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Arab League
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{{Distinguish|Arab world|Muslim world}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{pp-30-500|small=yes}}







factoids
|linking_name = the Arab League|image_flag = Flag of the League of Arab States.svg|image_map = Arab League member states (orthographic projection).svg|map_width = 220px|symbol_type = Emblem|image_symbol = Emblem of the Arab League.svg|admin_center = Cairo, Egypt a|admin_center_type = Administrative center|membership_type = Members|membership = {hide}collapsible list
|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
|title = 22 states
|liststyle = text-align:left;white-space:nowrap;
|{{flag|Algeria{edih}
|{{flag|Bahrain}}
|{{flag|Comoros}}
|{{flag|Djibouti}}
|{{flag|Egypt}}
|{{flag|Iraq}}
|{{flag|Jordan}}
|{{flag|Kuwait}}
|{{flag|Lebanon}}
|{{flag|Libya}}
|{{flag|Mauritania}}
|{{flag|Morocco}}
|{{flag|Oman}}
|{{flag|Palestine}}
|{{flag|Qatar}}
|{{flag|Saudi Arabia}}
|{{flag|Somalia}}
|{{flag|Sudan}}
|{{flag|Tunisia}}
|{{flag|United Arab Emirates}}
|{{flag|Yemen}}

|{{flag|Syria}} (suspended)Syria suspended from Arab League, The Guardian}}Arabic}}|demonym = Arabs|org_type = Regional organizationSecretary-General of the Arab League>Arab League Secretariat|leader_name1 = Ahmed Aboul GheitSpeaker of the Arab Parliament>Arab Parliament|leader_name2 = Ali Al-DaqbaashiCouncil of the Arab League>Council PresidencySudan}}|legislature = Arab Parliament|established_event1 = Alexandria Protocol|established_date1 = 22 March 1945|area_label = Total area|area_km2 = 13132327|area_sq_mi = 5070420|area_label2 = |area_data2 = |population_estimate = 423,000,000total population 450 million, CIA Factbook estimates an Arab population of 533 million, see article text.|population_estimate_year = 2015|population_density_km2 = 27.17|population_density_sq_mi = 70.37List of countries by GDP (PPP)>4th)|GDP_PPP_year = 2016|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $9,347|GDP_nominal = $3.526 trillion|GDP_nominal_year = 2011|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $4,239|Gini_year = |Gini_change = |Gini = |Gini_ref = |HDI_year = |HDI_change = |HDI = |HDI_ref = |currency = {hide}collapsible list
| titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
| title = 21
| liststyle = text-align:left;white-space:nowrap;
| {{small|(ISO 4217 in brackets){edih}
| {{small|(DZB)}} Algerian dinar
| {{small|(BHD)}} Bahraini dinar
| {{small|(KMF)}} Comorian franc
| {{small|(DJF)}} Djiboutian franc
| {{small|(EGP)}} Egyptian pound
| {{small|(IQD)}} Iraqi dinar
| {{small|(JOD)}} Jordanian dinar
| {{small|(KWD)}} Kuwaiti dinar
| {{small|(LBP)}} Lebanese pound
| {{small|(LYD)}} Libyan dinar
| {{small|(MRO)}} Mauritanian ouguiya
| {{small|(MAD)}} Moroccan dirham
| {{small|(OMR)}} Omani rial
| {{small|(QAR)}} Qatari riyal
| {{small|(SAR)}} Saudi riyal
| {{small|(SOS)}} Somali shilling
| {{small|(SDD)}} Sudanese pound
| {{small|(SYP)}} Syrian pound
| {{small|(TND)}} Tunisian dinar
| {{small|(AED)}} UAE dirham
| {{small|(YER)}} Yemeni rial
}}|time_zone = |utc_offset = +0 to +4|official_website = www.LasPortal.org|footnote_a = From 1979 to 1989, Tunis, Tunisia.|footnote_b = Syrian Arab Republic suspended. }}{{Life in the Arab League}}The Arab League ( {{transl|ar|al-Jāmiʻah al-ʻArabīyah}}), formally the League of Arab States ( {{transl|ar|Jāmiʿat ad-Duwal al-ʿArabīyah}}), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia. It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.WEB, Arab League,weblink The Columbia Encyclopedia, 17 December 2013, 2013, {{Subscription required|via=Questia}} Yemen joined as a member on 5 May 1945. Currently, the League has 22 members, but Syria's participation has been suspended since November 2011, as a consequence of government repression during the Syrian Civil War.NEWS, Sly, Liz, Syria suspended from Arab League,weblink Washington Post, 12 November 2011, The League's main goal is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries".WEB, Pact of the League of Arab States, 22 March 1945, The Avalon Project, Yale Law School, 1998,weblink 15 July 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080725204917weblink">weblink 25 July 2008, live, Through institutions, such as the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League's Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU), the Arab League facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific, and social programmes designed to promote the interests of the Arab world.WEB,weblink The Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALESCO), Ashish K. Vaidya, Globalization (ABC-CLIO: 2006), p. 525. It has served as a forum for the member states to coordinate their policy positions, to deliberate on matters of common concern, to settle some Arab disputes and to limit conflicts such as the 1958 Lebanon crisis. The League has served as a platform for the drafting and conclusion of many landmark documents promoting economic integration. One example is the Joint Arab Economic Action Charter, which outlines the principles for economic activities in the region.(File:Arab League of states establishment - Egypt 22-3-1945 22Millim stamp.jpg|thumb|Arab League of states establishment memorial stamp. Showing flags of the 8 establishing countries: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom (North Yemen), Syrian Republic, Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Lebanese Republic)Each member state has one vote in the League Council, and decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them. The aims of the league in 1945 were to strengthen and coordinate the political, cultural, economic and social programs of its members and to mediate disputes among them or between them and third parties. Furthermore, the signing of an agreement on Joint Defence and Economic Cooperation on 13 April 1950 committed the signatories to coordination of military defence measures. In March 2015, the Arab League General Secretary announced the establishment of a Joint Arab Force with the aim of counteracting extremism and other threats to the Arab States. The decision was reached while Operation Decisive Storm was intensifying in Yemen. Participation in the project is voluntary, and the army intervenes only at the request of one of the member states. The growing militarization of the region and the increase in violent civil wars as well as terrorist movements are the reason behind the creation of the JAF, financed by the rich Gulf countries.WEB, Fanack, The Joint Arab Force—Will It Ever Work?,weblinkweblink dead, 13 July 2015, Fanack.com, 13 July 2015, In the early 1970s, the Economic Council of the League of Arab States put forward a proposal to create the Joint Arab Chambers of Commerce across the European states. That led, under the decree of the League of Arab States no. K1175/D52/G, to the decision by the Arab governments to set up the Arab British Chamber of Commerce which was mandated to "promote, encourage and facilitate bilateral trade" between the Arab world and its major trading partner, the United Kingdom.

History

Following adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945. It aimed to be a regional organisation of Arab states with a focus to developing the economy, resolving disputes and coordinating political aims.Arab League formed — History.com This Day in History — 3/22/1945. History.com. Retrieved on 2014-04-28. Other countries later joined the league.HowStuffWorks "Arab League". History.howstuffworks.com (2008-02-27). Retrieved on 2014-04-28. Each country was given one vote in the council. The first major action was the joint intervention, allegedly on behalf of the majority Arab population being uprooted as the state of Israel emerged in 1948 (and in response to popular protest in the Arab world), but a major participant in this intervention, Transjordan, had agreed with the Israelis to divide up the Arab Palestinian state proposed by the United Nations General Assembly, and Egypt intervened primarily to prevent its rival in Amman from accomplishing its objective.Avi Shlaim, Collusion Across the Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist Movement and the Partition of Palestine. Oxford, U.K., Clarendon Press, 1988; Uri Bar-Joseph, Uri, The Best of Enemies: Israel and Transjordan in the War of 1948. London, Frank Cass, 1987; Joseph Nevo, King Abdullah and Palestine: A Territorial Ambition (London: Macmillan Press; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.It was followed by the creation of a mutual defence treaty two years later. A common market was established in 1965.Robert W. MacDonald, The League of Arab States: A Study in Regional Organization. Princeton, New Jersey, United States, Princeton University Press, 1965.

Geography

(File:Arab League members colored by joining date.svg|thumb|right|Joining dates of member states; the Comoros (circled) joined in 1993.{{Color box|#f4eed7|border=darkgray}} 1940s {{Color box|#decd87|border=darkgray}} 1950s {{Color box|#c8ab37|border=darkgray}} 1960s {{Color box|#786721|border=darkgray}} 1970s)The Arab League member states cover over {{convert|13000000|sqkm|abbr=on}} and straddles two continents: Africa and Asia. The area largely consists of arid deserts, such as the Sahara. Nevertheless, it also contains several highly fertile lands like the Nile Valley, the Jubba Valley and Shebelle Valley in the Horn of Africa, the Atlas Mountains in the Maghreb, and the Fertile Crescent that stretches over Mesopotamia and the Levant. The area comprises deep forests in southern Arabia and parts of the world's longest river, the Nile.

Membership

The Charter of the Arab League, also known as the Pact of the League of Arab States, is the founding treaty of the Arab League. Adopted in 1945, it stipulates that "the League of Arab States shall be composed of the independent Arab States that have signed this Pact."WEB, Pact of the League of Arab States, March 22, 1945,weblink Yale Law School, law.yale.edu, 9 July 2016, Initially, in 1945, there were only six members. Today, the Arab League has 22 members, including three African countries among the largest by area (Sudan, Algeria and Libya) and the largest country in the Middle East, (Saudi Arabia). Five countries have observer status that entitles them to express their opinion and give advice but denies them voting rights.WEB, India invited as observer for Arab League summit, Press Trust of India, 27 March 2007,weblink 13 June 2007, {{dead link|date=June 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} There was a continual increase in membership during the second half of the 20th century. {{As of|2016}}, there are 22 member states:{hide}columns-list|colwidth=15em|
  • {{flag|Algeria{edih}
  • {{flag|Bahrain}}
  • {{flag|Comoros}}
  • {{flag|Djibouti}}
  • {{flag|Egypt}}
  • {{flag|Iraq}}
  • {{flag|Jordan}}
  • {{flag|Kuwait}}
  • {{flag|Lebanon}}
  • {{flag|Libya}}
  • {{flag|Mauritania}}
  • {{flag|Morocco}}
  • {{flag|Oman}}
  • {{flag|Palestine}}
  • {{flag|Qatar}}
  • {{flag|Saudi Arabia}}
  • {{flag|Somalia}}
  • {{flag|Sudan}}
  • {{flag|Syria}} (suspended)
  • {{flag|Tunisia}}
  • {{flag|United Arab Emirates}}
  • {{flag|Yemen}}
}}and 5 observer states:{hide}columns-list|colwidth=15em|
  • {{flag|Brazil{edih}
  • {{flag|Eritrea}}
  • {{flag|India}}
  • {{flag|Venezuela}}WEB,weblink Arab League Fast Facts, CNN.com, 30 July 2013,
  • {{flag|Armenia}}
}}Libya was suspended on 22 February 2011, following the start of the Libyan Civil War.NEWS,weblink Libya suspended from Arab League sessions, Ynetnews.com, 1995-06-20, 2014-04-28, The National Transitional Council, the partially recognised interim government of Libya, sent a representative to be seated at the Arab League meeting on 17 August to participate in a discussion as to whether to readmit Libya to the organisation.NEWS,weblinkweblink dead, 8 December 2011, RTT News, 25 August 2011, 25 August 2011, Arab League Recognizes Libyan Rebel Council, dmy-all, Syria was suspended on 16 November 2011. On 6 March 2013, the Arab League gave the Syrian National Coalition Syria's seat in the Arab League.WEB,weblink Syrian opposition takes Arab League seat, Ian, Black, The Guardian, 20 November 2014, On 9 March 2014, secretary general Nabil al-Arabi said that Syria's seat would remain vacant until the opposition completes the formation of its institutions.WEB,weblink Syria opposition 'not yet ready for Arab League seat', The Daily Star Newspaper, Lebanon, 20 November 2014,

Politics and administration

File:Arab Leage HQ 977.PNG|thumb|Headquarters of the Arab League, CairoCairoFile:Israel-Palestine Diplomacy.svg|thumb|{{legend|#cdcd9c|Recognition of both Israel and Palestinian State}}{{legend|#FF4500|Recognition of Palestinian State only}}]](File:Provinces - Arab League.PNG|right|thumb|200px|Administrative divisions in the Arab League.)The Arab League is a political organization which tries to help integrate its members economically, and solve conflicts involving member states without asking for foreign assistance. It possesses elements of a state representative parliament while foreign affairs are often conducted under UN supervision.The Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland while respecting the sovereignty of the individual member states. The internal regulations of the Council of the LeagueWEB, Internal Regulations of the Council of the League of Arab States, Model League of Arab States, Ed Haynes, Winthrop University, 6 April 1998,weblink 9 July 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080406061423weblink">weblink 6 April 2008, dead, dmy, and the committeesWEB, Internal Regulations of the Committees of the League of Arab States, Model League of Arab States, Ed Haynes, Winthrop University, 6 April 1998,weblink 9 July 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080406075743weblink">weblink 6 April 2008, dead, dmy, were agreed in October 1951. Those of the Secretariat-General were agreed in May 1953.WEB, Internal Regulations of the Secretariat-General of the League, Model League of Arab States, Ed Haynes, Winthrop University, 6 April 1998,weblink 9 July 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080406064006weblink">weblink 6 April 2008, dead, dmy, Since then, governance of the Arab League has been based on the duality of supra-national institutions and the sovereignty of the member states. Preservation of individual statehood derived its strengths from the natural preference of ruling elites to maintain their power and independence in decision making. Moreover, the fear of the richer that the poorer may share their wealth in the name of Arab nationalism, the feuds among Arab rulers, and the influence of external powers that might oppose Arab unity can be seen as obstacles towards a deeper integration of the league.Mindful of their previous announcements in support of the Arabs of Palestine the framers of the Pact were determined to include them within the League from its inauguration.Geddes, 1991, p. 208. This was done by means of an annex that declared:{{cquote|Even though Palestine was not able to control her own destiny, it was on the basis of the recognition of her independence that the Covenant of the League of Nations determined a system of government for her. Her existence and her independence among the nations can, therefore, no more be questioned de jure than the independence of any of the other Arab States. [...] Therefore, the States signatory to the Pact of the Arab League consider that in view of Palestine's special circumstances, the Council of the League should designate an Arab delegate from Palestine to participate in its work until this country enjoys actual independence}}At the Cairo Summit of 1964, the Arab League initiated the creation of an organisation representing the Palestinian people. The first Palestinian National Council convened in East Jerusalem on 29 May 1964. The Palestinian Liberation Organization was founded during this meeting on 2 June 1964. Palestine was shortly admitted in to the Arab League, represented by the PLO. Today, State of Palestine is a full member of the Arab League.At the Beirut Summit on 28 March 2002, the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative,WEB, Council of Arab States, The Arab Peace Initiative, 2002, al bab, 1 October 2005,weblink 9 July 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090604091304weblink">weblink 4 June 2009, a Saudi-inspired peace plan for the Arab–Israeli conflict. The initiative offered full normalisation of the relations with Israel. In exchange, Israel was required to withdraw from all occupied territories, including the Golan Heights, to recognise Palestinian independence in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, with East Jerusalem as its capital, as well as a "just solution" for the Palestinian refugees. The Peace Initiative was again endorsed at 2007 in the Riyadh Summit. In July 2007, the Arab League sent a mission, consisting of the Jordanian and Egyptian foreign ministers, to Israel to promote the initiative. Following Venezuela's move to expel Israeli diplomats amid the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict, Kuwaiti member of parliament Waleed Al-Tabtabaie proposed moving Arab League headquarters to Caracas, Venezuela.NEWS,weblink Kuwaiti MP calls to move Arab league to Venezuela, 16 January 2009, 15 January 2009, AFP, via CaribbeanNetNews, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090304230647weblink">weblink 4 March 2009, dmy-all, On 13 June 2010, Amr Mohammed Moussa, Secretary-General of the Arab League, visited the Gaza Strip, the first visit by an official of the Arab League since Hamas' armed takeover in 2007.In 2015, the Arab League voiced support for Saudi Arabian-led military intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011 uprising.NEWS,weblink Los Angeles Times, Arab League's joint military force is a 'defining moment' for region, 29 March 2015, Christina, Boyle, Zaid, al-Alayaa, On 15 April 2018, in response to the Turkish invasion of northern Syria aimed at ousting U.S.-backed Syrian Kurds from the enclave of Afrin, the Arab League passed a resolution calling on Turkish forces to withdraw from Afrin.NEWS, Turkey slams Arab League resolution on Afrin operation,weblink Yeni Safak, 18 April 2018, In September 2019, the Arab League condemned Benjamin Netanyahu's plans to annex the eastern portion of the occupied West Bank known as the Jordan Valley.NEWS, Arab nations condemn Netanyahu's Jordan Valley annexation plan,weblink BBC News, 11 September 2019, The Arab League met in Cairo on 12 October 2019 to discuss Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria. Upon meeting, it's member states voted to condemn the Turkish offensive, dubbing it both an 'invasion' and an 'aggression' against an Arab state, adding that the organization saw it as a violation of international law.NEWS,weblink Turkey's Syria offensive an 'invasion': Arab League secretary general, 2019-10-12, Reuters, en,

Summits

File:Arab League Summit Logo.png|right|thumb|350px|2013 Arab League Summit Logo]]{| class="wikitable sortable"! No. !! Date !! Host Country!!Host City1964 Arab League summit (Cairo)>1 13–17 January 1964 {{flag1958}} Cairo1964 Arab League summit (Alexandria)>2 5–11 September 1964 {{flag1958}} Alexandria1965 Arab League summit>3 13–17 September 1965 {{flag|Casablanca1967 Arab League summit>4 29 August 1967 {{flag|Khartoum1968 Arab League summit>5 21–23 December 1969 {{flag|Rabat1973 Arab League summit>6 26–28 November 1973 {{flag|Algiers1974 Arab League summit>7 29 October 1974 {{flag|Rabat1976 Arab League summit (Cairo)>8 25–26 October 1976 {{flag1972}} Cairo1978 Arab League summit>9 2–5 November 1978 {{flag1963}} Baghdad1979 Arab League summit>10 20–22 November 1979 {{flag|Tunis1980 Arab League summit>11 21–22 November 1980 {{flag|Amman1982 Arab League summit>12 6–9 September 1982 {{flagFez, Morocco>Fes1985 Arab League summit>13 1985 {{flag|Casablanca1987 Arab League summit>14 1987 {{flag|Amman1988 Arab League summit>15 June 1988 {{flag|Algiers1989 Arab League summit>16 1989 {{flag|Casablanca1990 Arab League summit>17 1990 {{flag1963}} Baghdad1996 Arab League summit>18 1996 {{flag|Cairo2001 Arab League summit>19 27–28 March 2001 {{flag|Amman2002 Arab League summit>20 27–28 March 2002 {{flag|Beirut2003 Arab League summit>21 1 March 2003 {{flag|Sharm el-Sheikh2004 Arab League summit>22 22–23 May 2004 {{flag|Tunis2005 Arab League summit>23 22–23 March 2005 {{flag|Algiers2006 Arab League summit>24 28–30 March 2006 {{flag|Khartoum2007 Arab League summit>25 27–28 March 2007 {{flag|Riyadh2008 Arab League summit>26 29–30 March 2008 {{flag|Damascus2009 Arab League summit>27 28–30 March 2009 {{flag|Doha2010 Arab League summit>28 27–28 March 2010 {{flag1977}} Sirte2012 Arab League summit>29 27–29 March 2012 {{flag|Baghdad2013 Arab League summit>30 21–27 March 2013 {{flag|DohaArab League Summit 2013. Qatarconferences.org (2013-03-27). Retrieved on 2014-04-28.2014 Arab League summit>31 25–26 March 2014 {{flag|Kuwait CityArab League summit hit by new rifts - Features. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved on 2014-04-28.2015 Arab League summit>32 28–29 March 2015 {{flag|Sharm El SheikhOpposition fail to get Syria Arab League seat - Middle East. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved on 2014-04-28.2016 Arab League summit>33 20 July 2016 {{flag|Nouakchott2017 Arab League summit>34 23–29 March 2017 {{flagAmmanHTTPS://WWW.ALARABIYA.NET/AR/ARAB-AND-WORLD/2016/11/02/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%B1%D8%AF%D9%86-%D9%8A%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%B6%D9%8A%D9%81-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D9%85%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D9%85%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%B3.HTMLWEBSITE=WWW.ALARABIYA.NET, 2018 Arab League summit>35 15 April 2018 {{flag|Dhahran2019 Arab League summit>36 April 2019 {{flag|Tunis weblink

Military

The Joint Defence Council of the Arab League is one of the Institutions of the Arab League.WEB, Arab-Israeli Wars: 60 Years of Conflict,weblink ABC-CLIO, 30 June 2014, It was established under the terms of the Joint Defence and Economic Co-operation Treaty of 1950 to coordinate the joint defence of the Arab League member states.BOOK, Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan, Edmund Osmańczyk, League of Arab States, Encyclopedia of the United Nations and international agreements, Mango, Anthony, 2, 3, 1290, New York, Routledge, 2003, The Arab League as an Organization has no military Force, like the UN or EU, but at the 2007 summit, the Leaders decided to reactivate their joint defense and establish a peacekeeping force to deploy in South Lebanon, Darfur, Iraq, and other hot spots.At a 2015 summit in Egypt, member nations agreed in principle to form a joint military force.NEWS,weblink Arab summit agrees on unified military force for crises, Reuters, 29 Mar 2015, ">

Emergency summits{| class"wikitable sortable"

! No. !! Date !! Host Country!!Host City1970 Arab League summit>1 21–27 September 1970 {{flag1958}} Cairo1976 Arab League summit (Riyadh)>2 17–28 October 1976 {{flag|RiyadhMorocco}} CasablancaJordan}} AmmanAlgeria}} AlgiersMorocco}} CasablancaIraq|BaghdadEgypt}} CairoEgypt}} CairoEgypt}} CairoSaudi Arabia}} Riyadh{{Div col|colwidth=30em}}
  • Two summits are not added to the system of Arab League summits:
    • Anshas, Egypt: 28–29 May 1946.
    • Beirut, Lebanon: 13 â€“ 15 November 1958.
  • Summit 14 in Fes, Morocco, occurred in two stages:
    • On 25 November 1981: the 5-hour meeting ended without an agreement on document.
    • On 6–9 September 1982.
{{colend}}

Economic resources

{{refimprove section|date=March 2016}}{{See also|List of countries by GDP (PPP)|List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita}}The Arab League is rich in resources, such as enormous oil and natural gas resources in certain member states. Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab League is telecommunications. Within less than a decade, local companies such as Orascom and Etisalat have managed to compete internationally.{{citation needed|date=November 2017}}Economic achievements initiated by the League amongst member states have been less impressive than those achieved by smaller Arab organisations such as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).WEB,weblink Reuters.com, Reuters, 20 November 2014, Among them is the Arab Gas Pipeline, that will transport Egyptian and Iraqi gas to Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey. As of 2013, a significant difference in economic conditions exist between the developed oil states of Algeria, Qatar, Kuwait and the UAE, and developing countries like Comoros, Djibouti, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan and Yemen.File:OAPEC Members.png|thumb|right|OAPECOAPECThe Arab League also includes great fertile lands in the southern part of Sudan. It is referred to as the food basket of the Arab World, the region's instability including the independence of South Sudan has not affected its tourism industry, that is considered the fastest growing industry in the region, with Egypt, UAE, Lebanon, Tunisia, and Jordan leading the way. Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab League is telecommunications.Economical achievements within members have been low in the league's history, other smaller Arab Organizations have achieved more than the league has, such as the GCC, but lately several major economic projects that are promising are to be completed, the Arab Gas Pipeline is to end by the year 2010, Connecting Egyptian and Iraqi Gas to Jordan, Syria and Lebanon, and then to Turkey thus Europe, a free trade Agreement (GAFTA) is to be completed by 1 January 2008, making 95% of all Arab Products tax free of customs.

Transport

The Arab League is divided into five parts when it comes to transport, with the Arabian Peninsula and the Near East being entirely connected by air, sea, roads and railways. Another part of the League is the Nile Valley, made up of Egypt and Sudan. These two member states have started to improve the River Nile's navigation system to improve accessibility and thus foster trading. A new railway system is also set to connect the southern Egyptian city of Abu Simbel with the northern Sudanese city of Wadi Halfa and then to Khartoum and Port Sudan. The third division of the League is the Maghreb, where a 3,000 km stretch of railway runs from the southern cities of Morocco to Tripoli in Western Libya. The fourth division of the League is the Horn of Africa, whose member states include Djibouti and Somalia. These two Arab League states are separated by only ten nautical miles from the Arabian Peninsula by the Bab el Mandeb and this is quickly changing as Tarik bin Laden, the brother of Osama bin Laden, has initiated the construction of the ambitious Bridge of the Horns project, which ultimately aims to connect the Horn of Africa with the Arabian Peninsula via a massive bridge. The project is intended to facilitate and accelerate the already centuries-old trade and commerce between the two regions. The last division of the League is the isolated island of Comoros, which is not physically connected to any other Arab state, but still trades with other League members.

Literacy in Arab league countries

(File:Arab literacy rate (2010).svg|thumb|Literacy rate in Arab World.)In collecting literacy data, many countries estimate the number of literate people based on self-reported data. Some use educational attainment data as a proxy, but measures of school attendance or grade completion may differ. Because definitions and data collection methods vary across countries, literacy estimates should be used with caution. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2010. It is also important to note that the Persian Gulf region has had an oil boom, enabling more schools and universities to be set up.{| class="sortable wikitable"! Rank !! Country !! Literacy rateQatar}} 97.3The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 2014-04-28. Palestine}} 96.5 Kuwait}} 96.3 Bahrain}} 95.7 Jordan}} 95.4 Saudi Arabia}} 94.4 Lebanon}} 93.9United Arab Emirates}} 93.8 Oman}} 91.1 Libya}} 91 Syria}} 86.4 Iraq}} 85.7 Tunisia}} 81.8 Comoros}} 81.8 Algeria}} 80.2 Sudan}} 75.9 Egypt}} 73.8 Yemen}} 70.1 Djibouti}} 70.0DK PUBLISHING>TITLE=COMPACT ATLAS OF THE WORLDPUBLISHER=PENGUINPAGE=138,weblink Morocco}} 68.5 Mauritania}} 52.1 Somalia}} 44–72FAMILY TIES: REMITTANCES AND LIVELIHOODS SUPPORT IN PUNTLAND AND SOMALILAND>URL=HTTP://WWW.FSNAU.ORG/DOWNLOADS/REMITTANCES-AND-LIVELIHOODS-SUPPORT-IN-PUNTLAND-AND-SOMALILAND.PDF#6ACCESSDATE=11 DECEMBER 2016,

Demographics

The Arab League is a culturally and ethnically one association of 22 member states, with the overwhelming majority of the League's population identified as Arab (on a cultural ethnoracial basis). As of July 1, 2013, about 359 million people live in the states of the Arab League. Its population grows faster than in most other global regions. The most populous member state is Egypt, with a population of about 91 million.WEB, Central Agency for Public Mobilization And Statistics,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110426052430weblink">weblink 26 April 2011, The least populated is the Comoros, with over 0.6 million inhabitants.{| style="font-size:95%; text-align:right;" class="wikitable sortable"! Rank !! Country !! Population !! Density (/km2) !! Density (sq mi) !! Notes{{flag{{#expr:(81650212 + 4241 * {{Age in days11/km2disp=table}} align=leftOfficial Egyptian Population clock {{webarchive >url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121030052148weblink |date=30 October 2012 }}{{flag{{#expr: 37100000 / 2381741 round 0}}0{{flag{{#expr: (32487860 + 923 * {{Age in days7/km2disp=table}} align=leftWEBSITE=SITE INSTITUTIONNEL DU HAUT-COMMISSARIAT AU PLAN DU ROYAUME DU MAROC, {{flag{{#expr: 31234000 / 438317 round 0}}0{{flag{{#expr: 30894000 / 1886068 round 0}}0HTTP://WWW.CBS.GOV.SD>TITLE=الجهاز المركزي للإحصاء, www.cbs.gov.sd, {{flag{{#expr: 25721000 / 2149690 round 0}}0{{flag{{#expr: 23580000 / 527968 round 0}}0{{flag{{#expr: 21906000 / 185180 round 0}}0{{flag{{#expr: 10673800 / 163610 round 0}}0HTTP://WWW.INS.NAT.TN/INDEXEN.PHP >TITLE=NATIONAL STATISTICS INSTITUTE OF TUNISIA URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=4 SEPTEMBER 2015, {{flag{{#expr: 11400000 / 637657 round 0}}0{{flag{{#expr: 6316000 / 89342 round 0}}0{{flag{{#expr: 8264070 / 83600 round 0}}0HTTP://WWW.ALITTIHAD.AE/DETAILS.PHP?ID=31500&Y=2011 >TITLE=المركز الوطني للإحصاء: المواطنون 947.9 ألفاً - جريدة الاتحاد ACCESSDATE=16 AUGUST 2011 ARCHIVEDATE= 19 JULY 2011, live, {{flag{{#expr: 6733620 / 1789540 round 1}}1HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/LY.HTML>TITLE=THE WORLD FACTBOOK, cia.gov, {{flag{{#expr: 4224000 / 10452 round 0}}0HTTPS://WWW.UN.ORG/ESA/POPULATION/PUBLICATIONS/WPP2008/WPP2008_TEXT_TABLES.PDF> TITLE=WORLD POPULATION PROSPECTS, TABLE A.1 VERSION=2008 REVISION PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS ACCESSDATE=22 SEPTEMBER 2010, {{flag{{#expr: 4550368 / 6020 round 0}}0ESTIMATED POPULATION IN THE PALESTINIAN TERRITORY MID-YEAR BY GOVERNORATE,1997-2016 >ACCESSDATE=8 JUNE 2014 URL=HTTP://WWW.PCBS.GOV.PS/PORTALS/_RAINBOW/DOCUMENTS/GOVER_E.HTM ARCHIVE-DATE=8 JUNE 2014 URL-STATUS=LIVE, dmy, {{flag{{#expr: 2845000 / 309500 round 1}}0{{flag{{#expr: 3291000 / 1025520 round 1}}1{{flag{{#expr: 3566437 / 17818 round 0}}0{{flag{{#expr: 1699435 / 11000 round 0}}0{{flag{{#expr: 1234596 / 750 round 0}}0Bahraini Census 2010 - تعداد السكــان العام للبحريــن 2010 {{Webarchiveweblink >date=20 March 2012 }}. Census2010.gov.bh. Retrieved on 2014-04-28.{{flag{{#expr: 864000 / 23200 round 0}}0{{flag{{#expr: 691000 / 2235 round 0}}0 class="sortbottom"Total >{{flag 412,972,397 >{{#expr: 400625486 / 13181059 round 1}} >{{#expr: 400625486 / 13181059 round 1}}/sqmidisp=output number only}}'''|
  • Syrian demographics are before the Syrian civil war.

Religion

The majority of the Arab League's citizens adhere to Islam, with Christianity being the second largest religion. At least 15 million Christians combined live in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Sudan and Syria. In addition, there are smaller but significant numbers of Druze, Yazidis, Shabaks and Mandaeans. Numbers for nonreligious Arabs are generally not available, but research by the Pew Forum suggests around 1% of people in the MENA region are "unaffiliated".WEB,weblink Religious Diversity Around The World – Pew Research Center, 4 April 2014, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project,

Linguistics

The official language of the Arab League is Literary Arabic, based on Classical Arabic. However, several Arab League member states have other co-official or national languages, such as Somali, Afar, Comorian, French, English, Berber and Kurdish. In most countries, there is a dominant non-codified spoken Arabic dialect.

Culture

Sports

The Pan Arab Games are considered the biggest Arab sporting event, which brings together athletes from all the Arab countries to participate in a variety of different sports.The Union of Arab Football Associations organises the Arab Nations Cup (for national teams) and the Arab Club Champions Cup (for clubs). Arab sport federations also exist for several games, include basketball, volleyball, handball, table tennis, tennis, squash and swimming.{{citation needed|date=September 2014}}

See also

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References

{{reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Wikisource|Arab League Pact}}{{Commons|League of Arab States}} {{Arab League |expanded}}{{Regional organizations}}{{Countries and languages lists}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2012}}{{Authority control}}

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