aram Khachaturian International Competition: About us,weblink yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-04-13, In 2009, Russia's flag carrier, Aeroflot, named one of its Airbus A319-112 planes after Khachaturian.WEB,weblink ru:Пресс-релиз Аэрофлота о введении в эксплуатацию А319 "А. Хачатурян, Press-release of Aeroflot about putting into operation the A319 "A. Khachaturian", 19 June 2009, ru, Aeroflot, In 2013,NEWS, Aram Khachaturian's works included in UNESCO’s Memory of the World International Register,weblink Public Radio of Armenia, 19 June 2013, UNESCO inscribed a collection of Khachaturian's handwritten notes and film music in the Memory of the World Register.WEB, Collection of note manuscripts and film music of Composer Aram Khachaturian,weblink UNESCO,

Awards & titles

File:Aram Khachaturian mural in Yerevan.jpg|thumb|185px|A mural of Khachaturian painted by Robert Nikoghosyan near the Yerevan Vernissage in July 2015NEWS, hy:Հայ մեծերի դիմանկարները՝ Երևան քաղաքի պատերին,weblink Yerkir MediaYerkir MediaSoviet Union{{sfn|Geodakyan|1979|pp=18–19}} Other statesWEB, Titles, prizes, awards,weblink Virtual Museum of Aram Khachaturian,weblink" title="">weblink 13 March 2014,
  • Order of the Science of Art of the United Arab Republic (1961, "for outstanding musical achievements")
  • Medal of Pope John XXIII (1963)
  • Medal of the Iranian Shah (1965)
  • Honored Art Worker of People's Republic of Poland (1972, "for contribution to the Polish culture")
  • (File:Ordre des Arts et des Lettres Commandeur ribbon.svg|30x30px) Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (France) and title of Commandeur (1974)
Academic titles


}{{Div col end}}


Books and book chapters

  • BOOK, Khachaturyan, Bakst, James, A History of Russian-Soviet Music, 1977, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 0837194229, Reprint, harv,
  • BOOK, Gayane, Chebotaryan, Gayane Chebotaryan, Полифония в творчестве Арама Хачатуряна [Polyphony in Aram Khachaturian's Works], 1969, Yerevan, Hayastan Publishing, ru, 9225122,
  • BOOK, Fay, Laurel E., Aram Khachaturian: a complete catalogue, 1990, G. Schirmer Inc., New York, 23711723,
  • BOOK, Geodakyan, Gevorg, Gevorg Geodakyan, Арам Хачатурян [Aram Khachaturian], 1972, Armenian SSR Academy of Sciences Press, Yerevan, ru,
  • BOOK, Karagiulian, E., Симфоническое творчество А. Хачатуряна [Symphonic Oeuvre of A. Khachaturian], Armgosizdat, Yerevan, ru, 1961, 25716788,
  • BOOK, Kharajanian, R., Фортепианное творчество Арама Хачатуряна [Aram Khachaturian`s piano music], 1973, Hayastan Publishing, Yerevan, ru,
  • BOOK, Georgii, Khubov, 1939, Арам Хачатурян. Эскиз характеристики [Aram Khachaturian. Sketches of characteristics], ru, Moscow, Gosudarstvennoe muzykal'noe izdatel'stvo, 29138604,
  • BOOK, Georgii, Khubov, 1967, Арам Хачатурян:монография [Aram Khachaturian: monography], 2nd, ru, Moscow, Muzyka, 4940007,
  • BOOK, Robinson, Harlow, 2013, The Caucasian Connection: National Identity in the Ballets of Aram Khachaturian,weblink Identities, Nations and Politics After Communism, Routledge, 9781317968665, 23–32, Roger Kanet, Kanet, Roger E., harv,
  • BOOK, Rybakova, S., Арам Ильич Хачатурян: Сборник статей [Aram Khachaturian: Collection of articles], 1975, Sovetsky Kompozitor, Moscow, ru,
  • BOOK, Shneerson, Grigory, 1959, Aram Khachaturyan, Xenia Danko (translator), Moscow, Foreign Languages Publishing House (Soviet Union), Foreign Languages Publishing House, harv,
  • BOOK, :ru:Тигранов, Георгий Григорьевич, GeorgiÄ­, Tigranov, Арам Ильич Хачатурян: очерк жизни и творчества [Aram Khachaturian: Outline of Life and Work], Leningrad, Muzyka, 1978, ru, 8495433,
  • BOOK, GeorgiÄ­, Tigranov, Арам Ильич Хачатурян [Aram Ilʹich Khachaturi︠a︡n], Moscow, Muzyka, 1987, ru, 17793679,
  • BOOK, Yuzefovich, Victor, 1985, Aram Khachaturyan, Nicholas Kournokoff and Vladimir Bobrov (translators), New York, Sphinx Press, 0-8236-8658-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Album: Aram Khachaturian, Grigoryan, Armine, "Krunk" Publishing, Aram Khachaturian Museum, Ministry of Culture of RA, 2012, Shahmanyan, Anahit, Yerevan,
  • BOOK, Aram Khachaturian and The Contemporary World, Avetisyan, Nelly, "Amrots Group", "Tigran Mec" Publishing, Aram Khachaturian Museum, Ministry of Culture of RA, 2014, 978-99941-31-80-8, Grigoryan, Armine, Yerevan,
  • BOOK, Aram Khachaturian. Arrangements for Piano Trio, "Komitas" Publishing, Arranged by Avetik Pivazyan and Ruben Asatryan. Aram Khachaturian Museum, Ministry of Culture of RA, 2016, Grigoryan, Armine, Yerevan, 979-0-801-600-79-0, Shahgaldyan, Karen, Kocharyan, Karen,
  • BOOK, hy:Ô±Ö€Õ¡Õ´ Ô½Õ¡Õ¹Õ¡Õ¿Ö€ÕµÕ¡Õ¶. Õ¶Õ¡Õ´Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶Õ«, Aram Khachaturian: Complete Collection of Letters, "Grakan Hayreniq", "Hayastan" Publishing, Aram Khachaturian Museum, Ministry of Culture of RA, 2017, 978-5-540-02446-4, Grigoryan, Armine, Yerevan, Armenian, Shahmanyan, Anahit,

Dictionary and encyclopedia articles

  • BOOK, {{harvid, Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2004, |chapter=Aram Ilich Khachaturian|url=|title=Encyclopedia of World Biography|last=|first=|location=Detroit|pages=|publisher=Gale|year=2004|isbn=}}
  • BOOK, {{harvid, Complete Classical Music Guide, 2012, 301, |chapter=Aram Khachaturian|url=|title=The Complete Classical Music Guide|last=|first=|year=2012|publisher=Dorling Kindersley|location=London|isbn=9781465401342|p=301|pages=}}
  • BOOK, {{harvid, Encyclopedia of Music in the 20th Century, 2013, |last=Blackwood|first=Alan|title=Encyclopedia of Music in the 20th Century|chapter=Aram Khachaturian|url=|date=2013|publisher=Routledge|location=Abingdon, Oxon|year=|isbn=1-57958-079-3|editor=Stacy, Lee|editor2=Henderson, Lol|p=341|pages=}}
  • BOOK, Geodakyan, Gevorg, Gevorg Geodakyan, Ô½Õ¡Õ¹Õ¡Õ¿Ö€ÕµÕ¡Õ¶ Ô±Ö€Õ¡Õ´ [Khachatryan Aram], Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia Volume 5, 18–20, 1979, hy, Yerevan, Armenian Encyclopedia Publishing, harv,
  • BOOK, Geodakyan, Gevorg, (:ru:Музыкальная энциклопедия, Музыкальная энциклопедия) [Musical encyclopedia], Moscow, ru, Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya and Sovetsky Kompozitor, 1981, Хачатурян А. И. [Khachaturian A. I.],weblink {{harvid, Geodakyan, 1981, |deadurl=bot: unknown|archiveurl=|archivedate=2014-03-22|df=}}
  • BOOK, {{harvid, Johnston, AllMusic, 2005, |title=All Music Guide to Classical Music: The Definitive Guide to Classical Music|date=2005|publisher=Backbeat Books|location=San Francisco|year=|isbn=9780879308650|pp=685–6|url=|editor=Woodstra, Chris|editor2=Brennan, Gerald|editor3=Schrott, Allen|last=Johnston|first=Blair|chapter=Aram Khachaturian: Artist Biography}}; also available online at AllMusic
  • JOURNAL, {{harvid, Current Biography Yearbook, 1949, |via=|journal=Current Biography Yearbook|last=|first=|date=|year=1949|title=Khachaturian, Aram|url=|volume=9|pages=|p=345|publisher=H. W. Wilson Company|location=New York}}
  • BOOK, Lebrecht, Norman, The Companion to 20th-century Music, Aram Khachaturian,weblink 1996, Da Capo Press, New York, 9780306807343, 183, Norman Lebrecht, harv,
  • BOOK, McCollum, Jonathan, Armenian Music: A Comprehensive Bibliography and Discography, 2004, Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Maryland, 9780810849679, 95–96, Nercessian, Andy, Aram Khachaturian,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, {{harvid, Greene's Biographical Encyclopedia of Composers, 1985, |chapter=Khachaturian, Aram Ilyich|url=|title=David Mason Greene's Biographical Encyclopedia of Composers|last=|first=|date=1985|publisher=Reproducing Piano Roll Foundation|location=Garden City, New York|year=|isbn=9780385142786|pp=1329–30|edition=1st|editor=Petrak, Albert M.}}
  • BOOK, Khachaturian, Aram Il'yich,weblink'yich&f=false, The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music, 1996, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 9780674372993, Don Michael Randel, Randel, Don Michael, 445, {{harvid, Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music, 1996, 445, }}
  • BOOK, Rosenberg, Kenyon C., Khachaturian, Aram, A Basic Classical and Operatic Recordings Collection for Libraries, 1987, Scarecrow Press, Metuchen, New Jersey, 9780810820418, 111–112, harv,
  • BOOK, Tomoff, Kiril, Creative Union: The Professional Organization of Soviet Composers, 1939-1953, 2006, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 9780801444111, 34–35, harv,

Journal articles

  • JOURNAL, Chebotaryan, Gayane, Gayane Chebotaryan, hy:Ô±Ö€Õ¡Õ´ Ô½Õ¡Õ¹Õ¡Õ¿Ö€ÕµÕ¡Õ¶ (Ô¾Õ¶Õ¶Õ¤ÕµÕ¡Õ¶ 60-Õ¡Õ´ÕµÕ¡Õ¯Õ« Õ¡Õ¼Õ©Õ«Õ¾), Patma-Banasirakan Handes, 3, 109–114,weblink 1963, Armenian Academy of Sciences, Yerevan, hy,
  • JOURNAL, Ehrenburg, Ilya, Khachaturian, Aram, Pomerantsev, V., Soviet Studies, Routledge, 1954, Three Soviet artists on the present needs of Soviet art, 5, 4, 412–445, 10.1080/09668135408409919, Ilya Ehrenburg,
  • JOURNAL, "National in Form, Socialist in Content": Musical Nation-Building in the Soviet Republics, Marina, Frolova-Walker, Marina Frolova-Walker, Journal of the American Musicological Society, 51, 2, 331–337, Summer 1998, University of California Press on behalf of the American Musicological Society, 10.2307/831980, 831980, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Soviet Music Today, 943199, Georgi, Keldysh, Tempo (journal), Tempo, 32, Summer 1954, 23–28, harv,
  • JOURNAL, {{harvid, The Musical Times, 1978, |via=|journal=The Musical Times|title=Aram Khachaturian|url=|first=G.|last=N.|volume=19|issue=1625|pages=|date=July 1978|p=619|publisher=Musical Times Publications|jstor=958852}}
  • WEB, {{harvid, Orga, 1997, |last=Orga|first=Ates|title=Aram Il'yich Khachaturian (1903–1978)|url=|website=|publisher=Naxos Records|archiveurl=|archivedate=19 February 2014|dead-url=|date=|year=1997}}
  • JOURNAL, Dmitri Shostakovich, Dmitri, Shostakovich, Яркий талант [Bright talent], (:ru:Музыкальная академия (журнал), Soviet Music), 1959, 6, ru, [an essay praising Khachaturian]
  • JOURNAL, Steyn, Carol, Khachaturyan in Armenia today: his presence in Armenian music, art and architecture, rooted in Socialist Realism, South African Journal of Art History, 2009, 24, 3, 9–23,weblink 0258-3542, harv, yes,weblink" title="">weblink August 14, 2014,
  • JOURNAL, Ter-Ghazarian, Zara, hy:Ô±. Ô½Õ¡Õ¹Õ¡Õ¿Ö€ÕµÕ¡Õ¶Õ« "Õ„Õ¡Õ¯Õ¢Õ¥Õ©" ներկայացման ÕºÕ¡Ö€Õ¿Õ«Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Ö€Õ¨, The score of A. Khachaturian's play "Macbeth", Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri, 1983, 6, 23–28,weblink Armenian Academy of Sciences, Yerevan, hy, 0320-8117,
  • JOURNAL, Tigranova, Irina G., :ru:Тигранова, Ирина Георгиевна, hy:Ô±Ö€Õ¡Õ´ Ô½Õ¡Õ¹Õ¡Õ¿Ö€ÕµÕ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ¸Õ³Õ« Õ´Õ« Õ¡Õ¼Õ¡Õ¶Õ±Õ¶Õ¡Õ°Õ¡Õ¿Õ¯Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¡Õ¶ Õ´Õ¡Õ½Õ«Õ¶, About a Certain Particuliarity of Aram Khachatourian's Style, Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri, 1970, 1, 26–35,weblink Armenian Academy of Sciences, Yerevan, hy,

Newspaper articles

  • NEWS, {{harvid, New York Times obituary, 1978, |title=Khachaturian, a Leading Soviet Composer, Dies at 74|last=|url=|work=The New York Times|access-date=|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|first=|date=3 May 1978}} (archived)
  • NEWS, {{harvid, Holland, 2003, |last=Holland|first=Bernard|title=Khachaturian Beckons With Little-Known Works|url=|newspaper=The New York Times|access-date=|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|date=14 October 2003|authorlink=Bernard Holland}}
  • NEWS, {{harvid, Huizenga, NPR, 2003, |last=Huizenga|first=Tom|title=The 'Sabre Dance' Man|url=|date=5 June 2005|work=|agency=NPR|access-date=|archiveurl=|archivedate=17 March 2014|dead-url=}}
  • NEWS, {{harvid, Pritsker, 2003, |last=Pritsker|first=Maya|title=What Could Khachaturian Do Besides An Encore?|url=|newspaper=The New York Times|access-date=|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|date=5 October 2003}}

External links

{{Commons category|Aram Khachaturian}} {{Authority control}}{{Aram Khachaturian}}

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