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Anwar al-Awlaki

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Anwar al-Awlaki
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{{short description|Yemeni-American imam}}{{Use mdy dates|date=September 2018}}







factoids
}}|death_cause = AGM-114 Hellfire|citizenship = United States, Yemen }}
  • Lecturer
  • cleric
  • imam
{edih}Lectures across Asia and the Middle East Inspire magazine and spokesmanweblink" title="archive.today/20120919035208weblink">Death of Anwar Al Awlaki Doesn't Solve Yemen's Problems â€“ US News and World Report. Retrieved on October 1, 2011.}}WORK=STAR TRIBUNEAUTHOR1=AHMED AL-HAJAGENCY=ASSOCIATED PRESSAbdulrahman al-Awlaki>Abdulrahman and Nawar)|parents = Nasser al-Awlaki (father)|website = |footnotes = }}Anwar al-Awlaki (also spelled al-Aulaqi, al-Awlaqi; Anwar al-‘AwlaqÄ«; April 21/22, 1971 â€“ September 30, 2011) was a Yemeni-American imam. U.S. government officials allege that, as well as being a senior recruiter and motivator, he was centrally involved in planning terrorist operations for the Islamist militant group al-Qaeda,NEWS,weblink Orr, Bob, Al-Awlaki May Be Al Qaeda Recruiter, CBS News, December 30, 2009, December 31, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100117135540weblink">weblink January 17, 2010, live, NEWS,weblink Meek, James Gordon, Fort Hood gunman Nidal Hasan 'is a hero':, New York Daily News, November 9, 2009, November 12, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091112092342weblink">weblink November 12, 2009, live, How Anwar Al-Awlaki Inspired Terror From Across the Globe retrieved February 4, 2012NEWS,weblink Q & A: US Targeted Killings and International Law, 2011-12-19, Human Rights Watch, 2018-10-27, en, but have not released evidence that could support this claim. Al-Awlaki became the first U.S. citizen to be targeted and killed by a U.S. drone strike without the rights of due process being afforded.Gal Perl Finkel, A NEW STRATEGY AGAINST ISIS, The Jerusalem Post, March 7, 2017. President Barack Obama ordered the strike.Mazzetti, Eric Schmitt, and Robert F. Worth. "Two-Year Manhunt Led to Killing of Awlaki in Yemen", The New York Times, September 30, 2011. Retrieved February 3, 2017. His son, Abdulrahman al-Awlaki (a 16-year-old U.S. citizen), was killed in a U.S. drone strike two weeks later. On January 29, 2017, al-Awlaki's 8-year-old daughter, Nawar Al-Awlaki, was killed in a U.S. commando attack in Yemen that was ordered by President Donald Trump.Scahill, Jeremy, Pardiss Kebriaei, Baraa Shiban, and Amy Goodman. "Yemen: Jeremy Scahill & Advocates Question "Success" of Trump Raid That Killed 24 Civilians", Democracy Now!, February 3, 2017. Retrieved February 3, 2017.Ghobari, Mohammed and Phil Stewart. "Commando dies in U.S. raid in Yemen, first military op OK'd by Trump", Reuters, January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.Myre, Greg. "Trump Aims For Big Splash In Taking On Terror Fight", NPR, January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017."1 US service member killed, 3 wounded in Yemen raid" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170202115916weblink |date=February 2, 2017 }}, WPVI-TV, 6 ABC Action News, Philadelphia, PA. January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017. With a blog, a Facebook page, the al-Qaeda magazine Inspire, and many YouTube videos, al-Awlaki was described by Saudi news station Al Arabiya as the "bin Laden of the Internet".NEWS,weblink The anatomy of a suicide bomber, Morris, Loveday, The National (Abu Dhabi), October 24, 2010, January 2, 2010, NEWS, Madhani, Aamer,weblink Cleric al-Awlaki dubbed 'bin Laden of the Internet', USA Today, August 25, 2010, October 30, 2010, After a request from the U.S. Congress in November 2010, Google removed many of al-Awlaki's videos from (wikipedia:YOUTUBE|YouTube).NEWS,weblink YouTube removes al-Awlaki hate videos, The Guardian, November 3, 2010, March 16, 2012, According to The New York Times, al-Awlaki's public statements and videos have been more influential in inspiring acts of terrorism in the wake of his killing than before his death.MAGAZINE, Shane, Scott, August 27, 2015, The Lessons of Anwar al-Awlaki, The New York Times Magazine,weblink As imam at a mosque in Falls Church, Virginia (2001–02), al-Awlaki spoke with and preached to three of the 9/11 hijackers, who were al-Qaeda members. In 2001, he presided at the funeral of the mother of Nidal Malik Hasan, an Army psychiatrist who later e-mailed him extensively in 2008–09 before carrying out the Fort Hood shootings.NEWS,weblink Major Hasan's E-Mail: 'I Can't Wait to Join You' in Afterlife, Ross, Brian, Rhonda Schwartz, The Blotter from Brian Ross, ABC News, November 19, 2009, April 9, 2010, NEWS,weblink Raghavan, Sudarsan, Cleric says he was confidant to Hasan: In Yemen, al-Aulaqi tells of e-mail exchanges, says he did not instigate rampage, The Washington Post, November 16, 2009, January 24, 2010, During al-Awlaki's later radical period after 2006–07, when he went into hiding, he may have associated with Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, who attempted the 2009 Christmas Day bombing of an American airliner.NEWS,weblink Did Abdulmutallab Talk to Radical Cleric?, CBS News staff, CBS News, December 29, 2009, January 24, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100124073713weblink">weblink January 24, 2010, live, NEWS, Meyer, Josh,weblink U.S.-born cleric linked to airline bombing plot, Los Angeles Times, December 31, 2009, May 7, 2010, Al-Awlaki was allegedly involved in planning Abdulmutallab's attack.The Yemeni government tried him in absentia in November 2010, for plotting to kill foreigners and being a member of al-Qaeda. A Yemeni judge ordered that he be captured "dead or alive".WEB,weblink Cleric says American 'devils' must die, UPI, November 8, 2010, November 8, 2010, Some U.S. officials said that in 2009, al-Awlaki was promoted to the rank of "regional commander" within al-Qaeda.NEWS, Raghavan, Sudarsan, Michael D. Shear, December 25, 2009,weblink U.S.-aided attack in Yemen thought to have killed Aulaqi, 2 al-Qaeda leaders, The Washington Post, December 25, 2009, NEWS,weblink Obama orders US-born cleric to be shot on sight, David, Usborne, The Centre for Social Cohesion, The Independent, April 8, 2010, May 11, 2010, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100411050955weblink">weblink April 11, 2010, live, Others felt that Nasir al-Wuhayshi still held this rank and that al-Awlaki was an influential member in the group. He repeatedly called for jihad against the United States.NEWS,weblink Newton, Paula, Purported al-Awlaki message calls for jihad against US, March 10, 2010, CNN, May 7, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100419233413weblink">weblink April 19, 2010, live, Scott Shane and Robert Worth, "Challenge Heard on Move to Kill Qaeda-Linked Cleric", The New York Times, November 8, 2010. Retrieved November 11, 2010.In April 2010, al-Awlaki was placed on a CIA kill list by President Barack Obama due to his alleged terrorist activities. Al-Awlaki's father and civil rights groups challenged the order in court.NEWS,weblink Muslim cleric Aulaqi is 1st U.S. citizen on list of those CIA is allowed to kill, Miller, Greg, The Washington Post, April 6, 2010, April 9, 2010, NEWS,weblink Barack Obama orders killing of US cleric Anwar al-Awlaki, Tom, Leonard, April 7, 2010, The Daily Telegraph, April 8, 2010, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100411042550weblink">weblink April 11, 2010, live, WEB,weblink Al-Aulaqi v. Panetta; American Civil Liberties Union, Aclu, September 13, 2012, October 23, 2012, NEWS,weblink The Wall Street Journal, Evan, Perez, Judge Dismisses Targeted-Killing Suit, December 8, 2010, Al-Awlaki was believed to be in hiding in southeast Yemen in the last years of his life."Yemen charges U.S.-born cleric with plot to kill foreigners", Associated Press. November 2, 2010; retrieved November 2, 2010. The U.S. deployed unmanned aircraft (drones) in Yemen to search for and kill him,NEWS,weblink London, The Daily Telegraph, Con, Coughlin, Philip, Sherwell, American drones deployed to target Yemeni terrorist, May 2, 2010, firing at and failing to kill him at least once;NEWS,weblink Anwar al-Awlaki Targeted By U.S. Drones After Osama Bin Laden Raid, ABC News, May 6, 2011, September 30, 2011, he was successfully killed on September 30, 2011.NEWS, Islamist cleric Anwar al-Awlaki 'killed in Yemen',weblink BBC News, September 30, 2011, September 30, 2011, Two weeks later, al-Awlaki's 16-year-old son, Abdulrahman al-Awlaki, a U.S. citizen who was born in Denver, Colorado, was also killed by a CIA-led drone strike in Yemen.NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, October 18, 2011, Thomas, Erdbrink, Anwar al-Awlaki's family speaks out against his son's death in airstrike, NEWS,weblink Fatal Airstrikes Hit Yemen as Protest Violence Escalates, Laura, Kasinof, October 15, 2011, The New York Times, Herridge, Catherine, "Obama Administration Pressed for Accountability After Americans Killed in Anti-Terror Airstrikes", Fox News, October 25, 2011 weblink Nasser al-Awlaki, Anwar's father, released an audio recording condemning the killings of his son and grandson as senseless murders.NEWS,weblink CNN, Official: Drone attack kills Al-Awlaki's son in Yemen, October 15, 2011, December 20, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111220120446weblink">weblink December 20, 2011, dead, In June 2014, a previously classified memorandum issued by the U.S. Department of Justice was released, justifying al-Awlaki's death as a lawful act of war.NEWS, Lauter, David,weblink Memo justifying drone killing of American Al Qaeda leader is released, June 23, 2014, Los Angeles Times, Some civil liberties advocates have described the incident as "an extrajudicial execution" that breached al-Awlaki's right to due process, including a trial.WEB, Nelson, Steven, June 23, 2014, Drone Memo Justifying Assassination of U.S. Citizen Released, U.S. News, Washington, D.C., U.S. News & World Report,weblink February 18, 2019,

Early life

Al-Awlaki was born in Las Cruces, New Mexico, in 1971 to parents from Yemen, while his father, Nasser al-Awlaki, was doing graduate work at U.S. universities. His father was a Fulbright ScholarNEWS,weblink Warren Richey, Anwar al-Awlaki: ACLU wants militant cleric taken off US 'kill list', Christian Science Monitor, August 31, 2010, October 30, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101022165147weblink">weblink October 22, 2010, live, who earned a master's degree in agricultural economics at New Mexico State University in 1971, received a doctorate at the University of Nebraska, and worked at the University of Minnesota from 1975 to 1977.NEWS,weblink Radical imam traces roots to New Mexico; Militant Islam cleric's father graduated from NMSU, Sharpe, Tom, November 14, 2009, The Santa Fe New Mexican, December 1, 2009,weblink" title="archive.today/20130105012908weblink">weblink January 5, 2013, dead, Nasser al-Awlaki served as Agriculture Minister in Ali Abdullah Saleh's government. He was also President of Sana'a University.NEWS,weblink Raghavan, Sudarsan, December 10, 2009, Cleric linked to Fort Hood attack grew more radicalized in Yemen, The Washington Post, December 10, 2009, NEWS, Shane, Scott, November 18, 2009,weblink Born in U.S., a Radical Cleric Inspires Terror, The New York Times, November 20, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110906163237weblink">weblink September 6, 2011, live, MAGAZINE, Holmes, Oliver,weblink Why Yemen Hasn't Arrested Terrorist Cleric Anwar al-Awlaki, TIME, November 5, 2009, November 11, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101112005349weblink">weblink November 12, 2010, live, Yemen's Prime Minister from 2007 to 2011, Ali Mohammed Mujur, was a relative.NEWS, Newton, Paula, February 2, 2010,weblink Al-Awlaki's father asks Obama to end manhunt, CNN, February 2, 2010, The family returned to Yemen in 1978, when al-Awlaki was seven years old.NEWS, Imam in Fort Hood case born in New Mexico,weblink United Press International, UPI staff reporter, November 11, 2009, November 13, 2009, He lived there for 11 years, and studied at Azal Modern School.NEWS, Shane, Scott, Souad Mekhennet,weblink Anwar al-Awlaki â€“ From Condemning Terror to Preaching Jihad, The New York Times, May 8, 2010, May 9, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100511054051weblink">weblink May 11, 2010, live,

Later life and alleged al-Qaeda ties

In the United States; 1990–2002

In 1991, al-Awlaki returned to the U.S. to attend college. He earned a B.S. in Civil Engineering from Colorado State University (1994), where he was president of the Muslim Student Association. He attended the university on a foreign student visa and a government scholarship from Yemen, claiming to be born in that country, according to a former U.S. security agent.NEWS, Herridge, Catherine,weblink Radical Muslim Cleric Lied to Qualify for U.S.-Funded College Scholarship, Fox News, April 12, 2010, April 16, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100416161600weblink">weblink April 16, 2010, live, In 1993, while still a college student in Colorado State's civil engineering program, al-Awlaki visited Afghanistan in the aftermath of the Soviet occupation. He spent some time training with the mujahideen who were fighting the Soviets. He was depressed by the country's poverty and hunger, and "wouldn't have gone with al-Qaeda," according to friends from Colorado State, who said he was profoundly affected by the trip.NEWS,weblink Zimmerman, Katherine, March 12, 2010, Preacher: The Radicalizing Effect of Sheikh Anwar al Awlaki, American Enterprise Institute, May 15, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100526032647weblink">weblink May 26, 2010, live, Mullah Mohammed Omar did not form the Taliban until 1994. When Al-Awlaki returned to campus, he showed increased interest in religion and politics.Al-Awlaki studied Education Leadership at San Diego State University, but did not complete his degree. He worked on a doctorate in Human Resource Development at The George Washington University Graduate School of Education and Human Development from January to December 2001.WEB,weblink National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, July 22, 2004, 9–11 Commission Report, Chapter 7, The Attack Looms, 221, 229–30, U.S. Government Printing Office, May 12, 2010, WEB,weblink National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, July 22, 2004, 9–11 Commission Report, Appendix, 434, U.S. Government Printing Office, May 12, 2010, NEWS, Schmidt, Susan, February 26, 2008,weblink Imam From Va. Mosque Now Thought to Have Aided Al-Qaeda, The Washington Post, November 20, 2009, NEWS,weblink Crummy, Karen E, Warrant withdrawn in 2002 for radical cleric who praised Fort Hood suspect, The Denver Post, December 1, 2009, January 24, 2010, NEWS,weblink Colo. feds look at Fort Hood connection to cleric, Associated Press staff, December 2, 2009, ABC News, December 7, 2009, WEB,weblink Rooney, Katie, Ex-student and chaplain tied to 9/11 hijackers in report, The GW Hatchet, September 6, 2005, May 11, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091230224820weblink">weblink December 30, 2009, In 1994, al-Awlaki married a cousin from Yemen, and began service as a part-time imam of the Denver Islamic Society. In 1996, he was chastised by an elder for encouraging a Saudi student to fight in Chechnya against the Russians.WEB, Steven Emerson,weblink The Awlaki Effect, Family Security Matters, November 16, 2010, November 17, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101129235406weblink">weblink November 29, 2010, dead, Steven Emerson, He left Denver soon after, moving to San Diego.NEWS,weblink Imam's Path From Condemning Terror to Preaching Jihad, Scott Shane, Souad Mekhennet, Robert F. Worth, May 8, 2010, The New York Times, May 13, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100511083519weblink">weblink May 11, 2010, live, From 1996–2000, al-Awlaki was imam of the Masjid Ar-Ribat al-Islami mosque in San Diego, California, where he had a following of 200–300 people.NEWS, Anwar Nasser Aulaqi, September 26, 2001, Federal Bureau of Investigation Washington Field Office, Washington, DC, October 1, 2011, PDF,weblink Fox News, BOOK,weblink Sperry, Paul E., Infiltration: how Muslim spies and subversives have penetrated Washington, Thomas Nelson Inc, 978-1-59555-003-3, December 1, 2009, 2005, NEWS,weblink Thornton, Kelly, July 25, 2003, Chance to Foil 9/11 Plot Lost Here, Report Finds, San Diego Union Tribune, May 10, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110224023651weblink">weblink February 24, 2011, dead, U.S. officials later alleged that Nawaf al-Hazmi and Khalid al-Mihdhar, hijackers of American Airlines Flight 77, attended his sermons and personally met him during this period. Hazmi later lived in Northern Virginia and attended al-Awlaki's mosque there. The 9/11 Commission Report said that the hijackers "reportedly respected [al-Awlaki] as a religious figure". While in San Diego, al-Awlaki volunteered with youth organizations, fished, discussed his travels with friends, and created a popular and lucrative series of recorded lectures.File:Al-Alwaki-booking2.png|thumb|al-Awlaki booked for soliciting prostitution, 1997 (photo: San Diego PD, via KPBS)]]In August 1996 and in April 1997, al-Awlaki was arrested in San Diego and charged with soliciting prostitutes.MAGAZINE,weblink The imam's very curious story, Chitra Ragavan, June 13, 2004, U.S. News & World Report, November 18, 2014, The first time, in 1996, he pleaded guilty to a lesser charge and was fined $400 and required to attend informational sessions about AIDS. The second time, in 1997, he pleaded guilty and was fined $240, ordered to perform 12 days of community service, and received three years' probation.NEWS,weblink Anwar al-Aulaqi’s death reopens wounds for Dar Al-Hijrah mosque in Falls Church, The Washington Post, November 18, 2014, Michelle, Boorstein, Kafia A., Hosh, October 1, 2011, From November 2001 to January 2002 the FBI observed him visiting a number of prostitutes, and interviewed them, establishing that he had paid for sex acts.WEB,weblink Awlaki FBI File, FBI, January 11, 2015, No prosecution was brought.WEB,weblink Terrorists Get Inspired By A Whoremaster, The Smoking Gun, January 11, 2015, In 1998 and 1999, he served as vice-president for the Charitable Society for Social Welfare. In 2004, the FBI described this group as a "front organization to funnel money to terrorists".NEWS,weblink Hays, Tom, FBI Eyes NYC 'Charity' in Terror Probe, Associated Press, February 26, 2004, The Washington Post, May 11, 2010, Although the FBI investigated al-Awlaki from June 1999 through March 2000 for possible links to Hamas, the Bin Laden contact Ziyad Khaleel, and a visit by an associate of Omar Abdel Rahman, it did not find sufficient evidence for a criminal prosecution.NEWS,weblink Rhee, Joseph, Mark Schone, November 30, 2009, ABC News, How Anwar Awlaki Got Away, The Blotter from Brian Ross; Fort Hood Investigation, August 4, 2015, NEWS,weblink The NEFA Foundation, February 5, 2009, Anwar al Awlaki: Pro Al-Qaida Ideologue with Influence in the West: A NEFA Backgrounder on Anwar al Awlaki, December 2, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090306174440weblink">weblink March 6, 2009, {{why?|date=May 2013|text=is this relevant?}} Al-Awlaki told reporters that he resigned from leading the San Diego mosque "after an uneventful four years," and took a brief sabbatical, traveling overseas to various countries.NEWS,weblink Cantlupe, Joe, Wilkie, Dana, Muslim leader criticizes arrests; Cleric knew 2 men from S.D. mosque, The San Diego Union-Tribune, October 1, 2001, April 7, 2010, In January 2001 al-Awlaki returned to the U.S., settling in the Washington metropolitan area. There, he was imam at the Dar al-Hijrah mosque near Falls Church, Virginia. He led academic discussions frequented by FBI Director of Counter-Intelligence for the Middle East Gordon M. Snow. Al-Awlaki also served as the Muslim chaplain at George Washington University,WEB,weblink Imam Anwar Al Awlaki â€“ A Leader in Need, Cageprisoners staff, Cageprisoners, November 8, 2006, June 7, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070402074940weblink">weblink April 2, 2007, where he was hired by Esam Omeish.NEWS,weblink The Great Al-Qaeda Patriot, Sperry, Paul, FrontPage Magazine, April 9, 2007, May 11, 2010,weblink" title="archive.today/20120707111453weblink">weblink July 7, 2012, dead, Omeish said in 2004 that he was convinced that al-Awlaki was not involved in terrorism.NEWS,weblink Facing New Realities as Islamic Americans, Caryle, Murphy, The Washington Post, September 12, 2004, August 5, 2015, His proficiency as a public speaker and command of the English language helped him attract followers who did not speak Arabic. "He was the magic bullet", according to the mosque spokesman Johari Abdul-Malik. "He had everything all in a box." "He had an allure. He was charming."File:NAlhazmi.JPG|thumb|180px|9/11 hijacker Nawaf al-HazmiNawaf al-HazmiWhen police investigating the 9/11 attacks raided the Hamburg apartment of Ramzi bin al-Shibh, they found the telephone number of al-Awlaki among bin al-Shibh's personal contacts. The FBI interviewed al-Awlaki four times in the eight days following the 9/11 attacks. One detective later told the 9/11 Commission he believed al-Awlaki "was at the center of the 9/11 story". And an FBI agent said, "if anyone had knowledge of the plot, it would have been" him, since "someone had to be in the U.S. and keep the hijackers spiritually focused". One 9/11 Commission staff member said: "Do I think he played a role in helping the hijackers here, knowing they were up to something? Yes. Do I think he was sent here for that purpose? I have no evidence for it." A separate Congressional Joint Inquiry into the 9/11 attacks suggested that al-Awlaki may have been connected to the hijackers, according to its director, Eleanor Hill. In 2003, Representative Anna Eshoo, a member of the House Intelligence Committee said, "In my view, he is more than a coincidental figure."MAGAZINE,weblink Shannon, Elaine, Burger, Timothy J., Calabresi, Massimo, August 9, 2003, FBI Sets Up Shop in Yemen, TIME, January 19, 2010, Six days after the 9/11 attacks, al-Awlaki suggested in writing on the IslamOnline.net website that Israeli intelligence agents might have been responsible for the attacks, and that the FBI "went into the roster of the airplanes, and whoever has a Muslim or Arab name became the hijacker by default".Soon after the 9/11 attacks, al-Awlaki was sought in Washington, D.C. by the media to answer questions about Islam, its rituals, and its relation to the attacks. He was interviewed by National Geographic,Brian Handwerk and Zain Habboo, "Attack on America: An Islamic Scholar's Perspective—Part 1", National Geographic News, September 28, 2001, Retrieved on October 1, 2011 The New York Times, and other media. Al-Awlaki condemned the attacks. According to an NPR report in 2010, in 2001 al-Awlaki appeared to be a moderate who could "bridge the gap between the United States and the worldwide community of Muslims."NEWS,weblink Scott, Shane, May 18, 2010, Anwar Al-Awlaki: An American Citizen, A CIA Target, NPR, September 30, 2011, The New York Times said at the time that he was "held up as a new generation of Muslim leader capable of merging East and West."NEWS, Taranto, James,weblink 'Moderate' Meets Maker, Wall Street Journal, September 30, 2011, November 16, 2012, In 2010, FOX and the New York Daily News reported that some months after the 9/11 attacks, a Pentagon employee invited al-Awlaki to a luncheon in the Secretary's Office of General Counsel. The U.S. Secretary of the Army had suggested that a moderate Muslim be invited to give a talk.NEWS,weblink Anwar Al-Awlaki, radical Islamic cleric wanted by the CIA, ate lunch at Pentagon after 9/11: report, Daily News (New York), New York Daily News, October 21, 2010, October 30, 2010, Sean, Alfano, NEWS, Herridge, Catherine,weblink EXCLUSIVE: Al Qaeda Leader Dined at the Pentagon Just Months After 9/11, Fox News, April 7, 2010, October 30, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101029070207weblink">weblink October 29, 2010, live, In 2002, al-Awlaki was the first imam to conduct a prayer service for the Congressional Muslim Staffer Association at the U.S. Capitol.NEWS, John, Davidson, Turning a Blind Eye to Terror, October 18, 2010,weblink Human Events, October 19, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101020041024weblink">weblink October 20, 2010, dead, NEWS, Winter, Jana,weblink Some Muslims Attending Capitol Hill Prayer Group Have Terror Ties, Probe Reveals, Fox News, April 7, 2010, November 12, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101112210422weblink">weblink November 12, 2010, live, The prayers were for Muslim congressional staffers and officials for the Council on American-Islamic Relations.NEWS, Patrick, Poole, Congressional Muslim Staffers Hosted Second Al-Qaeda Cleric on Capitol Hill, October 14, 2010,weblink Pajamas Media, October 19, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101019165117weblink">weblink October 19, 2010, live, That year, Nidal Malik Hasan visited al-Awlaki's mosque for his mother's funeral, at which al-Awlaki presided. In November 2009 Hasan killed 13 and wounded 32 in the Fort Hood shooting.NEWS,weblink Sherwell, Philip, Alex Spillius, Fort Hood shooting: Texas army killer linked to September 11 terrorists, The Daily Telegraph, November 7, 2009, May 11, 2010, London, NEWS,weblink Muslim Cleric Anwar Awlaki Linked to Fort Hood, Northwest Flight 253 Terror Attacks, ABC news, December 29, 2009, September 30, 2011, Hasan usually attended a mosque in Maryland closer to where he lived while working at the Walter Reed Medical Center (2003–09).Later in 2002, al-Awlaki posted an essay in Arabic on the Islam Today website titled "Why Muslims Love Death", supporting Palestinian suicide bombers. He expressed a similar opinion in a speech at a London mosque later that year. By July 2002, al-Awlaki was under investigation in the United States for having received money from the subject of a U.S. Joint Terrorism Task Force investigation. His name was added to the list of terrorism suspects.NEWS,weblink Joscelyn, Thomas, The Federal Bureau of Non-Investigation; Retracing A Trail Of Evidence That The FBI Ignored Prior To Ft. Hood, CBS News, November 10, 2009, January 24, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100105220344weblink">weblink January 5, 2010, live, In June 2002, a Denver federal judge signed an arrest warrant for al-Awlaki for passport fraud.WEB,weblink United States of America v. Anwar Nasser Aulaqi: Warrant For Arrest, July 17, 2010, June 17, 2002, PDF, United States District Court, District of Colorado, scribd.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100823223652weblink">weblink August 23, 2010, live, On October 9, the Denver U.S. Attorney's Office filed a motion to dismiss the complaint and vacate the arrest warrant. Prosecutors believed that they lacked sufficient evidence of a crime, according to U.S. Attorney Dave Gaouette, who authorized its withdrawal.NEWS,weblink U.S. attorney defends dropping radical cleric's case in 2002, Cardona, Felisa, December 3, 2009, The Denver Post, December 7, 2009, Al-Awlaki had listed Yemen rather than the United States as his place of birth on his 1990 application for a U.S. Social Security number, soon after arriving in the US. Al-Awlaki used this documentation to obtain a passport in 1993. He later corrected his place of birth to Las Cruces, New Mexico.WEB,weblink Warrant for Arrest of Anwar Nasser Aulaqi, June 17, 2002, NEFA Foundation, December 15, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100108050710weblink">weblink January 8, 2010, live, "The bizarre thing is if you put Yemen down (on the application), it would be harder to get a Social Security number than to say you are a native-born citizen of Las Cruces", Gaouette said.Prosecutors could not charge him in October 2002, when he returned from a trip abroad, because a 10-year statute of limitations on lying to the Social Security Administration had expired.NEWS,weblink Warrant for Arrest, Fox News, November 20, 2012, According to a 2012 investigative report by Fox News, the arrest warrant for passport fraud was still in effect on the morning of October 10, 2002, when FBI Agent Wade Ammerman ordered al-Awlaki's release. U.S. Congressman Frank Wolf (R-VA) and several congressional committees urged FBI Director Robert Mueller to provide an explanation about the bureau’s interactions with al-Awlaki, including why he was released from federal custody when there was an outstanding warrant for his arrest.NEWS, Catherine, Herridge, Mueller grilled on FBI's release of al-Awlaki in 2002, March 8, 2012,weblink Fox News, March 14, 2012, The motion for rescinding the arrest warrant was approved by a magistrate judge on October 10 and filed on October 11.ABC News reported in 2009 that the Joint Terrorism Task Force in San Diego disagreed with the decision to cancel the warrant. They were monitoring al-Awlaki and wanted to "look at him under a microscope". But U.S. Attorney Gaouette said that no objection had been raised to the rescinding of the warrant during a meeting that included Ray Fournier, the San Diego federal diplomatic security agent whose allegation had set in motion the effort to obtain a warrant. Gaouette said that if al-Awlaki had been convicted at the time, he would have faced about six months in custody.NEWS,weblink Evidence blocked arrest of imam with Fort Hood tie, Wyatt, Kristen, Associated Press, Denver Post, December 2, 2009, August 5, 2015, The New York Times suggested later that al-Awlaki had claimed birth in Yemen (his family's place of origin) to qualify for scholarship money granted to foreign citizens. U.S. Congressman Frank R. Wolf (R-VA) wrote in May 2010 that by claiming to be foreign-born, al-Awlaki fraudulently obtained more than $20,000 in scholarship funds reserved for foreign students.NEWS,weblink Congress of the United States, Foxnews.com, Fox News, November 20, 2012, While living in Northern Virginia, al-Awlaki visited Ali al-Timimi, later known as a radical Islamic cleric. Al-Timimi was convicted in 2005 and is now serving a life sentence for leading the Virginia Jihad Network, inciting Muslim followers to fight with the Taliban against the US.

In the United Kingdom; 2002–04

Al-Awlaki left the United States before the end of 2002, because of a "climate of fear and intimidation" according to Imam Johari Abdul-Malik of the Dar al-Hijrah mosque.He lived in the UK for several months, where he gave talks attended by up to 200 people.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100601124328weblink">weblink June 1, 2010, McDougall, Dan, Claire Newell, Christina Lamb, Jon Ungoed-Thomas, Chris Gourlay, Kevin Dowling, Dominic Tobin, January 3, 2010, Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab: one boy's journey to jihad, The Sunday Times (UK), August 5, 2015, London, He urged young Muslim followers: "The important lesson to learn here is never, ever trust a kuffar [disbeliever]. Do not trust them! [Their leaders] are plotting to kill this religion. They're plotting night and day." "He was the main man who translated the jihad into English," said a student who attended his lectures in 2003.He gave a series of lectures in December 2002 and January 2003 at the London Masjid al-Tawhid mosque, describing the rewards martyrs (Shahid) receive in paradise (Jannah).MAGAZINE, Calabresi, Massimo, Timothy J., Burger, Elaine, Shannon,weblink Why Did The Imam Befriend Hijackers?, August 4, 2003, Time, April 16, 2010, He began to gain supporters, particularly among young Muslims, and undertook a lecture tour of England and Scotland in 2002 in conjunction with the Muslim Association of Britain. He also lectured at "ExpoIslamia", an event held by Islamic Forum Europe. At the East London Mosque he told his audience: "A Muslim is a brother of a Muslim... he does not betray him, and he does not hand him over... You don't hand over a Muslim to the enemies."NEWS, Gardham, Duncan,weblink Al-Qaeda leader's tour of Britain revealed, The Daily Telegraph, November 5, 2010, November 11, 2010, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101108025747weblink">weblink November 8, 2010, live, In Britain's Parliament in 2003, Louise Ellman, MP for Liverpool Riverside, discussed the relationship between al-Awlaki and the Muslim Association of Britain, an alleged Muslim Brotherhood front organization founded by Kemal el-Helbawy, a senior member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.WEB, Morgan, Adrian,weblink Exclusive: Who is Anwar al-Awlaki?, FamilySecurityMatters.org, November 10, 2009, December 1, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091113051506weblink">weblink November 13, 2009, dead, mdy-all,

In Yemen; 2004–11

Al-Awlaki returned to Yemen in early 2004, where he lived in Shabwah Governorate with his wife and five children. He lectured at Iman University, headed by Abdul Majeed al-Zindani. The latter has been included on the UN 1267 Committee's list of individuals belonging to or associated with al-Qaeda.WEB,weblink UN 1267 Committee banned entity list, United Nations, August 4, 2015, Al-Zindani denied having any influence over al-Awlaki, or that he had been his "direct teacher".NEWS,weblink Yemen cleric Zindani warns against 'foreign occupation', BBC News staff, January 11, 2010, BBC News, January 14, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100114045616weblink">weblink January 14, 2010, live, Some believe{{Who|date=December 2015}} that the school's curriculum deals mostly, if not exclusively, with radical Islamic studies, and promotes radicalism. American convert John Walker Lindh and other alumni have been associated with terrorist groups.NEWS, Glenn R., Simpson, Glenn R. Simpson, Terror Probe Follows the Money:Investigators Say Bank Records Link a Saudi Investor to al Qaeda, A4, The Wall Street Journal, April 2, 2004, NEWS,weblink Yemeni radical cleric warns of foreign occupation, Keath, Lee, Associated Press, Guardian (UK), January 12, 2010, May 9, 2010, London, On August 31, 2006, al-Awlaki was arrested with four others on charges of kidnapping a Shiite teenager for ransom, and participating in an al-Qaeda plot to kidnap a U.S. military attaché. He was imprisoned in 2006 and 2007. He was interviewed around September 2007 by two FBI agents with regard to the 9/11 attacks and other subjects. John Negroponte, the U.S. Director of National Intelligence, told Yemeni officials he did not object to al-Awlaki's detention.His name was on a list of 100 prisoners whose release was sought by al-Qaeda-linked militants in Yemen. After 18 months in a Yemeni prison, al-Awlaki was released on December 12, 2007, following the intercession of his tribe. According to a Yemeni security official, he was released because he had repented. He moved to his family home in Saeed, a hamlet in the Shabwa mountains.Moazzam Begg's Cageprisoners, an organization representing former Guantanamo detainees, campaigned for al-Awlaki's release when he was in prison in Yemen. Al-Awlaki told Begg in an interview shortly after his release that prior to his incarceration in Yemen, he had condemned the 9/11 attacks.WEB,weblink Cageprisoners and the Great Underpants Conspiracy, Cageprisoners, January 14, 2010, Moazzam, Begg, Moazzam Begg, October 5, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110817125353weblink">weblink August 17, 2011, dead, mdy-all, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110518002530weblink">weblink dead, May 18, 2011, Moazzam Begg Interviews Imam Anwar Al Awlaki, December 31, 2007, October 5, 2011, Moazzam, Begg, Moazzam Begg, Cageprisoners, In December 2008, al-Awlaki sent a communique to the Somali terrorist group, al-Shabaab, congratulating them.WEB,weblink Anwar, Al-Awlaki, Salutations to Al-Shabaab of Somalia, The NEFA Foundation, December 21, 2008, January 24, 2010, |source=— Yemeni official familiar with counterterrorism operations}}Al-Awlaki provided al-Qaeda members in Yemen with the protection of his powerful tribe, the Awlakis, against the government. The tribal code required it to protect those who seek refuge and assistance. This imperative has greater force when the person is a member of the tribe, or a tribesman's friend. The tribe's motto is "We are the sparks of Hell; whomever interferes with us will be burned."NEWS, Coker, Margaret,weblink Yemen in Talks for Surrender of Cleric; Government Negotiates With Tribe Sheltering U.S.-Born Imam, The Wall Street Journal, January 15, 2010, January 24, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100118075749weblink">weblink January 18, 2010, live, Al-Awlaki also reportedly helped negotiate deals with leaders of other tribes.NEWS,weblink Yemen's Chaos Aids the Evolution of a Qaeda Cell, Erlanger, Steven, The New York Times, January 3, 2010, May 11, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100528052334weblink">weblink May 28, 2010, live, Sought by Yemeni authorities who were investigating his al-Qaeda ties, al-Awlaki went into hiding in approximately March 2009, according to his father. By December 2009, al-Awlaki was on the Yemen government's most-wanted list.NEWS, Soltis, Andy,weblink Fort Hood imam blown up: Yemen, The New York Post, December 25, 2009, January 24, 2010, He was believed to be hiding in Yemen's Shabwa or Mareb regions, which are part of the so-called "triangle of evil". The area has attracted al-Qaeda militants, who seek refuge among local tribes unhappy with Yemen's central government.NEWS,weblink Al-Haj, Ahmed, Donna, Abu-Nasr, US imam who communicated with Fort Hood suspect wanted in Yemen on terror suspicions, Associated Press, November 11, 2009, Reading Eagle, August 4, 2015, Yemeni sources originally said al-Awlaki might have been killed in a pre-dawn air strike by Yemeni Air Force fighter jets on a meeting of senior al-Qaeda leaders at a hideout in Rafd in eastern Shabwa, on December 24, 2009. But he survived.NEWS,weblink Anwar al-Awlaki Dead: Man Connected to Major Nidal Hasan Eliminated, News Bizarre staff, December 24, 2009, News Bizarre, January 24, 2010,weblinknewsbizarre%2Ecom/2009/12/anwar%2Dal%2Dawlaki%2Ddead%2Ehtml, March 27, 2010, live, Pravda reported that the planes, using Saudi and U.S. intelligence, killed at least 30 al-Qaeda members from Yemen and abroad, and that an al-Awlaki house was "raided and demolished".NEWS, http:english.pravda.ru/news/world/24-12-2009/111382-yemen-0/, Cleric Linked to Fort Hood Possibly Killed by Yemen Forces, Pravda, ABC News, December 24, 2009, August 5, 2015, On December 28 The Washington Post reported that U.S. and Yemeni officials said that al-Awlaki had been present at the meeting.NEWS,weblink Raghavan, Sudarsan, Al-Qaeda group in Yemen gaining prominence, The Washington Post, December 28, 2009, January 24, 2010, Abdul Elah al-Shaya, a Yemeni journalist, said al-Awlaki called him on December 28 to report that he was well and had not attended the al-Qaeda meeting. Al-Shaya said that al-Awlaki was not tied to al-Qaeda.MAGAZINE, Isikoff, Michael,weblink Exclusive: Yemeni Journalist Says Awlaki Alive, Well, Defiant, Newsweek, December 29, 2009, December 29, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100102070333weblink">weblink January 2, 2010, dead, In March 2010, a tape featuring al-Awlaki was released in which he urged Muslims residing in the United States to attack their country of residence.WEB,weblink CNN Report: A Message From Anwar Al-Awlaki, Newton, Paula, March 10, 2010, YouTube, May 7, 2010,

Reaching out to the United Kingdom

After 2006, al-Awlaki was banned from entering the United Kingdom.{{Citation needed|date=January 2014}} He broadcast lectures to mosques and other venues there via video-link from 2007 to 2009, on at least seven occasions at five locations in Britain.NEWS,weblink Sawer, Patrick, Barrett, David, January 2, 2010, Detroit bomber's mentor continues to influence British mosques and universities, The Daily Telegraph, January 2, 2010, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100105040107weblink">weblink January 5, 2010, Noor Pro Media Events held a conference at the East London Mosque on January 1, 2009, showing a videotaped lecture by al-Awlaki; former Shadow Home Secretary Dominic Grieve expressed concern over his being featured.NEWS,weblink Rayner Gordon, Muslim groups 'linked to September 11 hijackers spark fury over conference', The Daily Telegraph, December 27, 2008, January 24, 2010, London, NEWS,weblink Sengupta, Kim, David Usborne, Nigerian in aircraft attack linked to London mosque, The Independent, London, December 28, 2009, January 24, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100131174637weblink">weblink January 31, 2010, live, He gave video-link talks in England to an Islamic student society at the University of Westminster in September 2008, an arts center in East London in April 2009 (after the Tower Hamlets council gave its approval), worshippers at the Al Huda Mosque in Bradford, and a dinner of the Cageprisoners organization in September 2008 at the Wandsworth Civic Centre in South London.NEWS,weblink Jeory, Ted, Library Ban on Sermons of Hate, The Daily Express (UK), January 10, 2010, May 11, 2010, On August 23, 2009, al-Awlaki was banned by local authorities in Kensington and Chelsea, London, from speaking at Kensington Town Hall via videolink to a fundraiser dinner for Guantanamo detainees promoted by Cageprisoners.NEWS, O'Neill, Sean, January 4, 2010,weblink Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab had links with London campaign group, The Times (UK), London, May 11, 2010, NEWS,weblink Doward, Jamie, Islamist preacher banned from addressing fundraiser, The Observer, Guardian (UK), August 23, 2009, May 11, 2010, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100601102342weblink">weblink June 1, 2010, live, His videos, which discuss his Islamist theories, have circulated across the United Kingdom.NEWS, Doward, Jamie, December 27, 2009,weblink Airports raise global safety levels after terror attack on U.S. jet is foiled, Guardian (UK), December 27, 2009, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091229103233weblink">weblink December 29, 2009, live, NEWS, Spencer, Richard, December 28, 2009,weblink Detroit terror attack: Yemen is the true home of Al-Qaeda, The Daily Telegraph, May 11, 2010, London, NEWS, Spillius, Alex, December 28, 2009,weblink Al-Qaeda warned of imminent bomb attack, The Daily Telegraph, May 11, 2010, London, Until February 2010, hundreds of audio tapes of his sermons were available at the Tower Hamlets public libraries.NEWS,weblink Gilligan, Andrew, Radicals with hands on the levers of power: the takeover of Tower Hamlets, The Daily Telegraph, February 28, 2010, April 7, 2010, London, In 2009, the London-based Islam Channel carried advertisements for his DVDs and at least two of his video conference lectures.NEWS, Jamie, Doward,weblink UK Muslim TV channel linked to al-Qaida cleric al-Awlaki, The Guardian, January 10, 2010, August 15, 2015, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101013122619weblink">weblink October 13, 2010, live,

Other connections

File:Allen 2005.jpg|thumb|upright|left|In 2008, Charles E. Allen, former U.S. Under-Secretary for Homeland Security, publicly warned that al-Awlaki allegedly was targeting Muslims with online lectures encouraging terrorist attacks.]]FBI agents identified al-Awlaki as a known, important "senior recruiter for al Qaeda", and a spiritual motivator.NEWS,weblink Chucmach, Megan, Brian Ross, Al Qaeda Recruiter New Focus in Fort Hood Killings Investigation, ABC News, November 10, 2009, May 11, 2010, His name came up in a dozen terrorism plots in the US, UK, and Canada. The cases included suicide bombers in the 2005 London bombings, radical Islamic terrorists in the 2006 Toronto terrorism case, radical Islamic terrorists in the 2007 Fort Dix attack plot, the jihadist killer in the 2009 Little Rock military recruiting office shooting, and the 2010 Times Square bomber. In each case the suspects were devoted to al-Awlaki's message, which they listened to online and on CDs.NEWS, Sherwell, Philip, Duncan Gardham,weblink Fort Hood shooting: radical Islamic preacher also inspired July 7 bombers, November 23, 2009, The Daily Telegraph, May 11, 2010, London, Al-Awlaki's recorded lectures were heard by Islamist fundamentalists in at least six terror cells in the UK through 2009. Michael Finton (Talib Islam), who attempted in September 2009 to bomb the Federal Building and the adjacent offices of Congressman Aaron Schock in Springfield, Illinois, admired al-Awlaki and quoted him on his Myspace page.WEB, Gruen, Madeleine,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120301022613weblink">weblink March 1, 2012, Attempt to Attack the Paul Findley Federal Building in Springfield, Illinois, Report #23 in the 'Target: America' Series, 4, The NEFA Foundation, December 2009, August 5, 2015, In addition to his website, al-Awlaki had a Facebook fan pageWEB,weblink Facebook page, Unknown, Screen capture, Anwar al-Awlaki, with "fans" in the US, many of whom were high school students. Al-Awlaki also set up a website and blog on which he shared his views.NEWS,weblink Egerton, Brooks, November 29, 2009, Imam's e-mails to Fort Hood suspect Hasan tame compared to online rhetoric, The Dallas Morning News, May 11, 2010, Al-Awlaki influenced several other extremists to join terrorist organizations overseas and to carry out terrorist attacks in their home countries. Mohamed Alessa and Carlos Almonte, two American citizens from New Jersey who attempted to travel to Somalia in June 2010 to join the al-Qaeda-linked terrorist group Al Shabaab, allegedly watched several al-Awlaki videos and sermons in which he warned of future attacks against Americans in the United States and abroad.Anti-Defamation League: "Profile: Anwar al-Awlaki" August 6, 2010 Zachary Chesser, an American citizen who was arrested for attempting to provide material support to Al Shabaab, told federal authorities that he watched online videos featuring al-Awlaki and that he exchanged several e-mails with al-Awlaki.Anti-Defamation League: "Abu Talhah Al-Amrikee: An Extensive Online Footprint" August 6, 2010NEWS,weblink Zachary Chesser and Paul Rockwood: latest US citizens linked to al-Awlaki, Christian Science Monitor, July 22, 2010, October 30, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101026120448weblink">weblink October 26, 2010, live, In July 2010, Paul Rockwood was sentenced to eight years in prison for creating a list of 15 potential targets in the US, people he felt had desecrated Islam. Rockwood was a devoted follower of al-Awlaki, and had studied his works Constants on the Path to Jihad and 44 Ways to Jihad.In October 2008, Charles Allen, U.S. Under-Secretary of Homeland Security for Intelligence and Analysis, warned that al-Awlaki "targets U.S. Muslims with radical online lectures encouraging terrorist attacks from his new home in Yemen."WEB,weblink Keynote Address at GEOINT Conference, Allen, Charles E., Department of Homeland Security, October 28, 2008, November 14, 2009,weblink November 23, 2009, dead, Responding to Allen, al-Awlaki wrote on his website in December 2008: "I would challenge him to come up with just one such lecture where I encourage 'terrorist attacks'".WEB,weblink Anwar al-Awlaki:'Lies of the Telegraph', Al-Awlaki, Anwar, The NEFA Foundation, December 27, 2008, January 9, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120301022850weblink">weblink March 1, 2012,

Fort Hood shooter

File:Major Nidal Hassan.jpg|thumb|Convicted Fort Hood shooter Nidal Malik HasanNidal Malik HasanFort Hood shooter Nidal Malik Hasan was investigated by the FBI after intelligence agencies intercepted at least 18 e-mails between him and al-Awlaki between December 2008 and June 2009.NEWS,weblink Hess, Pamela, Anne, Gearan, November 21, 2009, Levin: More e-mails from Ft. Hood suspect possible, Associated Press, Reading Eagle, August 4, 2015, Even before the contents of the e-mails were revealed, terrorism expert Jarret Brachman said that Hasan's contacts with al-Awlaki should have raised "huge red flags", because of his influence on radical English-speaking jihadis.NEWS,weblink Brachman, Jarret, Interview: Host Michelle Norris, All Things Considered, Expert Discusses Ties Between Hasan, Radical Imam, NPR, November 10, 2009, May 11, 2010, Charles Allen, no longer in government, noted that there was no work-related reason for Hasan to be in touch with al-Awlaki. Former CIA officer Bruce Riedel opined: "E-mailing a known al-Qaeda sympathizer should have set off alarm bells. Even if he was exchanging recipes, the bureau should have put out an alert." A DC-based Joint Terrorism Task Force operating under the FBI was notified of the e-mails, and reviewed the information. Army employees were informed of the e-mails, but they didn't perceive any terrorist threat in Hasan's questions. Instead, they viewed them as general questions about spiritual guidance with regard to conflicts between Islam and military service, and judged them to be consistent with legitimate mental health research about Muslims in the armed services.NEWS,weblink November 10, 2009, FBI reassessing past look at Fort Hood suspect, Associated Press staff, Associated Press, The Monitor (McAllen, TX), May 11, 2010, dead,weblink" title="archive.today/20120912002818weblink">weblink September 12, 2012, The assessment was that there was not sufficient information for a larger investigation.NEWS,weblink Hasan's Ties Spark Government Blame Game, CBS/AP staff, CBS News, Associated Press, November 11, 2009, January 24, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100105161340weblink">weblink January 5, 2010, live, In one of the e-mails, Hasan wrote al-Awlaki: "I can't wait to join you [in the afterlife]". "It sounds like code words," said Lt. Col. Tony Shaffer, a military analyst at the Center for Advanced Defense Studies. "That he's actually either offering himself up, or that he's already crossed that line in his own mind."Yemeni journalist Abdulelah Hider Shaea interviewed al-Awlaki in November 2009. Al-Awlaki acknowledged his correspondence with Hasan. He said he "neither ordered nor pressured ... Hasan to harm Americans." Al-Awlaki said Hasan first e-mailed him December 17, 2008, introducing himself by writing: "Do you remember me? I used to pray with you at the Virginia mosque." Hasan said he had become a devout Muslim around the time al-Awlaki was preaching at Dar al-Hijrah, in 2001 and 2002, and al-Awlaki said 'Maybe Nidal was affected by one of my lectures.'" He added: "It was clear from his e-mails that Nidal trusted me. Nidal told me: 'I speak with you about issues that I never speak with anyone else.'" Al-Awlaki said Hasan arrived at his own conclusions regarding the acceptability of violence in Islam, and said he was not the one to initiate this. Shaea said, "Nidal was providing evidence to Anwar, not vice versa."Asked whether Hasan mentioned Fort Hood as a target in his e-mails, Shaea declined to comment. Al-Awlaki said the shooting was acceptable in Islam, however, because it was a form of jihad, as the West began the hostilities with the Muslims.NEWS,weblink Imam Al Awlaki Says He Did Not Pressure Accused Fort Hood Gunman Nidal Hasan, Associated Press staff, Associated Press, Washington, The Huffington Post, November 16, 2009, May 12, 2010, Al-Awlaki said he "blessed the act because it was against a military target. And the soldiers who were killed were ... those who were trained and prepared to go to Iraq and Afghanistan".NEWS,weblink Esposito, Richard, Matthew Cole, Brian Ross, Officials: U.S. Army Told of Hasan's Contacts with al Qaeda; Army Major in Fort Hood Massacre Used 'Electronic Means' to Connect with Terrorists, The Blotter from Brian Ross, ABC News, November 9, 2009, May 11, 2010, Al-Awlaki's e-mail conversations with Hasan were not released, and he was not placed on the FBI Most Wanted list, indicted for treason, or officially named as a co-conspirator with Hasan. The U.S. government was reluctant to classify the Fort Hood shooting as a terrorist incident, or identify any motive. The Wall Street Journal reported in January 2010 that al-Awlaki had not "played a direct role" in any of the attacks, and noted he had never been charged with a crime in the US.One of his fellow officers at Fort Hood said Hasan was enthusiastic about al-Awlaki.NEWS,weblink Sacks, Ethan, Who is Anwar al-Awlaki? Imam contacted by Fort Hood gunman Nidal Malik Hasan has long radical past, Daily News (New York), New York Daily News, November 11, 2009, January 24, 2010, Some investigators believe al-Awlaki's teachings may have been instrumental in Hasan's decision to stage the attack.NEWS, Barnes, Julian E.,weblink Gates makes recommendations in Ft. Hood shooting case, Los Angeles Times, January 15, 2010, January 24, 2010, On his now-disabled website, al-Awlaki praised Hasan's actions, describing him as a hero.

Christmas Day "Underwear Bomber"

File:Umar Mutallab crop and contrast.png|thumb|left|Umar Farouk AbdulmutallabUmar Farouk AbdulmutallabAccording to a number of sources, Al-Awlaki and Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, the convicted al-Qaeda attempted bomber of Northwest Airlines Flight 253 on December 25, 2009, had contacts. In January 2010, CNN reported that U.S. "security sources" said that there is concrete evidence that al-Awlaki was Abdulmutallab's recruiter and one of his trainers, and met with him prior to the attack.NEWS,weblink Wednesday's intriguing people, News blogs, Kernis, Jay, CNN.com, April 7, 2010, April 7, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100411023820weblink">weblink April 11, 2010, live, In February 2010, al-Awlaki admitted in an interview published in al-Jazeera that he taught and corresponded with Abdulmutallab, but denied having ordered the attack.NEWS,weblink US cleric: Accused plane bomber was my student, Al-Haj, Ahmed, Sarah El Deeb, San'a, Yemen, February 4, 2010, Associated Press, ABC News, NEWS,weblink Yemeni American cleric Aulaqi confirms contact with Nigerian suspect, Karen, DeYoung, On Faith, The Washington Post, February 6, 2010, May 11, 2010, NEWS,weblink Law official: Airline bomb suspect flips on cleric, Apuzzo, Matt, Matt Apuzzo, Sullivan, Eileen, Eileen Sullivan, Associated Press, February 4, 2010, ABC News, May 11, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110628195504weblink">weblink June 28, 2011, dead, mdy-all, Representative Pete Hoekstra, the senior Republican on the House Intelligence Committee, said officials in the Obama administration and officials with access to law enforcement information told him the suspect "may have had contact [with al-Awlaki]".NEWS,weblink Detroit: British student in al-Qaeda airline bomb attempt, Allen, Nick, The Daily Telegraph, December 25, 2009, August 5, 2015, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091228104551weblink">weblink December 28, 2009, live, NEWS, Preddy, Melissa,weblink Nigerian with 'Al Qaeda ties' tries to blow up US jet, Agence France-Presse (AFP), Sydney Morning Herald, December 26, 2009, August 5, 2015, The Sunday Times established that Abdulmutallab first met al-Awlaki in 2005 in Yemen, while he was studying Arabic.NEWS,weblink Leppard, David, Dan McDougall, January 3, 2010, MI5 knew of Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab's UK extremist links, The Sunday Times (UK), May 11, 2010, London, During that time the suspect attended lectures by al-Awlaki. The two are also "thought to have met" in London, according to The Daily Mail.NEWS, Richard, Pendlebury,weblink How a middle-class Nigerian boy was seduced by Al Qaeda into trying to blow up a transatlantic jet, The Daily Mail (UK), January 2, 2010, January 24, 2010, London,weblink" title="archive.today/20100206161135weblink">weblink February 6, 2010, live, NPR reported that according to unnamed U.S. intelligence officials he attended a sermon by al-Awlaki at the Finsbury Park Mosque.MAGAZINE, James, Forsyth,weblink Mahmood seeks answers, The Spectator, July 19, 2010, August 15, 2015, Khalid Mahmood, the Labour MP for Birmingham Perry Barr, a former trustee of the mosque, expressed "grave misgivings" with regard to its stewardship.NEWS,weblink Jonathan Walker, Birmingham MP calls for investigation into claims mosque was used by extremists, Sunday Mercury, August 1, 2010, October 8, 2010, A spokesperson of the mosque stated that al-Awlaki had never spoken there or had even to his knowledge entered the building.NEWS,weblink Khalid Mahmood's false claims increase risk of Islamophobic attacks on North London Central Mosque, North London Central Mosque, January 28, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100724113436weblink">weblink July 24, 2010, dead, Abdulmutallab was also reported by CBS News, The Daily Telegraph, and The Sunday Telegraph to have attended a talk by al-Awlaki at the East London Mosque, which al-Awlaki may have attended by video teleconference.NEWS,weblink Did Abdulmutallab Meet Radical Cleric?, CBS News staff, CBS News, December 29, 2009, May 11, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100412205325weblink">weblink April 12, 2010, live, NEWS, Gilligan, Andrew,weblink Hizb ut Tahrir is not a gateway to terrorism, claims Whitehall report, The Daily Telegraph, July 25, 2010, October 8, 2010, London, NEWS, Gilligan, Andrew,weblink Our dangerous dalliance with radical Islam, The Daily Telegraph, August 6, 2010, October 8, 2010, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101021233401weblink">weblink October 21, 2010, live, The Sunday Telegraph later removed the report from its website following a complaint by the East London Mosque, which stated that "Anwar Al Awlaki did not deliver any talks at the ELM between 2005 and 2008, which is when the newspaper had falsely alleged that Abdullmutallab had attended such talks".NEWS,weblink Sunday Telegraph removes article, East London Mosque, July 23, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100822005356weblink">weblink August 22, 2010, live, Investigators who searched flats connected to Abdulmutallab in London said that he was a "big fan" of al-Awlaki, as al-Awlaki's blog and website had repeatedly been visited from those locations.NEWS, Herridge, Catherine,weblink Investigators Recover SIM Cards During Searches of Homes Tied to Abdulmutallab, Fox News, December 28, 2009, August 5, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091231020317weblink">weblink December 31, 2009, dead, mdy-all, The suspect was "on American security watch-lists because of his links with ... al-Awlaki", according to University of Oxford historian, and professor of international relations, Mark Almond.NEWS, Almond, Mark, Al Qaeda terror plot that was born in Africa,weblink December 27, 2009, The Daily Mail (UK), December 27, 2009, London, According to federal sources, Abdulmutallab and al-Awlaki repeatedly communicated with one another in the year prior to the attack.NEWS, Johnson, Carrie, Karen DeYoung, Anne E. Kornblut,weblink Obama vows to repair intelligence gaps behind Detroit airplane incident, The Washington Post, December 30, 2009, December 30, 2009, "Voice-to-voice communication" between the two was intercepted during the fall of 2009, and one government source said al-Awlaki "was in some way involved in facilitating [Abdulmutallab]'s transportation or trip through Yemen. It could be training, a host of things."NEWS,weblink DeYoung, Karen, Obama to get report on intelligence failures in Abdulmutallab case, The Washington Post, December 31, 2009, January 24, 2010, NPR reported that intelligence officials suspected al-Awlaki may have told Abdulmutallab to go to Yemen for al-Qaeda training.Abdulmutallab told the FBI that al-Awlaki was one of his al-Qaeda trainers in Yemen. Others reported that Abdulmutallab met with al-Awlaki in the weeks leading up to the attack.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110629111749weblink">weblink June 29, 2011, Double life of 'gifted and polite' terror suspect Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, James, Hider, The Times (UK), January 1, 2010, January 1, 2010, London, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110629111806weblink">weblink June 29, 2011, Our false sense of security should end here: al-Qaeda never went away, Analysis, O'Neill, Sean, The Times (UK), December 28, 2009, December 28, 2009, London, The Los Angeles Times reported that according to a U.S. intelligence official, intercepts and other information point to connections between the two:Some of the information ... comes from Abdulmutallab, who ... said that he met with al-Awlaki and senior al-Qaeda members during an extended trip to Yemen this year, and that the cleric was involved in some elements of planning or preparing the attack and in providing religious justification for it. Other intelligence linking the two became apparent after the attempted bombing, including communications intercepted by the National Security Agency indicating that the cleric was meeting with "a Nigerian" in preparation for some kind of operation.Yemen's Deputy Prime Minister for Defense and Security Affairs, Rashad Mohammed al-Alimi, said Yemeni investigators believe that Abdulmutallab traveled to Shabwa in October 2009. Investigators believe he obtained his explosives and received training there. He met there with al-Qaeda members in a house built by al-Awlaki.NEWS,weblink Raghavan, Sudarsan, Yemen links accused jet bomber, radical cleric, St. Petersburg Times, January 1, 2010, August 5, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100106092515weblink">weblink January 6, 2010, live, A top Yemen government official said the two met with each other.NEWS, CNN Wire Staff,weblink American-born cleric appears in al Qaeda video, CNN, April 27, 2010, May 12, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100503150534weblink">weblink May 3, 2010, live, In January 2010, al-Awlaki acknowledged that he met and spoke with Abdulmutallab in Yemen in the fall of 2009. In an interview, al-Awlaki said: "Umar Farouk is one of my students; I had communications with him. And I support what he did." He also said: "I did not tell him to do this operation, but I support it".NEWS, Worth, Robert F.,weblink Cleric in Yemen Admits Meeting Airliner Plot Suspect, Journalist Says, The New York Times, April 7, 2010, February 1, 2010, Fox News reported in early February 2010 that Abdulmutallab told federal investigators that al-Awlaki directed him to carry out the bombing.NEWS,weblink Christmas Bomb Suspect Says Radical Imam Told Him to Bomb Jet, Source Says, Fox News staff, February 4, 2010, Fox News, July 15, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140913194501weblink">weblink September 13, 2014, dead, In June 2010 Michael Leiter, the Director of the U.S. National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC), said al-Awlaki had a "direct operational role" in the plot.NEWS, Glionna, John M.,weblink In the Nation, The Philadelphia Inquirer, July 1, 2010, October 30, 2010,

Sharif Mobley

Sharif Mobley had acknowledged contact with Anwar al-Awlaki. The Mobley family claims the contact was for spiritual guidance in further studies of Islam.The Mobley family went to Yemen and resided there for several years. They decided to return to the United States and went to the U.S. Embassy to update the family travel documents. While waiting for their travel documents, Sharif Mobley was kidnapped by Yemen Security Services and shot on January 26, 2010. He was then held in Yemen's Central Prison. Mobley disappeared from the Central Prison on February 27, 2014.NEWS, Ackerman, Spencer, American citizen Sharif Mobley is missing in Yemen – lawyers,weblink The Guardian, April 10, 2014, His current location is known to the U.S. Embassy in Yemen (currently closed 2015) but is withheld from his family and legal advisers based on U.S. State Department Regulations on "U.S. Citizens Missing Abroad".All charges related to "terrorism/terrorist activity" were dropped by the Yemen government. There are no charges relating to allegations of "killing a guard during an escape attempt from the hospital" and there are no other legal proceedings against him in Yemen.NEWS, Ackerman, Spencer, American prisoner's fate unknown after deadly air strikes on Yemen jail,weblink The Guardian, May 27, 2015,

Times Square bomber

Faisal Shahzad, convicted of the 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt, told interrogators that he was a "fan and follower" of al-Awlaki, and his writings were one of the inspirations for the attack.NEWS,weblink Suspect Cites Radical Imam's Writings, The Wall Street Journal, Yochi J., Dreazen, Yochi Dreazen, Evan, Perez, May 6, 2010, May 6, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100509120618weblink">weblink May 9, 2010, live, NEWS, Herridge, Catherine,weblink Times Square Bomb Suspect a 'Fan' of Prominent Radical Cleric, Sources Say, Fox News, May 6, 2010, May 7, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100507101825weblink">weblink May 7, 2010, live, On May 6, 2010 ABC News reported that unknown sources told them Shahzad made contact with al-Awlaki over the internet, a claim that could not be independently verified.NEWS,weblink Fox News staff, Times Square Suspect Contacted Radical Cleric, Fox News, May 1, 2010, May 7, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110512174654weblink">weblink May 12, 2011, NEWS,weblink Faisal Shahzad Had Contact With Anwar Awlaki, Taliban, and Mumbai Massacre Mastermind, Officials Say, Esposito, Richard, Chris, Vlasto, Chris, Cuomo, The Blotter from Brian Ross, ABC News, May 6, 2010, May 7, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100509013338weblink">weblink May 9, 2010, live,

Stabbing of British former minister Stephen Timms

Roshonara Choudhry, who stabbed former British Cabinet Minister Stephen Timms in May 2010, and was found guilty of his attempted murder in November 2010, claimed to have become radicalized by listening to online sermons of al-Awlaki.NEWS,weblink London, The Daily Telegraph, Gordon, Rayner, John, Bingham, Stephen Timms stabbing: how internet sermons turned quiet student into fanatic, November 2, 2010, NEWS,weblink London, The Guardian, Vikram, Dodd, Profile: Roshonara Choudhry, November 2, 2010, NEWS,weblink BBC News, Woman jailed for life for attack on MP Stephen Timms, November 3, 2010,

Seattle Weekly cartoonist death threat

In 2010, after Everybody Draw Mohammed Day, cartoonist Molly Norris at Seattle Weekly had to stop publishing, and at the suggestion of the FBI changed her name, moved, and went into hiding due to a fatwā issued by al-Awlaki calling for her death.NEWS,weblink Fefer, Mark, On the Advice of the FBI, Cartoonist Molly Norris Disappears From View, Seattle Weekly, September 15, 2010, September 17, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100917182909weblink">weblink September 17, 2010, dead, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink Hannan, Caleb, Molly Norris, "Draw Mohammed Day" Cartoonist, Placed On Execution Hitlist By Islamic Cleric Anwar al-Awlaki, Seattle Weekly, July 12, 2010, September 17, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101008013157weblink">weblinkdailyweekly20107molly_norris_draw_mohammed_day_1.php, October 8, 2010, dead, NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Brian, Stelter, 'Mohammed Day' Cartoonist in Hiding After Death Threats, September 16, 2010, In the June 2010 issue of Inspire, an English-language al-Qaeda magazine, al-Awlaki cursed her and eight others for "blasphemous caricatures" of Muhammad. "The medicine prescribed by the Messenger of Allah is the execution of those involved", he wrote.NEWS,weblink James Gordon Meek, Katie Nelson, No Laughing Matter; FBI warns cartoonist who proposed 'Everybody Draw Muhammed Day' she's on terror hit list, Daily News (New York), New York Daily News'', July 12, 2010, August 15, 2015, Daniel Pipes observed in an article entitled "Dueling Fatwas", "Awlaki stands at an unprecedented crossroads of death declarations, with his targeting Norris even as the U.S. government targets him."NEWS,weblink Daniel Pipes, Dueling Fatwas, The Philadelphia Bulletin, October 10, 2010, October 30, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160219001538weblink">weblink February 19, 2016,

Cargo planes bomb plot

The Guardian, The New York Times, and The Daily Telegraph reported that U.S. and British counter-terrorism officials believed that al-Awlaki was behind the cargo plane PETN bombs that were sent from Yemen to Chicago in October 2010.NEWS,weblink Sean Rayment, Patrick Hennessy, David Barrett, Yemen cargo bomb plot may have been targeted at Britain, The Daily Telegraph, October 30, 2010, November 8, 2010, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101104014436weblink">weblink November 4, 2010, live, Yemen bomb scare 'mastermind' lived in London | World news. The Guardian. Retrieved on October 1, 2011.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Robert F., Worth, Yemen Emerges as Base for Al Qaeda Attacks, October 29, 2010, When U.S. Homeland Security official John Brennan was asked about al-Awlaki's suspected involvement in the plot, he said: "Anybody associated with al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula is a subject of concern." U.S. Ambassador to Yemen Gerald Feierstein said "al-Awlaki was behind the two ... bombs."NEWS,weblink Yemeni radical cleric behind parcel bombs: US ambassador, Global Times, November 26, 2010, September 30, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110707031209weblink">weblink July 7, 2011,

Final years

Al-Awlaki's father, tribe, and supporters denied his alleged associations with Al-Qaeda and Islamic terrorism.NEWS,weblink Awlaki: I'm Alive Says Yemen Radical Anwar Awlaki Despite U.S. Attack, Atta, Nasser, Brian, Ross, Matthew, Cole, ABC News, December 31, 2009, April 9, 2010, Al-Awlaki's father proclaimed his son's innocence in an interview with CNN's Paula Newton, saying: "I am now afraid of what they will do with my son. He's not Osama bin Laden, they want to make something out of him that he's not." Responding to a Yemeni official's assertions that his son had taken refuge with al-Qaeda, Nasser said: "He's dead wrong. What do you expect my son to do? There are missiles raining down on the village. He has to hide. But he is not hiding with al-Qaeda; our tribe is protecting him right now."NEWS, Newton, Paula,weblink Al-Awlaki's father: My son is 'not Osama bin Laden', CNN, January 10, 2010, January 10, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100114043052weblink">weblink January 14, 2010, live, The Yemeni government attempted to get the tribal leaders to release al-Awlaki to their custody.NEWS,weblink Al-Haj, Ahmed, Keath, Lee, January 19, 2010, Tribe in Yemen protecting US cleric, Associated Press, Seattle Times, August 5, 2015, They promised they would not turn him over to U.S. authorities for questioning. The governor of Shabwa said in January 2010 that al-Awlaki was on the move with members of al-Qaeda, including Fahd al-Quso, who was wanted in connection with the bombing of the USS Cole.In January 2010, White House lawyers debated whether or not it was legal to kill al-Awlaki, given his U.S. citizenship.NEWS,weblink Cole, Matthew, Richard, Esposito, Brian, Ross, U.S. Mulls Legality of Killing American al Qaeda 'Turncoat'; Opportunities to 'Take Out' Radical Cleric Anwar Awlaki In Yemen 'May Have Been Missed', ABC News, January 25, 2010, April 7, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100330171031weblink">weblink March 30, 2010, live, U.S. officials stated that international law allows targeted killing in the event that the subject is an "imminent threat".NEWS,weblink U.S. Approves Targeted Killing of American Cleric, Shane, Scott, April 6, 2010, The New York Times, April 6, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100408031248weblink">weblink2010007worlmiddleeast07yemen.html, April 8, 2010, live, Because he was a U.S. citizen, his killing had to be approved by the National Security Council. Such action against a U.S. citizen is extremely rare. As a military enemy of the US, al-Awlaki was not subject to Executive Order 11905, which bans assassination for political reasons.NEWS,weblink Yemen: Warning by Cleric's Tribe, Reuters staff, Reuters, April 9, 2010, The New York Times, April 11, 2010, The authorization was nevertheless controversial.WEB, Bell, Josh,weblink Killing of Al-Awlaki: Even When Trying to Fight Terrorism, the President Must Still Follow the Constitution, Aclu.org, July 10, 2011, October 23, 2012, By February 4, 2010, the New York Daily News reported that al-Awlaki was "now on a targeting list signed off on by the Obama administration".NEWS,weblink Meek, James Gordon, Experts: Al Qaeda in Yemen may send American jihadis, recruited by Anwar al-Awlaki, to attack U.S, Daily News (New York), New York Daily News, February 4, 2010, February 4, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100207172739weblink">weblink February 7, 2010, live, On April 6, The New York Times reported that President Obama had authorized the killing of al-Awlaki.The al-Awalik tribe responded: "We warn against cooperating with America to kill Sheikh Anwar al-Awlaki. We will not stand by idly and watch." Al-Awlaki's tribe wrote that it would "not remain with arms crossed if a hair of Anwar al-Awlaki is touched, or if anyone plots or spies against him. Whoever risks denouncing our son (Awlaki) will be the target of Al-Awalik weapons", and gave warning "against co-operating with the Americans" in the capture or killing of al-Awlaki.WEB,weblinknews/middleeast/2010/04/201041212105575923.html, Yemen's Awlaki family offers deal, Al Jazeera, October 30, 2010, dead, https:web.archive.org/web/20080625021149weblink June 25, 2008, Abu Bakr al-Qirbi, the Yemeni foreign minister, announced that the Yemeni government had not received any evidence from the US, and that "Anwar al-Awlaki has always been looked at as a preacher rather than a terrorist and shouldn't be considered as a terrorist unless the Americans have evidence that he has been involved in terrorism".|source=— Sajjan M. Gohel, Asia-Pacific Foundation}}In a video clip bearing the imprint of al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, issued on April 16 in al-Qaeda's monthly magazine Sada Al-Malahem, al-Awlaki said: "What am I accused of? Of calling for the truth? Of calling for jihad for the sake of Allah? Of calling to defend the causes of the Islamic nation?"NEWS,weblink Keeping score:Al-Qaeda has a hit list, but so does the CIA. Whose better reflects reality, wonders Nasser Arrabyee, Arrabyee, Nasser, Al-Ahram Weekly, Cairo, Egypt, May 5, 2010, May 9, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100505140240weblink">weblink May 5, 2010, live, In the video he also praises both Abdulmutallab and Hasan, and describes both as his "students".NEWS,weblink Detroit jet bomb suspect Abdulmutallab 'shown in video', BBC News, April 27, 2010, May 12, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100430192832weblink">weblink April 30, 2010, live, In late April, Representative Charlie Dent (R-PA) introduced a resolution urging the U.S. State Department to withdraw al-Awlaki's U.S. citizenship.NEWS, Levine, Mike,weblink Rep. Introduces Resolution to Strip Radical Cleric of US Citizenship, Fox News Covers Congress, Fox News, April 22, 2010, May 12, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100428042425weblink">weblink April 28, 2010, By May, U.S. officials believed he had become directly involved in terrorist activities. Former colleague Abdul-Malik said he "is a terrorist, in my book", and advised shops not to carry any of his publications. In an editorial, Investor's Business Daily called al-Awlaki the "world's most dangerous man", and recommended that he be added to the FBI's most-wanted terrorist list, a bounty put on his head, that he be designated a Specially Designated Global Terrorist, charged with treason, and extradition papers filed with the Yemeni government. IBD criticized the Justice Department for stonewalling Senator Joe Lieberman's security panel's investigation of al-Awlaki's role in the Fort Hood massacre.NEWS,weblink IBD Editorials Awlaki Strikes Again, Investor's Business Daily, April 22, 2010, May 10, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100513000638weblink">weblink May 13, 2010, On July 16, the U.S. Treasury Department added him to its list of Specially Designated Global Terrorists.NEWS,weblink US-born radical cleric added to terror blacklist, Associated Press, July 16, 2010, July 17, 2010, Eileen, Sullivan, Eileen Sullivan, Matthew, Lee, Fox News,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100718015640weblink">weblink July 18, 2010, live, Stuart Levey, Under Secretary of the Treasury for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence, called him "extraordinarily dangerous", and said al-Awlaki was involved in several organizational aspects of terrorism, including recruiting, training, fundraising, and planning individual attacks.NEWS,weblink Treasury designates Anwar al-Awlaki key leader of AQAP, CNN, July 13, 2010, July 17, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100717224900weblink">weblink July 17, 2010, live, A few days later, the United Nations Security Council placed al-Awlaki on its UN Security Council Resolution 1267 list of individuals associated with al-Qaeda, describing him as a leader, recruiter, and trainer for al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="www.webarchive.org.uk/wayback/archive/20141021041411weblink">weblink dead, October 21, 2014, Canada joins crackdown on radical Muslim cleric, National Post, October 30, 2010, March 30, 2010, The resolution stipulates that U.N. members must freeze the assets of anyone on the list, and prevent them from travelling or obtaining weapons.WEB,weblink Awlaki lands on al-Qaida suspect list, UPI, July 21, 2010, October 30, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101023142601weblink">weblink October 23, 2010, live, The following week, Canadian banks were ordered to seize any assets belonging to al-Awlaki. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police's senior counter-terrorism officer Gilles Michaud described him as a "major, major factor in radicalization". In September 2010, Jonathan Evans, the Director General of the United Kingdom's domestic security and counter-intelligence agency (MI5), said that al-Awlaki was the West's Public Enemy No 1.NEWS,weblink Peter Johnston, Anwar al Awlaki: the new Osama bin Laden?, The Daily Telegraph, September 17, 2010, October 30, 2010, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101106054944weblink">weblink November 6, 2010, live, In October 2010, U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner (D-NY) urged YouTube to take down al-Awlaki's videos from its website, saying that by hosting al-Awlaki's messages, "We are facilitating the recruitment of homegrown terror."NEWS,weblink Al-Awlaki's YouTube Videos Targeted by Rep. Weiner, Fox News, April 7, 2010, October 30, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101028110118weblink">weblink October 28, 2010, live, Pauline Neville-Jones, British security minister, said "These Web sites ... incite cold-blooded murder."NEWS,weblink The New York Times, John F., Burns, Miguel, Helft, YouTube Withdraws Cleric's Videos, November 4, 2010, YouTube began removing the material in November 2010.Al-Awlaki was charged in absentia in Sana'a, Yemen, on November 2 with plotting to kill foreigners and being a member of al-Qaeda.NEWS,weblink Matt Apuzzo, Yemen charges US-born radical cleric al-Awlaki, Associated Press, November 2, 2010, November 3, 2010, New York Post,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101105035820weblink">weblink November 5, 2010, live, Ali al-Saneaa, the head of the prosecutor's office, announced the charges during the trial of Hisham Assem, who had been accused of killing Jacques Spagnolo, an oil industry worker. He said that al-Awlaki and Assem had been in contact for months, and that al-Awlaki had encouraged Assem to commit terrorism.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110806025854weblink">weblink August 6, 2011, Yemen cleric not linked to foreigner's killing: lawyer, Gulf Times, November 10, 2010, August 16, 2015, Al-Awlaki's lawyer said that his client was not connected to Spagnolo's death. On November 6, Yemeni Judge Mohsen Alwan ordered that al-Awlaki be caught "dead or alive".WEB,weblink Yemen orders arrest of al-Awlaki, Al Jazeera, October 9, 2010, November 8, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101108132254weblink">weblink November 8, 2010, live, In his book Ticking Time Bomb: Counter-Terrorism Lessons from the U.S. Government's Failure to Prevent the Fort Hood Attack (2011), former U.S. Senator Joe Lieberman described al-Awlaki, Australian Muslim preacher Feiz Mohammad, Muslim cleric Abdullah el-Faisal, and Pakistani-American Samir Khan as "virtual spiritual sanctioners" who use the internet to offer religious justification for Islamist terrorism.BOOK,weblink Ticking Time Bomb: Counter-Terrorism Lessons from the U. S. Government's Failure to Prevent the Fort Hood Attack, Joseph I. Lieberman, Diane Publishing, 2011, April 22, 2013, 9781437981223,

Lawsuit against the US

In July 2010, al-Awlaki's father, Nasser al-Awlaki, contacted the Center for Constitutional Rights and the American Civil Liberties Union to represent his son in a lawsuit that sought to remove Anwar from the targeted killing list.CCR, "CCR and the ACLU v. OFAC & Al-Aulaqi v. Obama" ACLU's Jameel Jaffer said:the United States is not at war in Yemen, and the government doesn't have a blank check to kill terrorism suspects wherever they are in the world. Among the arguments we'll be making is that, outside actual war zones, the authority to use lethal force is narrowly circumscribed, and preserving the rule of law depends on keeping this authority narrow.NEWS,weblink CIA on the verge of lawsuit, Seer Press News, August 5, 2010, Mark Wilson, Lawyers for Specially Designated Global Terrorists must obtain a special license from the U.S. Treasury Department before they can represent their clients in court. The lawyers were granted the license on August 4, 2010.NEWS,weblink Lawyers Win Right to Aid U.S. Target, The New York Times, August 4, 2010, On August 30, 2010, the groups filed a "targeted killing" lawsuit, naming President Obama, CIA Director Leon Panetta, and Secretary of Defense Robert Gates as defendants.NEWS,weblink Rights groups sue over U.S. authority to use terror kill list, The Washington Post, Spencer S. Hsu, August 31, 2010, WEB,weblink Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief (Violation of constitutional rights and international law â€“ targeted killing), August 30, 2010, Arthur B. Spitzer, They sought an injunction preventing the targeted killing of al-Awlaki, and also sought to require the government to disclose the standards under which U.S. citizens may be "targeted for death". Judge John D. Bates dismissed the lawsuit in an 83-page ruling, holding that the father did not have legal standing to bring the lawsuit, and that his claims were judicially unreviewable under the political question doctrine inasmuch as he was questioning a decision that the U.S. Constitution committed to the political branches.WEB,weblink United States District Court for the District of Columbia: Civil Action No. 101-1469 (JDB), Aclu.org, January 16, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111129194634weblink">weblink November 29, 2011, MAGAZINE,weblink Judge Tosses Suit Seeking to Prevent Targeted Killing of Cleric Who Urged Jihad, ABA Journal, December 7, 2010, September 30, 2011, On May 5, 2011, the United States tried but failed to kill al-Awlaki by firing a missile from an unmanned drone at a car in Yemen.NEWS,weblink Los Angeles Times, David S., Butt, U.S.-born cleric was target of Yemen drone strike, May 7, 2011, A Yemeni security official said that two al-Qaeda operatives in the car died.NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, Jeb Boone, Greg Miller, May 5, 2011, U.S. drone strike in Yemen is first since 2002,

Death

{{external media | width = 210px | align = right
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| video1 = White House Press Briefing, September 30, 2011, "Jay Carney briefed reporters and answered questions on a number of issues, including the killing of the leader of al-Qaida in the Arabian peninsula (AQAP) Anwar al-Awlaki by a U.S. drone attack in a remote town of Yemen."WEB, White House Press Briefing, C-SPAN, September 30, 2011,weblinkweblink dead, March 10, 2017, July 16, 2016, }}
According to U.S. sources, the strike was carried out by Joint Special Operations Command, under the direction of the CIA.Griffin, Jennifer. (April 7, 2010) weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110930163308weblink">Two U.S.-Born Terrorists Killed In CIA-Led Drone Strike. Fox News. Retrieved on October 1, 2011. A witness said the group had stopped to eat breakfast while traveling to Ma'rib Governorate. The occupants of the vehicle spotted the drone and attempted to flee in the vehicle.NEWS,weblink The Guardian, Anwar al-Awlaki death: US keeps role under wraps to manage Yemen fallout, September 30, 2011, London, Dominic, Rushe, Chris, McGreal, Jason, Burke, Luke, Harding, Yemen's Defense Ministry announced that al-Awlaki had been killed.NEWS,weblink London, BBC News, Islamist cleric Anwar al-Awlaki 'killed in Yemen', September 30, 2011, NEWS,weblink Australia, The Australian, Terror boss Anwar al Awlaki killed, Yemen defence ministry says, September 30, 2011, Also killed was Samir Khan, an American born in Saudi Arabia, thought to be behind al-Qaeda's English-language web magazine Inspire.Goodman, J. David (September 30, 2011). American Who Waged 'Media Jihad' Is Said to Be Killed in Awlaki Strike. The New York Times U.S. President Barack Obama said:The death of Awlaki is a major blow to Al-Qaeda's most active operational affiliate. He took the lead in planning and directing efforts to murder innocent Americans ... and he repeatedly called on individuals in the United States and around the globe to kill innocent men, women and children to advance a murderous agenda. [The strike] is further proof that Al-Qaeda and its affiliates will find no safe haven anywhere in the world.Journalist and author Glenn Greenwald argued on Salon.com that killing al-Awlaki violated his First Amendment right of free speech and that doing so outside of a criminal proceeding violated the Constitution's due process clause, specifically citing the 1969 Supreme Court decision in Brandenburg v. Ohio that "the constitutional guarantees of free speech and free press do not permit a State to forbid or proscribe advocacy of the use of force."Greenwald, Glenn (June 1, 2011). Criminalizing free speech Salon He mentioned doubt among Yemeni experts about al-Awlaki's role in al-Qaeda, and called U.S. government accusations against him unverified and lacking in evidence.Greenwald, Glenn (September 30, 2011). The due-process-free assassination of U.S. citizens is now reality SalonIn a letter dated May 22, 2013, to the chairman of the U.S. Senate Judiciary committee, Patrick J. Leahy, U.S. attorney general Eric Holder wrote thathigh-level U.S. government officials [...] concluded that al-Aulaqi posed a continuing and imminent threat of violent attack against the United States. Before carrying out the operation that killed al-Aulaqi, senior officials also determined, based on a careful evaluation of the circumstances at the time, that it was not feasible to capture al-Aulaqi. In addition, senior officials determined that the operation would be conducted consistent with applicable law of war principles, including the cardinal principles of (1) necessity – the requirement that the target have definite military value; (2) distinction – the idea that only military objectives may be intentionally targeted and that civilians are protected from being intentionally targeted; (3) proportionality – the notion that the anticipated collateral damage of an action cannot be excessive in relation to the anticipated concrete and direct military advantage; and (4) humanity – a principle that requires us to use weapons that will not inflict unnecessary suffering. The operation was also undertaken consistent with Yemeni sovereignty. [...] The decision to target Anwar al-Aulaqi was lawful, it was considered, and it was just.WEB, Holder, Eric, Eric Holder's May 22, 2013 letter to the U.S. Senate judiciary committee chairman Patrick J. Leahy,weblink U.S. Department of Justice, 2 June 2013, 22 May 2013, On April 21, 2014, the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeal ruled that the Obama administration must release documents justifying its drone killings of foreigners and Americans, including Anwar al-Awlaki.NEWS, Wolfgang, Ben, Court rules Obama administration must justify targeted killings,weblink August 15, 2014, The Washington Post, The Washington Post, August 21, 2014, In June 2014, the United States Department of Justice disclosed a 2010 memorandumNEWS, Undated memo entitled "Lawfulness of a Lethal Operation Directed Against a U.S. Citizen who is a Senior Operational Leader of Al Qa'ida or An Associated Force" by the U.S. Department of Justice,weblink NBC News, August 15, 2014, written by the acting head of the department's Office of Legal Counsel, David Barron.NEWS, Savage, Charlie, Charlie Savage, Justice Department Memo Approving Targeted Killing of Anwar Al-Awlaki,weblink August 15, 2014, The New York Times, June 23, 2014, NEWS, Sledge, Matt, Drone Memo Justifying Anwar al-Awlaki's Killing Released,weblink August 15, 2014, The Huffington Post, June 23, 2014, The memo stated that Anwar al-Awlaki was a significant threat with an infeasible probability of capture. Barron therefore justified the killing as legal, as "the Constitution would not require the government to provide further process". The New York Times Editorial Board dismissed the memo's rationale for al-Awlaki's killing, saying it "provides little confidence that the lethal action was taken with real care", instead describing it as "a slapdash pastiche of legal theories—some based on obscure interpretations of British and Israeli law—that was clearly tailored to the desired result."NEWS, A Thin Rationale for Drone Killings,weblink The New York Times, June 24, 2014, November 18, 2015, A lawyer for the ACLU described the memo as "disturbing" and "ultimately an argument that the president can order targeted killings of Americans without ever having to account to anyone outside the executive branch."NEWS, Lauter, David, Phelps, Timothy, June 23, 2014, Memo justifying drone killing of American Al Qaeda leader is released,weblink Los Angeles Times, November 18, 2015,

Legacy

Awlaki's videos and writings remain highly popular on the internet, where they continue to be readily accessible.NEWS, September 22, 2016, ‘In-Betweeners’ Are Part of a Rich Recruiting Pool for Jihadists,weblink The New York Times, Even following his death, Awlaki has continued to inspire his devotees to carry out terrorist attacks, including the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing, the 2015 San Bernardino attack, and the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting.NEWS, December 18, 2015, Internet Firms Urged to Limit Work of Anwar al-Awlaki,weblink The New York Times, NEWS, June 21, 2016, Friend Who Told FBI About Orlando Shooter Omar Mateen Saw a 'Red Flag',weblink NBC News, According to the Counter Extremism Project (CEP), 88 "extremists," 54 in the U.S. and 34 in Europe, have been influenced by Awlaki.NEWS, Anwar al-Awlaki’s Ties to Extremists,weblink Counter Extremism Project, Because "his work has inspired countless plots and attacks," CEP has "called on YouTube and other platforms to permanently ban Mr. Awlaki’s material, including his early, mainstream lectures."NEWS, December 21, 2015, CEP Highlights Importance of Removing Anwar al-Awlaki from Social Media – Particularly YouTube,weblink Counter Extremism Project,

FOIA documents

During the FBI investigation of the 9/11 attacks, it was discovered that a few of the attackers had attended the mosques in San Diego and Falls Church with which al-Awlaki was associated. Interviews with members of the San Diego mosque showed that Nawaz al-Hazmi, one of the attackers, may have had a private conversation with him. On that basis he was placed under 24-hour surveillance. It was discovered that he regularly patronized prostitutes.NEWS, Pasquale D’Amuro, F.B.I. Memorandum From June 4, 2002, on the Possibility of Filing Prostitution-Related Charges Against Anwar al-Awlaki,weblink August 30, 2015, The New York Times, June 4, 2002, It was through FBI interrogation of prostitutes and escort service operators that al-Awlaki was tipped off in 2002 about FBI surveillance. Shortly thereafter, he left the United States.In January 2013, Fox News announced that FBI documents obtained by Judicial Watch through a Freedom of Information Act request showed possible connections between al-Awlaki and the September 11 attackers.NEWS, Catherine, Herridge, Cleric may have booked pre-9/11 flights for hijackers, FBI documents show, January 4, 2013,weblink Fox News, January 5, 2013, According to Judicial Watch, the documents show that the FBI knew that al-Awlaki had bought tickets for three of the hijackers to fly into Florida and Las Vegas. Judicial Watch further stated that al-Awlaki "was a central focus of the FBI's investigation of 9/11. They show he wasn't cooperative. And they show that he was under surveillance."When queried by Fox News, the FBI denied having evidence connecting al-Awlaki and the September 11 attacks: "The FBI cautions against drawing conclusions from redacted FOIA documents. The FBI and investigating bodies have not found evidence connecting Anwar al-Awlaki and the attack on September 11, 2001. The document referenced does not link Anwar al-Awlaki with any purchase of airline tickets for the hijackers."

Family

Abdulrahman al-Awlaki

Anwar al-Awlaki and Egyptian-born Gihan Mohsen Baker had a son, Abdulrahman Anwar al-Awlaki, born August 26, 1995 in Denver, who was an American citizen.NEWS,weblink Abdulrahman al-Awlaki's birth certificate, The Washington Post, November 20, 2012, Abdulrahman al-Awlaki was killed on October 14, 2011 in Yemen at the age of 16 in an American drone strike. Nine other people were killed in the same CIA-initiated attack, including a 17-year-old cousin of Abdulrahman.NEWS,weblink Time, An American Teenager in Yemen: Paying for the Sins of His Father?, October 27, 2011, According to his relatives, shortly before his father's death, Abdulrahman had left the family home in Sana'a and travelled to Shabwa in search of his father who was believed to be in hiding in that area (though he was actually hundreds of miles away at the time WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130128061540weblink">weblink dead, Tom Junod, "The Lethal Presidency of Barack Obama", January 28, 2013, ). Abdulrahman was sitting in an open-air cafe in Shabwa when killed. According to U.S. officials, the killing of Abdulrahman al-Awlaki was a mistake; the intended target was an Egyptian, Ibrahim al-Banna, who was not at the targeted location at the time of the attack. Human rights groups have raised questions as to why an American citizen was killed by the United States in a country with which the United States is not officially at war. Abdulrahman al-Awlaki was not known to have any independent connection to terrorism.

Nasser al-Awlaki

Nasser al-Awlaki is the father of Anwar and grandfather of Abdulrahman al-Awlaki. Al-Awlaki stated he believed his son had been wrongly accused and was not a member of Al Qaeda.NEWS,weblink Al-Awlaki's father says son is 'not Osama bin Laden', Newton, Paula, January 11, 2010, CNN, May 24, 2013, After the deaths of his son and grandson, Nasser in an interview in Time Magazine called the killings a crime and condemned U.S. President Obama directly, saying: "I urge the American people to bring the killers to justice. I urge them to expose the hypocrisy of the 2009 Nobel Prize laureate. To some, he may be that. To me and my family, he is nothing more than a child killer."In 2013, Nasser al-Awlaki published JOURNAL, Margaret Hartmann, July 18, 2013, Al-Awlaki Asks Why 16-Year-Old Grandson was Killed by Drone Strike,weblink New York, November 26, 2014, an op-ed in The New York Times stating that two years after killing his grandson, the Obama administration still declines to provide an explanation.NEWS, Nasser al-Awlaki, July 17, 2013, The Drone that Killed My Grandson,weblink The New York Times, November 26, 2014, In 2012, Nasser al-Awlaki filed a lawsuit, Al-Aulaqi v. Panetta, challenging the constitutionality of the drone killings of his son and grandson. This lawsuit was dismissed in April 2014 by D.C. District Court Judge Rosemary M. Collyer.NEWS, Edvard Pettersson, April 5, 2014, Drone Strike Suit Over U.S. Citizen Deaths Dismissed,weblink Bloomberg News, November 26, 2014, PRESS RELEASE, Court Dismisses Lawsuit Challenging U.S. Drone Killings of Three Americans,weblink Washington, DC, ACLU, April 4, 2014, November 26, 2014,

Tariq al-Dahab

Tariq al-Dahab, who led al-Qaeda insurgents in Yemen, was a brother-in-law of al-Awlaki. On February 16, 2012, the terrorist organization stated that he had been killed by agents, although media reports contain speculation that he was killed by his brother in a bloody family feud.Awlaki relative led Yemeni raid, upi.com (January 16, 2012)NEWS,weblink Huffington Post, Ryan, Craggs, Tariq al Dahab, Yemen Al Qaeda Leader, Dead, Says Terrorist Group, February 20, 2012,

Nawar al-Awlaki

On January 29, 2017, Anwar al-Awlaki's 8-year-old daughter, Nawar al-Awlaki, was killed in a DEVGRU attack ordered by President Donald Trump.

Islamic education

Al-Awlaki's Islamic education was primarily informal, and consisted of intermittent months with various scholars (including the Salafi teacher ibn UthaymeenDenis MacEion, Middle East Quarterly, Spring 2010, p 13 -19.), reading and contemplating Islamic scholarly works. Some Muslim scholars {{who|date=June 2014}} said they did not understand al{{nbhyph}}Awlaki's popularity, because while he spoke fluent English and could therefore reach a large non-Arabic-speaking audience, he lacked formal Islamic training and study.NEWS,weblink Officials: Cleric Had Role In Christmas Bomb Attempt, Temple-Raston, Dina, All Things Considered, February 19, 2010, National Public Radio, March 13, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100221155037weblink">weblink February 21, 2010, live,

Ideology

While imprisoned in Yemen after 2004, al-Awlaki was influenced by the works of Sayyid Qutb, described by The New York Times as an originator of the contemporary "anti-Western Jihadist movement". He read 150 to 200 pages a day of Qutb's works, and described himself as "so immersed with the author I would feel Sayyid was with me in my cell speaking to me directly".Terrorism consultant Evan Kohlmann in 2009 referred to al-Awlaki as "one of the principal jihadi luminaries for would-be homegrown terrorists. His fluency with English, his unabashed advocacy of jihad and mujahideen organizations, and his Web-savvy approach are a powerful combination." He called al-Awlaki's lecture, "Constants on the Path of Jihad", which he says was based on a similar document written by al-Qaeda's founder, the "virtual bible for lone-wolf Muslim extremists".NEWS,weblink Meyer, Josh, Fort Hood shooter's ties to mosque investigated, November 9, 2009, Los Angeles Times, January 24, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091112103822weblink">weblink November 12, 2009, live, Philip Mudd, formerly of the CIA's National Counterterrorism Center and the FBI's top intelligence adviser, called him "a magnetic character ... a powerful orator." He attracted young men to his lectures, especially US-based and UK-based Muslims.MAGAZINE, Ghosh, Bobby,weblink How Dangerous Is the Cleric Anwar al-Awlaki?, Time, January 13, 2010, April 16, 2010, NEWS,weblink In Bomb Plot Probe, Spotlight Falls On Yemeni Cleric, Dina, Temple-Raston, NPR, December 30, 2009, April 16, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100313142140weblink">weblink March 13, 2010, live, U.S. officials and some U.S. media sources called al-Awlaki an Islamic fundamentalist and accused him of encouraging terrorism.NEWS,weblink Is imam a terror recruiter or just an incendiary preacher?, Allam, Hannah, November 22, 2009, McClatchy, May 9, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100425160621weblink">weblink April 25, 2010, live, According to documents recovered from bin Laden's hideout, the al-Qaeda leader was unsure about al-Awlaki's qualifications.NEWS, Serwer, Adam, Al Qaeda Gripes About Its Fanatical Internet Followers,weblink February 9, 2013, Mother Jones (magazine), Mother Jones, May 3, 2012,

Works

The Nine Eleven Finding Answers Foundation said al-Awlaki's ability to write and speak in fluent English enabled him to incite English-speaking Muslims to terrorism. Al-Awlaki notes in 44 Ways to Support Jihad that most reading material on the subject is in Arabic.

Written works

  • 44 Ways to Support Jihad: Essay (January 2009).NEWS, Con Coughlin, Philip Sherwell,weblink American drones deployed to target Yemeni terrorist, The Daily Telegraph, May 2, 2010, May 12, 2010, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100506130012weblink">weblink May 6, 2010, live, In it, al-Awlaki states that "The hatred of kuffar is a central element of our military creed" and that all Muslims are obligated to participate in jihad, either by committing the acts themselves or supporting others who do so. He says all Muslims must remain physically fit so as to be prepared for conflict. According to U.S. officials, it is considered a key text for al-Qaeda members.NEWS,weblink Who is Anwar al-Awlaki?, The Week, April 7, 2010, May 12, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100526124205weblink">weblink May 26, 2010, live,
  • Al-Awlaki wrote for Jihad Recollections, an English language online publication published by Al-Fursan Media.
  • Allah is Preparing Us for Victory â€“ short book (2009).WEB, Al-Awlaqi, Anwar,weblink Allah Is Preparing Us for Victory, Amazon, April 6, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110519173652weblink">weblink May 19, 2011,

Lectures

  • Lectures on the book Constants on the Path of Jihad by Yusef al-Ayeri—concerns leaderless jihad.
  • In 2009, the UK government found 1,910 of his videos had been posted to YouTube. One of them had been viewed 164,420 times.NEWS, Gardham, Duncan,weblink Anwar al-Awlaki: MI5 warns of the al-Qaeda preacher targeting Britain, The Daily Telegraph, June 11, 2010, August 15, 2015, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101021165148weblink">weblink October 21, 2010, live,
  • The Battle of Hearts and Minds
  • The Dust Will Never Settle Down
  • Dreams & Interpretations
  • The Hereafter—16 CDs—Al Basheer Productions
  • Life of Muhammad: Makkan Period—16 CDs—Al Basheer Productions
  • Life of Muhammad: Medinan Period—Lecture in 2 Parts—18 CDs—Al Basheer Productions
  • Lives of the Prophets (AS)—16 CDs—Al Basheer Productions
  • Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (RA): His Life & Times—15 CDs—Al Basheer Productions
  • Umar ibn al-Khattāb (RA): His Life & Times—18 CDs—Al Basheer Productions
  • 25 Promises from Allah to the Believer—2 CDs—Noor Productions
  • Companions of the Ditch & Lessons from the Life of Musa (AS)—2 CDs—Noor Productions
  • Remembrance of Allah & the Greatest Ayah—2 CDs—Noor Productions
  • Stories from Hadith—4 CDs—Center for Islamic Information and Education ("CIIE")
  • Hellfire & The Day of Judgment—CD—CIIE
  • Quest for Truth: The Story of Salman Al-Farsi (RA)—CD—CIIE
  • Trials & Lessons for Muslim Minorities—CD—CIIE
  • Young Ayesha (RA) & Mothers of the Believers (RA)—CD—CIIE
  • Understanding the Quran—CD—CIIE
  • Lessons from the Companions (RA) Living as a Minority'—CD—CIIE
  • Virtues of the Sahabah—video lecture series promoted by the al-Wasatiyyah Foundation

Website

Al-Awlaki maintained a website and blog on which he shared his views. On December 11, 2008, he said Muslims should not seek to "serve in the armies of the disbelievers and fight against his brothers".In "44 Ways to Support Jihad", posted on his blog in February 2009, al-Awlaki encouraged others to "fight jihad", and explained how to give money to the mujahideen or their families. Al-Awlaki's sermon encourages others to conduct weapons training, and raise children "on the love of Jihad".WEB,weblink Profile: Anwar al-Awlaki, Introduction, Anti-Defamation League, ADL staff, May 7, 2010, May 12, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100508110152weblink">weblink May 8, 2010, live, Also that month, he wrote: "I pray that Allah destroys America and all its allies." He wrote as well: "We will implement the rule of Allah on Earth by the tip of the sword, whether the masses like it or not." On July 14, he said that Muslim countries should not offer military assistance to the US. "The blame should be placed on the soldier who is willing to follow orders ... who sells his religion for a few dollars," he said. In blog post dated July 15, 2009, entitled "Fighting Against Government Armies in the Muslim World", al-Awlaki wrote, "Blessed are those who fight against [American soldiers], and blessed are those shuhada [martyrs] who are killed by them."NEWS,weblink Hsu, Spencer S., Hasan Epitomizes U.S. 'Self-Radicalizing'; Accused Fort Hood Gunman Had Ties to Radical Cleric But Imam's Rhetoric on Web Fell Short of Triggering Legal Action, November 18, 2009, The Washington Post, January 24, 2010, {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}In a video posted to the internet on November 8, 2010, al-Awlaki called for Muslims to kill Americans "without hesitation", and overthrow Arab governments that cooperate with the US. "Don't consult with anyone in fighting the Americans, fighting the devil doesn't require consultation or prayers or seeking divine guidance. They are the party of the devils", al-Awlaki said.NEWS,weblink Kill Americans at will, says US-Yemeni cleric, Gulf Times, November 9, 2010, November 8, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101113013709weblink">weblink November 13, 2010, dead, That month, Intelligence Research Specialist Kevin Yorke of the New York Police Department's Counterterrorism Division called him "the most dangerous man in the world".NEWS,weblink Anwar Awlaki "Most Dangerous Man in World", Fox News, April 7, 2010, November 11, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101113083734weblink">weblink November 13, 2010, dead, WEB,weblink Matthew Cole, Aaron Katersky, Awlaki: 'The Most Dangerous Man in The World', ABC News, October 29, 2010, November 11, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101112195631weblink">weblink November 12, 2010, live,

See also

References

Further reading

  • Inspire magazine
  • Inspire magazine
  • al-Ashanti, AbdulHaq and Sloan, Abu Ameenah AbdurRahman. (2011) A Critique of the Methodology of Anwar al-Awlaki and his Errors in the Fiqh of Jihad. London: Jamiah Media, 2011 {{ISBN|978-0-9567281-4-2}}
  • NEWS, Fort Hood shooting: Was Nidal Malik Hasan inspired by militant cleric?, Dan, Murphy,weblink Christian Science Monitor, Boston, November 10, 2009, November 13, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091113023805weblink">weblink November 13, 2009, live,

External links

{{Commons category|Anwar al-Awlaki}}{{Wikinews|US freezes assets of suspected terrorist}}
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111129194634weblink">Ruling of Judge Bates in Al Aulaqi v Obama
  • Anwar al Awlaki Lectures
  • {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/weblink |date= |title=Archive of anwar-alawlaki.com }}
  • {{IMDb name|5165579}}


Statements
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110713062145weblink">Anwar al-Awlaki video conferences recordings and statements
  • {{Worldcat id|lccn-n2003-72734}}


Interviews


Media coverage
  • {{Aljazeeratopic|person/anwar-al-awlaki}}
  • {{Guardian topic}}
  • {{NYTtopic|people/a/anwar_al_awlaki}}
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130910062809weblink">The imam's very curious story: A skirt-chasing mullah is just one more mystery for the 9/11 panel, Ragavan, Chitra, US News and World Report, June 13, 2004
  • DBI.gov
{{Al-Qaeda}}{{Islamism}}{{War on Terrorism}}{{AmericanTerrorism|state=collapsed}}{{Use mdy dates|date=September 2018}}{{Authority control}}

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