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Antiphon (orator)

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Antiphon (orator)
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{{about|the Greek orator Antiphon|other uses|Antiphon (disambiguation)}}Antiphon of Rhamnus ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|æ|n|t|É™|ËŒ|f|É’|n|,_|-|É™n}}; ) (480–411 BC) was the earliest of the ten Attic orators, and an important figure in fifth-century Athenian political and intellectual life. There is longstanding uncertainty and scholarly controversy over whether the Sophistic works of Antiphon and a treatise on the Interpretation of Dreams were also written by Antiphon the Orator, or whether they were written by a separate man known as Antiphon the Sophist. This article only discusses Antiphon the Orator's biography and oratorical works.

Antiphon of Rhamnus

Antiphon was a statesman who took up rhetoric as a profession. He was active in political affairs in Athens, and, as a zealous supporter of the oligarchical party, was largely responsible for the establishment of the Four Hundred in 411 (see Theramenes); upon restoration of the democracy shortly afterwards, he was accused of treason and condemned to death.{{EB1911|inline=y|wstitle=Antiphon|volume=2|page=133}} Thucydides famously characterized Antiphon's skills, influence, and reputation:Antiphon may be regarded as the founder of political oratory, but he never addressed the people himself except on the occasion of his trial. Fragments of his speech then, delivered in defense of his policy (called ) have been edited by J. Nicole (1907) from an Egyptian papyrus.His chief business was that of a logographer (), that is a professional speech-writer. He wrote for those who felt incompetent to conduct their own cases—all disputants were obliged to do so—without expert assistance. Fifteen of Antiphon's speeches are extant: twelve are mere school exercises on fictitious cases, divided into tetralogies, each comprising two speeches for prosecution and defence—accusation, defence, reply, counter-reply; three refer to actual legal processes. All deal with cases of homicide (). Antiphon is also said to have composed a or art of Rhetoric.

List of extant speeches

This is a list of extant speeches by Antiphon:
  1. Against the Stepmother for Poisoning ()
  2. The First Tetralogy: Anonymous Prosecution For Murder ()
  3. The Second Tetralogy: Prosecution for Accidental Homicide ()
  4. The Third Tetralogy: Prosecution for Murder Of One Who Pleads Self-Defense ()
  5. On the Murder of Herodes ()
  6. On the Choreutes ()

Notes

{{reflist}}

References

  • Edition, with commentary, by Eduard Maetzner (1838)
  • Text by Friedrich Blass (1881)
  • R. C. Jebb, Attic Orators
  • Ps.-Plutarch, Vitae X. Oratorum or Lives of the Ten Orators
  • Philostratus, Vit. Sophistarum, i. 15
  • Frank Louis Van Cleef, Index Antiphonteus, Ithaca, N.Y. (1895)
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060221055846weblink">"Antiphon" at Swansea University's website.
  • Michael Gagarin, Antiphon the Athenian, 2002, U. of Texas Press. Argues for the identification of Antiphon the Sophist and Antiphon of Rhamnus.
  • Gerard Pendrick, Antiphon the Sophist: The Fragments, 2002, Cambridge U. Press. Argues that Antiphon the Sophist and Antiphon of Rhamnus are two, and provides a new edition of and commentary on the fragments attributed to the Sophist.
  • David Hoffman, "Antiphon the Athenian: Oratory, Law and Justice in the Age of the Sophists/Antiphon the Sophist: The Fragments", Rhetoric Society Quarterly, summer 2006. A review of Gagarin 2002 and Pendrick 2002.
  • Jordi Redondo, 'Antifont. Discursos I-II', Barcelona, Fundació Bernat Metge, 2003-2004 ({{ISBN|84-7225-822-X}} et 84-7225-840-8). Argues for the identification of both authors.

Further reading

  • ENCYCLOPEDIA


, Kerferd
, G.B.
, Antiphon
, Dictionary of Scientific Biography
, 1
, 170–172
, Charles Scribner's Sons
, New York
, 1970
, 0-684-10114-9
,

External links

{{Attic orators}}{{Authority control}}

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