American Basketball Association

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American Basketball Association
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{{About||the modern semi-professional league|American Basketball Association (2000–present)}}{{lead too short|date=March 2017}}

The original American Basketball Association (ABA) was a men's professional basketball league, from 1967 to 1976. The ABA ceased to exist with the American Basketball Association–National Basketball Association merger in 1976, leading to several teams joining the National Basketball Association and to the introduction of the 3-point shot in the NBA in 1979.

League history

{{Refimprove section|date=April 2013}}The ABA was conceived at a time stretching from 1960 through the mid-1970s when numerous upstart leagues were challenging, with varying degrees of success, the established major professional sports leagues in the United States. Basketball was seen as particularly vulnerable to a challenge; its major league, the National Basketball Association, was the youngest of the Big Four major leagues, having only played 21 seasons to that point, and was still fending off contemporary challenging leagues (it had been less than five years since the American Basketball League (ABL) shut down). According to one of the owners of the Indiana Pacers, its goal was to force a merger with the more established league. Potential investors were told that they could get an ABA team for half of what it cost to get an NBA expansion team at the time. When the merger occurred, ABA officials said their investment would more than double.BOOK, The Official NBA Basketball Encyclopedia, Villard Books, 1994, 0-679-43293-0, 180, The ABA distinguished itself from its older counterpart with a more wide-open, flashy style of offensive play, as well as differences in rules—a 30-second shot clock (as opposed to the NBA's 24-second clock, though the ABA did switch to the 24 second shot clock for the 1975–76 season) and use of a three-point field goal arc, pioneered in the earlier ABL.The History of the 3-Pointer, USA Basketball, Ryan Wood, June 15, 2011. Also, the ABA used a colorful red, white and blue ball, instead of the NBA's traditional orange ball. The ABA also had several "regional" franchises, such as the Virginia Squires and Carolina Cougars, that played "home" games in several cities.The ABA also went after four of the best referees in the NBA: Earl Strom, John Vanak, Norm Drucker and Joe Gushue, getting them to "jump" leagues by offering them far more in money and benefits. In Earl Strom's memoir Calling the Shots, Strom conveys both the heady sense of being courted by a rival league with money to burn—and also the depression that set in the next year when he began refereeing in the ABA, with less prominent players performing in inadequate arenas, in front of very small crowds. Nevertheless, the emergence of the ABA boosted the salaries of referees just as it did the salaries of players.The freewheeling style of the ABA eventually caught on with fans, but the lack of a national television contract and protracted financial losses would spell doom for the ABA as an independent circuit. In 1976, its last year of existence, the ABA pioneered the now-popular slam dunk contest at its all-star game in Denver.The league succeeded in forcing a merger with the NBA in the 1976 offseason. Four ABA teams were absorbed into the older league: the New York Nets, Denver Nuggets, Indiana Pacers, and San Antonio Spurs. As part of the merger agreement, the four teams were not permitted to participate in the 1976 NBA Draft. The merge was particularly hard on the Nets; the New York Knicks were firmly established in their arena, Madison Square Garden, and would not permit the Nets to share dates there. For drawing audience away from the Knicks, the Nets were forced to pay $4.3M to the Knicks organization. The Nets offered Julius Erving instead but the Knicks declined. The Nets had to settle for an arena in Piscataway, New Jersey and, to meet expenses, were forced to sell the contract of star Julius Erving to the Philadelphia 76ers.Two other clubs, the Kentucky Colonels and the Spirits of St. Louis, were disbanded upon the merger, with each getting a buyout: the Colonels received a one-time buyout that owner John Y. Brown, Jr. used to purchase the NBA's Buffalo Braves, while the Spirits owners negotiated a cut of the other ABA teams' television revenues in perpetuity. This deal netted the ownership group of the Spirits over $300M through nearly four decades due to a large increase in television revenues. In 2014, the NBA and the Spirits ownership agreed to phase out future payments in exchange for a one-time payment of $500M, making the total value for the deal over $800M.NEWS,weblink The NBA Finally Puts An End To The Greatest Sports Deal Of All Time, Burke, Monte, Forbes, 2016-12-11, The seventh remaining team, the Virginia Squires, received nothing, as they had ceased operations shortly before the merger. The players from the Colonels, Spirits, and Squires were made available to NBA teams through a dispersal draft; the four teams absorbed by the NBA were allowed to choose players from this draft.One of the more significant long-term contributions of the ABA to professional basketball was to tap into markets in the southeast that had been collegiate basketball hotbeds (including North Carolina, Virginia, and Kentucky). The NBA was focused on the urban areas of the Northeast, Midwest and West Coast. At the time, it showed no interest in placing a team south of Washington, D.C, other than the Atlanta metropolitan area where the NBA's Hawks franchise is established.


NBA great George Mikan was the first commissioner of the ABA, where he introduced both the 3-point line and the league's trademark red, white and blue basketball.WEB, ESPN Classic: Mikan was first pro to dominate the post,weblink 2007-12-04, Mikan resigned in 1969. Dave DeBusschere, one of the stars of the New York Knicks championship teams, moved from his job as Vice President and GM of the ABA's New York Nets in 1975 to become the last commissioner of the ABA and facilitate the ABA–NBA merger in 1976.WEB,weblink Dave DeBusschere Bio, 2008-03-09, National Basketball Association,,weblink" title="">weblink 11 April 2008, live,

Spencer Haywood Hardship Rule

One of the primary contributions of the ABA to modern NBA was the introduction of the Spencer Haywood Hardship Rule, which would later become the framework for the current NBA draft eligibility system that allows players to declare for the NBA after being one year removed from their high school graduation.WEB,weblink NBA Draft Rules,, 2018-05-04, The origin of the Hardship Rule was a result of the NCAA prohibiting players from becoming a professional athlete until they had completed their four years of college eligibility.BOOK, Loose balls : the short, wild life of the American Basketball Association, Pluto, Terry, 2007, Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 141654061X, 1st, New York, 153578380, The ABA was a league that frequently made up rules on the fly and was willing to push the envelope and determine the implications of the rules later.{{citation needed|date=October 2018}}In 1969 Spencer Haywood left the University of Detroit as a sophomore and signed with the Denver Rockets.NEWS,weblink Spencer Haywood: Denver’s greatest forgotten star, The Denver Post, 2018-05-02, The NCAA filed a lawsuit against the ABA claiming that Haywood should not be able to play professionally considering that he had not completed his four years of eligibility. The ABA believed that in extenuating circumstances, such as financial situation or familial needs, players should be able to leave for professional leagues early. While the NBA and NCAA initially contested the rule, after the courts ruled in favor of Haywood playing in the ABA, the NBA followed suit and relaxed the four year rule to allow for players to enter the league if they qualified as a hardship on the basis of “financial condition…family, [or] academic record.”WEB,weblink NBA modifies "four-year rule" for hardship, ESPN Classic, Larry Schwartz, November 19, 2003, 2018-05-02, Haywood paved the way for other players to enter the ABA before they had completed their collegiate careers such as George McGinnis and Julius Erving. Today, the one and done rule in the NBA can be traced back to the ABA's decision to allow players to leave college early and pursue a professional career before they had completed their collegiate careers.NEWS,weblink Early Entry? One and Done? Thank Spencer Haywood for the Privilege, Rhoden, William C., 2016-06-29, The New York Times, 2018-05-02, 0362-4331,

Slam Dunk Contest

The ABA pioneered the advent of the now popular NBA slam dunk contest at the ABA All Star game in 1976.WEB,weblink The One That Started It All,, 2018-05-02, The game was held in Denver, and the owners of the ABA teams wanted to ensure that the event would be entertaining for the sellout crowd of 15,021 people. The ABA and NBA had begun to discuss a possible merger,WEB,weblink The ABA is long gone, but it remains the soul of the NBA, Washington Post, en, 2018-05-04, and the ABA owners wanted to establish the viability and success of their league. The Dunk Contest operated as a means of unique halftime entertainment that displayed the style and excitement that the ABA players brought to the game. The dunk contest was held at halftime of the All-Star game and the contestants were Artis Gilmore, George Gervin, David Thompson, Larry Kenon, and Julius Erving. The winner of the contest received $1,000 and a stereo system. Julius Erving went on to win the competition by completing the now famous free throw line dunk.


Of the original 11 teams, only the Kentucky Colonels and Indiana Pacers remained for all nine seasons without relocating, changing team names, or folding. However, the Denver Larks/Rockets/Nuggets, a team that had been assigned to Kansas City, Missouri, moved to Denver without playing a game in Kansas City due to the lack of a suitable arena. In addition to the four surviving ABA teams, eight current NBA markets have ABA heritage: Utah, Dallas, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, Memphis, Minnesota and Charlotte all had an ABA team before the NBA arrived.Official ABA Guides, 1967–1976.{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%; text-align:left"! Franchise! Cities/Names! Years! Fate
Anaheim AmigosLos Angeles StarsUtah Stars| Anaheim Amigos1967–1968}} Folded, 1975 NBA relocated New Orleans Jazz to Utah as Utah Jazz in 1979.
| Los Angeles Stars| 1968–1970
| Utah Stars| 1970–1975
Dallas ChaparralsTexas ChaparralsSan Antonio Spurs| Dallas Chaparrals| 1967–1970 Joined NBA, 1976, as San Antonio SpursNBA added a franchise in Dallas (Mavericks) in 1980.
| Texas Chaparrals| 1970–1971
| Dallas Chaparrals| 1971–1973
| San Antonio Spurs| 1973–1976
Houston MavericksCarolina CougarsSpirits of St. Louis| Houston Mavericks| 1967–1969 Folded, 1976NBA relocated San Diego Rockets to Houston as Houston Rockets in 1971.NBA added a franchise in Charlotte (Hornets) in 1988.
| Carolina Cougars| 1969–1974
| Spirits of St. Louis| 1974–1976
| Indiana Pacers| Indiana Pacers| 1967–1976
National Basketball Association>NBA, 1976, as Indiana Pacers
Kansas City (ABA)Denver Nuggets>Denver Larks /Rockets /Nuggets| Kansas City (unnamed)| 1967 Joined NBA, 1976, as Denver Nuggets
| Denver Larks| 1967
| Denver Rockets| 1967–1974
| Denver Nuggets| 1974–1976
| Kentucky Colonels| Kentucky Colonels| 1967–1976| Folded, 1976
Minnesota MuskiesMiami FloridiansFloridians| Minnesota Muskies| 1967–1968 Folded, 1972NBA added a franchise in Miami (Miami Heat) in 1988.NBA added a franchise in Minnesota (Minnesota Timberwolves>Timberwolves) in 1989.
| Miami Floridians| 1968–1970
| Floridians| 1970–1972
New Orleans BuccaneersMemphis Pros /Memphis Tams>Tams /Memphis SoundsBaltimore Claws>Baltimore Hustlers /Claws| New Orleans Buccaneers| 1967–1970 Folded, 1975NBA relocated Charlotte Hornets to New Orleans as New Orleans Hornets (now New Orleans Pelicans) in 2002. NBA relocated Vancouver Grizzlies to Memphis as Memphis Grizzlies in 1995.
| Louisiana Buccaneers| 1970
| Memphis Pros| 1970–1972
| Memphis Tams| 1972–1974
| Memphis Sounds| 1974–1975
| Baltimore Hustlers| 1975
| Baltimore Claws| 1975
New York/New Jersey AmericansNew York Nets| New York Americans| 1967 Joined NBA, 1976, with name changes to reflect move to New Jersey (1977) and currently Brooklyn Nets (2012).
| New Jersey Americans| 1967–1968
| New York Nets| 1968–1976
Oakland Oaks (ABA)Washington Caps>Washington CapitalsVirginia Squires| Oakland Americans| 1967 Folded, 1976NBA relocated San Francisco Warriors to Oakland as Golden State Warriors in 1971.NBA relocated Baltimore Bullets to Washington as Capital Bullets (now Washington Wizards) in 1973.
| Oakland Oaks| 1967–1969
| Washington Capitals| 1969–1970
| Virginia Squires| 1970–1976
Pittsburgh Pipers /Pioneers /CondorsMinnesota Pipers| Pittsburgh Pipers| 1967–1968 Folded, 1972 NBA added a franchise in Minnesota (Timberwolves) in 1989.
| Minnesota Pipers| 1968–1969
| Pittsburgh Pipers| 1969–1970
| Pittsburgh Pioneers| 1970
| Pittsburgh Condors| 1970–1972
San Diego Conquistadors /Sails| San Diego Conquistadors| 1972–1975 Folded, 1975NBA operated in San Diego from 1967 to 1971 with the San Diego Rockets (now the Houston Rockets) and from 1978 to 1984 with the San Diego Clippers (now the Los Angeles Clippers).
| San Diego Sails| 1975

List of ABA championships

{| class="wikitable"! Year! Western Division champion! Games! Eastern Division champion! Playoffs MVP
| 1967–68| New Orleans Buccaneers |3–4| Pittsburgh Pipers| Connie Hawkins C, Pittsburgh
| 1968–69
Oakland Oaks (ABA)>Oakland Oaks|4–1| Indiana Pacers| Warren Jabali G, Oakland
|1969–70|Los Angeles Stars |2–4|Indiana Pacers
Roger Brown (basketball, born 1942)>Roger Brown F/G, Indiana
|1970–71|Utah Stars |4–3 |Kentucky Colonels|Zelmo Beaty C, Utah
|1971–72|Indiana Pacers |4–2 |New York Nets |Freddie Lewis G, Indiana
|1972–73|Indiana Pacers |4–3|Kentucky Colonels |George McGinnis F/C, Indiana
|1973–74|Utah Stars|1–4 |New York Nets|Julius Erving F, New York
| 1974–75|Indiana Pacers |1–4 |Kentucky Colonels|Artis Gilmore C, Kentucky
With the ABA cut down to seven teams by the middle of its final season, the league abandoned divisional play.{| class="wikitable"! Year! Winner! Games! Runners-up! Playoffs MVP
|1975–76|New York Nets|4–2 |Denver Nuggets |Julius Erving F, New York

Prominent players

{{div col|colwidth=15em}} {{div col end}}For more information, see ABA All-Time ABA All-Time Team Page (as selected at 30 year ABA anniversary event)">

Season leaders{| class"wikitable"

*|Elected to the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame

Scoring leaders{| class"wikitable sortable" style"font-size:95%;"

*|Pittsburgh Pipers|70|1875|26.8
*Oakland Oaks (ABA)>Oakland Oaks|35|1190|34.0
*|Denver Rockets|84|2519|30.0
*|Kentucky Colonels|83|2480|29.9
*|Virginia Squires|73|2524|34.6
*|Virginia Squires|71|2268|31.9
Julius Erving* (2)|New York Nets|84|2299|27.4
*|Indiana Pacers|79|2353|29.8
Julius Erving* (3)|New York Nets|84|2462|29.3

Rebounding leaders{| class"wikitable sortable" style"font-size:95%;"

*|Minnesota Muskies|78|502|711|1213|15.6
Mel Daniels* (2)|Indiana Pacers|76|383|873|1256|16.5
Spencer Haywood*|Denver Rockets|84|533|1104|1637|19.5
Mel Daniels* (3)|Indiana Pacers|82|394|1081|1475|18.0
*| Kentucky Colonels|84|421|1070|1491|17.8
Artis Gilmore* (2)|Kentucky Colonels|84|449|1027|1476|17.6
Artis Gilmore* (3)|Kentucky Colonels|84|478|1060|1538|18.3
San Antonio Spurs|78|369|910|1279|16.4
Artis Gilmore* (4)|Kentucky Colonels|84|402|901|1303|15.5

Assists leaders{| class"wikitable sortable" style"font-size:95%;"

*|New Orleans Buccaneers|78|506|6.5
Larry Brown* (2)| Oakland Oaks|77|544|7.1
Larry Brown* (3)|Washington Caps|82|580|7.1
|1971–72| Bill Melchionni (2)|New York Nets|80|669|8.4
|1972–73| Bill Melchionni (3)| New York Nets|61|453|7.4

Steals leaders{| class"wikitable sortable" style"font-size:95%;"

|1975–76| Don Buse| Indiana Pacers|84|346|4.12

Blocks leaders{| class"wikitable sortable" style"font-size:95%;"

San Diego Conquistadors|79|316|4.00
|1974–75| Caldwell Jones (2)| San Diego Conquistadors|76|246|3.24



In 1999, a new league calling itself the ABA 2000 was established. The new league uses a similar red, white and blue basketball as the old ABA, but unlike the original ABA, it does not feature players of similar caliber to the NBA, nor does it play games in major arenas or on television as the original ABA did.

See also



External links

  • weblink" title="">Remember the ABA
{{ABA seasons}}{{ABAteams}}{{ABAChampions}}{{NBA}}{{Authority control}}

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