Andrei Sakharov

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Andrei Sakharov
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{{for|the historian|Andrey Nikolayevich Sakharov}}{{Eastern Slavic name|Dmitrievich|Sakharov}}{{Use mdy dates|date=May 2012}}

Moscow, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic>Russian SFSR1989145df=yes}}|death_place = Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union|residence = Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet UnionSoviet people>Soviet|nationality = |field = Nuclear physics, physical cosmology|work_institutions = Moscow State University Lebedev Physical Institute>FIAN}}doctoral_students = Soviet atomic bomb project#RDS-37 >Soviet nuclear program Tokamak >Dissident >Human rights defender >Sakharov conditions}}influenced = |spouse = Klavdia Alekseyevna Vikhireva (1943–1969; her death)Yelena Bonner (1972–1989; his death)|prizes =
{{unbulleted list
| Hero of Socialist Labor{{small|(1953 1955 1962)}}
| Stalin Prize {{small|(1953)}}
| Lenin Prize {{small|(1956)}}
| Prix mondial Cino Del Duca {{small|(1974)}}
| Nobel Peace Prize {{small|(1975)}}
| Elliott Cresson Medal {{small|(1985)}}
}}Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (; 21 May 1921{{spaced ndash}}14 December 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, dissident, Nobel laureate, and activist for disarmament, peace and human rights.NEWS, Sakharov Human Rights Prize 25th anniversary marked in US,weblink Voice of America, 15 January 2014, He became renowned as the designer of the Soviet Union's RDS-37, a codename for Soviet development of thermonuclear weapons. Sakharov later became an advocate of civil liberties and civil reforms in the Soviet Union, for which he faced state persecution; these efforts earned him the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975. The Sakharov Prize, which is awarded annually by the European Parliament for people and organizations dedicated to human rights and freedoms, is named in his honor.WEB,weblink Andrei Sakharov: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons and Human Rights,


Sakharov was born in Moscow on May 21, 1921. His father was Dmitri Ivanovich Sakharov, a private school physics teacher and an amateur pianist.WEB,weblink Andrei Sakharov – Biographical, His father later taught at the Second Moscow State University.Sidney David Drell, Sergeǐ Petrovich Kapitsa, Sakharov Remembered: a tribute by friends and colleagues (1991), p. 4 Andrei's grandfather Ivan had been a prominent lawyer in the Russian Empire who had displayed respect for social awareness and humanitarian principles (including advocating the abolition of capital punishment) that would later influence his grandson. Sakharov's mother was Yekaterina Alekseyevna Sakharova, a great-granddaughter of the prominent military commander Alexey Semenovich Sofiano (who was of Greek ancestry).WEB,weblink ru:Об А.Д. Сахарове, Bonner, Yelena, Russian, November 2, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink November 14, 2010, dead, mdy, WEB,weblink ru:Греки в Красноярском крае (Материалы из книги И.Джухи "Греческая операция НКВД"), Russian, November 2, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink April 8, 2010, live, mdy, Sakharov's parents and paternal grandmother, Maria Petrovna, largely shaped his personality. His mother and grandmother were churchgoers; his father was a nonbeliever. When Andrei was about thirteen, he realized that he did not believe. However, despite being an atheist,BOOK, The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom, 2005, Oxford University Press, 9780195156201, Gennady Gorelik, Antonina W. Bouis, 356, Apparently Sakharov did not need to delve any deeper into it for a long time, remaining a totally nonmilitant atheist with an open heart., he did believe in a "guiding principle" that transcends the physical laws.BOOK, Sidney D. Drell, George P. Shultz, Andrei Sakharov: The Conscience of Humanity, Hoover Press, 9780817918965, I am unable to imagine the universe and human life without some guiding principle, without a source of spiritual 'warmth' that is nonmaterial and not bound by physical laws., 2015-10-01,

Education and career

Sakharov entered Moscow State University in 1938. Following evacuation in 1941 during the Great Patriotic War (World War II), he graduated in AÅŸgabat, in today's Turkmenistan.WEB,weblink Nobel Prize Laureates from MSU, Moscow State University, en, 2017-10-08, He was then assigned to laboratory work in Ulyanovsk. In 1943, he married Klavdia Alekseyevna Vikhireva, with whom he raised two daughters and a son. Klavdia would later die in 1969. He returned to Moscow in 1945 to study at the Theoretical Department of FIAN (the Physical Institute of the Soviet Academy of Sciences). He received his Ph.D. in 1947.WEB,weblink Andrei Sakharov - Important Scientists, Mastin, Luke, 2009, The Physics of the Universe, 2017-10-08,

Development of thermonuclear devices

After World War II, he researched cosmic rays. In mid-1948 he participated in the Soviet atomic bomb project under Igor Kurchatov and Igor Tamm. Sakharov's study group at FIAN in 1948 came up with a second concept in August–September 1948.Zaloga, Steve (17 February 2002). The Kremlin's Nuclear Sword: The Rise and Fall of Russia's Strategic Nuclear Forces 1945–2000. Smithsonian Books. {{ISBN|1588340074}}. Adding a shell of natural, unenriched uranium around the deuterium would increase the deuterium concentration at the uranium-deuterium boundary and the overall yield of the device, because the natural uranium would capture neutrons and itself fission as part of the thermonuclear reaction. This idea of a layered fission-fusion-fission bomb led Sakharov to call it the sloika, or layered cake. The first Soviet atomic device was tested on August 29, 1949. After moving to Sarov in 1950, Sakharov played a key role in the development of the first megaton-range Soviet hydrogen bomb using a design known as Sakharov's Third Idea in Russia and the Teller–Ulam design in the United States. Before his Third Idea, Sakharov tried a "layer cake" of alternating layers of fission and fusion fuel. The results were disappointing, yielding no more than a typical fission bomb. However the design was seen to be worth pursuing because deuterium is abundant and uranium is scarce, and he had no idea how powerful the US design was. Sakharov realised that in order to cause the explosion of one side of the fuel to symmetrically compress the fusion fuel, a mirror could be used to reflect the radiation. The details had not been officially declassified in Russia when Sakharov was writing his memoirs, but in the Teller–Ulam design, soft X-rays emitted by the fission bomb were focused onto a cylinder of lithium deuteride to compress it symmetrically. This is called radiation implosion. The Teller–Ulam design also had a secondary fission device inside the fusion cylinder to assist with the compression of the fusion fuel and generate neutrons to convert some of the lithium to tritium, producing a mixture of deuterium and tritium.BOOK, Sakharov, Andrei, Memoirs, Vintage, 1992, 978-0679735953, BOOK, Gorelik, Gennady, Bouis, Antonina, The world of Andrei Sakharov: a Russian physicist's path to freedom, 2005, Oxford University Press, 978-0195156201, Sakharov's idea was first tested as RDS-37 in 1955. A larger variation of the same design which Sakharov worked on was the 50 Mt Tsar Bomba of October 1961, which was the most powerful nuclear device ever detonated.Sakharov saw "striking parallels" between his fate and those of J. Robert Oppenheimer and Edward Teller in the US. Sakharov believed that in this "tragic confrontation of two outstanding people", both deserved respect, because "each of them was certain he had right on his side and was morally obligated to go to the end in the name of truth." While Sakharov strongly disagreed with Teller over nuclear testing in the atmosphere and the Strategic Defense Initiative, he believed that American academics had been unfair to Teller's resolve to get the H-bomb for the United States since "all steps by the Americans of a temporary or permanent rejection of developing thermonuclear weapons would have been seen either as a clever feint, or as the manifestation of stupidity. In both cases, the reaction would have been the same – avoid the trap and immediately take advantage of the enemy's stupidity."Sakharov never felt that by creating nuclear weapons he had "known sin", in Oppenheimer's expression. He later wrote:}}

Support for peaceful use of nuclear technology

In 1950 he proposed an idea for a controlled nuclear fusion reactor, the tokamak, which is still the basis for the majority of work in the area. Sakharov, in association with Tamm, proposed confining extremely hot ionized plasma by torus shaped magnetic fields for controlling thermonuclear fusion that led to the development of the tokamak device.WEB,weblink Andrei Sakharov: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons and Human Rights,

Magneto-implosive generators

In 1951 he invented and tested the first explosively pumped flux compression generators,JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, Magnetoimplosive Generators
, January 1966
, ru:Взрывомагнитные генераторы
, Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk
, 88
, 4
, 725–734
, Russian
, 10.3367/ufnr.0088.196604e.0725
, Translated as: JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, 1966
, Magnetoimplosive generators
, Soviet Physics Uspekhi
, 9
, 2
, 294–299
, 10.1070/PU1966v009n02ABEH002876, 1966SvPhU...9..294S, Republished as: JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, Magnetoimplosive generators
, Lyudaev, R. Z.
, Smirnov, E. N.
, Plyushchev, Yu I.
, PavlovskiÄ­, A. I.
, Chernyshev, V. K.
, Feoktistova, E. A.
, Zharinov, E. A.
, Zysin, Yu A.
, 1
, 1991
, ru:Взрывомагнитные генераторы
, Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk
, 161
, 5
, 51–60
, 10.3367/UFNr.0161.199105g.0051
, Russian
, Translated as: JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, Lyudaev, R. Z.
, Smirnov, E. N.
, Plyushchev, Yu I.
, PavlovskiÄ­, A. I.
, Chernyshev, V. K.
, Feoktistova, E. A.
, Zharinov, E. A.
, Zysin, Yu A.
, 1
, 1991
, Magnetoimplosive generators
, Soviet Physics Uspekhi
, 34
, 5
, 387–391
, 10.1070/PU1991v034n05ABEH002495, 1991SvPhU..34..385S,
compressing magnetic fields by explosives. He called these devices MK (for MagnetoKumulative) generators. The radial MK-1 produced a pulsed magnetic field of 25 megagauss (2500 teslas). The resulting helical MK-2 generated 1000 million amperes in 1953.
Sakharov then tested a MK-driven "plasma cannon" where a small aluminum ring was vaporized by huge eddy currents into a stable, self-confined toroidal plasmoid and was accelerated to 100 km/s.BOOK
, Sakharov, A. D.
, 7 December 1982
, Collected Scientific Works
, Marcel Dekker
, 978-0824717148
, Sakharov later suggested replacing the copper coil in MK generators with a large superconductor solenoid to magnetically compress and focus underground nuclear explosions into a shaped charge effect. He theorized this could focus 1023 protons per second on a 1 mm2 surface.

Particle physics and cosmology

After 1965 Sakharov returned to fundamental science and began working on particle physics and physical cosmology.JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, July 1965
, ru:Начальная стадия расширения Вселенной и возникновение неоднородности распределения вещества
, Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Pi'sma ZhÉTF
, 49
, 1
, 345–358
, Russian
, Translated as: JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, January 1966
, The Initial Stage of an Expanding Universe and the Appearance of a Nonuniform Distribution of Matter
, Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, JETP
, 22
, 1
, 241–249
, 1966JETP...22..241S,
Maximum temperature of thermal radiation, ZhETF Pis'ma 3 : 439-441 (1966) ; Tr. JETP Lett. 3 : 288-289 (1966)JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, January 1967
, ru:Нарушение СР–инвариантности, С–асимметрия и барионная асимметрия Вселенной
, Pi'sma ZhÉTF
, 5
, 1
, 32–35
, Russian
, Translated as: JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, January 1967
, Violation of CP invariance, C asymmetry, and baryon asymmetry of the universe
, JETP Letters
, 5
, 1
, 24–26
, 1967JETPL...5...24S, Republished as JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, May 1991
, Violation of CP invariance, C asymmetry, and baryon asymmetry of the universe
, Physics-Uspekhi, Soviet Physics Uspekhi
, 34
, 5
, 392–393
, 10.1070/PU1991v034n05ABEH002497, 1991SvPhU..34..392S,
, Sakharov, A. D.
, January 1967
, ru:Кварк–мюонные токи и нарушение СР–инвариантности
, Pi'sma ZhÉTF
, 5
, 1
, 36–39
, Russian
, Translated as: JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, January 1967
, Quark-Muonic Currents and Violation of CP Invariance
, JETP Letters
, 5
, 1
, 27–30
, 1967JETPL...5...27S,
Preprint Collection of the Institute for Applied Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences "Gravitation and field theory", art.3, (oct. 1967)Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 177, 70 (1967) [trans. Sov. Phys.-Dokl. 12, 1040 (1968)]JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, 1969
, ru:Антикварки во Вселенной
, Antiquarks in the Universe
, Russian
, Problems in Theoretical Physics
, 35–44
, Dedicated to the 30th anniversary of N. N. Bogolyubov.Paper at seminar, Phys. Inst. Acad. Sci., June 1970A multisheet Cosmological Model of the Universe, Preprint collection of the Institute for Applied Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, art.7, (1970)JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, 1972
, ru:Топологическая структура элементарных зарядов и СРТ–симметрия
, The topological structure of elementary charges and CPT symmetry
, Russian
, Problems in Theoretical Physics
, 243–247
, Dedicated to the memory of I. E. Tamm.JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, April 1979
, ru:Барионная асимметрия Вселенной
, Pi'sma ZhÉTF
, 76
, 4
, 1172–1181
, Russian
, Translated as: JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, April 1979
, The baryonic asymmetry of the Universe
, JETP Letters
, 49
, 4
, 594–599
, Sakharov, A. D.
, September 1980
, ru:Космологические модели Вселенной с поворотом стрелы времени
, Pi'sma ZhÉTF
, 79
, 3
, 689–693
, Russian
, Translated as: JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, September 1980
, Cosmological models of the Universe with reversal of time's arrow
, JETP Letters
, 52
, 3
, 349–351
, Sakharov, A. D.
, October 1982
, ru:Многолистные модели Вселенной
, Pi'sma ZhÉTF
, 82
, 3
, 1233–1240
, Russian
, Translated as: JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, October 1982
, Many-sheeted models of the universe (Multisheet models of the universe)
, 56
, 4
, 705–709
, Sakharov, A. D.
, August 1984
, Космологические переходы с изменением сигнатуры метрики
, Pi'sma ZhÉTF
, 87
, 2
, 375–383
, Translated as: JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, August 1984
, Cosmological transitions with changes in the signature of the metric
, 60
, 2
, 214–218
, Sakharov, A. D.
, September 1986
, ru:Испарение черных мини–дыр и физика высоких энергий
, Pi'sma ZhÉTF
, 44
, 6
, 295–298
, Russian
, Translated as: JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, September 1986
, Evaporation of black mini-holes and high-energy physics
, JETP Letters
, 44
, 6
, 379–383
, 1986JETPL..44..379S,
(File:2D didactic image of Sakharov's twin universe model.svg|thumb|300px|right|2D didactic image of Sakharov's model of the universe with reversal of the arrow of time)He tried to explain the baryon asymmetry of the universe; in that regard, he was the first to propose proton decay and to consider CPT-symmetric events occurring before the Big Bang:We can visualize that neutral spinless maximons (or photons) are produced at t < 0 from contracting matter having an excess of antiquarks, that they pass "one through the other" at the instant t = 0 when the density is infinite, and decay with an excess of quarks when t > 0, realizing total CPT symmetry of the universe. All the phenomena at t < 0 are assumed in this hypothesis to be CPT reflections of the phenomena at t > 0. His legacy in this domain are the famous conditions named after him: Baryon number violation, C-symmetry and CP-symmetry violation, and interactions out of thermal equilibrium.Sakharov was also interested in explaining why the curvature of the universe is so small. This lead him to consider cyclic models, where the universe oscillates between contraction and expansion phases. In those models, after a certain number of cycles the curvature naturally becomes infinite even if it had not started this way: Sakharov considered three starting points, a flat universe with a slightly negative cosmological constant, a universe with a positive curvature and a zero cosmological constant, and a universe with a negative curvature and a slightly negative cosmological constant. Those last two models feature what Sakharov calls a reversal of the time arrow, which can be summarised as follow. He considers times t > 0 after the initial Big Bang singularity at t = 0 (which he calls "Friedman singularity" and denotes Φ) as well as times t < 0 before that singularity. He then assumes that entropy increases when time increases for t > 0 as well as when time decreases for t < 0, which constitutes his reversal of time. Then he considers the case when the universe at t < 0 is the image of the universe at t > 0 under CPT symmetry but also the case when it is not so: the universe has a non-zero CPT charge at t = 0 in this case. Sakharov considers a variant of this model where the reversal of the time arrow occurs at a point of maximum entropy instead of happening at the singularity. In those models there is no dynamic interaction between the universe at t < 0 and t > 0.{{Citation needed span|text=In his first model the two universes did not interact, except via local matter accumulation whose density and pressure become high enough to connect the two sheets through a bridge without spacetime between them, but with a continuity of geodesics beyond the Schwarzschild radius with no singularity|date=March 2019|reason=}}, allowing an exchange of matter between the two conjugated sheets, based on an idea after Igor Dmitriyevich Novikov.JOURNAL
, Novikov, I. D.
, March 1966
, The Disturbances of the Metric when a Collapsing Sphere Passes below the Schwarzschild Sphere
, JETP Letters
, 3
, 5
, 142–144
, 1966JETPL...3..142N, Novikov called such singularities a collapse and an anticollapse, which are an alternative to the couple black hole and white hole in the wormhole model. Sakharov also proposed the idea of induced gravity as an alternative theory of quantum gravity.
, Sakharov, A. D.
, 1967
, ru:Вакуумные квантовые флуктуации в искривленном пространстве и теория гравитации
, Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences
, 177
, 1
, 70–71
, Russian
, Translated as: JOURNAL
, Sakharov, A. D.
, 1991
, Vacuum Quantum Fluctuations in Curved Space and the theory of gravitation
, Soviet Physics Uspekhi
, 34
, 5
, 394
, 10.1070/PU1991v034n05ABEH002498
, 1991SvPhU..34..394S,

Turn to activism

Since the late 1950s Sakharov had become concerned about the moral and political implications of his work. Politically active during the 1960s, Sakharov was against nuclear proliferation. Pushing for the end of atmospheric tests, he played a role in the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty, signed in Moscow.Sakharov was also involved in an event with political consequences in 1964, when the USSR Academy of Sciences nominated for full membership Nikolai Nuzhdin, a follower of Trofim Lysenko (initiator of the Stalin-supported anti-genetics campaign Lysenkoism). Contrary to normal practice Sakharov, a member of the Academy, publicly spoke out against full membership for Nuzhdin, holding him responsible for "the defamation, firing, arrest, even death, of many genuine scientists."BOOK, Brezhnev and the Decline of the Soviet Union, Crump, Thomas, 2013, Routledge, 978-1-134-66922-6, Routledge Studies in the History of Russia and Eastern Europe, {{Rp|109}} In the end, Nuzhdin was not elected, but the episode prompted Sergei Khrushchev to order the KGB to gather compromising material on Sakharov.{{Rp|109}}The major turn in Sakharov's political evolution came in 1967, when anti-ballistic missile defense became a key issue in US–Soviet relations. In a secret detailed letter to the Soviet leadership of July 21, 1967, Sakharov explained the need to "take the Americans at their word" and accept their proposal for a "bilateral rejection by the USA and the Soviet Union of the development of antiballistic missile defense", because otherwise an arms race in this new technology would increase the likelihood of nuclear war. He also asked permission to publish his manuscript (which accompanied the letter) in a newspaper to explain the dangers posed by this kind of defense. The government ignored his letter and refused to let him initiate a public discussion of ABMs in the Soviet press.Gennady Gorelik. The Metamorphosis of Andrei Sakharov. Scientific American, 1999, March.Web exhibit "Andrei SAKHAROV: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons, and Human Rights" at American Institute of Physics weblinkIn May 1968 Sakharov completed an essay entitled "Reflections on Progress, Peaceful Coexistence, and Intellectual Freedom". In it, he described the anti-ballistic missile defense as a major threat of world nuclear war. After this essay was circulated in samizdat and then published outside the Soviet Union,Initially on July 6, 1968, in the Dutch newspaper Het Parool through intermediary of the Dutch academic and writer Karel van het Reve, followed by The New York Times: NEWS, Outspoken Soviet Scientist; Andrei Dmitriyevich Sakharov,weblink New York Times, Sakharov was banned from conducting any military-related research and returned to FIAN to study fundamental theoretical physics.Over the next twelve years, until his exile to Gorky (Nizhny Novgorod) in January 1980, Andrei Sakharov assumed the role of a widely recognized and open dissident in Moscow.BOOK, The KGB File of Andrei Sakharov, 2005, Joshua Rubenstein, Alexander Gribanov (eds.), Ella Shmulevich, Efrem Yankelevich, Alla Zeide (trans.), 978-0-300-12937-3, New Haven, CN, Rubenstein, Joshua, Gribanov, Alexander, {{Rp|21}} He stood vigil outside closed courtrooms, wrote appeals on behalf of more than two hundred individual prisoners, and continued to write essays about the need for democratization.{{Rp|21}}In 1970 Sakharov was among the three founding members of the Committee on Human Rights in the USSR along with Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov.{{Rp|21}} The Committee wrote appeals, collected signatures for petitions and succeeded in affiliating with several international human rights organizations. Its work was the subject of many KGB reports and brought Sakharov under increasing pressure from the government.Sakharov married a fellow human rights activist, Yelena Bonner, in 1972.irishtimes.comBy 1973 Sakharov was meeting regularly with Western correspondents, holding press conferences in his apartment.{{Rp|21}} He appealed to the U.S. Congress to approve the 1974 Jackson-Vanik Amendment to a trade bill, which coupled trade tariffs to the Kremlin's willingness to allow freer emigration.{{Rp|24}}

Attacked by Soviet establishment, 1972 onwards

File:Meiman dissidents.gif|thumb|239x239px|Sakharov with Naum Meiman, Sofiya Kallistratova, Petro Grigorenko, his wife Zinaida Grigorenko, Tatyana Velikanova's mother, the priest Father Sergei Zheludkov; in the lower row are Genrikh Altunyan and (Alexander Podrabinek]]. Photo taken on 16 October 1977.BOOK, Подрабинек, Александр, ru:Диссиденты, Dissidents, 2014, АСТ, Moscow, 978-5-17-082401-4, Russian, )In 1972 Sakharov became the target of sustained pressure from his fellow scientists in the USSR Academy of Sciences, the Soviet press. The writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, sprang to his defence.WEB,weblink 30.12 Materials about Sakharov, A Chronicle of Current Events, 2016-01-16, In 1973 and 1974, the Soviet media campaign continued, targeting both Sakharov and Solzhenitsyn. While Sakharov disagreed with Solzhenitsyn's vision of Russian revival, he deeply respected him for his courage.Sakharov later described that it took "years" for him to "understand how much substitution, deceit, and lack of correspondence with reality there was" in the Soviet ideals. "At first I thought, despite everything that I saw with my own eyes, that the Soviet State was a breakthrough into the future, a kind of prototype for all countries". Then he came, in his words, to "the theory of symmetry: all governments and regimes to a first approximation are bad, all peoples are oppressed, and all are threatened by common dangers."After that he realized that there is not much
Sakharov's ideas on social development led him to put forward the principle of human rights as a new basis of all politics. In his works he declared that "the principle 'what is not prohibited is allowed' should be understood literally", defying what he saw as unwritten ideological rules imposed by the Communist party on the society in spite of a democratic (1936) USSR Constitution.In no way did Sakharov consider himself a prophet or the like: In a letter written from exile, he cheered up a fellow physicist and human rights activist with the words: "Fortunately, the future is unpredictable and also – because of quantum effects – uncertain." For Sakharov the indeterminacy of the future supported his belief that he could, and should, take personal responsibility for it.

Nobel Peace Prize (1975)

In 1973, Sakharov was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize and in 1974 was awarded the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca.Sakharov was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975. The Norwegian Nobel Committee called him "a spokesman for the conscience of mankind". In the words of the Nobel Committee's citation: "In a convincing manner Sakharov has emphasised that Man's inviolable rights provide the only safe foundation for genuine and enduring international cooperation."Sakharov was not allowed to leave the Soviet Union to collect the prize. His wife Yelena Bonner read his speech at the ceremony in Oslo, Norway.Y.B. Sakharov: Acceptance Speech, Nobel Peace Prize, Oslo, Norway, December 10, 1975.Y.B. Sakharov: Peace, Progress, Human Rights, Sakharov's Nobel Lecture, Nobel Peace Prize, Oslo, Norway, December 11, 1975. On the day the prize was awarded, Sakharov was in Vilnius, where human rights activist Sergei Kovalev was being tried.BOOK, The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom, Gorelik, Gennady, 2005, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-534374-8, Oxford, In his Nobel lecture, titled "Peace, Progress, Human Rights", Sakharov called for an end to the arms race, greater respect for the environment, international cooperation, and universal respect for human rights. He included a list of prisoners of conscience and political prisoners in the USSR, stating that he shares the prize with them.By 1976 the head of the KGB Yuri Andropov was prepared to call Sakharov "Domestic Enemy Number One" before a group of KGB officers.{{Rp|24}}

Internal exile (1980–1986)

(File:C0474-NN-Sakharov-house.jpg|thumb|upright|The apartment building in the Scherbinki district of Nizhny Novgorod where Sakharov lived in exile from 1980 to 1986. His apartment is now a museum.)Sakharov was arrested on 22 January 1980, following his public protests against the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in 1979, and was sent to the city of Gorky, now Nizhny Novgorod, a city that was off limits to foreigners.WEB,weblink From Exile - Sakharov Web Exhibit,, 2019-07-30, Between 1980 and 1986, Sakharov was kept under Soviet police surveillance. In his memoirs he mentions that their apartment in Gorky was repeatedly subjected to searches and heists. Sakharov was named the 1980 Humanist of the Year by the American Humanist Association.WEB, Humanist of the Year,weblink 21 November 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 14, 2013, In May 1984, Sakharov's wife, Yelena Bonner, was detained and Sakharov began a hunger strike, demanding permission for his wife to travel to the United States for heart surgery. He was forcibly hospitalized and force-fed. He was held in isolation for four months. In August 1984 Bonner was sentenced by a court to five years of exile in Gorky.In April 1985, Sakharov started a new hunger strike for his wife to travel abroad for medical treatment. He again was taken to a hospital and force-fed. In August the Politburo discussed what to do about Sakharov.The Bukovsky Archives, 29 August 1985. He remained in the hospital until October 1985 when his wife was allowed to travel to the United States. She had heart surgery in the United States and returned to Gorky in June 1986.In December 1985, the European Parliament established the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, to be given annually for outstanding contributions to human rights.WEB,weblink AIP_Sakharov_Photo_Chronology, On 19 December 1986, Mikhail Gorbachev, who had initiated the policies of perestroika and glasnost, called Sakharov to tell him that he and his wife could return to Moscow.BOOK, Perestroïka and Soviet national security, Michael MccGwire, Brookings Institution Press, 1991, 978-0-8157-5553-1, 275,weblink Michael MccGwire,

Political leader

In 1988, Sakharov was given the International Humanist Award by the International Humanist and Ethical Union.NEWS,weblink IHEU Awards {{!, IHEU|work=IHEU|access-date=2018-12-02|language=en-US}} He helped to initiate the first independent legal political organizations and became prominent in the Soviet Union's growing political opposition. In March 1989, Sakharov was elected to the new parliament, the All-Union Congress of People's Deputies and co-led the democratic opposition, the Inter-Regional Deputies Group. In November the head of the KGB reported to Mikhail Gorbachev on Sakharov's encouragement and support for the coal-miners' strike in Vorkuta.The Bukovsky Archives, 14 November 1989.


(File:People gathered at the grave of Andrei Sakharov, 1990.jpg|thumb|right|Sakharov's grave, 1990)Soon after 21:00 on 14 December 1989, Sakharov went to his study to take a nap before preparing an important speech he was to deliver the next day in the Congress. His wife went to wake him at 23:00 as he had requested but she found Sakharov dead on the floor. According to the notes of Yakov Rapoport, a senior pathologist present at the autopsy, it is most likely that Sakharov died of an arrhythmia consequent to dilated cardiomyopathy at the age of 68.BOOK, Coleman, Fred, The Decline and Fall of the Soviet Empire: Forty Years That Shook the World, from Stalin to Yeltsin, 116, New York, St. Martin's, 1997, He was interred in the Vostryakovskoye Cemetery in Moscow.


Memorial prizes

The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought was established in 1988 by the European Parliament in his honour, and is the highest tribute to human rights endeavours awarded by the European Union. It is awarded annually by the parliament to "those who carry the spirit of Soviet dissident Andrei Sakharov"; to "Laureates who, like Sakharov, dedicate their lives to peaceful struggle for human rights."WEB
, Sakharov Prize Network
, European Parliament
, 10 December 2013,
An Andrei Sakharov prize has also been awarded by the American Physical Society every second year since 2006 "to recognize outstanding leadership and/or achievements of scientists in upholding human rights".The Andrei Sakharov Prize For Writer's Civic Courage was established in October 1990."For Writer's Civic Courage" {{webarchive|url= |date=May 26, 2008 }}, Literaturnaya Gazeta, October 31, 1990In 2004, with the approval of Yelena Bonner, an annual Sakharov Prize for journalism was established for reporters and commentators in Russia. Funded by former Soviet dissident Pyotr Vins,WEB,weblink No 49 : 14 May 1978, A Chronicle of Current Events, 2013-10-07, now a businessman in the US, the prize is administered by the Glasnost Defence Foundation in Moscow. The prize "for journalism as an act of conscience" has been won over the years by famous journalists such as Anna Politkovskaya and young reporters and editors working far from Russia's media capital, Moscow. The 2015 winner was Yelena Kostyuchenko.WEB,weblink Glasnost defence foundation digest No. 734,

Andrei Sakharov Archives and Human Rights Center

The Andrei Sakharov Archives and Human Rights Center, established at Brandeis University in 1993, are now housed at Harvard University.Harvard University. KGB file of Sakharov {{webarchive |url= |date=May 16, 2006 }}The documents from that archive were published by the Yale University Press in 2005.The KGB File of Andrei Sakharov. (edited by Joshua Rubenstein and Alexander Gribanov), New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005; {{ISBN|978-0-300-10681-7}} These documents are available online.The KGB File of Andrei Sakharov {{webarchive|url= |date=May 21, 2007 }}, online version with original texts and the English translations in English and in Russian (text version in Windows-1251 character encoding and the pictures of the original pages).Most of documents of the archive are letters from the head of the KGB to the Central Committee about activities of Soviet dissidents and recommendations about the interpretation in newspapers. The letters cover the period from 1968 to 1991 (Brezhnev stagnation). The documents characterize not only Sakharov's activity, but that of other dissidents, as well as that of highest-position apparatchiks and the KGB. No Russian equivalent of the KGB archive is available.

Legacy and remembrance

{{more citations needed section|date=December 2016}}


File:Andrei Sakharov-IMG 0887-raffi kojian.JPG|thumb|A statue of Andrei Sakharov in Yerevan, ArmeniaArmeniaFile:A portrait Andrey Sakharov by Dmitry Vrubel, as restored in July 2009.jpg|thumb|"Thank you Andrei Sakharov" mural on the Berlin WallBerlin Wall(File:1991 CPA 6322.jpg|thumb|upright|Andrei Sakharov on Soviet Nobel Peace Prize winners, the USSR stamp issued on 14 May 1991)


  • In the 1984 made-for-TV film Sakharov starring Jason Robards.
  • In the television series (Star Trek: The Next Generation), one of the Enterprise-D's Shuttlecraft is named after Sakharov, and is featured prominently in several episodes. This follows the Star Trek tradition of naming Shuttlecraft after prominent scientists, and particularly in The Next Generation, physicists.
  • The fictitious interplanetary spacecraft Cosmonaut Alexei Leonov from the novel (2010: Odyssey Two) by Arthur C. Clarke is powered by a "Sakharov drive". The novel was published in 1982, when Sakharov was in exile in Nizhny Novgorod, and was dedicated both to Sakharov and to Alexei Leonov.
  • Russian singer Alexander Gradsky wrote and performed the song "Памяти А. Д. Сахарова" ("In memory of Andrei Sakharov"), which features on his Live In "Russia" 2 (Живем в "России" 2) CD.WEB, Alexander Gradsky official website,weblink 3 February 2013, Russian,

Honours and awards

In 1980, Sakharov was stripped of all Soviet awards for "anti-Soviet activities".WEB,weblink Andrei Sakharov, 68, Soviet 'Conscience,' Dies, The New York Times, 2018-03-24, Later, during glasnost, he declined the return of his awards and, consequently, Mikhail Gorbachev did not sign the necessary decree.Gennady Gorelik, The World Of Andrei Sakharov, (Oxford: Oxford U. Press) 2005, pp. xv, 351-355



  • BOOK, Sakharov, Andrei, Sakharov speaks, 1974, Collins: Harvill Press, 978-0-00-262755-9,weblink
  • BOOK, Sakharov, Andrei, My country and the world, 1975, Knopf, 978-0-394-40226-0,weblink
  • BOOK, Sakharov, Andrei, Alarm and hope. The world-renowned Nobel laureate and political dissident speaks out on human rights, disarmament, and détente, 1978, Knopf, 978-0-394-50369-1,weblink
  • BOOK, Sakharov, Andrei, Collected scientific works, Marcel Dekker, Marcel Dekker Inc., 1982, 978-0-8247-1714-8,
  • BOOK, Sakharov, Andrei, Moscow and beyond: 1986 to 1989, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 1991, 978-0-394-58797-4,weblink
  • BOOK, Sakharov, Andrei, Memoirs, Vintage, 1992, 978-0679735953,
  • BOOK, Сахаров, Андрей, ru:Воспоминания. Ð’ 2 томах, Memoirs. In 2 volumes, 1996, Права человека, Moscow,weblink Vol. 1, 978-5-7712-0011-8, true, Russian,
  • BOOK, Сахаров, Андрей, ru:Воспоминания. Ð’ 2 томах, Memoirs. In 2 volumes, 1996, Права человека, Moscow,weblink Vol. 2, 978-5-7712-0026-2, true, Russian,

Articles and interviews

  • BOOK, Sakharov, Andrei, Thoughts on progress, peaceful coexistence and intellectual freedom, 1968, Foreign Affairs Publishing Company, 978-0-900380-03-7,
  • NEWS, Sakharov, Andrei, Thoughts on progress, peaceful coexistence and intellectual freedom,weblink The New York Times, 22 July 1968,weblink" title="">weblink January 13, 2013, live,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Here and there: the threat of nuclear war, American Scientist, Spring 1969, 57, 1, 167–171, 27828445,
  • BOOK, Sakharov, Andrei, ru:О письме Александра Солженицына "Вождям Советского Союза", On Alexander Solzhenitsyn's "A Letter to the Soviet Leaders", 1974, Khronika, New York, 2326203, Russian,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Tverdokhlebov, Andrei, Albrecht, Vladimir, USSR. The chronicle of current events, Index on Censorship, 28 May 1974, 3, 3, 87, 10.1080/03064227408532355,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, The need for an open world: Andrei Sakharov calls on scientists to intensify the campaign for a nuclear weapons ban and full disarmament, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, November 1975, 8–9,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Turchin, Valentin, Medvedev, Roy, The need for democratization, Saturday Review (U.S. magazine), The Saturday Review, 6 June 1970, 26–27,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Turchin, Valentin, Medvedev, Roy, An open letter, Survey, Summer 1970, 160–170,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Memorandum, Survey, Summer 1972, 223–233,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Statement by the Human Rights Committee, Survey, Spring 1973, 271–273,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Interview with Swedish RTV, Index on Censorship, December 1973, 2, 4, 13–17, 10.1080/03064227308532263,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, The Deputy Prosecutor‐General and I, Index on Censorship, December 1973, 2, 4, 19–23, 10.1080/03064227308532264,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Press conference, Index on Censorship, December 1973, 2, 4, 25–29, 10.1080/03064227308532265,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Reply to critics, Index on Censorship, December 1973, 2, 4, 29–30, 10.1080/03064227308532266,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Reply to oppression, Rivista di Studi Politici Internazionali, January–March 1974, 41, 1, 47–54, 42733796,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, How I came to dissent, The New York Review of Books, 21 March 1974,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, In answer to Solzhenitsyn, The New York Review of Books, 13 June 1974,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Sakharov's statement on Jackson amendment, Index on Censorship, March 1975, 4, 1, 73–74, 10.1080/03064227508532405,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Peace, progress and human rights, Index on Censorship, June 1976, 5, 2, 3–9, 10.1080/03064227608532514,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, The death penalty, The New York Review of Books, 9 February 1978,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Letter from Sakharov and Meiman, Nature (journal), Nature, February 1978, 271, 5645, 499, 10.1038/271499c0, 1978Natur.271..499S,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, The human rights movement in the USSR and Eastern Europe: its goals, significance, and difficulties, Trialogue, Fall 1978, 19, 4–7, 26–27,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, USSR: Sakharov's plea for poets, Index on Censorship, December 1980, 9, 6, 64, 10.1080/03064228008533146,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, The responsibility of scientists, Nature (journal), Nature, May 1981, 291, 5812, 184–185, 10.1038/291184a0, 1981Natur.291..184S,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, The social responsibility of scientists, Physics Today, June 1981, 34, 6, 25–30, 10.1063/1.2914603, 1981PhT....34f..25S, 0031-9228,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, The responsibility of scientists, Quadrant (magazine), Quadrant, October 1981, 25, 10, 18–21, 0033-5002,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, An autobiographical note, The Partisan Review, Fall 1981, 511–513,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Letter to my foreign colleagues, The New York Review of Books, 21 January 1982,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Meiman, Naum, The plight of Yuri Orlov, Harvard International Review, March–April 1982, 4, 6, 50, 42762207,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, An appeal, The Partisan Review, Summer 1982, 480–482,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, A message from Gorky, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, June 1983, 39, 6, 2–3, 10.1080/00963402.1983.11458999,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, The danger of thermonuclear war. An open letter to Dr. Sidney Drell, Foreign Affairs, Summer 1983, 61, 5, 1001–1016, 10.2307/20041632, 20041632,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink March 16, 2016, live,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, A reply to slander, The New York Review of Books, 21 July 1983,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, A letter to my scientific colleagues, The New York Review of Books, 1 March 1984,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Of arms and reforms, Time (magazine), Time, 16 March 1987,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, On accepting a prize, The New York Review of Books, 13 August 1987,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, A man of universal interests, Nature (journal), Nature, 25 February 1988, 331, 6158, 671–672, 10.1038/331671a0, 1988Natur.331..671S,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, On Gorbachev: a talk with Andrei Sakharov, The New York Review of Books, 22 December 1988,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sajarov, Andrei, Bonner, Elena, Al simposio de Madrid sobre las relaciones comerciales y económicas Este-Oeste, Madrid symposium on East-West trade relations and economics, Política Exterior, 1989, 3, 12, 45–47, 20642878, Spanish,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, A speech to the People's Congress, The New York Review of Books, 17 August 1989, 36, 13, 25–26,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, We cannot do without nuclear power plants, but ..., World Marxist Review, 1990, 33, 21–22, 0043-8642,
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Sakharov: Sakharov and Solzhenitsyn: a difference in principle, Time (magazine), Time, 21 May 1990,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Sakharov: years in exile, Time (magazine), Time, 21 May 1990,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Sakharov, Andrei, Lecture in Lyons: science and freedom, Physics Today, July 1999, 52, 7, 22–24, 10.1063/1.882746, 1999PhT....52g..22S, 0031-9228,

See also



Further reading

{{Further reading cleanup|date=July 2018}}
  • NEWS, 100,000 honour Andrei Sakharov, The Glasgow Herald, 18 December 1989,weblink 4,
  • JOURNAL, An honourable dissident, New Scientist, 30 April 1981, 90, 1251, 266,weblink Information, Reed Business,
  • NEWS, Andrei Sakharov addresses grads,weblink The Lewiston Daily Sun, 15 June 1987, 14,
  • NEWS, Andrei Sakharov ends lone hunger strike,weblink Eugene Register-Guard, 7 August 1984, 4A,
  • BOOK, Developments concerning Dr. Andrei Sakharov: joint hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, House of Representatives, Ninety-ninth Congress, second session, March 18, 1986, Vol. 4, 1986, U.S. Government Printing Office,weblink
  • NEWS, Exile of Andrei Sakharov is deplored,weblink The Telegraph (Nashua), The Telegraph, 23 January 1980, 2,
  • NEWS, How Sakharov won exit visa for his wife,weblink Chicago Tribune, 24 February 1986,
  • NEWS, President honors Andrei Sakharov,weblink Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 19 May 1983, 7A,
  • NEWS, Russia orders end of internal exile for Andrei Sakharov, noted dissident,weblink The Tuscaloosa News, 19 December 1986,
  • BOOK, Sakharov, Andrei. Facets of a Life, Frontieres, 1991, 978-2-86332-096-9,
  • NEWS, Sakharov case spotlights Soviet efforts against dissidents,weblink The Hour (newspaper), The Hour, 26 May 1984,
  • NEWS, Sakharov in a plea on prisoners,weblink The New York Times, 4 September 1986,
  • NEWS, Sakharov is "symbol" of fight for freedom: Russian dissident scientist awarded Nobel Peace Prize,weblink Observer–Reporter, 10 October 1975,
  • NEWS, Sakharov letter describes torment,weblink Chicago Tribune, 16 February 1986,
  • NEWS, Sakharov speaks out on repression, detente (Sakharov's letter to Anatoly P. Aleksandrov, president of the Soviet Academy of Sciences),weblink The Ukrainian Weekly, LXXXVII, 31, 28 December 1980,
  • JOURNAL, Scientists meet in New York to honour Sakharov, New Scientist, 7 May 1981, 90, 1252, 332,weblink Information, Reed Business,
  • BOOK, Soviet detention of Andrei Sakharov: Markup before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-sixth Congress, Second Session, 4 February 1980, 1980, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.,weblink
  • NEWS, Soviet opposition left leaderless by passing of Andrei Sakharov,weblink Eugene Register-Guard, 17 December 1989, 18A,
  • JOURNAL, Soviet Union: Sakharov's defense, Time (magazine), Time, 24 September 1973,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Soviet Union: a warning for Sakharov, Time (magazine), Time, 5 November 1973,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Soviet Union: a travel permit for Sakharov, Time (magazine), Time, 31 October 1988,weblink
  • NEWS, The blessed curse of Andrei Sakharov,weblink Chicago Tribune, 17 November 1988,
  • NEWS, The undefeated Sakharovs,weblink Chicago Tribune, 28 December 1986,
  • NEWS, Trying to help Andrei Sakharov,weblink The Hour (newspaper), The Hour, 1 March 1980, 23,
  • JOURNAL, Altshuler, Boris, Andrei Sakharov today: lasting impact on science and society, Physics-Uspekhi, February 2012, 55, 2, 176–182, 2012PhyU...55..176A, 10.3367/UFNe.0182.201202h.0188,
  • JOURNAL, Applebaum, Anne, Hero, The New York Review of Books, 20 October 2005,weblink
  • BOOK, On Sakharov, 1982, Alfred A. Knopf, 978-0-394-71004-4, New York, Babyonyshev, Alexander, Babyonyshev, Alexander,
  • BOOK, Bailey, George, The making of Andrei Sakharov, 1989, Allen Lane, 978-0713990331,
  • JOURNAL, Belotserkovsky, Vadim, Soviet dissenters: Solzhenitsyn, Sakharov, Medvedev, Partisan Review, 1975, 42, 1, 35–68,
  • BOOK, Bergman, Jay, Meeting the Demands of Reason: The Life and Thought of Andrei Sakharov, Cornell University Press, 2009, 978-0-8014-4731-0,
  • NEWS, Bohlen, Celestine, Sakharov describes loneliness of life in Gorki,weblink The Washington Post, 11 January 1987,
  • JOURNAL, Bonner, Yelena, Yelena Bonner tells of medical abuse of her husband, Science (journal), Science, 16 May 1986, 232, 4752, 821, 10.1126/science.3704629, 1986Sci...232..821H,
  • BOOK, Bonner, Elena, Alone together, 1988, 1986, Vintage Books, New York, 978-0394755380, 3,
  • JOURNAL, Bonner, Elena, Sakharov is Tokamak's originator, Physics Today, December 2005, 58, 12, 15, 10.1063/1.2169425, 2005PhT....58Q..15B,
  • BOOK, Capuzza, Jamie, Golden, James, The images and impact of Andrei Sakharov: a study of dissident rhetoric in the Soviet human rights movement, 1988, Ohio State University, 19583828,weblink
  • NEWS, Carroll, Nicholas, The loneliness of Andrei Sakharov,weblink The Montreal Gazette, 25 February 1981, 23,
  • JOURNAL, Clemens, Walter Jr., Sakharov: a man for our times, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 1971, 27, 10, 4–56, 10.1080/00963402.1971.11455417,
  • BOOK, Clementi, Marco, Il diritto al dissenso: il progetto costituzionale di Andrej Sacharov, The right to dissent: Andrei Sakharov's constitutional project, 2002, Odradek Edizioni, Rome, 978-8886973441, Italian,
  • BOOK, Dornan, Peter, Andrei Sakharov: the conscience of a liberal scientist, 354–417, Tökés, Rudolf, Dissent in the USSR: politics, ideology, and people, 1975, Johns Hopkins University Press, 978-0-8018-1661-1,
  • JOURNAL, Drell, Sidney, Andrei Sakharov and the nuclear danger, Physics Today, May 2000, 53, 5, 37–41, 10.1063/1.883099, 2000PhT....53e..37D,
  • JOURNAL, Drell, Sidney, Hoagland, Jim, Shultz, George, The man who spoke truth to power: Andrei Sakharov's enduring relevance, Foreign Affairs, 25 June 2015,weblink
  • BOOK, Drell, Sidney; Kapitsa, Sergei (eds.), Sahkarov Remembered, Springer Science+Business Media, Springer, 1991, 978-0-88318-852-1,
  • JOURNAL, Drell, Sidney, Okun, Lev, Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov, Physics Today, August 1990, 43, 8, 26, 10.1063/1.881252, 1990PhT....43h..26D,
  • BOOK, Drell, Sidney, Shultz, George, Andrei Sakharov: the conscience of humanity, Physics Today, 69, 7, 61, 2015, Hoover Press, 978-0817918965, 2016PhT....69g..61K, 10.1063/PT.3.3240,
  • NEWS, Drummond, Roscoe, What kind of man is Andrei Sakharov?,weblink Observer–Reporter, 7 March 1977, A4,
  • NEWS, Eaton, William, Sakharov: Soviet aides defend internal exile: Soviets, challenged on rights, defend treatment of Sakharov,weblink Los Angeles Times, 20 July 1985,
  • NEWS, Eaton, William, Tass says Sakharov is only afflicted by 'aging',weblink Los Angeles Times, 8 December 1985,
  • JOURNAL, Ferullo, Joe, Moore, Suzanne, Talking to Tanya: Sakharov's daughter speaks in Massachusetts, Columbia Daily Spectator, 30 January 1979, CIII, 61, 3,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Feshbach, Herman, A meeting with Sakharov, Physics Today, April 1987, 40, 4, 7–9, 10.1063/1.2819974, 1987PhT....40d...7F,
  • JOURNAL, Fireside, Harvey, Dissident visions of the USSR: Medvedev, Sakharov & Solzhenitsyn, Polity (publisher), Polity, Winter 1989, 22, 2, 213–229, 10.2307/3234832, 3234832,
  • NEWS, Fisher, Dan, Andrei Sakharov. A prophet without honor among his own people,weblink Los Angeles Times, 24 May 1984, 7A,
  • JOURNAL, Furth, Harold, Sakharov: science of a dissident, New Scientist, 30 April 1981, 90, 1251, 274–278,weblink
  • BOOK, Ginzburg, Vitaly, The Sakharov phenomenon, The physics of a lifetime: reflections on the problems and personalities of 20th century physics, 2001, Springer, 978-3540675341, 471–506, 10.1007/978-3-662-04455-1_30,,
  • BOOK, Glazov, Yuri, Pasternak, Solzhenitsyn, and Sakharov, The Russian mind since Stalin's death, 1985, D. Reidel Publishing Company, 978-9027718280, 158–179, 10.1007/978-94-009-5341-3_9,
  • BOOK, Gennady Gorelik, Gorelik, Gennady, Antonina W. Bouis, Bouis, Antonina, The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom, Oxford University Press, 2005, 978-0-19-515620-1,
  • JOURNAL, Gorelik, Gennady, The metamorphosis of Andrei Sakharov: the inventor of the Soviet hydrogen bomb became an advocate of peace and human rights. What led him to his fateful decision?, Scientific American, July 2002, 27–30,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink April 5, 2016, dead, April 5, 2016, mdy-all,
  • NEWS, Gottfried, Kurt, Orlov, Yuri, A man who would not be silenced: Sakharov: he saw scientific, political and moral realities as one equation, and he died still warning about 'tomorrow',weblink The Los Angeles Times, 19 December 1989,
  • BOOK, Harasowska, Marta, Olhovych, Orest, The international Sakharov hearing, 1977, Smoloskyp Publishers, 978-0914834113,weblink
  • NEWS, Harris, Zelda, Richter, Elihu, Andrei Sakharov, Elena Bonner and Gilad Schalit,weblink The Jerusalem Post, 7 July 2010,
  • JOURNAL, Hesse, Natalya, Tolz, Vladimir, The Sakharovs in Gorky, The New York Review of Books, 12 April 1984,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Hermann, Anton, Elena Bonner and Andrei Sakharov, Quadrant (magazine), Quadrant, November 1987, 33, 11, 78–79,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Holloway, David, Andrei Sakharov, 1921–1989, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1990, 46, 2, 14, 10.1080/00963402.1990.11459791,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Holloway, David, Moral leader of a nation, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 30 June 1991, 47, 6, 37–38,weblink 10.1080/00963402.1991.11459998,
  • JOURNAL, Jacobs, Michael, Sakharov exile triggers reaction in US physics community, Physics Today, March 1980, 33, 3, 133–134, 10.1063/1.2913982, 1980PhT....33c.133J,
  • NEWS, Keller, Bill, Sakharov disillusions dissidents,weblink The Chicago Tribune, 3 April 1987,
  • JOURNAL, Kelley, Donald, Solzhenitsyn and Sakharov as futurologists, Futures (journal), Futures, February 1979, 11, 1, 63–68, 10.1016/0016-3287(79)90070-3,
  • BOOK, Kelley, Donald, The Solzhenitsyn-Sakharov dialogue: politics, society, and the future, 1982, Greenwood Press, 978-0313229404,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Klehr, Harvey, Sakharov Watch. Fearful police state meets brave dissident, The Weekly Standard, 5 September 2005, 10, 47,weblink
  • NEWS, Kline, Edward, Sakharov stands for the individual,weblink Los Angeles Times, 22 December 1986,
  • JOURNAL, Korey, William, Andrey Sakharov–the Soviet Jewish perspective, Soviet Jewish Affairs, November 1986, 16, 3, 17–28, 10.1080/13501678608577546,
  • NEWS, Kovalev, Sergei, Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov: meeting the demands of reason,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink February 23, 2016, dead, Izvestiya, 21 May 1998, mdy-all,
  • NEWS, Kramer, Mark, His spirit moved him and indeed, it moved us all: Sakharov: always the optimist, he gained an inner strength that carried him from exile to the leading voice of the Soviet opposition,weblink The Los Angeles Times, 17 December 1989,
  • BOOK, Kuptz, Kirsten, Dissent in the Soviet Union: the role of Andrei Sakharov in the human rights movement, 2004, GRIN Verlag, 978-3638278348,
  • NEWS, Lee, Gary, Sakharov says Soviet Union continues to violate human rights,weblink The Washington Post, 12 November 1988,
  • NEWS, Lee, Gary, President receives Sakharov,weblink The Washington Post, 15 November 1988,
  • BOOK, LeVert, Suzanne, The Sakharov file: a study in courage, 1986, J. Messner, 978-0671600709,
  • NEWS, Lewis, Anthony, Torturing Andrei Sakharov,weblink Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 14 July 1984, 21A,
  • BOOK, Lipkin, Harry, Andrei Sakharov: Quarks and the Structure of Matter, Andrei Sakharov: Quarks and the Structure of Matter. Edited by Lipkin Harry J. Published by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd, 1–17, World Scientific Publishing, 2013, 978-981-4407-41-0,, 10.1142/9789814407427_0001,
  • JOURNAL, Lizhi, Fang, Ratnesar, Romesh, The dissident Andrei Sakharov, Time (magazine), Time, 14 June 1999,weblink
  • NEWS, Lord, David, Sakharov’s release cause for optimism Cotler says,weblink The Montreal Gazette, 24 December 1986, A-7,
  • BOOK, Lozansky, Edward, Andrei Sakharov and Peace, Avon (publishers), Avon, 1985, 978-0-380-89819-0,
  • JOURNAL, Marshall, Eliot, U.S. scientists protest punishment of Sakharov, Science (magazine), Science, 8 February 1980, 207, 4431, 625, 10.1126/science.207.4431.625, 17749319, 1980Sci...207Q.625M,
  • JOURNAL, Medvedev, Zhores, Sakharov's scientific legacy, Nature (journal), Nature, 9 January 1986, 319, 6049, 93, 10.1038/319093a0, 1986Natur.319Q..93M,
  • JOURNAL, Medvedev, Zhores, Andrei Sakharov's return ..., The Scientist (magazine), The Scientist, 26 January 1987,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Medvedev, Zhores, The legacy of Andrei Sakharov, Index on Censorship, March 1990, 19, 3, 13–14, 10.1080/03064229008534808,
  • JOURNAL, Mervis, Jeffrey, Sakharov release may bolster ties with West, say activists, The Scientist (magazine), The Scientist, 26 January 1987,weblink
  • NEWS, Mitgang, Herbert, A life of scientist and dissident Andrei Sakharov,weblink The Chicago Tribune, 12 May 2002,
  • NEWS, Mollick, John, The wisdom of Andrei Sakharov, 24 December 1989, The Washington Post,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Moscovici, Serge, Singer, Sakharov et avoir l'air. Où la transgression mène à l'identification, Singer, Sakharov and looking like. Where infringement leads to identification, L'Inactuel, 1997, 7, 39–58,weblink French,
  • BOOK, Murray-Brown, Jeremy, Sakharov, the KGB, and the mass media, Bittman, Ladislav, The new image-makers: Soviet propaganda and disinformation today, 1988, Pergamon-Brassey's, Washington, 978-0080349398, 159–200,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 20, 2016, mdy-all,
  • NEWS, Mydans, Seth, Sakharov gets personal letter from Carter,weblink Schenectady Gazette, 121, LXXXIV, 18 February 1977,
  • NEWS, Nathans, Benjamin, 29 August 2003, The Sakharov Archives: a vital record of human rights history is in danger, The New York Times,weblink
  • NEWS, Porubcansky, Mark, Sakharov: time, trust needed for reform,weblink Lakeland Ledger, 4 June 1988, 11A,
  • JOURNAL, Rabinowitch, Eugene, The Sakharov manifesto: Progress, peaceful coexistence, intellectual freedom, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, November 1968, 24, 9, 2–7, 10.1080/00963402.1968.11457727,
  • NEWS, Reddaway, Peter, What future for the Sakharovs?,weblink Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 24 December 1986, 7A,
  • JOURNAL, Rhéaume, Charles, Western scientists' reactions to Andrei Sakharov's human rights struggle in the Soviet Union, 1968–1989, Human Rights Quarterly, February 2008, 30, 1, 1–20, 10.1353/hrq.2008.0004, 20486694,
  • JOURNAL, Rich, Vera, Sakharov: resignation from Soviet academy, Nature (journal), Nature, 16 May 1985, 315, 6016, 169, 10.1038/315169b0, 1985Natur.315..169R,
  • JOURNAL, Rich, Vera, Sakharov to stand for Supreme Soviet?, Nature (journal), Nature, 10 November 1988, 336, 6195, 97, 10.1038/336097b0, 1988Natur.336...97R,
  • JOURNAL, Rich, Vera, Sakharov work acknowledged, Nature (journal), Nature, 11 February 1988, 331, 6156, 468, 10.1038/331468c0, 1988Natur.331..468R,
  • JOURNAL, Rich, Vera, Soviet human rights: one-way trip for Sakharov?, Nature (journal), Nature, 12 May 1983, 303, 5913, 106, 10.1038/303106c0, 1983Natur.303..106R,
  • JOURNAL, Rich, Vera, East-west links: Sakharov college struggles on, Physics World, 1993, 6, 8, 9–10, 10.1088/2058-7058/6/8/7,
  • JOURNAL, Ritus, Vladimir, A D Sakharov: personality and fate, Physics-Uspekhi, February 2012, 55, 2, 170–175, 10.3367/UFNe.0182.201202g.0182, 2012PhyU...55..170R,
  • JOURNAL, Robert, Horvath, "Sakharov would be with us": Limonov, Strategy-31, and the dissident legacy, The Russian Review, October 2015, 74, 4, 581–598, 10.1111/russ.12049,
  • NEWS, Safire, William, Russian scientist and the moral hotline,weblink The Day (New London), The Day, 2 February 1977, 8,
  • JOURNAL, Sessler, Andrew, Howell, Yvonne, Andrei Sakharov: a man of our times, American Journal of Physics, May 1984, 52, 397, 397–402, 10.1119/1.13624, 1984AmJPh..52..397S,
  • NEWS, Shanker, Thom, Free political dissidents, Sakharov tells Gorbachev,weblink Chicago Tribune, 25 December 1986,
  • JOURNAL, Shcharansky, Anatoly, The legacy of Andrei Sakharov, Journal of Democracy, Spring 1990, 1, 2, 35–40, 10.1353/jod.1990.0035,weblink
  • NEWS, Simes, Dimitri, Gorbachev and Sakharov: little has changed yet,weblink Los Angeles Times, 29 December 1986,
  • JOURNAL, Smith, Fred, Sakharov and Solzhenitsyn: dissidents with a different world view, The Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies, Winter 1991, 16, 4, 469–476,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Solzhenitsyn, Alexander, Peace and violence – Sakharov for the Nobel Peace Prize, Index on Censorship, December 1973, 2, 4, 47–51, 10.1080/03064227308532268,
  • JOURNAL, Sternberg, Hilary, Sakharov & Solzhenitsyn: champions of freedom, Index on Censorship, December 1973, 2, 4, 5–11, 10.1080/03064227308532261,
  • JOURNAL, Surovtseva, Ekaterina, ru:А.И. Солженицын и А.Д. Сахаров: дискуссия вокруг "Письма вождям Советского Союза" и её восприятие в эмигрантской печати (Ðœ. Агурский), A.I. Solzhenitsyn and A.D. Sakharov: the debate around "Letter to the Soviet leaders" and its perception in the emigre press (M. Agursky), Филологические науки. Вопросы теории и практики, 2014, 9, 39, part 2, 159–161,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink March 6, 2016, dead, PDF, immediate download, Russian, mdy-all,
  • JOURNAL, Surovtseva, Ekaterina, ru:А.И. Солженицын, А.Д. Сахаров и Р. Медведев: дискуссия вокруг "Письма вождям Советского Союза" и её восприятие в эмигрантской печати (Ðœ. Агурский), A.I. Solzhenitsyn, A.D. Sakharov and R. Medvedev: the debate around "Letter to the Soviet leaders" and its perception in the emigre press (M. Agursky), Молодой ученый, 2015, 2, 608–613,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink April 19, 2015, live, Russian,
  • JOURNAL, Teller, Edward, A life of fighting for freedom, Physics World, 1991, 4, 5, 44–45, 10.1088/2058-7058/4/5/28,
  • BOOK, Vernacchia-Galli, Jole, Regesto delle lauree honoris causa dal 1944 al 1985, The register of honoris causa degrees from 1944 to 1985, Roma, Edizioni Dell'Ateneo, Studi e Fonti per la storia dell'Università di Roma, Vol. 10, 1986, Andrej Dmitrievich Sakharov, 687–779, Italian, The Regesto delle lauree honoris causa dal 1944 al 1985 is a detailed and carefully commented register of all the documents of the official archive of the Sapienza University of Rome pertaining to the honoris causa degrees awarded or not. It includes all the awarding proposals submitted during the considered period, detailed presentations of the work of the candidate, if available, and precise references to related articles published on Italian newspapers and magazines, if the laurea was awarded.
  • JOURNAL, Wade, Nicholas, A pledge to help Sakharov, Science (magazine), Science, 15 February 1980, 207, 4432, 745, 10.1126/science.11643589, 1980Sci...207S.745W,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink October 20, 2015, live,
  • JOURNAL, Wade, Nicholas, Physicists meet to honor Sakharov: The Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov will be 60 on 21 May; a symposium in his honor was held on May Day, not in Moscow but in New York, Science (magazine), Science, 15 May 1981, 212, 4496, 756–757, 10.1126/science.212.4496.756, 17752230, 1981Sci...212..756W,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink October 18, 2015, live,
  • JOURNAL, Wade, Nicholas, Sakharov expulsion averted, Science (magazine), Science, 28 March 1980, 207, 4438, 1451, 10.1126/science.207.4438.1451-b, 1980Sci...207S1451W,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink October 20, 2015, live,
  • JOURNAL, Wade, Nicholas, Sakharov protests mount, Science (magazine), Science, 14 March 1980, 207, 4436, 1186, 10.1126/science.207.4436.1186, 17776847, 1980Sci...207.1186W,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink October 20, 2015, live,
  • BOOK, Weeks, Albert, Andrei Sakharov and the Soviet dissidents: a critical commentary, 1975, Monarch Press, 978-0671009632,weblink
  • JOURNAL, White, Sarah, Will Sakharov soon be silenced?, New Scientist, 12 July 1973, 59, 854, 92,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Weisskopf, Victor, Sakharov and East-West relations, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, August 1984, 40, 7, 2, 10.1080/00963402.1984.11459247,
  • NEWS, Wren, Christopher, Andrei Sakharov fights to attain human rights,weblink The Daytona Beach News-Journal, 10 October 1975, 8A,
  • BOOK, Wynn, Allan, Dewhirst, Martin, Stone, Harold, Fifth International Sakharov Hearing: Proceedings, April, 1985, 1986, Andre Deutsch, 978-0233980508,weblink
  • BOOK, Young, Benjamin, Andrei Sakharov, Williams, Robert, Viotti, Paul, Arms control: history, theory, and policy, 2012, ABC-CLIO, 978-0275998202, 307–309,weblink
  • BOOK, Zdravomyslov, Andrei, Диссидентское движение в свете социологии конфликта. А.Д. Сахаров, Dissident movement in the light of sociology of conflict. A.D. Sakharov, ru:Социология конфликта. Россия на путях преодоления кризиса. Учебное пособие для студентов высших учебных заведений, Sociology of conflict. Russia on ways to overcome crisis. Textbook for students of higher educational institutions, 1995, Аспект-пресс, Moscow, 978-5756700091, 264–267, Russian,

External links

{{Commons category|Andrei Sakharov}}


  • {{YouTube|SurdhDbeBuU|Václav Havel and Soviet Dissidents, 8 min, watch Andrei Sakharov's interview since 2:05}}
  • {{YouTube|uwK25WqOki0|Спецвипуск. Пам'яті Андрія Сахарова [Special program issue. In commemoration of Andrei Sakharov, Mustafa Dzhemilev's interview to Semyon Gluzman, in Russian], 26 min, 15 December 2014}}
{{Nobel Peace Prize Laureates 1951-1975}}{{Soviet Atomic Bomb Project}}{{Soviet dissidents}}{{Authority control}}

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