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Apache Cordova

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Apache Cordova
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factoids
Experimental Platform: Electron (software framework)Deprecated Platforms: BlackBerry, Firefox OS, Symbian, Ubuntu Touch, webOS, Windows Phone 7.0 and 8.0WEB,weblink apache/cordova, GitHub, C Sharp (programming language)>C#, C++, CSS, HTML, Java, JavaScript and Objective-C| released = 2009| latest release version = 8.1.2201805}}HTTPS://GITHUB.COM/APACHE/CORDOVA-CLI/RELEASES>TITLE=APACHE/CORDOVA-CLIDATE=AUTHOR=WEBSITE=NPM, HTTPS://CORDOVA.APACHE.ORG/NEWS/2018/09/26/CORDOVA-CLI-8.1.0.HTML>TITLE=CORDOVA-CLI RELEASEDATE=, cordova.apache.org, | latest preview version = | latest preview date = | language = Englishmultiple phone web-based application framework>mobile development frameworkPUBLISHER=PHONEGAP.COM ACCESSDATE=2013-10-09, HTTP://HTML.ADOBE.COM/EDGE/PHONEGAP-BUILD/FAQ.HTML >TITLE=FAQ | PHONEGAP BUILD | EDGE TOOLS & SERVICES | ADOBE & HTML DATE=, 2013-10-09, weblink}}}}Apache Cordova (formerly PhoneGap) is a mobile application development framework originally created by Nitobi. Adobe Systems purchased Nitobi in 2011, rebranded it as PhoneGap, and later released an open source version of the software called Apache Cordova.WEB,weblink Adobe Announces Agreement to Acquire Nitobi, Creator of PhoneGap, Adobe.com, 2011-10-03, 2012-04-07, Apache Cordova enables software programmers to build applications for mobile devices using CSS3, HTML5, and JavaScript instead of relying on platform-specific APIs like those in Android, iOS, or Windows Phone.WEB,weblink PhoneGap Seeks to Bridge the Gap Between Mobile App Platforms, Jose Fermoso, April 5, 2009, GigaOM, 2012-04-07, It enables wrapping up of CSS, HTML, and JavaScript code depending upon the platform of the device. It extends the features of HTML and JavaScript to work with the device. The resulting applications are hybrid, meaning that they are neither truly native mobile application (because all layout rendering is done via Web views instead of the platform's native UI framework) nor purely Web-based (because they are not just Web apps, but are packaged as apps for distribution and have access to native device APIs). Mixing native and hybrid code snippets has been possible since version 1.9.The software was previously called just "PhoneGap", then "Apache Callback".WEB,weblink Apache Callback - Tiki Wiki CMS Groupware :: Development, Tiki, Community, Tiki Wiki CMS Groupware :: Development, 3 April 2018, WEB,weblink Apache Callback Proposal, Wiki.phonegap.com, 2013-08-15, 2013-10-09,
As open-source software, Apache Cordova allows wrappers around it, such as Appery.io or Intel XDK.
PhoneGap is Adobe's commercial version of Cordova along with its associated ecosystem. Many other tools and frameworks are also built on top of Cordova, including Ionic,WEB, The Last Word on Cordova and PhoneGap,weblink The Official Ionic Blog, Monaca, TACO, Onsen UI, Visual Studio, GapDebug, App Builder, Cocoon, Framework7, Quasar Framework, Evothings Studio, NSB/AppStudio, Mobiscroll, the Intel XDK,WEB, Intel XDK,weblink Intel Developer Zone, and the Telerik Platform.WEB, Apache Cordova,weblink Apache Cordova, These tools use Cordova, and not PhoneGap for their core tools.Contributors to the Apache Cordova project include Adobe, BlackBerry, Google, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Mozilla, and others.WEB,weblink Cordova Contributor's Who's Who, apache.org, 2015-11-02, 2015-11-02,

History

First developed at an iPhoneDevCamp event in San Francisco,WEB, Darryl K. Taft,weblink PhoneGap Simplifies iPhone, Android, BlackBerry Development, Eweek.com, 2009-03-13, 2013-10-09, PhoneGap went on to win the People's Choice Award at O'Reilly Media's 2009 Web 2.0 Conference,WEB, Davis, Lidija,weblink PhoneGap: People's Choice Winner at Web 2.0 Expo Launch Pad, Readwriteweb.com, 2009-04-02, 2012-04-07, and the framework has been used to develop many apps.WEB,weblink PhoneGap Apps, Phonegap.com, 2012-12-06, Apple Inc. has confirmed that the framework has its approval, even with the new 4.0 developer license agreement changes.WEB,weblink PhoneGap and the Apple developer license agreement. « PhoneGap, Phonegap.com, 2010-04-14, 2012-04-07, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120415035852weblink">weblink 2012-04-15, The PhoneGap framework is used by several mobile application platforms such as Monaca,WEB,weblink Develop Awesome PhoneGap Apps with Awesome Tools, monaco.mobi, 2014-06-10, appMobi,WEB,weblink Create Mobile and Web Apps with HTML5 and JavaScript |, appMobi.com, 2012-04-07, Convertigo,WEB,weblink Open Source Mobile Enablement and Enterprise Mashups, Convertigo, 2012-04-07, WEB,weblink Convertigo Mobilizer Uses PhoneGap Build APIs « PhoneGap, Phonegap.com, 2011-07-07, 2012-04-07, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120513040808weblink">weblink 2012-05-13, ViziApps,WEB,weblink Create Mobile and Web Apps with HTML5 and JavaScript, ViziApps.com, 2012-04-07, and WorklightWEB,weblink Mobile Application Platform and Tools, Worklight, 2012-01-16, 2012-04-07, WEB,weblink How PhoneGap plays an important part in our Enterprise offering PhoneGap, Phonegap.com, 2011-06-27, 2012-04-07, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120415220543weblink">weblink 2012-04-15, as the backbone of their mobile client development engine.Adobe officially announced the acquisition of Nitobi Software (the original developer) on October 4, 2011.WEB, Shankland, Stephen,weblink Adobe buys PhoneGap, TypeKit for better Web tools | Deep Tech - CNET News, News.cnet.com, 2011-10-03, 2012-04-07, Coinciding with that, the PhoneGap code was contributed to the Apache Software Foundation to start a new project called Apache Cordova. The project's original name, Apache Callback, was viewed as too generic.WEB,weblink finding a new name that isn't PhoneGap - Brian LeRoux - org.apache.incubator.callback-dev, MarkMail, 2011-10-28, 2012-04-07, Then, it also appears in Adobe Systems as Adobe PhoneGap and also as Adobe PhoneGap Build.WEB,weblink Adobe PhoneGap Build, Adobe Systems Inc., Early versions of PhoneGap required an Apple computer to create iOS apps and a Windows computer to create Windows Mobile apps. After September 2012, Adobe's PhoneGap Build service allows programmers to upload CSS, HTML, and JavaScript source code to a "cloud compiler" that generates apps for every supported platform.Klint Finley."Adobe Launches Hosted PhoneGap Build Service For Creating Cross-Platform Mobile Apps".2012.

Design and rationale

The core of Apache Cordova applications use CSS3 and HTML5 for their rendering and JavaScript for their logic. HTML5 provides access to underlying hardware such as the accelerometer, camera, and GPS. However, browsers' support for HTML5-based device access is not consistent across mobile browsers, particularly older versions of Android. To overcome these limitations, Apache Cordova embeds the HTML5 code inside a native WebView on the device, using a foreign function interface to access the native resources of it.WEB,weblink The Development of Mobile Applications using HTML5 and PhoneGap on Intel Architecture-Based Platforms, 2012-06-22, However, HTML5 has some limitations. Most prominent, is the lack of API to access device hardware and sensors such as accelerometer, compass, GPS, etc. While native applications can access device hardware, they lack the portability that Web apps provide. Thus, a solution is to code a hybrid application, which cumulatively uses the benefits of native and Web apps., 2013-02-17, Apache Cordova can be extended with native plug-ins, allowing developers to add more functionalities that can be called from JavaScript, making it communicate directly between the native layer and the HTML5 page. These plugins allow access to the device's accelerometer, camera, compass, file system, microphone, and more.However, the use of Web-based technologies leads some Apache Cordova applications to run slower than native applications with similar functionality.WEB,weblink Titanium vs Phonegap vs Native application development, Sapan Diwakar, 2012-06-21Adobe Systems warns that applications built with Apache Cordova may be rejected by Apple Inc.>Apple for being too slow or not feeling "native" enough (having appearance and functionality consistent with what users have come to expect on the platform).WEB,weblink PhoneGap advice on dealing with Apple application rejections, Adobe Systems, 2012-10-29, 2013-02-17, WEB,weblink Creating apps with PhoneGap: Lessons learned, Adobe Systems, 2012-09-17, When you add more complex CSS3 elements, heavy transitions, and supporting multiple devices (such as iOS and Android), however, it makes you realize that there are few steps you must iron out to prevent hair loss, 2013-02-17,

Supported platforms

Apache Cordova currently supports development for the operating systems Apple iOS, Bada, BlackBerry, Firefox OS,WEB, Building Cordova apps for Firefox OS ✩ Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog,weblink 26 February 2014, 20 February 2014, Google Android,WEB,weblink Using PhoneGap and the Sony Ericsson WebSDK to develop Android apps, Android and Me, 2012-04-07, LG webOS, Microsoft Windows Phone (7 and 8), Nokia Symbian OS, Tizen (SDK 2.x), and Ubuntu Touch. The table below is a list of supported features for each operating system.WEB,weblink Platform Support, Adobe PhoneGap, 2016-02-23, WEB,weblink PhoneGap supported features, Phonegap.com, 2013-10-09, {{Update|date=February 2019}}{| class="wikitable sortable"! Feature! AndroidWEB,weblink Android Platform Guide - Apache Cordova, cordova.apache.org, 3 April 2018, ! Apple iPhone /iPhone 3G! Apple iPhone 3GS and newer! Bada! BlackBerry 10 and PlayBook OS! BlackBerry OS 4.6–4.7! BlackBerry OS 5.0-6.0+! Firefox OS! Symbian! Tizen! webOS! Ubuntu Touch! Windows Phone| Accelerometer| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| Camera| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| Compass| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}Contact list>Contacts| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| File| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| Geolocation| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| Media| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{n/a}}| {{n/a}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| Network| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| Notification (alert, sound, vibration)| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| Storage| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| {{n/a}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}

See also

References

{{Reflist|colwidth=30em}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, Jeff, Pelletier, April 25, 2013, Mobile App Manual: The Blueprint, Withinsight Publishing, 1st, 96, 978-0989072106,weblink
,
  • BOOK, Kerri, Shotts, February 26, 2013, PhoneGap 2.x Mobile Application Development Hotshot, Packt Publishing, 1st, 388, 978-1849519403,weblink
,
  • BOOK, Matt, Gifford, October 22, 2012, PhoneGap Mobile Application Development Cookbook, Packt Publishing, 1st, 320, 978-1849518581,weblink
, ,
  • BOOK, Jamie, Munro, March 29, 2012, 20 Recipes for Programming PhoneGap: Cross-Platform Mobile Development for Android and iPhone, O'Reilly Media, 1st, 76, 978-1-4493-1954-0,weblink
,
  • BOOK, Joshua, Marinacci, March 21, 2012, Building Mobile Applications with Java: Using the Google Web Toolkit and PhoneGap, O'Reilly Media, 1st, 86, 978-1-4493-0823-0,weblink
,
  • BOOK, Andrew, Lunny, September 23, 2011, PhoneGap Beginner's Guide, Packt Publishing, 1st, 328, 1-84951-536-0,weblink
,
  • BOOK, Rohit, Ghatol, November 14, 2011, Beginning PhoneGap: Mobile Web Framework for JavaScript and HTML5, Apress, 1st, 700, 1-4302-3903-4,weblink
,
  • BOOK, Thomas, Myer, December 13, 2011, Beginning PhoneGapWrox Press>Wrox, 1st, 336, 1-118-15665-X,weblink
,

External links

  • {{Official website}}
{{Apache}}

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