SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

Angelica Kauffman

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Angelica Kauffman
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{short description|18th/19th-century Swiss Neoclassical painter}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2015}}







factoids
| birth_place = Chur, League of God's House, present day Graubünden, Switzerland1807510df=y}}| death_place = Rome, Papal States| nationality = Swiss| field = Painting| training =| movement = Neoclassicism| works =| patrons =| awards =}}Maria Anna Angelika Kauffmann {{Post-nominals|post-noms=RA}} (30 October 1741 – 5 November 1807), usually known in English as Angelica Kauffman,{{efn|Kauffman is the preferred spelling of her name in English; it is the form she herself used most in signing her correspondence, documents and paintings.{{sfn|Roworth|1992|p=193}}}} was a Swiss Neoclassical painter who had a successful career in London and Rome. Remembered primarily as a history painter, Kauffmann was a skilled portraitist, landscape and decoration painter. She was one of the two female founding members of the Royal Academy in London in 1768.{{sfn|The Royal Academy|n.d.}}{{sfn|NMWA|n.d.}}

Early life

File:Kauffmann Tragedy and Comedy (detail) 01.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.8|Detail of Tragedy and Comedy, painted in Rome in 1791 (National Museum in Warsaw). Harmonious and powerful colours{{sfn|Townsend|2008|p=105}} and the soft-brushed, multi-layered style of English portraitists, Sir Joshua Reynolds and Johns|2011}} are typical for Kauffmann's paintings.Kauffman was born at Chur in Graubünden, Switzerland. Her family moved to Morbegno in 1742, then Como in Lombardy in 1752 at that time under Austrian rule. In 1757 she accompanied her father to Schwarzenberg in Vorarlberg/Austria where her father was working for the local bishop.{{sfn|AKRP: Chronology}} Her father, Joseph Johann Kauffmann, was a relatively poor man but a skilled Austrian muralist and painter, who was often traveling for his work. He trained Angelica and she worked as his assistant, moving through Switzerland, Austria, and Italy. Angelica, a child prodigy, rapidly acquired several languages from her mother, Cleophea Lutz, including German, Italian, French and English.{{sfn|AKRP: Biography}} She also showed talent as a musician and was forced to choose between opera and art. She quickly chose art as a Catholic priest told Kauffman that the opera was a dangerous place filled with "seedy people."{{sfn|Ratiner|2005}} By her twelfth year she had become known as a painter, with bishops and nobles being her sitters.In 1754, her mother died and her father decided to move to Milan.{{sfn|Ratiner|2005}} Later visits to Italy of long duration followed.{{sfn|Dobson|1911|p=697}} She became a member of the Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze in 1762.{{sfn|Roworth|2004}} In 1763 she visited Rome, returning again in 1764. From Rome she passed to Bologna and Venice, everywhere feted for her talents and charm. Writing from Rome in August 1764 to his friend Franke, Winckelmann refers to her popularity; she was then painting his picture, a half-length; of which she also made an etching. She spoke Italian as well as German, he says, and expressed herself with facility in French and English - one result of the last-named accomplishment being that she became a popular portraitist for British visitors to Rome. "She may be styled beautiful," he adds, "and in singing may vie with our best virtuosi".{{sfn|Dobson|1911|p=697}} In 1765, her work appeared in England in an exhibition of the Free Society of Artists. She moved to England shortly after and established herself as a leading artist.{{sfn|Ratiner|2005}}{{clear|both}}

Years in Great Britain

While in Venice, Kauffman was persuaded by Lady Wentworth, the wife of the British ambassador, to accompany her to London. One of the first pieces she completed in London was a portrait of David Garrick, exhibited in the year of her arrival at "Mr Moreing's great room in Maiden Lane." The rank of Lady Wentworth opened society to her, and she was everywhere well received, the royal family especially showing her great favor. Her firmest friend, however, was Sir Joshua Reynolds. In his pocket-book her name as "Miss Angelica" or "Miss Angel" appears frequently; and in 1766 he painted her, a compliment which she returned by her Portrait of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Another instance of her intimacy with Reynolds is to be found in her variation of Guercino's Et in Arcadia ego, a subject which Reynolds repeated a few years later in his portrait of Mrs Bouverie and Mrs Crewe.{{sfn|Dobson|1911|p=697}}In 1767 Kauffman was seduced by an imposter going under the name Count Frederick de Horn, whom she married, but they were separated the following year.{{sfn|Dobson|1911|p=697}}{{sfn|Roworth|2013}} It was probably owing to Reynolds's good offices that she was among the signatories to the petition to the king for the establishment of the Royal Academy. In its first catalogue of 1769 she appears with "R.A." after her name (an honour she shared with one other woman, Mary Moser); and she contributed the Interview of Hector and Andromache, and three other classical compositions.{{sfn|Dobson|1911|pp=697–698}} She spent several months in Ireland in 1771, as a guest of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and undertook a number of portrait commissions there. Her notable Irish portraits include those of Philip Tisdall, the Attorney General for Ireland, and his wife Mary, and of Henry Loftus, 1st Earl of Ely and his family, including his niece Dorothea Monroe, the most admired Irish beauty of her time.{{sfn|Loftus|2014}} It appears that among her circle of friends was Jean-Paul Marat, then living in London and practising medicine, with whom she may have had an affair.{{sfn|Conner|2012|pp=3, 13}}{{efn|Conner attributes the allegation to Jacques Pierre Brissot, who reported it as hearsay in his Mèmoirs, 1754–1793 (1912), but does not find the evidence for it compelling.{{sfn|Conner|2012|pp=3, 13}}}}File:Oil sketch for The Pictorial Conjuror by Nathaniel Hone the Elder.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|Oil sketch for Nathaniel Hone'sNathaniel Hone'sHer friendship with Reynolds was criticized in 1775 by fellow Academician Nathaniel Hone, who courted controversy in 1775 when his satirical picture The Conjurer.{{efn|The original sketch was discovered in Brazil in September 1966 and bought by Tate Britain the following year.{{sfn|Postle|2001}} The finished painting's whereabouts were unknown until it appeared at auction in 1944. It was acquired in 1967 and is now in the National Gallery of Ireland in Dublin.{{sfn|National Gallery of Ireland|n.d.}}{{sfn|Postle|2001}}}} It was seen to attack the fashion for Italian Renaissance art and to ridicule Sir Joshua Reynolds, leading the Royal Academy to reject the painting. It also originally included a nude caricature of Kauffman in the top left corner, which he painted out after she complained to the academy. The combination of a little girl and an old man has also been seen as symbolic of Kauffman and Reynolds's closeness, age difference, and rumoured affair.{{sfn|Rosenthal|2006|pp=226–227}}{{sfn|Postle|2001}}From 1769 until 1782 Kauffman was an annual exhibitor with the Royal Academy, sending sometimes as many as seven pictures, generally on classical or allegoric subjects. One of the most notable was Leonardo expiring in the Arms of Francis the First (1778).{{sfn|Dobson|1911|p=698}}{{efn|King Francis I had become a close friend of Leonardo da Vinci during the artist's last years, and Vasari records that the King held Leonardo's head in his arms as he died. Aside from Kauffman, this story was portrayed in romantic paintings by Ingres,
missing image!
- DeathOfLeonardo.jpg -
Ménageot
and other French artists, though some historians consider it legend rather than fact.{{sfn|White|2000|pp=261–262}}}}In 1773 she was appointed by the Academy with others to decorate St Paul's Cathedral, a scheme that was never carried out, and it was she who, with Biagio Rebecca, painted the Academy's old lecture room at Somerset House.{{sfn|Dobson|1911|p=698}}{{clear|both}}

History painting

File:The Sorrow of Telemachus MET DP169392.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.8|The Sorrow of TelemachusThe Sorrow of TelemachusWhile Kauffman produced many types of art, she identified herself primarily as a history painter, an unusual designation for a woman artist in the 18th century. History painting was considered the most elite and lucrative category in academic painting during this time period and, under the direction of Sir Joshua Reynolds, the Royal Academy made a strong effort to promote it to a native audience more interested in commissioning and buying portraits and landscapes. Despite the popularity that Kauffman enjoyed in British society, and her success there as an artist, she was disappointed by the relative apathy of the British towards history painting. Ultimately she left Britain for the continent, where history painting was better established, held in higher esteem and patronized.{{sfn|Roworth|1997|pp=766–770}}History painting, as defined in academic art theory, was classified as the most elevated category. Its subject matter was the representation of human actions based on themes from history, mythology, literature, and scripture. This required extensive learning in biblical and Classical literature, knowledge of art theory and a practical training that included the study of anatomy from the male nude. Most women were denied access to such training, especially the opportunity to draw from nude models; yet Kauffman managed to cross the gender boundary to acquire the necessary skill to build a reputation as a successful history painter who was admired by colleagues and eagerly sought by patrons.{{sfn|Roworth|1997|p=766}}

Later years in Rome

(File:Angelica Kauffman. Self-Portrait Hesitating Between the Arts of Music and Painting.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.8|Self-Portrait Hesitating Between Painting and Music (1794). Oil on canvas by Angelica Kauffman.)In 1781, after her first husband's death (she had been long separated from him), she married Antonio Zucchi (1728–1795), a Venetian artist then resident in England.{{sfn|Dobson|1911|p=698}} Shortly afterwards she retired to Rome, where she befriended, among others, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe; yet, always restive, she wanted to do more and lived for 25 years with much of her old prestige.{{sfn|Dobson|1911|p=698}}In 1782, Kauffman's father died, as did her husband in 1795. In 1794, she painted, Self-Portrait Hesitating Between Painting and Music, in which she emphasizes the difficult choice in choosing painting as her sole career, in dedication to her mother's death.{{sfn|AKRP: Biography}} She continued at intervals to contribute to the Royal Academy in London, her last exhibit being in 1797. After this she produced little, and in 1807 she died in Rome, being honored by a splendid funeral under the direction of Canova. The entire Academy of St Luke, with numerous ecclesiastics and virtuosi, followed her to her tomb in Sant'Andrea delle Fratte, and, as at the burial of Raphael, two of her best pictures were carried in procession.{{sfn|Dobson|1911|p=698}}{{clear|both}}

Legacy

File:Angelica Kauffmann by Angelica Kauffmann.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.8|Angelica Kauffmann ({{circa|1770-1775}}). Oil on canvas by Angelica Kauffmann. Portrait number 430 in the National Portrait Gallery.]]By 1911, rooms decorated with her work were still to be seen in various quarters. At Hampton Court was a portrait of the duchess of Brunswick; in the National Portrait Gallery, a self-portrait (NPG 430).{{sfn|Dobson|1911|p=698}}{{sfn|NPG 430}}There were other pictures by her in Paris, at Dresden, in the Hermitage at St Petersburg, in the Alte Pinakothek at Munich, in Kadriorg Palace, Tallinn (Estonia){{sfn|Dobson|1911|p=698}}{{sfn|Art Museum of Estonia|2013}} and in the Joanneum Alte Galerie at Graz. The Munich example was another portrait of herself, and there was a third in the Uffizi at Florence. A few of her works in private collections were exhibited among the Old Masters at Burlington House.{{sfn|Dobson|1911|p=698}}Kauffman is also well known by the numerous engravings from her designs by Schiavonetti, Francesco Bartolozzi and others. Those by Bartolozzi especially found considerable favour with collectors. Charles Willson Peale (1741–1827), artist, patriot, and founder of a major American art dynasty, named several of his children after notable European artists, including a daughter, Angelica Kauffman Peale.{{sfn|Dobson|1911|p=698}}A biography of Kauffman was published in 1810 by {{Interlanguage link multi|Giovanni Gherardo De Rossi|it}}.{{sfn|Dobson|1911|p=698}}{{sfn|Roworth|2004}} The book was also the basis of a romance by Léon de Wailly (1838) and it prompted the novel contributed by Anne Isabella Thackeray to the Cornhill Magazine in 1875 entitled "Miss Angel".{{sfn|Dobson|1911|p=698}}{{clear|both}}

Gallery

File:Angelica Kauffman Self-Portrait as Imitatio 1771.jpg|Self-Portrait as Imitatio. Pencil, 1771.Image:Angelica Kauffmann 007.jpg|Miranda and Ferdinand in The Tempest, 1782.Image:Kaufman.jpg|The Paintress of Macaroni's, believed to be a satire of Kauffmann. London: Printed for Carington Bowles, 13 April 1772.Image:Sleepingnymph.jpg|A Sleeping Nymph Watched by a Shepherd, about 1780, Angelica Kauffman V&A Museum no. 23-1886File:Der junge Goethe, gemalt von Angelica Kauffmann 1787.JPG|Kauffman's 1787 painting of Goethe, then 38 years oldImage:Goethe Iphigenia in Tauris 1803.jpg|Scene from the 1802 première in Weimar of Goethe's Iphigenia in Tauris, with Goethe himself as Orestes in the centre.File:Angelica Kauffman, April 1809, The European Magazine and London Review.jpg|From The European Magazine and London ReviewFile:A Scene from Troilus and Cressida - Angelica Kauffmann.jpg|Troilus and Cressida, Act V, Scene II (1789), one of her many Shakespeare tableaux. Engraved in 1795 for an edition of Shakespeare by the Boydell Shakespeare Gallery.File:Angelica Kauffman - El juicio de Paris.jpg|Kauffman's El juicio de Paris at Museo de Arte de Ponce, Ponce, Puerto RicoFile:Fr. Bartolozzi after A. Kauffmann. The beautiful Rhodope in love with Aesop. 1780ю A detail.jpg|Fr. Bartolozzi after A. Kauffmann. The beautiful Rhodope in love with Aesop. 1780File:Blustockings2.jpg|Kauffman (seated), in the company of other "Bluestockings". Richard Samuel, 1778.File:Angelica Kauffmann, Portrait of a Woman as a Vestal Virgin, 1780-1785 02.jpg|Portrait of a Woman as a Vestal Virgin (1780s)Image:Angelica Kauffmann 008.jpg|Venus convinces Helen to go with Paris, 1790.Image:Alcesti.jpg|Death of Alcestis, 1790

Notes and references

Notes

{{notelist|40em}}

References

{{reflist|15em}}

Bibliography

{{EB1911 |last=Dobson |first=Henry Austin |authorlink=Henry Austin Dobson |wstitle=Kauffmann, Angelica |volume=15 |pages=697–698}}
  • WEB


, Biography
, Baumgärtel
, Bettina
, Bettina Baumgärtel
, Angelika Kauffmann Research Project
, n.d.
, 2 December 2018
,weblink
, {hide}harvid, AKRP: Biography,
{edih}
  • WEB


, Chronology
, Baumgärtel
, Bettina
, Bettina Baumgärtel
, Angelika Kauffmann Research Project
, n.d.
, 2 December 2018
,weblink
, {hide}harvid, AKRP: Chronology,
{edih}
  • BOOK


, Jean-Paul Marat: Tribune of the French Revolution
, Conner
, Clifford D.
, 2012
, Pluto Press
, Revolutionary Lives
, 9780745331935
, harv
,
  • WEB, {{harvid, Art Museum of Estonia, 2013, |url=weblink |title=Art Museum of Estonia |author= |date=2013 |work= |publisher=EKM Digitaalkogu |accessdate=15 February 2013}}
  • WEB


, Keepsakes of the Beloved: Portrait Miniatures and Profiles 1790 to 1840
, Johns
, Elizabeth
, Traditional Fine Arts Organization
, 4 February 2011
, 2 December 2018
,weblink
, harv
,
  • MAGAZINE


, From chaplains to lords
, Loftus
, Simon
, Irish Arts Review
, Winter 2014
,weblink
, harv
,
  • WEB


, The Conjuror
,
, National Gallery of Ireland
, n.d.
, 3 December 2018
,weblink
, {{harvid, National Gallery of Ireland, n.d.,
}}
  • WEB


, Angelica Kauffman: 1741–1807
,
, The National Museum of Women in the Arts
, n.d.
, 2 December 2018
,weblink
, {{harvid, NMWA, n.d.,
}}
  • WEB


, NPG 430; Angelica Kauffman
,
, National Portrait Gallery, London, National Portrait Gallery
,weblink
, 2 December 2018
, {hide}harvid, NPG 430,
{edih}
  • WEB


, Sketch for The Conjuror, Nathaniel Hone, 1775
, Postle
, Martin
, Tate Britain
, 2001
, 3 December 2018
,weblink
, harv
,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA


, Kauffman, Angelica
,
, 229–231
, Encyclopedia of World Biography
, Ratiner
, Tracie
, Gale (publisher), Gale
, Detroit, MI
, 2005
, 2nd
, 25
,weblink
, Gale Virtual Reference Library
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Angelica Kauffman: Art and sensibility
, Rosenthal
, Angela
, Angela Rosenthal
, Yale University Press
, New Haven
, 2006
, 9780300103335
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Angelica Kauffman: A Continental Artist in Georgian England
, Roworth
, Wendy Wassyng
, Reaktion Books
, London
, 1992
, 9780948462412
, harv
,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA


, Kauffman [Kauffmann], Angelica
, Roworth
, Wendy Wassyng
, 764–770
, Dictionary of Women Artists
, Gaze
, Delia
, Delia Gaze
, Fitzroy Dearborn
, London and Chicago
, 1997
, 2
, 1-884964-21-4
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Documenting Angelica Kauffman's Life and Art
, Roworth
, Wendy Wassyng
, 2004
, Eighteenth-Century Studies
, American Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies
, 37
, 3
, 478–482
, 0013-2586
, 1086-315X
, 10.1353/ecs.2004.0031
,weblink
, Project MUSE
, harv
,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA


, Kauffman [Kauffmann], Angelica
, Concise Dictionary of Women Artists
, Concise Dictionary of Women Artists
, Roworth
, Wendy Wassyng
, 401–406
, Gaze
, Delia
, Delia Gaze
, 2013
, Routledge
, 9781136599019
, harv
,
  • WEB


, Angelica Kauffman RA (1741–1807)
,
, Royal Academy of Arts, The Royal Academy
, n.d.
, 2 December 2018
,weblink
, {{harvid, The Royal Academy, n.d.,
}}
  • BOOK


, Preparation for Painting: The Artist's Choice and its Consequences
, Townsend
, Joyce
, Archetype Publications
, 2008
, 9781904982326
, harv
,
  • BOOK


, Leonardo: The First Scientist
, White
, Michael
, St. Martin's Press
, New York
, 2000
, 9780312203337
, harv
,

Exhibitions

  • Retrospektive Angelika Kauffmann (270 works, c. 450 ill. ), Düsseldorf, Kunstmuseum (15 November 1998 - 24 January 1999); München, Haus der Kunst (5 February - 18 April 1999); Chur, Bündner Kunstmuseum (8 May – 11 July 1999).

Further reading

{{wikisource author}}
  • AMCYC, Kauffmann, Maria Angelica,
  • Bettina Baumgärtel (ed.): Retrospective Angelika Kauffmann, Exh. Cat. Dusseldorf, Kunstmuseum; Munich, Haus der Kunst, Chur, Bündner Kunstmuseum, Ostfildern, Hatje 1998, {{ISBN|3-7757-0756-5}}.
  • Kauffmann, Angelica. (2001). "»Mir träumte vor ein paar Nächten, ich hätte Briefe von Ihnen empfangen«. Gesammelte Briefe in den Originalsprachen. Ed. Waltraud Maierhofer. Lengwil: Libelle, 2001. {{ISBN|978-3-909081-88-2}} (Letters in German, English, Italian, French; introduction and commentary in German.)
  • Kauffmann, Angelika. (1999) "Briefe einer Malerin." Ed. Waltraud Maierhofer. Mainz: Dieterich'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.
  • Manners, Lady Victoria and Williamson, Dr. G.C. Angelica Kauffmann, R.A.: Her Life and Works. London: John Lane the Bodley Head, 1924.
  • Natter, Tobias (ed.). Angelica Kauffmann: A Woman of Immense Talent. Ostfildern: Hatje-Cantz, 2007. {{ISBN|978-3-7757-1984-1}}.
  • The European Magazine and London Review, April 1809 "Memoir of the Lady Angelica Kauffman, R. A." by Joseph Moser, Esq.

External links

{{commons category|Angelica Kauffmann}} {{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Angelica Kauffman" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 11:46pm EDT - Sat, May 25 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 18 AUG 2014
Wikinfo
Culture
CONNECT