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Alexander Pope
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{{short description|English poet}}{{distinguish|Pope Alexander (disambiguation){{!}}Pope Alexander}}{{Other uses}}{{Use British English|date=August 2011}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2011}}







factoids
1727
| birth_date = {{birth date|df=yes|1688|5|21}}
| birth_place = London, England
| death_date = {{death date and age|df=yes|1744|5|30|1688|5|21}}
| death_place = Twickenham, Middlesex, England
| resting_place = St Mary's Church, Twickenham, Middlesex, England
| occupation = Poet
| signature = Alexander Pope signature.svg
}}Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) is regarded as one of the greatest English poets, and the foremost poet of the early eighteenth century. He is best known for his satirical and discursive poetry—including The Rape of the Lock, The Dunciad, and An Essay on Criticism—as well as for his translation of Homer. After Shakespeare, Pope is the second-most quoted writer in the English language, as per The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations,Dictionary of Quotations (1999) some of his verses having even become popular idioms in common parlance (e.g., Damning with faint praise). He is considered a master of the heroic couplet.Pope's poetic career testifies to his indomitable spirit in the face of disadvantages, of health and of circumstance. The poet and his family were Catholics and thus fell subject to the Test Acts, prohibitive measures which severely hampered the prosperity of their co-religionists after the abdication of James II; one of these banned them from living within ten miles of London, and another from attending public school or university. For this reason, except for a few spurious Catholic schools, Pope was largely self-educated. He was taught to read by his aunt and became a lover of books. He learned French, Italian, Latin, and Greek by himself, and discovered Homer at the age of six. As a child Pope survived being once trampled by a cow, but when he was 12 began struggling with tuberculosis of the spine (Pott disease), along with fits of crippling headaches which troubled him throughout his life. In the year 1709, Pope showcased his precocious metrical skill with the publication of Pastorals, his first major poems. They earned him instant fame. By the time he was 23 he had written An Essay on Criticism, released in 1711. A kind of poetic manifesto in the vein of Horace's Ars Poetica, the essay was met with enthusiastic attention and won Pope a wider circle of prominent friends, most notably Joseph Addison and Richard Steele, who had recently started collaborating on the influential The Spectator. The critic John Dennis, having located an ironic and veiled portrait of himself, was outraged by what he considered the impudence of the younger author. Dennis hated Pope for the rest of his life, and, save for a temporary reconciliation, dedicated his efforts to insulting him in print, to which Pope retaliated in kind, making Dennis the butt of much satire.The Rape of the Lock, perhaps the poet's most famous poem, appeared first in 1712, followed by a revised and enlarged version in 1714. When Lord Petre forcibly snipped off a lock from Miss Arabella Fermor's head (the "Belinda" of the poem), the incident gave rise to a high-society quarrel between the families. With the idea of allaying this, Pope treated the subject in a playful and witty mock-heroic epic. The narrative poem brings into focus the onset of acquisitive individualism and conspicuous consumption, where purchased goods assume dominance over moral agency. A folio comprising a collection of his poems appeared in 1717, together with two new ones written about the passion of love. These were Verses to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady and the famous proto-romantic poem Eloisa to Abelard. Though Pope never married, about this time he became strongly attached to Lady M. Montagu, whom he indirectly referenced in the popular poem Eloisa to Abelard, and to Martha Blount, with whom his friendship continued throughout his life. In his career as a satirist, Pope made his share of enemies as the critics, politicians, and certain other prominent figures felt the sting of his sharpwitted satires. Some were so virulent, that Pope even carried pistols at one point while walking his dog. After 1738, Pope composed relatively little. He toyed with the idea of writing a patriotic epic called Brutus. He mainly revised and expanded his masterpiece The Dunciad. Book Four appeared in 1742, and a complete revision of the whole poem in the following year. In this version, he replaced Lewis Theobald with the Poet Laureate, Colley Cibber, as "king of dunces". However, his real target in the poem is the Whig politician Robert Walpole. By now Pope's health was failing, and when told by his physician, on the morning of his death, that he was better, Pope replied: "Here am I, dying of a hundred good symptoms".

Life

File:Portrait of Alexander Pope.jpg|thumb|upright|Portrait of Alexander Pope. Studio of (Godfrey Kneller]]. Oil on canvas, c. 1716Portrait of Alexander Pope (1688-1744). Historical Portraits Image Library. Retrieved 1 January 2017.)

Early life

Alexander Pope was born in London on 21 May 1688—the year of the Glorious Revolution. His father (also Alexander, 1646–1717) was a successful linen merchant in the Strand. The poet's mother, Edith (1643–1733), was the daughter of William Turner, Esquire, of York. Both parents were Catholics.Erskine-Hill, DNB Edith's sister Christiana was the wife of famous miniature painter Samuel Cooper. Pope's education was affected by the recently enacted Test Acts, which upheld the status of the established Church of England and banned Catholics from teaching, attending a university, voting, and holding public office on penalty of perpetual imprisonment. Pope was taught to read by his aunt and went to Twyford School in about 1698/99. He then went on to two Roman Catholic schools in London.Erskine-Hill, DNB Such schools, while illegal, were tolerated in some areas.'Alexander Pope', Literature Online biography (2000)File:AlexanderPope.jpg|thumb|left|A likeness of Pope derived from a portrait by William HoareWilliam HoareIn 1700, his family moved to a small estate at Popeswood in Binfield, Berkshire, close to the royal Windsor Forest. This was due to strong anti-Catholic sentiment and a statute preventing Papists from living within {{convert|10|mi|km}} of London or Westminster."An Act to prevent and avoid dangers which may grow by Popish Recusants" (3. Jac. 1, v). For details, see Catholic Encyclopedia, "Penal Laws". Pope would later describe the countryside around the house in his poem Windsor Forest.Pope, Alexander. Windsor-Forest. Eighteenth-Century Poetry Archive (ECPA). Pope's formal education ended at this time, and from then on he mostly educated himself by reading the works of classical writers such as the satirists Horace and Juvenal, the epic poets Homer and Virgil, as well as English authors such as Geoffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare and John Dryden.Erskine-Hill, DNB He studied many languages and read works by English, French, Italian, Latin, and Greek poets. After five years of study, Pope came into contact with figures from London literary society such as William Congreve, Samuel Garth and William Trumbull.At Binfield he made many important friends. One of them, John Caryll (the future dedicatee of The Rape of the Lock), was twenty years older than the poet and had made many acquaintances in the London literary world. He introduced the young Pope to the aging playwright William Wycherley and to William Walsh, a minor poet, who helped Pope revise his first major work, The Pastorals. He also met the Blount sisters, Teresa and Martha, both of whom remained lifelong friends.From the age of 12 he suffered numerous health problems, including Pott disease (a form of tuberculosis that affects the spine), which deformed his body and stunted his growth, leaving him with a severe hunchback. His tuberculosis infection caused other health problems including respiratory difficulties, high fevers, inflamed eyes, and abdominal pain. He grew to a height of only {{convert|1.37|m|ftin|abbr=on}}. Pope was already removed from society because he was Catholic, and his poor health alienated him further. Although he never married, he had many female friends to whom he wrote witty letters, including Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. It has been alleged that his lifelong friend Martha Blount was his lover.Gordon (2002)'Mount', Britannica (2009)The Life of Alexander Pope, by Robert Carruthers, 1857, with a corrupted and badly scanned version available from Internet Archive, or as an even worse 23MB PDF. For reference to his relationship with Martha Blount and her sister, see pp.64–68 (89th and following pages of the PDF). In particular, discussion of the controversy over whether the relationship was sexual is described in some detail on pp.76–78. His friend William Cheselden said, according to Joseph Spence, "I could give a more particular account of Mr. Pope's health than perhaps any man. Cibber's slander (of carnosity) is false. He had been gay, but left that way of life upon his acquaintance with Mrs. B."Cope, Zachary, William Cheselden, 1688–1752. Edinburgh: E. & S. Livingstone, 1953, p.89

Early career

File:Alexander Pope's house wall plaque Twickenham.jpg|thumb|Plaque above Pope's GrottoPope's GrottoIn May 1709, Pope's Pastorals was published in the sixth part of bookseller Jacob Tonson's Poetical Miscellanies. This earned Pope instant fame and was followed by An Essay on Criticism, published in May 1711, which was equally well received.File:Alexander Pope's house at Twickenham.png|thumb|left|Pope's villa at Twickenham, showing the grottogrottoAround 1711, Pope made friends with Tory writers Jonathan Swift, Thomas Parnell and John Arbuthnot, who together formed the satirical Scriblerus Club. The aim of the club was to satirise ignorance and pedantry in the form of the fictional scholar Martinus Scriblerus. He also made friends with Whig writers Joseph Addison and Richard Steele. In March 1713, Windsor Forest was published to great acclaim.During Pope's friendship with Joseph Addison, he contributed to Addison's play Cato, as well as writing for The Guardian and The Spectator. Around this time, he began the work of translating the Iliad, which was a painstaking process – publication began in 1715 and did not end until 1720.In 1714, the political situation worsened with the death of Queen Anne and the disputed succession between the Hanoverians and the Jacobites, leading to the Jacobite rising of 1715. Though Pope, as a Catholic, might have been expected to have supported the Jacobites because of his religious and political affiliations, according to Maynard Mack, "where Pope himself stood on these matters can probably never be confidently known". These events led to an immediate downturn in the fortunes of the Tories, and Pope's friend Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, fled to France.Pope lived in his parents' house in Mawson Row, Chiswick, between 1716 and 1719; the red brick building is now the Mawson Arms, commemorating him with a blue plaque.WEB,weblink Chiswick History, chiswickhistory.org.uk, People: Alexander Pope, 16 March 2012, Clegg, Gillian, The money made from his translation of Homer allowed Pope to move in 1719 to a villa at Twickenham, where he created his now famous grotto and gardens. The serendipitous discovery of a spring during the subterranean retreat's excavations enabled it to be filled with the relaxing sound of trickling water, which would quietly echo around the chambers. Pope was said to have remarked that: "Were it to have nymphs as well – it would be complete in everything." Although the house and gardens have long since been demolished, much of this grotto survives. The grotto now lies beneath Radnor House Independent Co-ed School, and is occasionally opened to the public.London Evening Standard, 2 November 2010

Poetry

File:Mawson Arms 01.JPG|thumb|Mawson Arms, Chiswick Lane, with blue plaqueblue plaque

Essay on Criticism

An Essay on Criticism was first published anonymously on 15 May 1711. Pope began writing the poem early in his career and took about three years to finish it.At the time the poem was published, the heroic couplet style in which it was written was a moderately new poetic form, and Pope's work was an ambitious attempt to identify and refine his own positions as a poet and critic. The poem was said to be a response to an ongoing debate on the question of whether poetry should be natural, or written according to predetermined artificial rules inherited from the classical past.Rogers (2006)The 'essay' begins with a discussion of the standard rules that govern poetry by which a critic passes judgment. Pope comments on the classical authors who dealt with such standards and the authority that he believed should be accredited to them. He discusses the laws to which a critic should adhere while critiquing poetry, and points out that critics serve an important function in aiding poets with their works, as opposed to the practice of attacking them.Baines (2001) The final section of An Essay on Criticism discusses the moral qualities and virtues inherent in the ideal critic, who, Pope claims, is also the ideal man.

The Rape of the Lock

Pope's most famous poem is The Rape of the Lock, first published in 1712, with a revised version published in 1714. A mock-epic, it satirises a high-society quarrel between Arabella Fermor (the "Belinda" of the poem) and Lord Petre, who had snipped a lock of hair from her head without her permission. The satirical style is tempered, however, by a genuine and almost voyeuristic interest in the "beau-monde" (fashionable world) of 18th-century English society.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080531103412weblink">weblink dead, 2008-05-31, from the London School of Journalism., The revised and extended version of the poem brought more clearly into focus its true subject – the onset of acquisitive individualism and a society of conspicuous consumers. In the world of the poem, purchased artefacts displace human agency, and 'trivial things' assume dominance.Colin Nicholson, Writing and the Rise of Finance: Capital Satires of the Early Eighteenth Century (Cambridge 1994)

The Dunciad and Moral Essays

{{unreferenced section|date=May 2017}}File:Alexander Pope circa 1736.jpeg|thumb|upright|Alexander Pope, painting attributed to English painter Jonathan Richardson, {{circa|1736}}, Museum of Fine Arts, BostonMuseum of Fine Arts, BostonThough The Dunciad was first published anonymously in Dublin, its authorship was not in doubt. Pope pilloried a host of other "hacks", "scribblers" and "dunces" in addition to Theobald, and Maynard Mack has accordingly called its publication "in many ways the greatest act of folly in Pope's life." Though a masterpiece which would become "one of the most challenging and distinctive works in the history of English poetry", writes Mack, "it bore bitter fruit. It brought the poet in his own time the hostility of its victims and their sympathizers, who pursued him implacably from then on with a few damaging truths and a host of slanders and lies."Maynard Mack. Alexander Pope: A Life (W.W. Norton & Company, and Yale University Press, 1985), pp. 472-3.According to his half-sister Magdalen Rackett, some of Pope's targets were so enraged by The Dunciad that they threatened him. "My brother does not seem to know what fear is," she told Joseph Spence, explaining that Pope loved to walk alone, so went accompanied by his Great Dane, Bounce, and for some time carried pistols in his pocket.Joseph Spence. Observations, Anecdotes, and Characters of Books and Men, Collected from the Conversation of Mr. Pope (1820), p. 38. Together with John Gay's The Beggar's Opera and Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, this first Dunciad was part of a concerted propaganda assault against Robert Walpole's Whig ministry and the financial revolution it stabilised. Although he was a keen participant in the stock and money markets, Pope never missed an opportunity to satirise the personal, social and political effects of the new scheme of things. From The Rape of the Lock onwards, these satirical themes are a constant in his work.In 1731, Pope published his "Epistle to Burlington," on the subject of architecture, the first of four poems which would later be grouped under the title Moral Essays (1731–35). In the epistle, Pope ridiculed the bad taste of the aristocrat "Timon." Pope's enemies claimed he was attacking the Duke of Chandos and his estate, Cannons. Though the charge was untrue, it did Pope a great deal of damage.

An Essay on Man

An Essay on Man is a philosophical poem, written in heroic couplets and published between 1732 and 1734. Pope intended this poem to be the centrepiece of a proposed system of ethics that was to be put forth in poetic form. It was a piece of work that Pope intended to make into a larger work; however, he did not live to complete it.Nuttal (1984)The poem is an attempt to "vindicate the ways of God to Man", a variation on Milton's attempt in Paradise Lost to "justify the ways of God to Man" (1.26). It challenges as prideful an anthropocentric world-view. The poem is not solely Christian, however; it makes an assumption that man has fallen and must seek his own salvation.(File:Alexander Pope.jpg|left|thumb|Alexander Pope circa 1742)It consists of four epistles that are addressed to Lord Bolingbroke. Pope presents an idea on his view of the Universe; he says that no matter how imperfect, complex, inscrutable and disturbing the Universe appears to be, it functions in a rational fashion according to the natural laws. The natural laws consider the Universe as a whole a perfect work of God. To humans, it appears to be evil and imperfect in many ways. Pope points out that this is due to our limited mindset and limited intellectual capacity. Pope gets the message across that humans must accept their position in the "Great Chain of Being" which is at a middle stage between the angels and the beasts of the world. If we are able to accomplish this then we potentially could lead happy and virtuous lives.The poem is an affirmative poem of faith: life seems to be chaotic and confusing to man when he is in the center of it, but according to Pope it is really divinely ordered. In Pope's world, God exists and is what he centers the Universe around in order to have an ordered structure. The limited intelligence of man can only take in tiny portions of this order and can experience only partial truths, hence man must rely on hope which then leads into faith. Man must be aware of his existence in the Universe and what he brings to it, in terms of riches, power, and fame. It is man's duty to strive to be good regardless of other situations: this is the message Pope is trying to get across to the reader.Cassirer (1944)

Later life and works

File:Alexander Pope dying.png|thumb|The death of Alexander Pope from Museus, a threnody by William Mason. Diana holds the dying Pope, and John Milton, Edmund Spenser, and Geoffrey ChaucerGeoffrey ChaucerThe Imitations of Horace followed (1733–38). These were written in the popular Augustan form of the "imitation" of a classical poet, not so much a translation of his works as an updating with contemporary references. Pope used the model of Horace to satirise life under George II, especially what he regarded as the widespread corruption tainting the country under Walpole's influence and the poor quality of the court's artistic taste.Pope also added a wholly original poem, Epistle to Doctor Arbuthnot, as an introduction to the "Imitations". It reviews his own literary career and includes the famous portraits of Lord Hervey ("Sporus") and Addison ("Atticus"). In 1738 he wrote the Universal Prayer.WEB,weblink Alexander Pope 'Universal Prayer', Trevor W. McKeown, bcy.ca, Full-text also at the Eighteenth-Century Poetry Archive (ECPA).After 1738, Pope wrote little. He toyed with the idea of composing a patriotic epic in blank verse called Brutus, but only the opening lines survive. His major work in these years was revising and expanding his masterpiece The Dunciad. Book Four appeared in 1742, and a complete revision of the whole poem in the following year. In this version, Pope replaced the "hero" Lewis Theobald with the Poet Laureate, Colley Cibber, as "king of dunces". However, the real focus of the revised poem is Walpole and all his works. By now Pope's health, which had never been good, was failing. When told by his physician, on the morning of his death, that he was better, Pope replied: "Here am I, dying of a hundred good symptoms."BOOK, Ruffhead, Owen, The Life of Alexander Pope; With a Critical Essay on His Writings and Genius,weblink 1769, 475, BOOK, Dyce, Alexander, The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope, with a Life, by A. Dyce, 1863, cxxxi, He died in his villa surrounded by friends on 30 May 1744, about eleven o'clock at night. On the previous day, 29 May 1744, Pope had called for a priest and received the Last Rites of the Roman Catholic Church. He was buried in the nave of St Mary's Church, Twickenham.

Translations and editions

Translation of the Iliad

Pope had been fascinated by Homer since childhood. In 1713, he announced his plans to publish a translation of the Iliad. The work would be available by subscription, with one volume appearing every year over the course of six years. Pope secured a revolutionary deal with the publisher Bernard Lintot, which earned him two hundred guineas (£210) a volume, equivalent to about £{{formatnum:{{Inflation|UK|210|1713|r=-2}}|0}} in 2019,{{Inflation-fn|UK}} a vast sum at the time.His translation of the Iliad appeared between 1715 and 1720. It was acclaimed by Samuel Johnson as "a performance which no age or nation could hope to equal" (although the classical scholar Richard Bentley wrote: "It is a pretty poem, Mr. Pope, but you must not call it Homer.").{{citation needed|date=August 2018}}

Translation of the Odyssey

(File:OdysseyPopeTP1752.jpg|right|thumb|Frontispiece and title page of a 1752 edition of Pope's Odyssey)Encouraged by the success of the Iliad, Pope published a translation of the Odyssey in 1726 with the help of William Broome and Elijah Fenton. Broome translated eight books (2, 6, 8, 11, 12, 16, 18, 23), Fenton four (1, 4, 19, 20) and Pope the remaining 12; Broome provided the annotations.BOOK, Fenton, Elijah, THE POETICAL WORKS OF ELIJAH FENTON WITH THE LIFE OF THE AUTHOR, 1796, Printed for, and under the direction of, G. Cawthorn, British Library, Strand., 7,weblink en, Pope attempted to conceal the extent of the collaborationBOOK, Fraser, George, Alexander Pope,weblink registration, Routledge, 1978, 52, but the secret leaked out. It did some damage to Pope's reputation for a time, but not to his profits.BOOK, Damrosch, Leopold, The Imaginative World of Alexander Pope,weblink registration, University of California Press, 1987, 59, Leslie Stephen considered Pope's portion of the Odyssey inferior to his version of the Iliad, given that Pope had put more effort into the earlier work—to which, in any case, his style was better suited.BOOK, Stephen, Sir Leslie, Alexander Pope, 1880, Harper & brothers, 80,weblink en,

Edition of Shakespeare's works

{{unreferenced section|date=August 2018}}In this period, Pope was employed by publisher Jacob Tonson to produce an opulent new edition of Shakespeare. When it appeared in 1725, this edition silently "regularised" Shakespeare's metre and rewrote his verse in a number of places. Pope also demoted about 1,560 lines of Shakespearean material to footnotes, arguing that they were so "excessively bad" that Shakespeare could never have written them. (Other lines were excluded from the edition altogether.) In 1726, lawyer, poet and pantomime deviser Lewis Theobald published a scathing pamphlet called Shakespeare Restored, which catalogued the errors in Pope's work and suggested a number of revisions to the text.The second edition of Pope's Shakespeare appeared in 1728. Aside from making some minor revisions to the preface, it seems that Pope had little to do with it. Most later 18th-century editors of Shakespeare dismissed Pope's creatively motivated approach to textual criticism. Pope's preface continued to be highly rated. It was suggested that Shakespeare's texts were thoroughly contaminated by actors' interpolations and they would influence editors for most of the 18th century.

Reception

By the mid-eighteenth century, new fashions in poetry emerged. A decade after Pope's death, Joseph Warton claimed that Pope's style of poetry was not the most excellent form of the art. The Romantic movement that rose to prominence in early 19th-century England was more ambivalent towards his work. Though Lord Byron identified Pope as one of his chief influences (believing his scathing satire of contemporary English literature English Bards and Scotch Reviewers to be a continuance of Pope's tradition), William Wordsworth found Pope's style fundamentally too decadent to be a representation of the human condition. George Gilfillan in his study of 1856 described Pope's talent as "a rose peering into the summer air, fine, rather than powerful".Gilfillan, George. The Genius and Poetry of Pope, The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope, Vol 11, 1856In the 20th century, Pope's reputation was revived. Pope's work was, of course, full of references to the people and places of his time, and these aided people's understanding of the past. The postwar period stressed the power of Pope's poetry, recognising that Pope's immersion in Christian and Biblical culture lent depth to his poetry. For example, Maynard Mack, a Pope scholar of the mid-to-late 20th century, argued that Pope's moral vision demanded as much respect as his technical excellence. Between 1953 and 1967 the definitive Twickenham edition of Pope's poems was published in ten volumes, including an index volume.

Works

Major works

Other works

Editions

See also

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

  • 'Alexander Pope', Literature Online biography (Chadwyck-Healey: Cambridge, 2000).
  • BOOK, The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, Oxford University Press, 5th, 1999,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Martha Blount, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009, 17 April 2009,
  • BOOK, Baines, Paul, The Complete Critical Guide to Alexander Pope, Routledge Publishing, 2001, 67–90,
  • BOOK, Cassirer, Ernst, An essay on man; an introduction to a philosophy of human culture,weblink registration, Yale University Press, 1944,
  • WEB, Gordon, Ian,weblink An Epistle to a Lady (Moral Essay II), The Literary Encyclopedia, 24 January 2002, 17 April 2009,
  • Erskine-Hill, Howard. 'Pope, Alexander (1688–1744)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, September 2004, online edn, January 2008). Accessed 18 April 2009.
  • BOOK, Mack, Maynard, Alexander Pope: A Life,weblink registration, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1985, (the definitive biography)
  • Nicholson, Colin (1994). Writing and the Rise of Finance: Capital Satires of the Early Eighteenth Century, Cambridge
  • BOOK, Nuttal, Anthony, Pope's Essay on Man, Allen & Unwin, 1984, 3–15, 167–188,
  • BOOK, Rogers, Pat, The Cambridge Companion to Alexander Pope, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2007,
  • Ostrom, Hans."Pope's Epilogue to the Satires, 'Dialogue I'." Explicator, 36:4 (1978), pp. 11–14.
  • BOOK, Rogers, Pat, The Major Works, Oxford University Press, 2006, 17–39,

External links

{{Commons category|Alexander Pope}}{{wikisource author}}{{DNB Poster|Pope, Alexander (1688–1744)}} {{Alexander Pope}}{{Authority control}}

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