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Anne Hyde

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Anne Hyde
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{{short description|17th-century English duchess}}{{Use British English|date=November 2012}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2013}}{{for|the American historian|Anne Hyde (historian)}}{{good article}}







factoids
. historicalportraits.com. Philip Mould Ltd.James II, King of England|1660}} {edih}| issue-link = #Issue| issue-pipe = more...| father = Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of ClarendonFrances Hyde, Countess of Clarendon>Frances Aylesbury| birth_date = 12 March 1637Windsor, Berkshire, Kingdom of England>England1671313df=yes}}| death_place = St James's Palace, Westminster, Middlesex| burial_date = 5 April 1671| burial_place = Westminster Abbey| religion = Roman Catholicprev. Anglican}}Anne Hyde (12 March 1637{{spaced ndash}}31 March 1671)DNB, Hyde, Anne, Adolphus William, Ward, 28, {{efn|All the dates in this article are Old Style.}} was Duchess of York and Albany as the first wife of James, Duke of York (later King James II). Anne was the daughter of a commoner – Edward Hyde (later created Earl of Clarendon) – and met her future husband when they were both living in exile in the Netherlands. She married James in 1660 and two months later gave birth to the couple's first child, who had been conceived out of wedlock. Some observers disapproved of the marriage, but James's brother, King Charles II of England, wanted the marriage to take place. Another cause of disapproval was the public affection James showed toward Anne, such as kissing and leaning against each other, which was considered improper behaviour from man to wife during the seventeenth century. James and Anne had eight children, but six died in early childhood.{{sfn|Weir|2008|pp=259–60}} The two who survived to adulthood were future monarchs, Mary II and Anne. James was a known philanderer who kept many mistresses, for which Anne often reproached him, and fathered many illegitimate children. Originally an Anglican, Anne converted to Catholicism soon after her marriage to James. She had been exposed to Catholicism during visits to the Netherlands and France and was strongly attracted thereto. Partly due to Anne's influence, James later also converted to Catholicism, which would ultimately lead to the Glorious Revolution. She suffered from advanced breast cancer and died shortly after giving birth to her last child.

Early years (1637–60)

In 1629, Edward Hyde married his first wife, Anne Ayliffe of Grittenham. Six months into the marriage Anne caught smallpox, miscarried and died.{{sfn|Lister|1838|p=9}} Three years later, Hyde married Frances Aylesbury. In 1637, Anne, the couple's eldest daughter, was born at Cranbourne Lodge in Windsor.{{sfn|Weir|2008|p=259}} Almost nothing except that she was named after Edward Hyde's first wife is known of her life before 1649, when her family fled to the Netherlands after the execution of the deposed King Charles I.{{sfn|Henslowe|1915|p=18}} They settled in Breda, where they were offered a home by Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, who had done the same with many English fugitives.{{sfn|Henslowe|1915|p=19}} The Princess appointed Anne a maid of honour, apparently against the wishes of her mother and late father.{{sfn|Everett Green|1857|p=235}}Anne became a general favourite with the people she met either at The Hague or at the Princess of Orange's country house at Teylingen. She was very attractive and stylish,{{sfn|Melville|2005|p=3}} and attracted many men. One of the first men to fall in love with Anne was Spencer Compton, a son of the Earl of Northampton.{{sfn|Henslowe|1915|p=34}} However, Anne quickly fell in love with Henry Jermyn, who returned her feelings. Anne dismissed Jermyn just as quickly when she met James, Duke of York, the son of the deposed king.{{sfn|Melville|2005|pp=3–4}} On 24 November 1659, two{{sfn|Melville|2005|p=4}} or three{{sfn|Gregg|1984|p=2}} years after she first met him, James promised he would marry Anne.{{sfn|Miller|2000|p=44}} Charles, James's brother, forced him reluctantly into this, saying that her strong character would be a positive influence on his weak-willed brother.{{sfn|Softly|1979|p=91}}

Duchess of York (1660–71)

Marriage

(File:The Duke and Duchess of York with their two daughters..jpg|thumb|left|A portrait of Anne, James and their two daughters, Lady Mary and Lady Anne (this portrait is based on an earlier portrait of Anne and James).)Anne was visibly pregnant and the couple were obliged to marry.{{sfn|Henslowe|1915|pp=130–1}} They held an official but private marriage ceremony in London on 3 September 1660, following the restoration of the monarchy. The wedding took place between 11 at night and 2 in the morning at Worcester House{{spaced ndash}}her father's house in the Strand{{spaced ndash}} and was solemnised by Dr. Joseph Crowther, James's chaplain. The French Ambassador described Anne as having "courage, cleverness, and energy almost worthy of a King's blood".{{sfn|Fraser|2002|p=202}} The couple's first child, Charles, was born in October of that year, but died seven months later. Seven children followed: Mary (1662–1694), James (1663–1667), Anne (1665–1714), Charles (1666–1667), Edgar (1667–1671), Henrietta (1669–1669), and Catherine (1671–1671). All of their sons and two of their daughters died in infancy.{{sfn|Weir|2008|pp=259–60}}Even well after their marriage, some observers disapproved of the prince's decision, regardless of what he had promised beforehand.{{sfn|Miller|2000|pp=44–45}} Samuel Pepys said of the marriage: "... that the Duke of York's marriage with her hath undone the kingdom, by making the Chancellor so great above reach, who otherwise would have been but an ordinary man, to have been dealt with by other people ..." After Anne's death, the royal court tried to find a new wife for James, but this new wife was not, under any circumstances, to be of humble birth.{{sfn|Strickland|1882|pp=242–3}} As good a father as Pepys portrayed James to be, he strangely stated that Anne and James were unaffected by the death of their firstborn son.The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Monday 6 May 1661. Pepys also described Anne as "not only the proudest woman in the world, but the most expensefull."The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Monday 24 June 1667. Even in the minds of Anne's nephew, William III of Orange, and that of her husband's cousin, Sophia of Hanover, the stigma of the Hydes' lowly birth remained.{{sfn|Gregg|1984|pp=3–4}}

Domestic life

(File:Anne Hyde, Duchess of York by Sir Peter Lely.jpg|thumb|right|Anne, painted by Lely about 1670.)Anne experienced problems in her married life.{{sfn|Melville|2005|p=17}} She was not very much liked at court{{sfn|Melville|2005|p=19}} and James philandered with younger mistresses such as Arabella Churchill, with whom he fathered many illegitimate children, including two born during Anne's lifetime; thus he was called "the most unguarded ogler of his time."{{sfn|Miller|2000|p=46}} Anne was not oblivious to this: Pepys wrote that she was jealous and chided James, but he also wrote that Anne and James were notorious for showing their affections publicly, kissing and leaning on each other. Pepys also wrote that when James fell in love with Lady Chesterfield, Anne complained to King Charles so insistently that Lady Chesterfield had to retreat to the countryside, where she remained until she died.{{sfn|Melville|2005|pp=21–2}} {{sfn|Melville|2005|pp=25–7}}Anne became drawn to Catholicism, to which both she and James had been exposed during their time abroad{{sfn|Miller|2000|pp=58–9}}{{sfn|Callow|2000|pp=144–5}} and converted to it almost immediately after the Restoration. John Callow states that Anne "made the greatest single impact upon his thinking."{{sfn|Callow|2000|p=144}} James also converted to Catholicism eight or nine years after Anne, but he still attended Anglican services until 1676.{{sfn|Callow|2000|pp=143–4}}{{sfn|Waller|2002|p=135}} James preferred to associate himself with Protestant people, such as John Churchill,{{sfn|Callow|2000|p=149}} whose wife later became a very close friend of Anne's youngest surviving daughter Lady Anne.{{sfn|Curtis|1972|p=27}}{{sfn|Green|1970|p=21}} King Charles at the time opposed Catholicism and insisted that James's children be raised in the Anglican faith,{{sfn|Waller|2002|p=92}} although he converted to Catholicism on his deathbed.{{sfn|Hutton|1989|pp=443; 456}} James and Anne's surviving daughters were raised as Anglicans.{{sfn|Van der Kiste|2003|p=32}}

Death and legacy

upright|thumb|Anne Hyde's coat of arms.{{sfn|Maclagan|Louda|1999|p=27}}Anne was ill for 15 months after the birth of her youngest son, Edgar.{{sfn|Henslowe|1915|p=289}} She bore Henrietta in 1669 and Catherine in 1671.{{sfn|Weir|2008|p=260}} Anne never recovered from Catherine's birth.{{sfn|Gregg|1984|p=10}} Ill with breast cancer,{{sfn|Melville|2005|p=32}} she died on 31 March 1671.{{sfn|Weir|2008|p=259}}{{efn|England used the Julian calendar (OS) during Anne's lifetime.}} On her deathbed, her two brothers Henry and Laurence tried to bring an Anglican priest to give her communion, but Anne refused{{sfn|Gregg|1984|p=10}} and she received viaticum of the Catholic Church.{{sfn|Melville|2005|p=32}} Two days after her death, her embalmed body was interred in the vault of Mary, Queen of Scots, at Westminster Abbey's Henry VII Chapel.{{sfn|Henslowe|1915|p=300}} In June 1671, Anne's only surviving son Edgar died of natural causes, followed by Catherine in December, leaving Mary and Anne as the Duke of York's heiresses.{{sfn|Waller|2002|pp=49–50}}After Anne Hyde's death, a portrait of her painted by Willem Wissing was commissioned by the future Mary II; this used to hang above the door of the Queen's Drawing Room of the Garden House at Windsor Castle.{{Royal Collection|401234|James, Duke of Cambridge (1663–7)|Willem Wissing}} Two years after the death of his first wife, James married a Catholic princess, Mary of Modena, who bore James Francis Edward, James's only son to survive to adulthood. James became king of England, Ireland, and Scotland in 1685, but was deposed during the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The throne was then offered by Parliament to Anne's eldest daughter Mary and her husband William III of Orange.{{sfn|Devine|2006|p=3}} After Mary died in 1694 and William in 1702, Anne Hyde's daughter Anne became queen of the three kingdoms and, in 1707, the first sovereign of the united Kingdom of Great Britain.{{sfn|Gregg|1984|p=240}}

Issue {| class"wikitable"

! Name !! Birth !! Death !! NotesCharles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge (1660–1661)>Charles, Duke of Cambridge 22 October 1660 5 May 1661 Born two months after his parents' legal marriage, died aged seven months of smallpox.{{sfn2011|p=455}}Mary II of England>Mary II, Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland 30 April 1662 28 December 1694 Married her cousin William III, Prince of Orange, in 1677. She and her husband ascended to the throne in 1689 after the deposition of her father. No surviving issue.{{sfn2008|p=266}}James, Duke of Cambridge >| Died of the bubonic plague.The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Tuesday 30 April 1667.Anne, Queen of Great Britain >Prince George of Denmark in 1683. Successor of her brother-in-law and cousin in 1702. First Queen of Great Britain under the Act of Union of 1707. No surviving issue.{{sfn>Weirpp=267–8}}Charles, Duke of Kendal >| Died of convulsions.The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Tuesday 14 May 1667.Edgar, Duke of Cambridge >Weirp=260}}Weirp=260}}Weirp=260}}

Ancestry

{{ahnentafelalign=center|boxstyle_1=background-color: #fcc;|boxstyle_2=background-color: #fb9;|boxstyle_3=background-color: #ffc;|boxstyle_4=background-color: #bfc;|boxstyle_5=background-color: #9fe;|1= 1. Anne Hyde|2= 2. Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of ClarendonFrances Hyde, Countess of Clarendon>Frances AylesburyHenry Hyde (died 1634)>Henry Hyde|5= 5. Mary Langford|6= 6. Sir Thomas Aylesbury, 1st Baronet|7= 7. Anne DenmanLawrence Hyde (died 1590)>Lawrence Hyde, of Tisbury|9= 9. Anne Sibell|10= 10. Edward Langford, of Trowbridge|11= 11. Mary St BarbeOxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. Retrieved 20 September 2011. {{ODNBsub}}|13= 13. Anne Poole|14= 14. Francis Denman, Rector of West Retford|15= 15. Ann Blount YEAR = 1853 URL = VOLUME = 9 PAGES = 282–290, Fuidge, N. M. (1981). "Hyde, Lawrence I (d.1590), of West Hatch and Tisbury, Wilts. and Gussage St. Michael, Dorset", The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1558–1603, ed. P. W. Hasler|17= 17. Katherine Boydell|18= 18. Nicholas Sibell, of Farningham|19=|20= 20. Alexander Langford, of Trowbridge|21= YEAR = 1975 URL = VOLUME = 22 PAGE = 28, |23= 23. Joan|24=|25=|26= 26. John Poole, of Sapperton, Gloucestershire|27=|28= 28. Nicholas DenmanWilmshurst, Edwin (1908) The History of the Old Hall of the Manor of West Retford, Notts, Online|29= 29. Anne Hercy|30= 30. Robert Blount, of Eckington, Derbyshire|31=}}

Media portrayals

Notes

{{notelist}}

References

{{reflist|3}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, The Making of King James II: The Formative Years of a King, Sutton, Callow, John, 2000, Gloucestershire, 0-7509-2398-9, harv,
  • BOOK, The Life and Times of Queen Anne, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, Curtis, Gila, 1972, London, 0-297-99571-5, harv,
  • BOOK, The Scottish Nation 1700–2007, Penguin Books, Devine, Tom, Tom Devine, 2006, London, 0-14-102769-X, harv,
  • BOOK, Lives of the Princesses of England, from the Norman Conquest, Longman, Brown, Green, Longman, & Roberts, Everett Green, Mary, Mary Anne Everett Green, 1857, London, 15617187, harv,
  • BOOK, King Charles II, Fraser, Antonia, Antonia Fraser, 2002, Phoenix, 0-7538-1403-X, harv,
  • BOOK, Queen Anne, Collins, Green, David, 1970, London, 0-00-211693-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Queen Anne, Yale University Press, Gregg, Edward, 1984, New Haven and London, 0-7448-0018-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Anne Hyde, Duchess of York, T. W. Laurie, Henslowe, J. R., 1915, London, harv,
  • BOOK, Charles II: King of England, Scotland and Ireland, Clarendon, Hutton, Ronald, Ronald Hutton, 1989, Oxford, 0-19-822911-9, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Life and Administration of Edward, First Earl of Clarendon, Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans, London, Lister, Thomas Henry, 1838, 899249, harv,
  • BOOK, Maclagan, Michael, Michael Maclagan, Louda, Jiří, Line of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, 1999, Little, Brown & Co, London, 1-85605-469-1, harv,
  • BOOK, The Windsor Beauties: Ladies of the Court of Charles II, Loving Healing Press, Melville, Lewis, 2005, Michigan, 1-932690-13-1, harv,
  • BOOK, James II, Yale University Press, Miller, John, 2000, New Haven, 0-300-08728-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy, Scarecrow Press, Panton, Kenneth John, 2011, Lanham, 0-8108-5779-0, harv,
  • BOOK, The Queens of England, Bell Pub Co., Softly, Barbara, 1979, Michigan, 0-517-30200-4, harv,
  • BOOK, The Queens of England, Easton and Lauriat, Strickland, Agnes, Agnes Strickland, 1882, Boston, 950726, harv,
  • BOOK, William and Mary, Sutton, Van der Kiste, John, John Van der Kiste, 2003, Gloucestershire, 0-7509-3048-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Ungrateful Daughters: The Stuart Princesses who Stole Their Father's Crown, Hodder & Stoughton, Waller, Maureen, 2002, London, 0-312-30711-X, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy, Vintage Books, Weir, Alison, Alison Weir, 2008, London, 978-0-09-953973-5, harv,

External links

{{wikisource|Hyde, Anne (DNB00)}}{{commons category|Lady Anne Hyde}} {{Authority control}}{{Duchesses of York}}

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