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Amarna letters
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File:Amarna Akkadian letter.png|thumb|EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru (stating his case to pharaohpharaohThe Amarna letters ({{IPAc-en|É™|ˈ|m|ɑː|r|-|n|É™}}; sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA, for "El Amarna") are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom, between c. 1360-1332 BC (see here for dates). The letters were found in Upper Egypt at el-Amarna, the modern name for the ancient Egyptian capital of Akhetaten, founded by pharaoh Akhenaten (1350s – 1330s BC) during the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. The Amarna letters are unusual in Egyptological research, because they are mostly written in a script known as Akkadian cuneiform, the writing system of ancient Mesopotamia, rather than that of ancient Egypt, and the language used has sometimes been characterised as a mixed language, Canaanite-Akkadian.WEB, Shlomo Izre'el, The Amarna Tablets,weblink Tel Aviv University, 13 January 2019, The written correspondence spans a period of at most thirty years.{{cn|date= January 2019}}The known tablets total 382, of which 358 have been published by the Norwegian Assyriologist Jørgen Alexander Knudtzon's in his work, Die El-Amarna-Tafeln, which came out in two volumes (1907 and 1915) and remains the standard edition to this day.BOOK, William L., Moran, The Amarna Letters, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992, 0-8018-4251-4, xiv, The texts of the remaining 24 complete or fragmentary tablets excavated since Knudtzon have also been made available. The Amarna letters are of great significance for biblical studies as well as Semitic linguistics, since they shed light on the culture and language of the Canaanite peoples in pre-biblical times. The letters, though written in Akkadian, are heavily colored by the mother tongue of their writers, who spoke an early form of Canaanite, the language family which would later evolve into its daughter languages, Hebrew and Phoenician. These "Canaanisms" provide valuable insights into the proto-stage of those languages several centuries prior to their first actual manifestation.F.M.T. de Liagre Böhl, Die Sprache der Amarnabriefe, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Kanaanismen ('The language of the Amarna letters, with special attention to the Canaanisms'), Leipzig 1909.Eva von Dassow, 'Canaanite in Cuneiform', Journal of the American Oriental Society 124/4 (2004): 641–674. (pdf)

The letters

File:Amarna letter- Royal Letter from Abi-milku of Tyre to the king of Egypt MET 24.2.12 EGDP021809.jpg|thumb|left|274px|Amarna letter EA 153 from AbimilkuAbimilkuThese letters, comprising cuneiform tablets written primarily in Akkadian – the regional language of diplomacy for this period – were first discovered around 1887 by local Egyptians who secretly dug most of them from the ruined city of Amarna, and sold them in the antiquities market. They had originally been stored in an ancient building that archaeologists have since called the Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh. Once the location where they were found was determined, the ruins were explored for more. The first archaeologist who successfully recovered more tablets was Flinders Petrie, who in 1891 and 1892 uncovered 21 fragments. Émile Chassinat, then director of the French Institute for Oriental Archaeology in Cairo, acquired two more tablets in 1903. Since Knudtzon's edition, some 24 more tablets, or fragments, have been found, either in Egypt, or identified in the collections of various museums.Moran, p.xvThe initial group of letters recovered by local Egyptians have been scattered among museums in Germany, England, Egypt, France, Russia, and the United States. Either 202 or 203 tablets are at the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin; 99 are at the British Museum in London;British Museum Collection 49 or 50 are at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo; 7 at the Louvre in Paris; 3 at the Pushkin Museum in Moscow; and 1 in the collection of the Oriental Institute in Chicago.Moran, pp.xiii-xivThe archive contains a wealth of information about cultures, kingdoms, events and individuals in a period from which few written sources survive. It includes correspondence from Akhenaten's reign (Akhenaten who was also titled Amenhotep IV), as well as his predecessor Amenhotep III's reign. The tablets consist of over 300 diplomatic letters; the remainder comprise miscellaneous literary and educational materials. These tablets shed much light on Egyptian relations with Babylonia, Assyria, Syria, Canaan, and Alashiya (Cyprus) as well as relations with the Mitanni, and the Hittites. The letters have been important in establishing both the history and the chronology of the period. Letters from the Babylonian king, Kadashman-Enlil I, anchor the timeframe of Akhenaten's reign to the mid-14th century BC. They also contain the first mention of a Near Eastern group known as the Habiru, whose possible connection with the Hebrews — due to the similarity of the words and their geographic location — remains debated. Other rulers involved in the letters include Tushratta of Mitanni, Lib'ayu of Shechem, Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem, and the quarrelsome king, Rib-Hadda, of Byblos, who, in over 58 letters, continuously pleads for Egyptian military help. Specifically, the letters include requests for military help in the north against Hittite invaders, and in the south to fight against the Habiru.El-Amarna Tablets, article at West Semitic Research Project, website of University of Southern California accessed 2/8/15.{{clear}}

Letter summary

File:Amarnamap.png|thumb|300px|Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Mycenaean Greece (orange), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and MitanniMitanniAmarna Letters are politically arranged in rough counterclockwise fashion:
  • 001–014 Babylonia
  • 015–016 Assyria
  • 017–030 Mitanni
  • 031–032 Arzawa
  • 033–040 Alashiya
  • 041–044 Hatti
  • 045–380+ Syria/Lebanon/Canaan
Amarna Letters from Syria/Lebanon/Canaan are distributed roughly:
  • 045–067 Syria
  • 068–227 Lebanon (where 68–140 are from Gubla aka Byblos)
  • 227–380 Canaan (written mostly in the Canaano-Akkadian language).

Amarna letters list

Note: Many assignments are tentative; spellings vary widely. This is just a guide.{| class = "wikitable"!EA# || Letter author to recipient
Amarna letter EA 1>EA# 1 Amenhotep III to Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil
Amarna letter EA 2>EA# 2 Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep 3
Amarna letter EA 3>EA# 3 Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep 3
Amarna letter EA 4>EA# 4 Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep 3
Amarna letter EA 5>EA# 5 Amenhotep 3 to Babylonian king KadashmanEnlil
Amarna letter EA 6>EA# 6 Babylonian king Burna-Buriash II to Amenhotep 3
Amarna letter EA 7>EA# 7 Babylonian king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep IV
Amarna letter EA 8>EA# 8 Babylonian king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
Amarna letter EA 9>EA# 9 Babylonian king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
Amarna letter EA 10>EA# 10 Babylonian king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
Amarna letter EA 11>EA# 11 Babylonian king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
Amarna letter EA 12>EA# 12 princess to her lord
Amarna letter EA 13>EA# 13 Babylon
Amarna letter EA 14>EA# 14 Amenhotep 4 to Babylonian king Burna-Buriash 2
Amarna letter EA 15>EA# 15 Assyrian king Ashur-Uballit I to Amenhotep 4
Amarna letter EA 16 >| Assyrian king Ashur-Uballit 1 to Amenhotep 4
Amarna letter EA 17 >| Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
Amarna letter EA 18 >| Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
Amarna letter EA 19>EA# 19 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
Amarna letter EA 20 >| Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
Amarna letter EA 21 >| Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
Amarna letter EA 22 >| Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
Amarna letter EA 23 >| Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
Amarna letter EA 24 >| Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
Amarna letter EA 25 >| Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
Amarna letter EA 26>EA# 26 Mitanni king Tushratta to widow Tiy
Amarna letter EA 27>EA# 27 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4
Amarna letter EA 28 >| Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4
Amarna letter EA 29 >| Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4
Amarna letter EA 30 >| Mitanni king to Palestine kings
Amarna letter EA 31 >| Amenhotep 3 to Arzawa king Tarhundaraba
Amarna letter EA 32>| Arzawa king Tarhundaraba to Amenhotep 3(?)
Amarna letter EA 33 >| Alashiya king to pharaoh #1
Amarna letter EA 34>| Alashiya king to pharaoh #2
Amarna letter EA 35>EA# 35 Alashiya king to pharaoh #3
Amarna letter EA 36 >| Alashiya king to pharaoh #4
Amarna letter EA 37 >| Alashiya king to pharaoh #5
Amarna letter EA 38 >| Alashiya king to pharaoh #6
Amarna letter EA 39 >| Alashiya king to pharaoh #7
| Alashiya minister to Egypt minister
Hittites>Hittite king Suppiluliuma to Huri[a]
| Hittite king to pharaoh
| Hittite king to pharaoh
| Hittite prince Zi[k]ar to pharaoh
Ugarit king Mistu>[M]istu ... to pharaoh
| Ugarit king ... to king
| Ugarit king ... to king
| Ugarit queen ..[h]epa to pharaohs queen
| Ugarit king Niqm-Adda II to pharaoh
| woman to her mistress B[i]...
Nuhasse king Adad-Nirari of Nuhašše>Addunirari to pharaoh
| Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #1
Amarna letter EA 53 >| Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #2
| Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #3
| Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #4
| ... to king
| ...
Amarna letter EA 58 >|
Amarna letter EA 59 >Qatihutisupa>[Qat]ihutisupa to king(?) obverse
Amarna letter EA 59 >| Tunip peoples to pharaoh
Amurru kingdom>Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #1
| Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #2
| Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to Pahanate
| Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #3
| Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #4
| Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #5
| --- to king
| --- to king
Byblos>Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #1
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to Egypt official
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #2
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to Haia(?)
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #3
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #1
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #4
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #5
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #6
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #2
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #7
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #8
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #9
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #10
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #3
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #11
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #12
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #13
Amarna letter EA 86>EA#086 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #4
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #5
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #14
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #15
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #16
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #17
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #18
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #6
| Gubla man to pharaoh
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to chief
| chief to Rib-Addi
| Iapah-Addi to Sumu-Hadi
| Iapah-Addi to Ianhamu
| pharaoh to Ammia prince(?)
Amarna letter EA 100>EA#100 Irqata peoples
Amarna letter EA 100>EA#100 Tagi to Lab-Aya
| Gubla man to Egypt official
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to [Ianha]m[u]
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #19
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #20
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #21
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #22
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #23
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #24
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #25
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #26
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #27
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #28
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to Egypt official
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #29
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #30
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #31
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #32
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #33
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #34
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #35
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #36
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #37
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #38
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #39
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #40
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #41
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #42
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #43
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #44
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #45
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #46
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #47
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #48
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #49
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #50
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #51
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #52
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #53
| Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #54
| Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #1
| Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #2
Beirut>Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #1
| Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #2
| Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #3
Amarna letter EA 144>EA#144 Zidon king Zimriddi to pharaoh
| [Z]imrid[a] to an official
Tyre, Lebanon>Tyre king Abi-Milki to pharaoh #1
Amarna letter EA 147>EA#147 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #2
| Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #3
Amarna letter EA 149>EA#149 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #4
| Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #5
| Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #6
| Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #7
Amarna letter EA 153>EA#153 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #8
| Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #9
| Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #10
Amarna letter EA 156>EA#156 Amurru kingdom king Aziru>Aziri to pharaoh #1
Amarna letter EA 157>EA#157 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #2
Amarna letter EA 158>EA#158 Amurru king Aziru to Tutu (Egyptian official)>Dudu #1
| Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #3
| Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #4
Amarna letter EA 161>EA#161 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #5
| pharaoh to Amurra prince
| pharaoh to ...
Tutu (Egyptian official)>Dudu #2
| Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #6
| Amurru king Aziri to Hai
| Amurru king Aziri to (Hai #2?)
| Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #7
| Amurru son of Aziri to an Egypt official
| Ba-Aluia & Battiilu
| Amurru son of Aziri to pharaoh
| ---
| ... to king
| Bieri of Hasabu
| Ildaja of Hazi to king
| Abdi-Risa
| Guddasuna king Jamiuta
| Hibija to a chief
| ... to king
| ... to king
| ... to king
Mittani king Shuttarna II>Shuttarna to pharaoh #1
| Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #2
| Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #3
| Hazi king Majarzana to king
| Majarzana of Hazi to king #2
| Satija of ... to king
| ... to king
Kadesh (Syria)>Qadesh mayor Etakkama
| pharaoh to Qadesh mayor Etakkama(?)
| Ruhiza king Arzawaija to king
| Ruhiza king Arzawaija to king #2
| Dijate to king
| Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #1
| Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #2
| Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #3
| Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #4
Arahattu>Ara[ha]ttu of Kumidi to king
| ... the king
| servant to king
| Sealants
| Sealants
| Artemanja of Ziribasani to king
| Amajase to king
Abdi-Milki of Sashimi (Amarna letters)>Sashimi
| prince of Qanu to king
Amarna letter EA 205>EA#205 Gubbu prince to king
| prince of Naziba to king
| Ipteh ... to king
| ... to Egypt official or king
| Zisamimi to king
| Zisami[mi] to Amenhotep IV
| Carchemish king to Ugarit king Asukwari
| Zitrijara to king #1
| Ewiri-Shar to Plsy
| Zitrijara to king #2
| Zitrijara to king #3
| ... to king
| Baiawa to king #1
| Baiawa to king #2
| A[h]... to king
| ... to king
| ... to king
| Nukurtuwa of (?) [Z]unu to king
| Wiktazu to king #1
| pharaoh to Intaruda
| Wik[tazu] to king #2
Amarna letter EA 223>EA#223 En[g]u[t]a to king
Sum-Adda>Sum-Add[a] to king
| Sum-Adda of Samhuna to king
| Sipturi_ to king
Tel Hazor>Hazor king
| Hazor king Abdi-Tirsi
| Abdi-na-... to king
| Iama to king
| ... to king
Acre, Israel>Acco king Zurata to pharaoh
| Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #1
| Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #2
Zitatna>Zitatna/(Zatatna) to king
| ... to king
| Bajadi to king
| Bajadi
| Baduzana
| ... to king
| Rusmania to king
Tel Megiddo>Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #1
| Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #2
| Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #3
Amarna letter EA 245>EA#245 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #4
| Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #5
| Megiddo king Biridija or Jasdata
Jasdata>Ja[sd]ata to king
| Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh
|
| Addu-Ur-sag to king
| Addu-Ur-sag to king
| Shechem
| ... to Egypt official
Amarna letter EA 252>EA#252 Labaja to king
| Labaja to king
Amarna letter EA 254>EA#254 Labaja to king
| Mut-Balu or Mut-Bahlum to king
Amarna letter EA 256>EA#256 Mut-Balu to Ianhamu
| Balu-Mihir to king #1
| Balu-Mihir to king #2
| Balu-Mihir to king #3
| Balu-Mihir to king #4
| Dasru to king #1
| Dasru to king #2
| ... to lord
| Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #1
| Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #2
| Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #3
| Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #1
| Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #2
| Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #3
Amarna letter EA 270>EA#270 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #4
Amarna letter EA 271>EA#271 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #5
| Sum. .. to king
Amarna letter EA 273>EA#273 Ba-Lat-Nese to king
| Ba-Lat-Nese to king #2
| Iahazibada to king #1
| Iahazibada to king #2
| Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #1
| Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #2
| Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3
| Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3
| Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #4
Amarna letter EA 282>EA#282 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #5
| Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #6
| Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #7
| Jerusalem king Abdi-Hiba to pharaoh
Amarna letter EA 286>EA#286 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
Amarna letter EA 287>EA#287 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
| Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
Amarna letter EA 289>EA#289 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
| Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
| Qiltu king Suwardata to king
| ... to ...
| Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #1
| Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #2
| Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #3
| Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #4
Gaza City>Gaza king Iahtiri
Gezer mayor Iapahi>Iapah[i] to pharaoh #1
| Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #2
| Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #3
| Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #4
| Subandu to king #1
| Subandu to king #2
| Subandu to king #3
| Subandu to king #4
| Subandu to king #5
| Subandu to king #6
| ... to king
| ... to king
| ... to king
| ... to king
| ... to king
| ... to king
| ... to king
| Jursa king Pu-Ba-Lu to pharaoh #1
| Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh #2
| Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh
| Dagantakala to king #1
| Dagantakala to king #2
Ahtirumna>A[h]tirumna king Zurasar to king
Ashkelon>Asqalon king Yidia to pharaoh #1
| Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #2
| Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #3
Amarna letter EA 323>EA#323 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #4
| Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #5
Amarna letter EA 325>EA#325 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #6
| Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #7
| ... the king
| Lakis mayor Iabniilu to pharaoh
| Lakis king Zimridi to pharaoh
| Lakis mayor Sipti-Ba-Lu to pharaoh #1
| Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #2
| Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #3
| Ebi to a prince
| ---dih of Zuhra [-?] to king
| --- [of Z]uhr[u] to king
| Hiziri to king #1
| Hiziri to king #2
| Zi. .. to king
| ... to king
| ...
| ...
| ...
| myth of Adapa and the South Wind
| myth the Ereskigal and Nergal
| myth fragments
Amarna letter EA 359>EA#359 myth Epic of King of Battle
| ...
| ...
Amarna letter EA 362>EA#362 ...
Amarna letter EA 364>EA#364 Ayyab to king
Amarna letter EA 365>EA#365 Megiddo king Biridiya to pharaoh
Amarna letter EA 366>EA#366 ...
Amarna letter EA 367>EA#367 pharaoh to Endaruta of Akshapa
Amarna letter EA 369>EA#369 ...
| Amenhotep III to Milkili
| Tell el-Hesi
Pella, Jordan>Pella prince Mut-Balu to Yanhamu
Lady of the Lions>Lion Woman to king
| Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa
| Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa
| Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa
Ugarit king Niqmaddu II>Niqmaddu

Chronology

William L. Moran summarizes the state of the chronology of these tablets as follows:From the internal evidence, the earliest possible date for this correspondence is the final decade of the reign of Amenhotep III, who ruled from 1388 to 1351 BC (or 1391 to 1353 BC), possibly as early as this king's 30th regnal year; the latest date any of these letters were written is the desertion of the city of Amarna, commonly believed to have happened in the second year of the reign of Tutankhamun later in the same century in 1332 BC. Moran notes that some scholars believe one tablet, EA 16, may have been addressed to Tutankhamun's successor Ay.Moran, p.xxxv, n.123 However, this speculation appears improbable because the Amarna archives were closed by Year 2 of Tutankhamun, when this king transferred Egypt's capital from Amarna to Thebes.

Quotations and phrases

A small number of the Amarna letters are in the class of poetry. An example is EA 153, (EA is for 'el Amarna'). EA 153, entitled: "Ships on hold", from Abimilku of Tyre is a short, 20-line letter. Lines 6-8, and 9-11 are parallel phrases, each ending with "...before the troops of the king, my lord."-('before', then line 8, line 11). Both sentences are identical, and repetitive, with only the subject statement changing.The entire corpus of Amarna letters has many standard phrases. It also has some phrases, and quotations used only once. Some are parables: (EA 252: "...when an ant is pinched (struck), does it not fight back and bite the hand of the man that struck it?"....)

Bird in a Cage

A bird in a cage (Trap)Rib-Hadda subcorpus of letters. (Rib-Hadda was trapped in Gubla-(Byblos), unable to move freely.)

"A brick may move.."

A brick may move from under its partner, still I will not move from under the feet of the king, my lord.—Used in letters EA 266, 292, and 296. EA 292 by Adda-danu of Gazru.

"For the lack of a cultivator.."

"For the lack of a cultivator, my field is like a woman without a husband."—Rib-Hadda letter EA 75

"Hale like the Sun..."

"And know that the King-(pharaoh) is Hale like the Sun in the Sky. For his troops and his chariots in multitude all goes very well...."—See: Endaruta, for the Short Form; See: Milkilu, for a Long Form. Also found in EA 99: entitled: "From the Pharaoh to a vassal". (with addressee damaged)

"I looked this way, and I looked..."

"I looked this way, and I looked that way, and there was no light. Then I looked towards the king, my lord, and there was light."EA 266 by Tagi (Ginti mayor); EA 296 by Yahtiru.

"May the Lady of Gubla.."

"May the Lady of Gubla grant power to the king, my lord."—varieties of the phrase in the Rib-Hadda letters

a pot held in pledge

a pot held in pledge—The Pot of a Debt. EA 292 by Adda-danu of Gazru.

7 times and 7 times again

7 times and 7 times—Over and over again 7 times plus 7EA 189, See: "Etakkama of Kadesh"''(title)-(QidÅ¡u)
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I fall ... 7 times and 7..."on the back and on the stomach"

I fall, at the feet, ... 7 times and 7 times, "on the back and on the stomach"EA 316, by Pu-Ba'lu, and used in numerous letters to pharaoh. See: Commissioner: Tahmašši.

when an ant is struck..

"...when an ant is pinched (struck), does it not fight back and bite the hand of the man that struck it?"—A phrase used by Labayu defending his actions of overtaking cities, EA 252. Title: "Sparing one's enemies".

Example, single letter photo gallery, multiple sides

Amarna letter EA 15, from Ashur-uballit I; see also Amarna letter EA 153.Image:Amarna_letter-_Royal_Letter_from_Ashur-uballit,_the_king_of_Assyria,_to_the_king_of_Egypt_MET_24.2.11_EGDP021806.jpg|ObverseImage:Amarna_letter-_Royal_Letter_from_Ashur-uballit,_the_king_of_Assyria,_to_the_king_of_Egypt_MET_DP-211-142.jpg|line drawing, ObverseImage:Amarna_letter-_Royal_Letter_from_Ashur-uballit,_the_king_of_Assyria,_to_the_king_of_Egypt_MET_24.2.11_EGDP021805.jpg|ReverseFile:Amarna_letter-_Royal_Letter_from_Ashur-uballit,_the_king_of_Assyria,_to_the_king_of_Egypt_MET_24.2.11_EGDP021808.jpg|View from bottom

See also

Notes

{{Reflist}}

References

  • BOOK, Smith, Janet, Dust or dew: Immortality in the Ancient Near East and in Psalm 49, 2011, Wipf and Stock, Eugene, OR, USA, 978-1-60899-661-2, 286,
  • Goren, Y., Finkelstein, I. & Na'aman, N., Inscribed in Clay - Provenance Study of the Amarna Tablets and Other Ancient Near Eastern Texts, Tel Aviv: Sonia and Marco Nadler Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, 2004. {{ISBN|965-266-020-5}}
  • BOOK, Knudtzon, Jørgen Alexander, Jørgen Alexander Knudtzon, 1915,weblink Die El-Amarna-Tafeln, 1, Leipzig,
  • BOOK, Knudtzon, Jørgen Alexander, Jørgen Alexander Knudtzon, 1915,weblink Die El-Amarna-Tafeln, 2, Leipzig,

Further reading

  • Aruz, Joan, Kim Benzel, and Jean M. Evans, eds. Beyond Babylon: Art, Trade, and Diplomacy in the Second Millennium B.C. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.
  • Cohen, Raymond, and Raymond Westbrook, eds. Amarna Diplomacy: The Beginnings of International Relations. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.
  • Moran, William L. The Amarna Letters. English-language ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
  • Mynářová, Jana. Language of Amarna - Language of Diplomacy: Perspectives On the Amarna Letters. Prague: Czech Institute of Egyptology; Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague, 2007.
  • Petrie, W. M. Flinders Syria and Egypt From the Tell El Amarna Letters. Worcester, U.K.: Yare Egyptology, 2004.
  • Rainey, Anson F. Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets: A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect Used by Scribes from Canaan. 4 vols. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2010.
  • Rainey, Anson F., and William M. Schniedewind. The El-Amarna Correspondence: A New Edition of the Cuneiform Letters From the Site of El-Amarna Based On Collations of All Extant Tablets. Boston: Brill, 2014.
  • Vita, Juan-Pablo. Canaanite Scribes In the Amarna Letters. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2015.

External links

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