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Aligarh
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{{About|the municipality in Uttar Pradesh, India|its namesake district|Aligarh district|the 2015 Hindi film|Aligarh (film)}}{{Use Indian English|date=June 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2019}}







factoids
List of sovereign states>Country| subdivision_name = {{IND}}| subdivision_type1 = State| subdivision_type2 = DivisionList of districts of India>District| subdivision_name1 = Uttar PradeshAligarh division>AligarhAligarh district>Aligarh| established_title = | established_date = 1753 as Aligarh| founder = Koil-Dor Rajputs| named_for = | government_type = Municipal corporationAligarh Municipal Corporation>Aligarh Nagar Nigam| leader_title = MayorBahujan Samaj Party>BSP)| unit_pref = Metric| area_footnotes = | area_total_km2 = | area_rank = | elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = 178| population_total = 874,408 | population_as_of = 2011| population_footnotes = | population_density_km2 = | population_rank = 55| population_demonym = Aligarian| demographics_type1 = Language| demographics1_title1 = OfficialHindi language>Hindi52ND REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA>URL=HTTP://NCLM.NIC.IN/SHARED/LINKIMAGES/NCLM52NDREPORT.PDFPUBLISHER=MINISTRY OF MINORITY AFFAIRSURL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=25 MAY 2017, | demographics1_title2 = Additional official| demographics1_info2 = UrduIndian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset1 = +5:30Postal Index Number>PIN| postal_code = 202001,202002| area_code = 0571| area_code_type = Telephone code| registration_plate = UP-81weblink}}| official_name = }}Aligarh ({{IPA audio link|Aligarh.ogg}}; formerly Allygurh and Kol) is a city in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. It is the administrative headquarters of Aligarh district, and lies {{convert|307|km}} northwest of Kanpur and approximately {{convert|130|km|mi|abbr=}} southeast of the capital, New Delhi. The recorded history of the Aligarh begins with the establishment of the Aligarh Fort in the 16th century. It is a university town, notable as the seat of Aligarh Muslim University, which was founded here as Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College in 1875, initiating the Aligarh movement.

History

{{More citations needed section|date=May 2019}}File:Aligarh fort, Aligarh.jpg|thumbnail|200px|left|Moat at the Aligarh FortAligarh FortBefore the 18th century, Aligarh was known as Kol. The history of the district up until the 12th century is obscure.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041011105835weblink">weblink dead, 11 October 2004, Histor11, Aligarhdirectory.com, 29 July 2015, Some time before the Muslim conquest, Kol was held by the Dor Rajputs. At the time of Mahmud of Ghazni, the chief of the Dors was Hardatta of Baran. Statues of Buddha and other Buddhist remains have been found in excavations where the citadel of Koil stood, indicating a Buddhist influence. Hindu remains indicate that the citadel probably had a Hindu temple after the Buddhist temple. In 1194, Qutb-ud-din Aibak marched from Delhi to Kol, "one of the most celebrated fortresses of Hind". Qutb-ud-din Aibak appointed Hisam-ud-din Ulbak as the first Muslim governor of Kol.{{citation needed|date=July 2018}}Kol is mentioned in Ibn Battuta's Rihla, when Ibn Battuta along with 15 ambassadors representing Ukhaantu Khan, emperor of the Mongol Chinese Yuan dynasty, travelled to Kol city en route to the coast at Cambay (in Gujarat) in 1341.The Adventures of Ibn Battuta, by Ross E. Dunn, p. 215 According to Battuta, it would appear that the district was then in a very disturbed state since the escort of the Emperor's embassy had to assist in relieving Jalali from an attacking body of Hindus and lost an officer in the fight. Ibn Batuta calls Kol "a fine town surrounded by mango groves". From these same groves the environs of Kol would appear to have acquired the name Sabzabad or "the green country".{{citation needed|date=July 2018}}In the reign of Akbar, Kol was made a Sirkar and included the dasturs of Marahra, Kol ba Haveli, Thana Farida and Akbarabad.{{citation needed|date=July 2018}} Akbar and Jahangir visited Kol on hunting expeditions. Jahangir clearly mentions the forest of Kol, where he killed wolves.During the time of Ibrahim Lodhi, Muhammad, son of Umar, was the governor of Kol. He built a fort at Kol and named the city Muhammadgarh, after himself, in 1524–25. Sabit Khan, who was then the governor of this region, rebuilt the old Lodhi fort and named the town Sabitgarh, after himself.The ruler of Koil was Bargujar King Rao Bahadur Singh who, in 1753, rose against the destruction of Hindu temples. The Jat ruler, Surajmal, with help from Jai Singh of Jaipur and the Muslim army, occupied the fort of Koil. Bahadur Singh continued the battle from another fort and died fighting in what is known as the "Battle of Ghasera". It was renamed Ramgarh and finally, when a Shia commander, Najaf Khan, captured Kol, he gave it its present name of Aligarh. Aligarh Fort (also called Aligarh Qila), as it stands today, was built by French engineers under the control of French officers Benoît de Boigne and Perron.

Battle of Aligarh (1803)

File:Gerard Lake.jpg|thumbnail|150px|right|General Lord Gerard Lake who oversaw the Battle of Ally GhurBattle of Ally GhurThe Battle of Aligarh was fought on 1 September 1803 during the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805) at Aligarh Fort. The British 76th Regiment, now known as the Duke of Wellington's Regiment besieged the fort, which was under the control of the French officer Perron, and established British rule. In 1804, the Aligarh district was formed by the union of the second, third and fourth British divisions with the addition of Anupshahr from Muradabad and Sikandra Rao from Etawa. On 1 August 1804, Claude Russell was appointed the first Collector of the new district.BOOK,weblink Descriptive and Historical Account of the Aligarh District, Edwin T. Atkinson, 348, 1875, 13 October 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140705125841weblink">weblink 5 July 2014, live,

Administration

Aligarh district is divided into five tehsils, namely Kol Tehsil, Khair Tehsil, Atrauli, Gabhana and Iglas. These tehsils are further divided into 12 blocks.The city is administered by Nagar Nigam Aligarh (Municipal Corporation), which is responsible for performing civic administrative functions administered by Mayor and Municipal Commissioner (PCS Officer). Infrastructure development of the city is looked after by the Aligarh Development Authority (ADA) administered by Divisional Commissioner (Chairman) and Vice-Chairman (PCS Officer).Aligarh is the headquarters of Aligarh Police Range and Aligarh Division. A DIG looks after Aligarh for legal condition and law; a Commissioner looks for four district of Aligarh Division (Aligarh, Etah, Hathras, Kasganj).

Demographics

According to the 2011 Census, Aligarh has a total population of 874,408, of which 461,772 are males and 412,636 are females. Population in the age range 0-6 years is 119,543. The literacy rate is 59.15%, of which male literacy rate is 63.42% and female literacy rate is 54.37%. The effective literacy rate of 7+ population of Aligarh was 68.5%, of which male literacy rate was 62.9% and female literacy rate was 70.8%The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes have a population of 138,184 and 332 respectively. There were 147363 households in Aligarh as of 2011.WEB, Census of India: Search Details,weblink www.censusindia.gov.in, 29 September 2019,

Geography

Location

Aligarh is located at the coordinates {{coord|27.88|N|78.08|E|}}.WEB,weblink Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Aligarh, Fallingrain.com, 13 October 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111011080051weblink">weblink 11 October 2011, live, It has an elevation of approximately 178 metres (587 feet). The city is in the middle portion of the doab, the land between the Ganges and the Yamuna rivers. The Grand Trunk Road passes through it via NH-91 is 134 km from capital of India.

Climate

Aligarh has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, typical of north-central India. Summers start in April and are hot with temperatures peaking in May. The average temperature range is {{convert|28|-|38|C|F}}. The monsoon season starts in late June, continuing till early October, bringing high humidity. Aligarh gets most of its annual rainfall of {{convert|800|mm|in}} during these months. Temperatures then decrease, and winter sets in December, and continues till February. Temperatures range between {{convert|5|-|11|C|F}}. Winters in Aligarh are generally mild, but 2011–12 experienced the lowest temperature of 1 Â°C. The fog and cold snaps are extreme.{{Weather box|location= Aligarh|metric first= yes|single line= yes|temperature colour =|Jan record high C = 30.7|Feb record high C = 33.3|Mar record high C = 41.7|Apr record high C = 44.8|May record high C = 47.5|Jun record high C = 46.7|Jul record high C = 44.5|Aug record high C = 42.1|Sep record high C = 40.2|Oct record high C = 41.7|Nov record high C = 36.1|Dec record high C = 32.8|year record high C = 47.5|Jan high C = 20.6|Feb high C = 23.6|Mar high C = 30.0|Apr high C = 36.8|May high C = 40.1|Jun high C = 39.3|Jul high C = 34.6|Aug high C = 33.2|Sep high C = 33.8|Oct high C = 33.0|Nov high C = 28.3|Dec high C = 22.5|year high C = 31.3|Jan low C = 7.4|Feb low C = 9.5|Mar low C = 14.1|Apr low C = 20.1|May low C = 24.5|Jun low C = 26.6|Jul low C = 26.0|Aug low C = 25.4|Sep low C = 23.8|Oct low C = 18.8|Nov low C = 12.9|Dec low C = 8.5|year low C = 18.1|Jan record low C = 0.0|Feb record low C = 1.7|Mar record low C = 3.9|Apr record low C = 10.9|May record low C = 15.5|Jun record low C = 18.6|Jul record low C = 19.9|Aug record low C = 19.9|Sep record low C = 14.8|Oct record low C = 11.0|Nov record low C = 2.9|Dec record low C = 1.2|year record low C = 0.0|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 15.2|Feb precipitation mm = 13.9|Mar precipitation mm = 8.5|Apr precipitation mm = 8.8|May precipitation mm = 21.0|Jun precipitation mm = 68.5|Jul precipitation mm = 217.7|Aug precipitation mm = 247.4|Sep precipitation mm = 104.1|Oct precipitation mm = 31.4|Nov precipitation mm = 4.2|Dec precipitation mm = 11.0|year precipitation mm = 751.8|Jan rain days = 1.5|Feb rain days = 1.4|Mar rain days = 1.0|Apr rain days = 0.9|May rain days = 2.2|Jun rain days = 4.1|Jul rain days = 10.2|Aug rain days = 11.6|Sep rain days = 5.2|Oct rain days = 1.4|Nov rain days = 0.5|Dec rain days = 0.8|year rain days = 40.7|source 1 = India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)WEB,weblink Aligarh Climatological Table Period: 1971–2000, India Meteorological Department, 15 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150416053035weblink">weblink 16 April 2015, live, dmy-all, WEB
,weblink
, Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010
, India Meteorological Department
, 15 April 2015
, dead
,weblink
, 21 May 2013
, |date= June 2012}}

Economy

The city is an agricultural trade centre.WEB,weblink India9.com, India9.com, 7 June 2005, 13 October 2011,weblink 10 May 2013, live, Agricultural product processing and manufacturing are important.WEB,weblink Britannica, Britannica, 13 October 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081118131848weblink">weblink 18 November 2008, live, Aligarh is an important business centre of Uttar Pradesh and is most famous for its lock industry. Aligarh locks are exported across the world. In 1870, Johnson & Co. was the first English lock firm in Aligarh. In 1890, the company initiated production of locks on a small scale here.WEB, Pawan JainPawan Jain,weblink Times of India, Timesofindia.indiatimes.com, 3 June 2003, 13 October 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110607074447weblink">weblink 7 June 2011, live, Aligarh is famous for brass hardware and sculpture. Today, the city holds thousands of manufacturers, exporters and suppliers involved in the brass, bronze, iron and aluminium industries.Aligarh is a big centre of zinc dye-casting. There are thousands of pneumatic hot chamber die casting machines.{{citation needed|date=October 2013}} But many exporters have adopted latest technology and have installed fully automatic, computerised hot chamber machines. Indian Dye-casting Industries at Sasni Gate area is the most renowned {{peacock term|date=October 2013}} manufacturer in this line and they are capable of meeting international quality norms.Harduaganj Thermal Power Station (also referred as Kasimpur Power House) is 15 km from the city. Narora Atomic Power Station is located 50 km from Aligarh. Aligarh hosts Heinz-sauce manufacturing unit in Manzurgarhi, Satha sugar mill on the Aligarh-Kasimpur Power House route and a cement factory of UltraTech Cement company.Indian Oil Bottling Plant exits at Andla in Khair. Wave Distillery (Kingfisher beer) is located at Atrauli in Aligarh.Hicks thermometer has manufacturing in Industrial Estate, Aligarh

Education

Besides the Aligarh Muslim University and Aligarh College of Engineering and Technology, the city has several colleges and schools.

Locations

Cultural landmarks

(File:Church of ascension.jpg|thumb|Church of ascension, Aligarh)Aligarh has several popular landmarks. Most notable few of them are Aligarh fort, Khereshwar Temple which is the birthplace of Swami Shri Haridas Ji, Teerthdham Mangalayatan Mandir and Dor fortress (1524), which is now in ruins, lies at the city's centre; its site is in the area now called Upper Fort (Balai Qila) and is occupied by an 18th-century mosque. The area Shah Jamal is very famous for a Sufi saint Syed Shah Jamal also known as Shamsul Arifeen, of whom the tomb is located at Shahjamal area and surrounded by a graveyard. The Sufi Saint is mentioned by Ibn Battuta in his book The Travels of Ibn Battuta. The saint is said to be of Sufi Chishtiya order.The Annual Cultural Exhibition, popularly known as Numaish, is held at the exhibition ground in January and February. The land Numaish Ground was donated By Nawab Rehmat Ullah Khan Sherwani. The cultural shows takes place at three grand stages (Kohinoor, Krishnanjali and Muktakash). In all, more than 150 stage events featuring artists from across India take place during a period of 28–30 days.WEB,weblink Dainik Jagran, Epaper.jagran.com, 29 January 2015, 29 July 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150521192726weblink">weblink 21 May 2015,

Historical places

File:Aligarh Fort 1.JPG|thumb|Aligarh fortAligarh fort(File:Aligarh Muslim University Masjid.jpg|thumb|SS Masjid beside Strachey Hall, AMU Aligarh)

Aligarh Muslim University

Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is one of the oldest central universities. It was established by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan as Madrasatul Uloom Musalmanan-e-Hind in 1875–78 which later became Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College (MAO College). It was designed to train Muslims for government services in India and prepare them for advanced training in British universities. The Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College became Aligarh Muslim University in 1920. It is famous for its Law, Medical and Engineering College.

Museums

Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences maintains 'Museum on History of Medicine and Sciences' and 'Museum on Arts, Culture and Orientalism'. It was established by a family Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman and Syed Ziaur Rahman at the heart of the city and near a busy market of Dodhpur.WEB,weblink World's 10 weirdest medical museums, Bryan Pirolli for CNN, Travel (24 May 2013), 17 December 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170314192625weblink">weblink 14 March 2017, live, dmy-all, 16 May 2013, WEB,weblink Ibn Sina Academy, Eram Agha for CNN-News18, (5 November 2017), 17 December 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171110133510weblink">weblink 10 November 2017, live, dmy-all,

Transport

By rail

{{See also|Aligarh railway station}}File:Aligarhjunctionpic.jpg|thumbnail|Aligarh railway stationAligarh railway stationAligarh Junction railway station is the primary station for Aligarh city and is a major stop on the Delhi-Kolkata route. It is an A-Class railway station. It is one of the oldest railway station of this route. It connects Aligarh to the states of West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, north-east and most of Uttar Pradesh, and important stations of cities such as New Delhi railway station, Mumbai Central, Kolkata, Bhopal Junction railway station, Indore, Jammu, Gwalior, Lucknow, Jhansi, Puri, Kanpur Central railway station, Etawah Junction railway station, Tundla Junction railway station, Agra Cantonment railway station and Varanasi. Aligarh railway station handles over 136 trains daily (in both directions) and serves around 204,000 passengers everyday. Aligarh has one Branch Railway Line to Bareily.Aligarh City has following railway stations:
  • Aligarh Junction: an A-Class Railway Station
  • Somna (Gabhana) railway station
  • Mahrawal railway station
  • Kalua railway station
  • Daudkhan railway station
  • Mandrak railway station
  • Harduaganj railway station (Satha, near Kasimpur Power House)
  • Manjoorgarhi railway station (Chherat)

By road

Aligarh is 140 km from New Delhi. It is one of the Division of UPSRTC. Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) buses serve cities all over the state and cities in Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Haryana.Aligarh City has two UPSRTC bus stations:
  • Aligarh Depot bus station
  • Masoodabad (Budh Vihar) Depot bus station
  • ISBT Rasualabad Sarsaul under construction
There are buses plying from Aligarh to Delhi at frequent intervals via1) Khair, Tappal, Palval, Faridabad, Delhi - The route is under construction between Khair and Palval and should be strictly avoided by cars. No toll charges.2) Khair, Tappal, Yamuna expressway, Noida, Greater Noida, Delhi, Gurgaon - Best and recommended route for Delhi, Noida, Gurgaon. Toll Charges are ₹120 between Aligarh and Delhi.3) Old GT Road, Bulandshahr, Ghaziabad, Delhi - NH 91 - It is a 4-lane highway. Toll charges are ₹190.Following Highways are connected to Aligarh: Aligarh City has Mahanagar Bus Service (City Bus Service) which provides local transport to Aligarh.
  • Route-1 J N Medical-Uperkot
  • Route-2 Gandhi Park-Sarsaul
  • Route-3 Ghantarbagh-Quarsi
  • Route-4 Gandhi Park-Boner
  • Route-5 Etah Chungi-Collectrate

By air

The nearest international airport from Aligarh is Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi. It is 140 km from Aligarh.Aligarh Airport, in Dhanipur, is under construction on NH 91. Dhanipur Air Strip is used as Flying Club. The Government of Uttar Pradesh signed a memorandum of understanding with the Airports Authority of India in February 2014 for the development of the airport. The land acquisition for airport will be initiated soon and after its development flight operations will be started under regional connectivity scheme.{{citation needed|date=November 2019}}

Inter-city transport

The government has proposed to operate city buses in Aligarh with following routes:
  • Aligarh Fort–Law Faculty–Firdaus Nagar–Shamshad–Collectorate–University Circle–Lal Diggi Lake–Amir Nishan–Marris Road Crossing–Kela Nagar Crossing–Chungi/Ramghat Road–Quarsi Crossing–Indrapuri/Great Mall–Mahaveer Nagar–DPS Civil Lines–St. Fidelis–Heritage–UPSIDC Harduaganj
  • Bannadevi Crossing–Methodist Church–Exhibition Ground–RMPS Park–Ghantaghar–Centre Point–Melrose-Marris Road Crossing–Kela Nagar Crossing
  • Railway Station–Ghantaghar Circle–Tibiyya College–Lal Diggi Lake–Amir Nishan–Marris Road Crossing–Kela Nagar Crossing–Chungi/Ramghat–Quarsi Crossing–Jeevangarh–Dhorra–Jamalpur–Ayesha Tarin School

Notable people

Businessmen and entrepreneurs

Educationalists

File:Faculty of Arts, AMU by Sarim Ashrafi.jpg|thumb|Faculty of Arts, Aligarh Muslim UniversityAligarh Muslim University

Writers, poets and publishers

Historians

(File:Victoria gate.jpg|thumb|Victoria gate)

Film actors

(File:ZHCET's View at Night.JPG|thumb|ZHCET's View at Night)

Sports persons

Politicians

Medical professionals

Social activists

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • Aligarh in My Days (Interviews of former Vice-Chancellors of Aligarh Muslim University), Ed. Syed Ziaur Rahman, Non-Resident Students' Centre, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 1997.
  • BOOK, Descriptive And Historical Account of the Aligarh District, Edward, Atkinson, 978-1-147-42719-6, Nabu Press, 1875, 2010,
{{Aligarh district}}{{Uttar Pradesh}}{{Authority control}}

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