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App Store (iOS)
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{{about||the macOS version of the app store|App Store (macOS)|the general concept|App store}}{{pp|vandalism|small=yes}}{{Use mdy dates|date=February 2017}}







factoids
The App Store is a digital distribution platform, developed and maintained by Apple Inc., for mobile apps on its iOS operating system. The store allows users to browse and download apps developed with Apple's iOS software development kit. Apps can be downloaded on the iPhone smartphone, the iPod Touch handheld computer, or the iPad tablet computer, and some can be transferred to the Apple Watch smartwatch or 4th-generation or newer Apple TVs as extensions of iPhone apps.The App Store was opened on July 10, 2008, with an initial 500 applications available. {{As of|2017|}}, the store features over 2.1 million apps.Developers have multiple options for monetizing their applications, ranging from free, free with in-app purchases, and paid. However, App Store has been criticized for a lackluster development environment, prompting the company in June 2016 to announce a "renewed focus and energy" on the store. Major changes introduced in the following months include ads in search results, a new app subscription model, and the ability for developers to respond to customer reviews. Additionally, Apple began a process to remove old apps that do not function as intended or that don't follow current app guidelines, with app research firms noticing significant numbers of app removals from the store. Furthermore, with the release of iOS 11 in September 2017, App Store received a complete design overhaul, bringing a greater focus on editorial content and daily highlights, as well as a design similar in style to several of Apple's built-in iOS apps.

History

(File:Download on iTunes.svg|thumb|Download on the App Store badge as of 2017)The iPhone App Store opened on July 10, 2008.WEB, Apple's App Store launches with more than 500 apps,weblink AppleInsider, July 10, 2008, March 31, 2017, WEB, Christina, Bonnington, 5 Years On, the App Store Has Forever Changed the Face of Software,weblink Wired (website), Wired, Condé Nast, July 10, 2013, March 31, 2017, On July 11, the iPhone 3G was released and came pre-loaded with support for App Store.WEB, Apple Introduces the New iPhone 3G,weblink Apple Press Info, Apple Inc., June 9, 2008, March 31, 2017, WEB, Paul, Miller, iPhone 3G is finally official, starts at $199, available July 11th,weblink Engadget, AOL, June 9, 2008, March 31, 2017, After the success of Apple's App Store and the launch of similar services by its competitors, the term "app store" has been adopted to refer to any similar service for mobile devices.WEB, Sinead, Carew, In app store war, BlackBerry, Google hold own,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, April 22, 2009, March 31, 2017, WEB, Roy, Furchgott, Nokia’s App Store Launches With a Hiccup,weblink The New York Times, May 29, 2009, March 31, 2017, WEB, Priya, Ganapati, BlackBerry App Store Gets a Name,weblink Wired (website), Wired, Condé Nast, March 4, 2009, March 31, 2017, However, Apple applied for a U.S. trademark on the term "App Store" in 2008,WEB, Larry, Dignan, Apple's App Store and a little trademark history,weblink ZDNet, CBS Interactive, March 22, 2011, March 31, 2017, which was tentatively approved in early 2011.WEB, Peter, Pachal, How Apple Can Trademark 'App Store',weblink PC Magazine, Ziff Davis, April 1, 2011, March 31, 2017, In June 2011, U.S. District Judge Phyllis Hamilton, who was presiding over Apple's case against Amazon, said she would "probably" deny Apple's motion to stop Amazon from using the "App Store" name.WEB, Josh, Lowensohn, Judge likely to deny Apple's 'Appstore' complaint,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, June 22, 2011, March 31, 2017, WEB, Joel, Rosenblatt, Karen, Gullo, Apple Bid to Bar Amazon ‘Appstore’ Will ‘Likely’ Be Denied,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110624211650weblink">weblink Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg L.P., June 22, 2011, June 24, 2011, March 31, 2017, WEB, Dan, Levine, Poornima, Gupta, Apple may have tough road in Amazon lawsuit,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, June 22, 2011, March 31, 2017, In July, Apple was denied preliminary injunction against Amazon's Appstore by a federal judge.WEB, Chris, Foresman, Apple denied preliminary injunction against Amazon’s "Appstore",weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, July 7, 2011, March 31, 2017, The term app has become a popular buzzword; in January 2011, app was awarded the honor of being 2010's "Word of the Year" by the American Dialect Society.WEB, “App” voted 2010 word of the year by the American Dialect Society (UPDATED),weblink American Dialect Society, January 7, 2011, April 1, 2017, WEB, Cody, Fink, App Is 2010’s Word Of The Year,weblink MacStories, January 13, 2011, April 1, 2017, "App" has been used as shorthand for "application" since at least the mid-1990s,WEB, Oracle gets NC religion,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, February 27, 1996, April 1, 2017, and in product names since at least 2006, for example then-named Google Apps.WEB, Google Launches Hosted Communications Services,weblink News from Google, Google, August 28, 2006, April 1, 2017, Apple announced Mac App Store, a similar app distribution platform for its macOS personal computer operating system, in October 2010,WEB, Ina, Fried, Apple unveils new MacBook Airs, previews Lion,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, October 20, 2010, April 1, 2017, WEB, Ross, Miller, Mac App Store for OS X 10.6 and 10.7 unveiled, coming 'within 90 days',weblink Engadget, AOL, October 20, 2010, April 1, 2017, with the official launch taking place in January 2011 with the release of its 10.6.6 "Snow Leopard" update.WEB, The Mac App Store: What you need to know,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, January 6, 2011, April 1, 2017, WEB, Apple’s Mac App Store Opens for Business,weblink Apple Press Info, Apple Inc., January 6, 2011, April 1, 2017, In February 2013, Apple informed developers that they could begin using appstore.com for links to their apps.WEB, Owen, Thomas, Apple Does Not Want You To Visit Appstore.com,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, February 4, 2013, April 1, 2017, WEB, Sarah, Perez, Apple Debuts New AppStore.com Vanity URLs For Developers During Super Bowl,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, February 3, 2013, April 1, 2017, WEB, Chris, Foresman, Apple debuts new AppStore.com URLs during Super Bowl 47,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, February 4, 2013, April 1, 2017, In June at its developer conference, Apple announced an upcoming "Kids" section in App Store, a new section featuring apps categorized by age range, and the section was launched alongside the release of iOS 7 in September 2013.WEB, Sarah, Perez, Introducing Apple’s New "Kids" App Store,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, September 22, 2013, April 1, 2017, WEB, Sarah, Guarino, App Store makes it easier for parents to find apps for their children with new Kids Category in iOS 7,weblink 9to5Mac, September 19, 2013, April 1, 2017, In November 2014, due to pressure from the European Commission, Apple updated App Store so that all apps that have no charge to download are labeled "Get" instead of the previous "Free", due to many "free" apps' inclusions of paid in-app purchases.WEB, Sarah, Perez, Apple Relabels "Free" Download Buttons On iTunes And Mac App Store To "Get" Following Pressure from EC,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, November 19, 2014, April 1, 2017, WEB, Juli, Clover, Apple Replaces 'Free' Purchase Button Labeling With 'Get' in App Store,weblink MacRumors, November 19, 2014, April 1, 2017, WEB, Matt, Brian, Why App Store apps are now labeled 'Get' instead of 'Free',weblink Engadget, AOL, November 20, 2014, April 1, 2017, In January 2017, reports surfaced that documentation for a new beta for the then-upcoming release of iOS 10.3 detailed that Apple would let developers respond to customer reviews in the App Store, marking a significant change from the previous limitation, which prevented developers from communicating with users.WEB, Sarah, Perez, Apple will finally let developers respond to App Store reviews,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, January 24, 2017, March 29, 2017, WEB, Benjamin, Mayo, Apple will let developers reply to reviews in the App Store soon, for iOS and Mac apps,weblink 9to5Mac, January 24, 2017, March 29, 2017, The functionality was officially enabled on March 27, 2017 when iOS 10.3 was released to users.WEB, Juli, Clover, Apple Releases iOS 10.3 With Find My AirPods, APFS, App Store Review Tweaks and More,weblink MacRumors, March 27, 2017, March 29, 2017, Further details were also released about reviews for users, including that they will be able to rate and review apps in the apps themselves rather than being redirected to the App Store, and that they can mark other users' reviews as "Helpful" or "Not Helpful".WEB, Sarah, Perez, Developers can finally respond to App Store reviews – here’s how it works,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, March 28, 2017, March 29, 2017, Apple published a document describing proper ways to respond for developers, including being timely, clear and concise, prioritize certain forms of reviews (low-star ratings, certain countries or recent reviews) through filtering in iTunes Connect, and that developer responses go through an approval process before being published. Developers are also forbidden from manipulating or incenting feedback. Developer responses are listed in the App Store as a line underneath the respective user's review, and users receive a notification/email upon a response from the respective developer, with the option to update their review.WEB, Chance, Miller, Apple details new App Store ratings and review responses on iOS 10.3 for developers,weblink 9to5Mac, March 27, 2017, March 29, 2017, In March 2017, App Store submissions containing pricing details, such as "free", in the name started getting rejected. Developers had previously been advised in developer guides in iTunes Connect and App Store overview pages that they should refrain from the practice, though apps were still approved. Starting in March, some (though not all) apps with "free" in their titles were being rejected.WEB, Jordan, Novet, Apple now rejects App Store submissions when the name includes the price,weblink VentureBeat, March 28, 2017, April 19, 2017, WEB, Juli, Clover, Apple Rejecting Apps With Pricing Info Like 'Free' in App Title,weblink MacRumors, March 28, 2017, April 19, 2017, In October 2016, in an effort to improve app discoverability, Apple rolled out the ability for developers to purchase advertising spots in App Store to users in the United States.WEB, Tim, Hardwick, Ads Now Appearing in App Store Search Results for U.S. Users,weblink MacRumors, October 6, 2016, December 6, 2017, The ads, shown at the top of the search results,WEB, James, Vincent, Apple starts showing ads in App Store search results,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, October 6, 2016, December 6, 2017, WEB, Jordan, Novet, Apple starts showing App Store search ads in the U.S.,weblink VentureBeat, October 5, 2016, December 6, 2017, are based strictly on relevant keywords, and are not used to create profiles on users. Apple expanded search ads to the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand in April 2017, along with more configurable advertising settings for developers.WEB, Greg, Barbosa, App Store Search Ads expand internationally with new campaign tools,weblink 9to5Mac, April 19, 2017, December 6, 2017, WEB, Mikey, Campbell, Apple to expand Search Ads to three international markets, debuts new management tools,weblink AppleInsider, April 19, 2017, December 6, 2017, Search ads were expanded to Canada, Mexico and Switzerland in October 2017.WEB, Michael, Potuck, App Store Search Ads go live today in Canada, Mexico, and Switzerland,weblink 9to5Mac, October 10, 2017, December 6, 2017, In December 2017, Apple revamped its search ads program to offer two distinctive versions; "Search Ads Basic" is a pay-per-install program aimed at smaller developers, in which they only pay when users actually install their app. Search Ads Basic also features an easier setup process and a restricted monthly budget. "Search Ads Advanced" is a new name given to the older method, in which developers have to pay whenever users tap on their apps in search results, along with unlimited monthly budgets. At launch, the Basic program is only available in the U.S., with international rollout expected "sometime next year".WEB, Sarah, Perez, Apple introduces a new pay-per-install ad product called Search Ads Basic,weblink TechCrunch, Oath Inc., December 5, 2017, December 6, 2017, WEB, Juli, Clover, Apple Adds New 'Search Ads Basic' Ad Option for Developers,weblink MacRumors, December 5, 2017, December 6, 2017, Apple also offers an iTunes Affiliate Program, which lets people refer others to apps and other iTunes content, along with in-app purchases, for a percentage of sales. The commission rate for in-app purchases was reduced from 7% to 2.5% in May 2017, while affiliate rates for paid apps, music, movies, books, and TV shows remained at 7%.WEB, Apple confirms reduced App Store affiliate commission rates apply to in-app purchases,weblink AppleInsider, May 8, 2017, May 9, 2017, WEB, Chance, Miller, Apple clarifies iTunes affiliate changes: apps stay at 7% & in-app purchases fall to 2.5%,weblink 9to5Mac, May 7, 2017, May 9, 2017, App Store received a major design overhaul with the release of iOS 11. The new design features a greater focus on editorial content and daily highlights, and introduces a "cleaner and more consistent and colorful look" similar to several of Apple's built-in iOS apps.WEB, James, Vincent, Nick, Statt, Apple unveils redesigned App Store with an all-new way to find apps and games,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, June 5, 2017, June 6, 2017, WEB, Mitchel, Broussard, Apple Reveals Redesigned App Store for iOS 11 With Design Similar to Apple Music,weblink MacRumors, June 5, 2017, June 6, 2017, WEB, Sarah, Perez, Apple introduces a completely redesigned App Store,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, June 5, 2017, June 6, 2017, Prior to September 2017, Apple offered a way for users to manage their iOS app purchases through the iTunes computer software. In September, version 12.7 of iTunes was released, removing the App Store section in the process.WEB, Chris, Welch, Apple starts cutting the bloat from iTunes by removing iOS App Store,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, September 12, 2017, December 16, 2017, WEB, Jake, Smith, Apple's iTunes removes iOS App Store from desktop version,weblink ZDNet, CBS Interactive, September 13, 2017, December 16, 2017, However, the following month, iTunes 12.6.3 was also released, retaining the App Store, with 9to5Mac noting that the secondary release was positioned by Apple as "necessary for some businesses performing internal app deployments".WEB, Benjamin, Mayo, Apple still offers an iTunes version with App Store, Ringtones and other features removed in ‘focused’ iTunes 12.7,weblink 9to5Mac, October 9, 2017, December 16, 2017, WEB, Tim, Hardwick, Apple Quietly Releases iTunes 12.6.3 With Built-In App Store,weblink MacRumors, October 9, 2017, December 16, 2017, In December 2017, Apple announced that developers could offer applications for pre-order, letting them make apps visible in the store between 2–90 days ahead of release.WEB, Chance, Miller, App Store now lets any developer make apps available for pre-order,weblink 9to5Mac, December 11, 2017, December 12, 2017, WEB, Juli, Clover, Apple Now Allowing Developers to Offer App Pre-Orders,weblink MacRumors, December 11, 2017, December 12, 2017, On January 4, 2018, Apple announced that the App Store had a record-breaking holiday season according to a new press release. During the week starting on Christmas Eve, a record number of customers made App Store purchases, spending more than $890 million in that seven-day period. On New Year's Day 2018 alone, customers made $300 million in purchases.NEWS,weblink App Store kicks off 2018 with record-breaking holiday season, Apple Newsroom, 2018-01-05, en-US,

Development and monetization

iOS SDK

The iOS SDK (Software Development Kit) allows for the development of mobile apps on iOS.While originally developing iPhone prior to its unveiling in 2007, Apple's then-CEO Steve Jobs did not intend to let third-party developers build native apps for iOS, instead directing them to make web applications for the Safari web browser.WEB, Jobs’ original vision for the iPhone: No third-party native apps,weblink 9to5Mac, October 21, 2011, June 21, 2017, However, backlash from developers prompted the company to reconsider, with Jobs announcing in October 2007 that Apple would have a software development kit available for developers by February 2008.WEB, Geoff, Duncan, Apple confirms iPhone SDK coming next year,weblink Digital Trends, October 17, 2007, June 21, 2017, WEB, Steve Jobs confirms native iPhone SDK by February,weblink AppleInsider, October 17, 2007, June 21, 2017, The SDK was released on March 6, 2008.WEB, Jim, Dalrymple, Apple unveils iPhone SDK,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, March 6, 2008, June 21, 2017, WEB, Ryan, Block, Ryan Block, Live from Apple's iPhone SDK press conference,weblink Engadget, AOL, March 6, 2008, June 21, 2017, The SDK is a free download for users of Mac personal computers.WEB, Jennifer, Guevin, FAQ: What does the iPhone SDK mean?,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, March 6, 2008, June 21, 2017, It is not available for Microsoft Windows PCs. The SDK contains sets giving developers access to various functions and services of iOS devices, such as hardware and software attributes.WEB, Arnold, Kim, Apple Releases iPhone SDK, Demos Spore, Instant Messaging,weblink MacRumors, March 6, 2008, June 21, 2017, It also contains an iPhone simulator to mimic the look and feel of the device on the computer while developing. New versions of the SDK accompany new versions of iOS.WEB, Benjamin, Mayo, Apple now allowing developers to submit iOS 9, OS X El Capitan and native Watch apps to the App Store,weblink 9to5Mac, September 11, 2015, June 21, 2017, WEB, Steven, Sande, New iOS SDK features for developers,weblink Engadget, AOL, June 10, 2013, June 21, 2017, In order to test applications, get technical support, and distribute apps through App Store, developers are required to subscribe to the Apple Developer Program.Combined with Xcode, the iOS SDK helps developers write iOS apps using officially supported programming languages, including Swift and Objective-C.WEB, Adam, Sinicki, Developing for Android vs developing for iOS – in 5 rounds,weblink Android Authority, June 9, 2016, June 21, 2017, Other companies have also created tools that allow for the development of native iOS apps using their respective programming languages.WEB, Ryan, Paul, MonoTouch drops .NET into Apple’s walled app garden,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, September 15, 2009, June 21, 2017, WEB, Jackie, Dove, Adobe unleashes Creative Suite 5,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, April 11, 2010, June 21, 2017,

Monetization

To publish apps on App Store, developers must pay a $99 yearly fee for access to Apple's Developer Program.WEB, Tim, Mackenzie, App store fees, percentages, and payouts: What developers need to know,weblink TechRepublic, CBS Interactive, May 7, 2012, December 21, 2017, WEB, Blair Henry, Frank, Apple frees casual iOS developers of membership requirement,weblink PC World, International Data Group, June 8, 2015, December 21, 2017, Apple has announced that, in the United States in 2018, it will waive the fee for nonprofit organizations and governments.WEB, Dieter, Bohn, Apple will waive developer fees for nonprofits and governments in 2018,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, December 20, 2017, December 21, 2017, Developers have a few options for monetizing their applications. The "Free Model" enables free apps, increasing likelihood of engagement. The "Freemium Model" makes the app download free, but users are offered optional additional features in-app that require payments. The "Subscription Model" enables ongoing monetization through renewable transactions. The "Paid Model" makes the app itself a paid download and offers no additional features. The "Paymium Model" enables paid app downloads and paid in-app content.WEB, Choosing a Business Model,weblink Apple Developer, Apple Inc., June 27, 2017, In-app subscriptions were originally introduced for magazines, newspapers and music apps in February 2011, giving developers 70% of revenue earned and Apple 30%. Publishers could also sell digital subscriptions through their website, bypassing Apple's fees, but were not allowed to advertise their website alternative through the apps themselves.WEB, Josh, Halliday, Apple launches subscription service for magazines, newspapers and music,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, February 15, 2011, March 29, 2017, WEB, David, Chartier, Apple launches long-awaited subscriptions for App Store,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, February 15, 2011, March 29, 2017, In 2016, multiple media outlets reported that apps had decreased significantly in popularity. Recode wrote that "The app boom is over",WEB, Peter, Kafka, The app boom is over,weblink Recode, Vox Media, June 8, 2016, June 27, 2017, an editorial in TechCrunch stated that "The air of hopelessness that surrounds the mobile app ecosystem is obvious and demoralizing",WEB, Alex, Austin, The Apple App Store graveyard,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, June 21, 2016, June 27, 2017, and The Verge wrote that "the original App Store model of selling apps for a buck or two looks antiquated".WEB, Casey, Newton, Life and death in the App Store,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, March 2, 2016, June 27, 2017, Issues included consumer "boredom", a lack of app discoverability, and, as stated by a report from 2014, a lack of new app downloads among smartphone users.WEB, Dan, Frommer, Most smartphone users download zero apps per month,weblink Quartz (publication), Quartz, Atlantic Media, August 22, 2014, June 27, 2017, In an interview with The Verge in June 2016, Phil Schiller, Apple's senior vice president of Worldwide Marketing, said that Apple had a "renewed focus and energy" on the App Store, and announced multiple significant changes, including advertisements in search results and a new app subscription model. The subscription model saw the firmly established 70/30 revenue split between developers and Apple change into a new 85/15 revenue split if a user stays subscribed to the developer's app for a year, and opens the possibility of subscriptions to all apps, not just select categories.WEB, Lauren, Goode, App Store 2.0,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, June 8, 2016, March 29, 2017, WEB, Juli, Clover, Apple Announces Major App Store Changes Including New Subscription Terms and Search Ads,weblink MacRumors, June 8, 2016, March 29, 2017, App data and insights analyst company App Annie released a report in October 2016, announcing that China had overtaken the United States as Apple's biggest market in App Store revenue. In the third quarter of 2016, Chinese users spent $1.7 billion vs. approximately $1.5 billion by American users.WEB, Sarah, Perez, China overtakes the U.S. in iOS App Store revenue,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, October 20, 2016, June 27, 2017, WEB, Mitchel, Broussard, China 'Shatters' Records and Overtakes U.S. in App Store Revenue by 15% Margin,weblink MacRumors, October 21, 2016, June 27, 2017, In June 2017, Apple announced that App Store had generated over $70 billion in revenue for developers since its 2008 launch.WEB, Joe, Rossignol, Apple Says Developers Have Earned Over $70 Billion From App Store Since It Launched,weblink MacRumors, June 1, 2017, June 2, 2017, WEB, Ingrid, Lunden, Apple passes $70B in app developer payouts, led by games and entertainment,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, June 1, 2017, June 2, 2017,

Number of iOS applications

On July 10, 2008, Apple's then-CEO Steve Jobs told USA Today that App Store contained 500 third-party applications for the iPhone and the iPod Touch, and of these 25 percent were free. Ten million applications were downloaded the first weekend. By September, the number of available apps had increased to 3,000, with over 100 million downloads.(File:AppleAppStoreStatistics.png|thumb|alt=Chart showing App Store downloads and available apps over time.|300px|App Store app availability has increased in line with downloads over time.)Over the years, the store has surpassed multiple major milestones, including 50,000, 100,000, 250,000, 500,000, 1 million, and 2 million apps. The billionth application was downloaded on April 24, 2009.{| class="wikitable"! Date! Available apps! Downloads to date| July 11, 2008TITLE=JOBS: APP STORE LAUNCHING WITH 500 IPHONE APPLICATIONS, 25% FREE WEBSITE=ENGADGET AOL >DATE=JULY 10, 2008, March 29, 2017, | 0| July 14, 2008WEBSITE=APPLE PRESS INFO APPLE INC. >DATE=JULY 14, 2008 TITLE=APPLE: ONE MILLION IPHONES SOLD, 10 MILLION APP STORE DOWNLOADS IN FIRST WEEKEND WEBSITE=CNET CBS INTERACTIVE >DATE=JULY 15, 2008, March 31, 2017, | 10,000,000| September 9, 2008WEBSITE=APPLE PRESS INFO APPLE INC. >DATE=SEPTEMBER 9, 2008, March 29, 2017, | 100,000,000| January 16, 2009TITLE=IPHONE APP STORE BREEZES PAST 500 MILLION DOWNLOADS WEBSITE=THE REGISTER DATE=JANUARY 16, 2009, March 29, 2017, | 500,000,000| March 17, 2009TITLE=APPLE OPENS UP MORE WAYS TO GET PAID ON THE IPHONE, ADDS KEY NEW FEATURES. APPS HIT 800 MILLION DOWNLOADS. WEBSITE=TECHCRUNCH AOL >DATE=MARCH 17, 2009, March 29, 2017, | 800,000,000| April 24, 2009WEBSITE=APPLE PRESS INFO APPLE INC. >DATE=APRIL 24, 2009, March 29, 2017, | 1,000,000,000| June 8, 2009TITLE=STATE OF THE IPHONE ECOSYSTEM: 40 MILLION DEVICES AND 50,000 APPS WEBSITE=TECHCRUNCH AOL >DATE=JUNE 8, 2009, March 29, 2017, | 1,000,000,000+| July 14, 2009| 50,000TITLE=APPLE'S APP STORE CROSSES THE 1.5 BILLION DOWNLOAD MARK WEBSITE=ENGADGET AOL >DATE=JULY 14, 2009, March 29, 2017, | September 28, 2009WEBSITE=APPLE PRESS INFO APPLE INC. >DATE=SEPTEMBER 28, 2009 WEBSITE=APPLEINSIDER ACCESSDATE=MARCH 29, 2017, | 2,000,000,000| November 4, 2009WEBSITE=MACRUMORS ACCESSDATE=MARCH 29, 2017, APPLE ANNOUNCES OVER 100,000 APPS NOW AVAILABLE ON THE APP STORE >URL=HTTPS://WWW.APPLE.COM/PR/LIBRARY/2009/11/04APPLE-ANNOUNCES-OVER-100-000-APPS-NOW-AVAILABLE-ON-THE-APP-STORE.HTML PUBLISHER=APPLE INC. ACCESSDATE=MARCH 29, 2017, | 2,000,000,000+| January 5, 2010| 140,000+TITLE=APPLE ANNOUNCES 3 BILLION APP STORE DOWNLOADS WEBSITE=MACRUMORS ACCESSDATE=MARCH 29, 2017, APPLE’S APP STORE DOWNLOADS TOP THREE BILLION >URL=HTTPS://WWW.APPLE.COM/PR/LIBRARY/2010/01/05APPLES-APP-STORE-DOWNLOADS-TOP-THREE-BILLION.HTML PUBLISHER=APPLE INC. ACCESSDATE=MARCH 29, 2017, | February 12, 2010TITLE=APP STORE NOW HAS 150,000 APPS. GREAT NEWS FOR THE IPAD: PAID BOOKS RULE. WEBSITE=TECHCRUNCH AOL >DATE=FEBRUARY 12, 2010, March 29, 2017, | 3,000,000,000+| June 7, 2010WEBSITE=APPLEINSIDER ACCESSDATE=MARCH 29, 2017, | 5,000,000,000+| August 28, 2010TITLE=APPLE’S APP STORE NOW FEATURES 250,000 APPS WEBSITE=THE NEXT WEB ACCESSDATE=MARCH 29, 2017, PHILIP >LAST=ELMER-DEWITT URL=HTTP://FORTUNE.COM/2010/08/28/APPLE-APP-STORE-250000-AND-COUNTING/ FORTUNE (MAGAZINE)>FORTUNE TIME INC. >DATE=AUGUST 28, 2010, March 29, 2017, | 5,000,000,000+| September 1, 2010| 250,000+TITLE=JOBS: 6.5 BILLION APPS DOWNLOADED FROM THE APP STORE WEBSITE=TECHCRUNCH AOL >DATE=SEPTEMBER 1, 2010, March 29, 2017, | October 20, 2010TITLE=JOBS SPEAKS! THE COMPLETE TRANSCRIPT WEBSITE=MACWORLD INTERNATIONAL DATA GROUP >DATE=OCTOBER 18, 2010, March 29, 2017, TITLE=APP STORE HITS 7 BILLION DOWNLOADS WEBSITE=TECHCRUNCH AOL >DATE=OCTOBER 20, 2010, March 30, 2017, | January 22, 2011WEBSITE=APPLE PRESS INFO APPLE INC. >DATE=JANUARY 22, 2011, March 30, 2017, TITLE=APPLE REACHES 10 BILLION DOWNLOADS ON THE IOS APP STORE WEBSITE=APPLEINSIDER ACCESSDATE=APRIL 19, 2017, | July 7, 2011TITLE=APPLE'S APP STORE CROSSES 15B APP DOWNLOADS, ADDS 1B DOWNLOADS IN PAST MONTH WEBSITE=TECHCRUNCH AOL >DATE=JULY 7, 2011 WEBSITE=APPLE PRESS INFO APPLE INC. >DATE=JULY 7, 2011, March 30, 2017, | 15,000,000,000+| October 4, 2011TITLE=MORE THAN 18 BILLION APPS DOWNLOADED FROM APP STORE WEBSITE=ENGADGET AOL >DATE=OCTOBER 4, 2011 TITLE=APPLE HAS SOLD OVER 250M IOS DEVICES, 18 BILLION APPS WEBSITE=VENTUREBEAT ACCESSDATE=MARCH 31, 2017, | 18,000,000,000+| March 2, 2012| 500,000+TITLE=APPLE'S APP STORE REACHES 25 BILLION DOWNLOADS, NOW ON PACE FOR 15 BILLION APPS PER YEAR WEBSITE=MACRUMORS ACCESSDATE=MARCH 31, 2017, | June 11, 2012TITLE=APPLE: 30B APPS DOWNLOADED, 400M APP STORE ACCOUNTS SET UP WEBSITE=CNET CBS INTERACTIVE >DATE=JUNE 11, 2012, March 31, 2017, | 30,000,000,000+| September 12, 2012TITLE=IOS APP STORE BOASTS 700K APPS, 90% DOWNLOADED EVERY MONTH WEBSITE=TECHCRUNCH AOL >DATE=SEPTEMBER 12, 2012, March 31, 2017, | 30,000,000,000+| January 7, 2013TITLE=APPLE APP STORE SURPASSES 40 BILLION DOWNLOADS WEBSITE=TOM'S HARDWARE PURCH GROUP >DATE=JANUARY 8, 2013, April 19, 2017, TITLE=APPLE APP STORE: 40B DOWNLOADS AND COUNTING; 2B+ IN DECEMBER, ~20B IN 2012 WEBSITE=TECHCRUNCH AOL >DATE=JANUARY 7, 2013 WEBSITE=APPLE PRESS INFO APPLE INC. >DATE=JANUARY 7, 2013, March 31, 2017, | January 28, 2013WEBSITE=APPLE PRESS INFO APPLE INC. >DATE=JANUARY 28, 2013, March 31, 2017, | 40,000,000,000+|April 24, 2013| 800,000+TITLE=APPLE HAS PAID OUT $9 BILLION TO DEVELOPERS; APP STORE DOWNLOADS REACH 45 BILLION WEBSITE=ENGADGET AOL >DATE=APRIL 24, 2013, March 31, 2017, |May 16, 2013WEBSITE=APPLE PRESS INFO APPLE INC. >DATE=MAY 16, 2013, March 31, 2017, TITLE=APPLE HITS 50 BILLION APPS SERVED WEBSITE=WIRED (WEBSITE) >PUBLISHER=CONDé NAST ACCESSDATE=MARCH 31, 2017, JOSH >LAST=LOWENSOHN URL=HTTPS://WWW.CNET.COM/NEWS/APPLES-APP-STORE-DOWNLOADS-HIT-50-BILLION/ CNET >PUBLISHER=CBS INTERACTIVE ACCESSDATE=MARCH 31, 2017, |June 10, 2013TITLE=APPLE’S APP STORE HITS 50 BILLION DOWNLOADS, 900K APPS, $10 BILLION PAID TO DEVELOPERS; ITUNES NOW WITH 575M ACCOUNTS WEBSITE=TECHCRUNCH AOL >DATE=JUNE 10, 2013 TITLE=APPLE APP STORE REACHES 900 000 APPS WEBSITE=PHONEARENA ACCESSDATE=MARCH 31, 2017, | 50,000,000,000+|October 22, 2013TITLE=APPLE ANNOUNCES 1 MILLION APPS IN THE APP STORE, MORE THAN 1 BILLION SONGS PLAYED ON ITUNES RADIO WEBSITE=THE VERGE VOX MEDIA >DATE=OCTOBER 22, 2013 TITLE=APPLE APP STORE HITS 60 BILLION CUMULATIVE DOWNLOADS WEBSITE=ENGADGET AOL >DATE=OCTOBER 22, 2013, April 19, 2017, | 60,000,000,000+|June 2, 2014TITLE=ITUNES APP STORE NOW HAS 1.2 MILLION APPS, HAS SEEN 75 BILLION DOWNLOADS TO DATE WEBSITE=TECHCRUNCH AOL >DATE=JUNE 2, 2014, March 31, 2017, | 75,000,000,000+|September 9, 2014TITLE=THE APP STORE NOW BOASTS 1.3 MILLION IOS APPS WEBSITE=THE NEXT WEB ACCESSDATE=MARCH 31, 2017, SARAH >LAST=PEREZ URL=HTTPS://TECHCRUNCH.COM/2014/09/09/ITUNES-APP-STORE-REACHES-1-3-MILLION-MOBILE-APPLICATIONS/ TECHCRUNCH >PUBLISHER=AOL ACCESSDATE=MARCH 31, 2017, | 75,000,000,000+|January 8, 2015TITLE=APPLE'S APP STORE DEVELOPER REVENUE HITS $25BN AS APPLE TOUTS JOB CREATION WEBSITE=ZDNET CBS INTERACTIVE >DATE=JANUARY 8, 2015 WEBSITE=APPLE PRESS INFO APPLE INC. >DATE=JANUARY 8, 2015, March 31, 2017, | 75,000,000,000+|June 8, 2015TITLE=ITUNES APP STORE PASSES 1.5M APPS, 100B DOWNLOADS, $30B PAID TO DEVELOPERS TO DATE WEBSITE=TECHCRUNCH AOL >DATE=JUNE 8, 2015, March 31, 2017, TITLE=APPLE'S APP STORE HAS PASSED 100 BILLION APP DOWNLOADS WEBSITE=THE VERGE VOX MEDIA >DATE=JUNE 8, 2015 TITLE=APP STORE SURPASSES 100 BILLION LIFETIME DOWNLOADS WEBSITE=MACRUMORS ACCESSDATE=MARCH 31, 2017, |June 13, 2016TITLE=APPLE’S APP STORE NOW HAS OVER 2 MILLION APPS WEBSITE=THE VERGE VOX MEDIA >DATE=JUNE 13, 2016 TITLE=APPLE’S APP STORE HITS 2M APPS, 130B DOWNLOADS, $50B PAID TO DEVELOPERS WEBSITE=TECHCRUNCH AOL >DATE=JUNE 13, 2016 TITLE=APPLE'S APP STORE NOW HAS OVER 2 MILLION APPS WEBSITE=MASHABLE ACCESSDATE=MARCH 31, 2017, | 130,000,000,000+|January 5, 2017TITLE=APPLE'S APP STORE JUST HAD THE MOST SUCCESSFUL MONTH OF SALES EVER WEBSITE=THE VERGE VOX MEDIA >DATE=JANUARY 5, 2017 TITLE=APP STORE SETS NEW RECORDS WITH $240M IN SALES ON NEW YEAR'S DAY, $20B PAID TO DEVELOPERS IN 2016 WEBSITE=MACRUMORS ACCESSDATE=MARCH 31, 2017, |130,000,000,000+

Number of iPad applications

The iPad was released in April 2010,WEB, Doug, Gross, Apple's iPad to be released April 3,weblink CNN, March 5, 2010, April 1, 2017, WEB, Apple iPad launch day,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, April 3, 2010, April 1, 2017, with approximately 3,000 apps available. By July 2011, 16 months after the release, there were over 100,000 apps available designed specifically for the device.{| class="wikitable"! Date !! Number of native iPad appsTITLE=THE APP STORE NOW HAS OVER 3,000 IPAD APPS, ONLY 20 PERCENT ARE FREE WEBSITE=TECHCRUNCH AOL >DATE=APRIL 4, 2010, April 1, 2017, TITLE=IOS VERSUS ANDROID. APPLE APP STORE VERSUS GOOGLE PLAY: HERE COMES THE NEXT BATTLE IN THE APP WARS WEBSITE=ZDNET CBS INTERACTIVE >DATE=JANUARY 16, 2015, April 1, 2017, TITLE=THE TOP 50 IPAD APPS WEBSITE=THE GUARDIAN GUARDIAN MEDIA GROUP >DATE=SEPTEMBER 25, 2011 WEBSITE=APPLE PRESS INFO APPLE INC. >DATE=JULY 7, 2011, April 1, 2017, TITLE=IOS VS. ANDROID: LOTS OF STATS, LITTLE CLARITY WEBSITE=CNET CBS INTERACTIVE >DATE=NOVEMBER 14, 2011, April 1, 2017, | 300,000+TITLE=1 MILLION+ APPS LATER, APPLE SAYS DEVELOPERS HAVE MADE $13 BILLION ON ITS PLATFORM WEBSITE=TECHCRUNCH AOL >DATE=OCTOBER 22, 2013, April 1, 2017, | 725,000+TITLE=THERE ARE NOW 1 MILLION IPAD APPS WEBSITE=THE VERGE VOX MEDIA >DATE=MARCH 21, 2016, April 1, 2017,

Most downloaded apps

Yearly

Apple publishes a list on a yearly basis, giving credit to the apps with the highest number of downloads in the past year.WEB,weblink These Are the Most Popular iPhone Apps of 2016, Eadicicco, Lisa, December 6, 2016, Time (magazine), Time, June 11, 2017, WEB,weblink Apple just revealed the most-downloaded app of 2016, Bell, Karissa, December 7, 2016, Mashable, June 11, 2017, {| class="wikitable"weblink These Are the Most Popular iPhone Apps of 2016, Time, en, 2018-08-22, NEWS,weblink Apple's most downloaded apps of 2017, Bell, Karissa, Mashable, 2018-08-22, en, WEB,weblink Apple reveals the most popular iPhone apps of 2018, month, Karissa Bell 1, Weeks, 2, 2018-12-04, Mashable India, en, 2019-01-19, !Rank!2015!2016!2017!2018|1|Trivia Crack|SnapchatBitstrips>Bitmoji|YouTube|2Facebook Messenger>Messenger|Snapchat|Instagram|Instagram|3|Dubsmash|Pokémon Go|YouTube|Snapchat|4|InstagramFacebook Messenger>MessengerFacebook Messenger>MessengerFacebook Messenger>Messenger|5|Snapchat|Facebook|Instagram|Facebook|6|YouTube|YouTube|Facebook|Bitmoji|7|Facebook|Google Maps|Google Maps|Netflix|8|UberPandora Radio>Pandora Music|Netflix|Google Maps|9Crossy Road>Crossy Roads|Netflix|Spotify|Gmail|10|Google Maps|Spotify|Uber|Spotify{| class="wikitable"|+Most Popular iOS Games each year!Rank!2015!2016!2017!2018|1|Trivia Crack|Pokémon Go|Super Mario Run|Fortnite|2Crossy Road>Crossy RoadsNot Published|8 Ball Pool|Helix Jump|3Not Published|Snake vs. Block|Rise Up|4|Ballz|PUBG Mobile|5|Word Cookies!|Hole.io|6 Not Published|Love Balls|7|Snake vs. Block|8|Rules of Survival|9Roblox>ROBLOX|10|Dune!

Of All-time

These are the most-downloaded iOS applications and the highest revenue generating iOS applications of all time from 2010-2018.WEB,weblink These are the all-time most popular iOS apps and games from 2010-2018, Potuck, Michael, 2018-07-02, 9to5Mac, en-US, 2019-01-19, {| class="wikitable"|1|Facebook|Candy Crush Saga|2Facebook Messenger>Messenger|Subway Surfers|3YouTube>YouTube |Fruit Ninja|4|Instagram|Clash of Clans|5WhatsApp>WhatsappArena of Valor>Honour of Kings|6|Google MapsMinions (Despicable Me)>Minion Rush|7|Snapchat|Angry Birds|8|Skype|Temple Run 2|9|WeChat|Temple Run|10Tencent QQ>QQAsphalt 8:Airborne){| class="wikitable"|+Highest revenue generating iOS apps and Games of all time!Rank!Apps!Games|1|Netflix|Clash of Clans|2|Spotify|Candy Crush Saga|3Pandora Radio>Pandora Music|Monster Strike|4|Tencent Video|Puzzle & Dragons|5Tinder (app)>TinderArena of Valor>Honour of Kings|6Line (software)>Line|Fantasy Westward Journey|7IQiyi>iQIYI|Game of War- Fireage|8HBO Now>HBO NOW|Fate/Grand Order|9|Kwai|Clash Royale|10Tencent QQ>QQPokémon Go>Pokémon GO

Application ratings

Apple rates applications worldwide based on their content, and determines the age group for which each is appropriate. According to the iPhone OS 3.0 launch event, the iPhone will allow blocking of objectionable apps in the iPhone's settings. The following are the ratings that Apple has detailed:{| class="wikitable"! Rating! Description4+| Contains no objectionable material. This rating has three sub-classifications:
  • Made for Ages 5 and Under - This app is suitable for children aged 5 and under, but people aged 6 and over can also use this app.
  • Made for Ages 6 to 8 - This app is suitable for children aged 6 to 8, but people aged 9 and over can also use this app.
  • Made for Ages 9 to 11 - This app is suitable for children aged 9 to 11, but people aged 12 and over can also use this app.
9+| May contain mild or infrequent occurrences of cartoon, fantasy or realistic violence, and mild or infrequent mature, suggestive, or horror-themed content which may not be suitable for children under the age of 9. This rating has one sub-classification:
  • Made for Ages 9 to 11 - This app is suitable for children aged 9 to 11, but people aged 12 and over can also use this app.
12+| May contain frequent or intense cartoon, fantasy or realistic violence, mild or infrequent mature or suggestive themes, mild or infrequent bad language, and simulated gambling which may not be suitable for children under the age of 12.17+| May contain frequent and intense offensive language, excessive cartoon, fantasy, or realistic violence, frequent and intense mature, horror, suggestive themes, sexual content, nudity, alcohol, and drugs, or a combination of any of these factors which are unsuitable for persons under 17 years of age. This includes apps with unrestricted web access. No one aged 16 and under is allowed to purchase an app rated 17+.No Rating| These apps cannot be purchased on the App Store.

App approval process

Applications are subject to approval by Apple, as outlined in the SDK agreement, for basic reliability testing and other analysis. Applications may still be distributed "ad-hoc" if they are rejected, by the author manually submitting a request to Apple to license the application to individual iPhones, although Apple may withdraw the ability for authors to do this at a later date.{{As of|2013}}, Apple employed mostly static analysis for their app review process, which means that dynamic code reassembly techniques could defeat the review process.WEB, Cox, John,weblink "Jekyll" test attack sneaks through Apple App Store, wreaks havoc on iOS, Network World, August 18, 2013, June 20, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140102195850weblink">weblink January 2, 2014, WEB, Talbot, David,weblink Remotely Assembled Malware Blows Past Apple’s Screening Process | MIT Technology Review, Technologyreview.com, August 15, 2013, June 20, 2014, In June 2017, Apple updated its App Store review guidelines to specify that app developers will no longer have the ability to use custom prompts for encouraging users to leave reviews for their apps.WEB, Benjamin, Mayo, App Store now requires developers to use official API to request app ratings, disallows custom prompts,weblink 9to5Mac, June 9, 2017, June 14, 2017, WEB, Jacob, Kastrenakes, Apple won’t let apps annoy you with their own review prompts anymore,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, June 9, 2017, June 14, 2017, With the release of iOS 11 in late 2017, Apple will also let developers choose whether to keep current app reviews when updating their apps or to reset.WEB, Romain, Dillet, The new iOS App Store lets devs choose whether or not to reset ratings when updating,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, June 7, 2017, June 14, 2017, Additionally, another update to App Store policies allows users to optionally "tip" content creators, by voluntarily sending them money.WEB, Josh, Constine, Apple legalizes and taxes in-app tipping for content creators,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, June 9, 2017, June 14, 2017, WEB, Joe, Rossignol, Apple Officially Allows Users to Tip Content Creators With In-App Purchases,weblink MacRumors, June 9, 2017, June 14, 2017,

Controversial apps

In November 2012, Boyfriend Maker, a dating sim game, was removed due to "reports of references to violent sexual acts and paedophilia" deemed inappropriate to Boyfriend Maker's age rating of 4+.WEB, Emily, Gera, Boyfriend Maker gets pulled from App Store for references to paedophilia,weblink Polygon (website), Polygon, Vox Media, November 26, 2012, June 11, 2017, A revised version called Boyfriend Plus was approved by Apple in April 2013.WEB, Kirk, Hamilton, Bizarre Boyfriend Maker Is Back On The App Store, Slightly Declawed,weblink Kotaku, Univision Communications, April 24, 2013, June 11, 2017, In March 2013, HiddenApps was approved and appeared in App Store. The app provided access to developer diagnostic menus, allowed for stock apps to be hidden, and enabled an opt-out feature for iAds, Apple's developer-driven advertisement system. The app was removed shortly afterwards for violating guidelines.WEB, Jordan, Golson, 'HiddenApps' Hides Stock Apps, iAds and More on Non-Jailbroken iOS Devices [Update: Removed],weblink MacRumors, March 11, 2013, June 11, 2017, WEB, Jason, Cipriani, HiddenApps hides stock Apple apps on your iOS device,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, March 11, 2013, June 11, 2017, In April 2013, Apple removed AppGratis, a then-successful app store market that promoted paid apps by offering one for free each day.WEB, John, Koetsier, Apple pulls AppGratis from app store 2 months after it raised $13.5M in funding,weblink VentureBeat, April 8, 2013, June 11, 2017, Apple told All Things Digital that the app violated two of its developer agreement clauses, including "Apps that display Apps other than your own for purchase or promotion in a manner similar to or confusing with the App Store will be rejected" and "Apps cannot use Push Notifications to send advertising, promotions, or direct marketing of any kind".WEB, John, Paczkowski, Confirmed: Apple Kicks AppGratis Out of the Store for Being Too Pushy,weblink All Things Digital, Dow Jones & Company, April 8, 2013, June 11, 2017, Apple did, however, tell the developers they were "welcome to resubmit" after changing the app, though there was "not much hope that it could survive in anything like its current incarnation".WEB, John, Koetsier, Pulled iOS app AppGratis is ‘welcome to resubmit’,weblink VentureBeat, April 8, 2013, June 11, 2017, In November 2014, Apple removed the marijuana social networking app MassRoots, with the reason given that it "encourage[d] excessive consumption of alcohol or illegal substances.”WEB, Tom, Huddleston Jr., Apple’s ban on marijuana social networking app goes up in smoke,weblink Fortune (magazine), Fortune, Time Inc., February 13, 2015, June 11, 2017, In February 2015, MassRoots was reintroduced into the store after Apple changed its enforcement guidelines to allow cannabis social apps in the 23 states where it is legal.WEB, James, Vincent, Banned weed app returns to the Apple store with new location restrictions,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, February 13, 2015, June 11, 2017, In September 2015, it was discovered that "hundreds" of apps submitted and approved on App Store were using XcodeGhost, a malicious version of the Xcode development software. The issues prompted Apple to remove infected apps from the store and issue a statement that it was "working with the developers to make sure they’re using the proper version of Xcode".WEB, Benjamin, Mayo, Hundreds of apps infected by fake Xcode tools, Apple removing known malicious software from App Store,weblink 9to5Mac, September 20, 2015, April 1, 2017, WEB, Jim, Finkle, Apple's iOS App Store suffers first major attack,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, September 20, 2015, April 1, 2017, WEB, Daniel, Van Boom, Apple cleanses App Store of tainted iPhone, iPad software,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, September 21, 2015, April 1, 2017, A security firm later published lists of infected apps, including a China-only version of Angry Birds 2, CamCard, Lifesmart, TinyDeal.com, and WeChat.WEB, Ben, Lovejoy, Security firm publishes list of some of the iOS apps infected by XcodeGhost – including Angry Birds 2 [Update: more apps],weblink 9to5Mac, September 21, 2015, April 1, 2017, WEB, Zach, Epstein, 85 legitimate iPhone apps that were infected with malware in the big App Store hackImage,weblink Boy Genius Report, BGR, Penske Media Corporation, September 21, 2015, April 1, 2017, In the aftermath, Apple stated that it would make Xcode faster to download in certain regions outside the United States,WEB, Daniel, Van Boom, Apple taking steps to prevent another large-scale App Store breach,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, September 22, 2015, April 1, 2017, and contacted all developers to ensure they only download the code from the Mac App Store or Apple's website, and provided a code signature for developers to test if they are running a tampered version of Xcode.WEB, Owen, Williams, Apple asks developers to ensure their Xcode install isn’t infected,weblink The Next Web, September 22, 2015, April 1, 2017, In June 2017, a scamming trend was discovered on the store, in which developers make apps built on non-existent services, attach in-app purchase subscriptions to the opening dialogue, then buy App Store search advertising space to get the app into the higher rankings. In one instance, an app by the name of "Mobile protection :Clean & Security VPN" would require payments of $99.99 for a seven-day subscription after a short trial. Apple has not yet responded to the issues.WEB, Tim, Hardwick, Report Reveals In-App Purchase Scams in the App Store,weblink MacRumors, June 12, 2017, June 27, 2017, WEB, Chance, Miller, Report details how scammers are abusing App Store & Search Ads,weblink 9to5Mac, June 10, 2017, June 27, 2017, In addition, Apple has removed software licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) from App Store, due to text in Apple's Terms of Service agreement imposing digital rights management and proprietary legal terms incompatible with the terms of the GPL.WEB, Brett, Smith, More about the App Store GPL Enforcement,weblink Free Software Foundation, May 26, 2010, July 8, 2017, WEB, David, Murphy, Apple Pulls VLC Player from App Store Due to GPL,weblink PC Magazine, Ziff Davis, January 8, 2011, July 8, 2017,

Large-scale app removals

On September 1, 2016, Apple announced that starting September 7, it would be removing old apps that do not function as intended or that don't follow current review guidelines. Developers will be warned and given 30 days to update their apps, but apps that crash on startup will be removed immediately. Additionally, app names registered by developers cannot exceed 50 characters, in an attempt to stop developers from inserting long descriptions or irrelevant terms in app names to improve the app's ranking in App Store search results.WEB, Juli Clover, Apple to Clean Up App Store, Eliminate Outdated and Non-Functional Apps,weblink MacRumors, September 1, 2016, January 5, 2017, WEB, Chris Welch, Apple will start removing abandoned apps from the App Store this month,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, September 1, 2016, January 5, 2017, App intelligence firm Sensor Tower revealed in November 2016 that Apple, as promised from its September announcement of removing old apps, had removed 47,300 apps from App Store in October 2016, a 238 percent increase of its prior number of average monthly app removals.WEB, Sarah, Perez, Apple’s big App Store purge is now underway,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, November 15, 2016, November 27, 2016, WEB, Juli, Clover, Apple Removed 47,300 Outdated iOS Apps From App Store in October of 2016,weblink MacRumors, November 15, 2016, November 27, 2016, In June 2017, TechCrunch reported that Apple had turned its app removal focus on apps copying functionality from other, popular apps. An example cited included "if a popular game like Flappy Bird or Red Ball hits the charts, there will be hundreds or thousands of clones within weeks that attempt to capitalize on the initial wave of popularity". The report also noted removals of music apps serving pirated tracks. The publication wrote that, since the initial September app removals began, Apple had removed "multiple hundreds of thousands" of apps.WEB, Matthew, Panzarino, Apple goes after clones and spam on the App Store,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, June 21, 2017, June 27, 2017, WEB, Chance, Miller, Apple ramping up App Store cleaning efforts, has already removed ‘hundreds of thousands’ of apps,weblink 9to5Mac, June 21, 2017, June 27, 2017, In December 2017, a new report from TechCrunch stated that Apple had begun enforcing new restrictions on the use of "commercialized template or app generation services". Originally introduced as part of Apple's 2017 developer conference, new App Store guidelines allow the company to ban apps making use of templates or commercial app services. This affected many small businesses, with TechCrunch{{'}}s report citing that "local retailers, restaurants, small fitness studios, nonprofits, churches and other organizations" benefit from using templates or app services due to minimal costs. Developers had received notice from Apple with a January 1, 2018 deadline to change their respective apps. The news caught the attention of Congress, with Congressman Ted Lieu writing a letter to Apple at the beginning of December, asking it to reconsider, writing that "It is my understanding that many small businesses, research organizations, and religious institutions rely on template apps when they do not possess the resources to develop apps in-house", and that the new rules cast "too wide a net", specifically "invalidating apps from longstanding and legitimate developers who pose no threat to the App Store’s integrity". Additionally, the news of stricter enforcement caused significant criticism from app development firms; one company told TechCrunch that it chose to close down its business following the news, saying that "The 4.2.6 [rule enforcement] was just a final drop that made us move on a bit faster with that decision [to close]", and another company told the publication that "There was no way in June [when the guidelines changed] that we would have said, ‘that’s going to target our apps' ... Apple had told us you aren’t being targeted by this from a quality standpoint. So being hit now under the umbrella of spam is shocking to every quality developer out there and all the good actors". Furthermore, the latter company stated that "there’s only so much you can do with apps that perform the same utility – ordering food". A third company said that "Rule 4.2.6 is a concrete illustration of the danger of Apple’s dominant position", and a fourth said that "They’ve wiped out pretty much an entire industry. Not just DIY tools like AppMakr, but also development suites like Titanium".WEB, Sarah, Perez, Apple’s widened ban on templated apps is wiping small businesses from the App Store,weblink TechCrunch, Oath Inc., December 8, 2017, December 12, 2017, WEB, Chance, Miller, Report: Apple cracking down on template applications, giving developers January 1 deadline,weblink 9to5Mac, December 8, 2017, December 12, 2017, Towards the end of the year, Apple updated the guideline to clarify that companies and organizations are allowed to use template apps, but only as long as they directly publish their app on their own; it remained a violation of the rule for commercial app services to publish apps for the respective clients.WEB, Sarah, Perez, Apple revises its controversial guidelines on template-based apps,weblink TechCrunch, Oath Inc., December 20, 2017, December 21, 2017, WEB, Juli, Clover, Apple Updates App Store Guidelines to Relax Restrictive Rules on Template Apps,weblink MacRumors, December 20, 2017, December 21, 2017,

Censorship by the Chinese government

In January 2017, Apple complied with a request from the Chinese government to remove the Chinese version of The New York Times{{'}} app. This followed the government's efforts in 2012 to block the Times{{'}} website after stories of hidden wealth among family members of then-leader of China, Wen Jiabao, were published.WEB, James, Vincent, Apple removes New York Times app from China’s app store at government’s request,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, January 5, 2017, December 6, 2017, In a statement, an Apple spokesperson told the media that "we have been informed that the app is in violation of local regulations", though would not specify which regulations, and added that "As a result the app must be taken down off the China app store. When this situation changes the app store will once again offer the New York Times app for download in China".WEB, Benjamin, Haas, Apple removes New York Times app in China,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, January 5, 2017, December 6, 2017, The following July, it was reported that Apple had begun to remove listings in China for apps that circumvent government Internet censorship policies and new laws restricting virtual private network (VPN) services.WEB, Jon, Russell, Apple removes VPN apps from the App Store in China,weblink TechCrunch, Oath Inc., July 29, 2017, November 8, 2017, WEB, Saheli Roy, Choudhury, Apple removes VPN apps in China as Beijing doubles down on censorship,weblink CNBC, NBCUniversal News Group, July 31, 2017, November 8, 2017, Apple issued a statement, explaining that the app removals were a result of developers not complying with new laws in China requiring a government license for businesses offering VPNs, and that "These apps remain available in all other markets where they do business".WEB, Matthew, Panzarino, Apple issues statement regarding removal of unlicensed VPN apps in China,weblink TechCrunch, Oath Inc., July 30, 2017, December 6, 2017, WEB, Paul, Mozur, Apple Removes Apps From China Store That Help Internet Users Evade Censorship,weblink The New York Times, July 29, 2017, November 8, 2017, In an earnings call the following month, Cook elaborated on the recent news, explainining that "We would obviously rather not remove the apps, but like we do in other countries, we follow the law wherever we do business".WEB, Josh, Horwitz, Tim Cook is defending Apple’s removal of VPN apps from its Chinese app store with a familiar refrain,weblink Quartz (publication), Quartz, Atlantic Media, August 2, 2017, November 8, 2017, Besides VPN services, a number of Internet calling apps, including Microsoft's Skype, were also removed from the Chinese App Store in 2017, with Apple telling The New York Times that, similar to the VPN apps, these new apps also violated local law. Microsoft explained to BBC News that its Skype app had been "temporarily removed" and that it was "working to reinstate the app as soon as possible",WEB, Skype removed from China Apple and Android app stores,weblink BBC News, BBC, November 22, 2017, December 5, 2017, though many news outlets reported on the Chinese government's increased efforts and pressure to crack down on Internet freedom.WEB, Skype Disappears From Chinese App Stores in Latest Web Crackdown,weblink Bloomberg Technology, Bloomberg L.P., Bloomberg, November 21, 2017, December 6, 2017, WEB, Paul, Mozur, Skype Vanishes From App Stores in China, Including Apple’s,weblink The New York Times, November 21, 2017, December 5, 2017, WEB, Ben, Lovejoy, Apple removes Skype from Chinese app store after request from Ministry of Public Security,weblink 9to5Mac, November 21, 2017, December 6, 2017, WEB, Joe, Rossignol, Apple Has Removed Skype From App Store in China to Comply With Local Law,weblink MacRumors, November 21, 2017, December 6, 2017, Following Apple CEO Tim Cook's appearance at China's World Internet Conference in December 2017, in which Cook stated that Apple and China share a vision of "developing a digital economy for openness and shared benefits", free speech and human rights activists criticized Cook and the company. Maya Wang at Human Rights Watch told The Washington Post that "Cook’s appearance lends credibility to a state that aggressively censors the internet, throws people in jail for being critical about social ills, and is building artificial intelligence systems that monitors everyone and targets dissent. ... The version of cyberspace the Chinese government is building is a decidedly dystopian one, and I don’t think anyone would want to share in this ‘common future.’ Apple should have spoken out against it, not endorsed it."WEB, Simon, Denyer, Apple CEO backs China’s vision of an ‘open’ Internet as censorship reaches new heights,weblink The Washington Post, December 4, 2017, December 6, 2017, U.S. Senator Patrick Leahy told CNBC that "American tech companies have become leading champions of free expression. But that commitment should not end at our borders. ... Global leaders in innovation, like Apple, have both an opportunity and a moral obligation to promote free expression and other basic human rights in countries that routinely deny these rights."WEB, Anita, Balakrishnan, Apple has a 'moral obligation' to push back in China, says senator who probed the company's ties,weblink CNBC, NBCUniversal News Group, December 5, 2017, December 6, 2017, WEB, Chance, Miller, U.S. Senator Leahy says Apple has ‘moral responsibility’ to fight oppression in China,weblink 9to5Mac, December 5, 2017, December 6, 2017, Cook told Reuters that "My hope over time is that some of the things, the couple of things that’s been pulled, come back. I have great hope on that and great optimism on that".WEB, Apple's Cook optimistic that apps pulled in China will be back,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, December 6, 2017, December 6, 2017, However, TechCrunch{{'}}s Jon Russell criticized this line of thinking, writing that "Firstly, Apple didn’t just remove a "couple of things" from the reach of China-based users", but rather "a couple of hundred" apps, acknowledging that "even that is under counting". Furthermore, Russell listed censorship efforts by the Chinese government, including VPN bans and restrictions on live video and messaging apps, and wrote that "Apple had little choice but to follow Beijing’s line in order to continue to do business in the lucrative Chinese market, but statements like Cook’s today are dangerous because they massively underplay the severity of the situation".WEB, Jon, Russell, For some reason Tim Cook thinks China will allow VPNs to return to the App Store,weblink TechCrunch, Oath Inc., December 6, 2017, December 6, 2017, Florida Senator Marco Rubio also criticized Cook's appearance at the World Internet Conference, describing the situation as "here’s an example of a company, in my view, so desperate to have access to the Chinese market place that they are willing to follow the laws of that country even if those laws run counter to what those companies’ own standards are supposed to be".WEB, Chance, Miller, Marco Rubio slams Tim Cook for Apple’s ‘desperate’ relationship with China,weblink 9to5Mac, December 13, 2017, December 14, 2017, In August 2018, as a result of Chinese regulations, 25,000 illegal apps were pulled down by Apple from the App Store in China.NEWS,weblink Apple removes 25,000 ‘illegal’ apps from App Store in China, The Verge, 2018-08-20, NEWS,weblink Apple reportedly yanked 25,000 apps from its China App Store, Choudhury, Saheli Roy, 2018-08-20, CNBC, 2018-08-20,

See also

References

{{reflist|30em}}

External links

{{iOS}}{{iPod}}{{Apple}}{{Package management systems}}{{Software digital distribution platforms}}

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