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Albania
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{{About|the country}}{{pp-sock|small=yes}}{{short description|country in Southeast Europe}}







factoids
| common_name = Albania| image_flag = Flag of Albania.svg| alt_flag = Red flag with a black double-headed eagle in the center. 60px)| symbol_type = Coat of armssqTi Shqipëri, më jep nder, më jep emrin Shqipëtar}}{{small>You Albania, give me honour, give me the name Albanian}}sqHimni i Flamurit}}()(File:Hymni i Flamurit instrumental.ogg|centre)225px|frameless)| map_caption =| capital = Tirana| largest_city = Tirana41N49type:city}}Albanian language>Albanian| languages2_type = Recognised minority languagesGreek language>Aromanian language>Macedonian language>others}}Albanians>AlbanianUnitary state Parliamentary system>parliamentary}} constitutional republicPresident of Albania>President| leader_name1 = Ilir MetaPrime Minister of Albania>Prime Minister| leader_name2 = Edi RamaParliament of Albania>KuvendiHistory of Albania#Independence of Albania (1912)>Establishment history| established_event1 = Principality of Arbanon| established_date1 = 1190Kingdom of Albania (medieval)>Kingdom of Albania| established_date2 = February 1272Principality of Albania (medieval)>Princedom of Albania| established_date3 = 1368| established_event4 = League of Lezhë| established_date4 = 2 March 1444the Ottoman Empire}}| established_date5 = 28 November 1912Principality of Albania {{small>(Recognised)}}| established_date6 = 29 July 1913Albanian Republic>1st Republic of Albania| established_date7 = 31 January 1925Albanian Kingdom (1928–39)>Kingdom of Albania| established_date8 = 1 September 1928People's Republic of Albania>2nd Republic of Albania| established_date9 = 11 January 1946Constitution of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania>3rd Republic of Albania| established_date10 = 28 December 1976Current constitution}}| established_date11 = 29 April 199128 November 1998| area_km2 = 28,748| area_sq_mi = 11,100| area_rank = 140th | percent_water = 4.7PUBLISHER=ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20171014102732/HTTP://WWW.INSTAT.GOV.AL/AL/THEMES/POPULLSIA/PUBLICATIONS/BOOKS/2017/POPULLSIA-E-SHQIP%C3%ABRIS%C3%AB,-1-JANAR-2017.ASPXDEAD-URL=YES, dmy-all, | population_estimate_year = January 2017PUBLISHER=INSTAT (ALBANIAN INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS) ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170803171148/HTTP://WWW.INSTAT.GOV.AL/EN/THEMES/POPULATION/PUBLICATIONS/BOOKS/2012/MAIN-RESULTS-OF-POPULATION-AND-HOUSING-CENSUS-2011.ASPX DF=DMY-ALL, | population_census_year = 2011| population_density_km2 = 98| population_density_sq_mi = 254| population_density_rank = 63rd| GDP_PPP_year = 2018TITLE=REPORT FOR SELECTED COUNTRIES AND SUBJECTS, IMF, | GDP_PPP_per_capita = $13,330| GDP_nominal_year = 2018| GDP_nominal = $15.121 billion| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $5,261| Gini_year = 2013| Gini = 34.5WORK=WORLD BANK ACCESSDATE=3 JULY 2015 ARCHIVEDATE=10 JUNE 2010 DF=DMY, | HDI_year = 2018| HDI_change = increase| HDI = 0.785YEAR=2018 ACCESSDATE=15 SEPTEMBER 2018, | HDI_rank = 68thAlbanian lek>Lek| currency_code = ALL| patron_saint = Our Lady of Good CounselCentral European Time>CET| utc_offset = +1Central European Summer Time>CEST| utc_offset_DST = +2| date_format = dd/mm/yyyy| drives_on = rightTelephone numbers in Albania>+355| cctld = .al}}Albania ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Albania.ogg|æ|l|ˈ|b|eɪ|n|i|É™|,_|ɔː|l|-}} {{respell|a(w)l|BAY|nee-É™}}; ; ),BOOK,weblink Fialuur i voghel scc...p e ltinisct mle...un prei P. Jak Junkut t' Scocniis ..., Giacomo Jungg, 1 January 1895, N'Sckoder t' Scc...pniis, 23 July 2016, Internet Archive, officially the Republic of Albania (, {{IPA-sq|ɾɛpuˈblika É› ʃcipəˈɾiːsÉ™|pron}}), is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea. It shares land borders with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo{{Small|{{efn|name=status}}}} to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, Greece to the south and a maritime border with Italy to the west.Geographically, the country displays varied climatic, geological, hydrological and morphological conditions, defined in an area of {{convert|28748|sqkm|abbr=on}}. It possesses remarkable diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps as well as the Korab, Skanderbeg, Pindus and Ceraunian Mountains to the hot and sunny coasts of the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Sea along the Mediterranean Sea.Historically, the area of Albania was populated by various Illyrian, Thracian and Ancient Greek tribes as well as several Greek colonies established in the Illyrian coast. The area was annexed in the 3rd century by Romans and became an integral part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Illyricum. The autonomous Principality of Arbër emerged in 1190, established by archon Progon in the Krujë, within the Byzantine Empire. In the late thirteenth century, Charles of Anjou conquered Albanian territories from the Byzantines and established the medieval Kingdom of Albania, which at its maximal extension was extending from Durrës along the coast to Butrint in the south. In the mid-fifteenth century, it was conquered by the Ottomans.The modern nation state of Albania emerged in 1912 following the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars.BOOK,weblink Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, Albania, 21 June 2013, The World Factbook, The modern Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943.BOOK,weblink Invoking Humanity: War, Law and Global Order, Zolo, D., Continuum International Publishing Group, 180, 27 August 2002, Google Books, 9780826456564, After the defeat of Nazi Germany, a Communist state titled the People's Socialist Republic of Albania was founded under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour. The country experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1991, the People's Socialist Republic was dissolved and the fourth Republic of Albania was established.Politically, the country is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the tertiary sector followed by the secondary and primary sector.WEB,weblink The world bank, World Bank, 13 September 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140921063450weblink">weblink 21 September 2014, yes, dmy-all, It went through a process of transition, following the end of communism in 1990, from centralized planning to a market-based economy.Reports: Poverty Decreases In Albania After Years Of Growth. Dow Jones Newswires, 201-938-5500 201-938-5500 201-938-5500.Nasdaq.comAlbania plans to build three hydropower plants. People's DailyStrong GDP growth reduces poverty in Albania-study. Reuters.Forbes.com {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120117160122weblink |date=17 January 2012 }} It also provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.The country is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, WTO, COE, OSCE and OIC. It is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union.NEWS,weblink 29 April 2009, BBC News, Albania applies for EU membership, 28 April 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090430184517weblink">weblink 30 April 2009, no, dmy, In addition it is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, including the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and Union for the Mediterranean.{{TOC limit|3}}

Etymology

The term Albania is the medieval Latin name of the country. It may be derived from the Illyrian tribe of Albani () recorded by Ptolemy, the geographer and astronomer from Alexandria, who drafted a map in 150 AD, which shows the city of Albanopolis located northeast of the city of Durrës.Madrugearu A, Gordon M. The wars of the Balkan Peninsula. Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. p. 146.{{Barrington|49 & notes}} The term may have a continuation in the name of a medieval settlement called Albanon or Arbanon, although it is not certain that this was the same place.The Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes, 1992, {{ISBN|978-0-631-19807-9}}, page 279,"We cannot be certain that the Arbanon of Anna Comnena is the same as Albanopolis of the Albani, a place located on the map of Ptolemy (3.12)" In his history written in the 10th century, the Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates was the first to refer to Albanoi as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople in 1043 and to the Arbanitai as subjects of the Duke of Dyrrachium.Robert Elsei. The Albanian lexicon of Dion Von Kirkman. Earliest reference to the existence of the Albanian language, pp. 113–122. During the Middle Ages, the Albanians called their country ' and referred to themselves as '.Pinocacozza.it {{sq icon}} {{it icon}}WEB,weblink Radio-Arberesh.eu, Casanova, Radio-Arberesh, 13 September 2014, Nowadays, Albanians call their country '. As early as the 17th century the placename and the ethnic demonym ' gradually replaced . The two terms are popularly interpreted as "Land of the Eagles" and "Children of the Eagles".Kristo Frasheri. History of Albania (A Brief Overview). Tirana, 1964.WEB,weblink The Albanian Language, Lloshi, Xhevat, United Nations Development Programme, 9 November 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110709114947weblink">weblink 9 July 2011, dmy-all,

History

{{See also|Timeline of Albanian history}}

Early history

File:Parku Arkeologjik i Apollonisë 04.jpg|thumb|right|Apollonia was an important Greek colony on the Illyrian coast along the Adriatic Sea and one of the western points of the Via Egnatia route, that connected Rome and ConstantinopleConstantinopleThe first traces of human presence in Albania, dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic eras, were found in the village of Xarrë close to Sarandë and Dajti near Tiranë.F. Prendi, "The Prehistory of Albania", The Cambridge Ancient History, 2nd edn., vol. 3, part 1: The Prehistory of the Balkans; and the Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries B.C., ed. John Boardman et al. (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1982), 189–90. The objects found in a cave near Xarrë include flint and jasper objects and fossilized animal bones, while those found at Mount Dajt comprise bone and stone tools similar to those of the Aurignacian culture. The Paleolithic finds of Albania show great similarities with objects of the same era found at Crvena Stijena in Montenegro and north-western Greece.Several Bronze Age artefacts from tumulus burials have been unearthed in central and southern Albania that show close connection with sites in south-western Macedonia and Lefkada, Greece. Archaeologists have come to the conclusion that these regions were inhabited from the middle of the third millennium BC by Indo-European people who spoke a Proto-Greek language. A part of this population later moved to Mycenae around 1600 BC and founded the Mycenaean civilisation there.BOOK, Hammond, N. G. L., British Association for Mycenaean Studies, Grave circles in Albania and Macedonia,weblink 1974, Bronze Age Migrations in the Aegean: Archaeological and Linguistic Problems in Greek Prehistory, 4, 189–198, 16 March 2011, 978-0-7156-0580-6, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond, Guy Thompson Griffith A History of Macedonia: Historical geography and prehistory. Clarendon Press, 1972, p. 290Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond. Studies: Further studies on various topics. A.M. Hakkert, 1993, p. 231: "The leading dans of both groups buried their dead under a circular tumulus of soil in the second millennium BC The main reservoir of the Greek speakers was central Albania and Epirus, and it was from there that the founders of Mycenaean civilization came to Mycenae, c. 1600 BC, and buried their nobles in Grave Circle B. Further waves of immigrants passing through and from Epirus people the Greek peninsula and islands the last wave, called Dorians, settling from 1100 onwards. The lands they left in central Albania were occupied during the so-called Dark Age (U10-800BC) by Illyrians, whose main habitat was in the area now called Bosnia,"In ancient times, the territory of modern Albania was mainly inhabited by a number of Illyrian tribes. The Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as 'Illyrians', and it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature for themselves.{{citation|last1=Roisman|first1=Joseph|last2=Worthington|first2=Ian|title=A Companion to Ancient Macedonia|publisher=John Wiley and Sons|year=2010|isbn=978-1-4051-7936-2|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=lkYFVJ3U-BIC|ref=harv}} The name Illyrians seems to be the name applied to a specific Illyrian tribe, which was the first to come in contact with the ancient Greeks during the Bronze Age, causing the name Illyrians to be applied pars pro toto to all people of similar language and customs.John Boardman. The prehistory of the Balkans and the Middle East and the Aegean world. Cambridge University Press, 1982. {{ISBN|978-0-521-22496-3}}, p. 629: "...{{nbsp}}the southernmost outliers of the tribes which held the Zeta valley, as such they may have been the immediate neighbours of Greek-speaking tribes in the Bronze Age."Wilkes John. The Illyrians. Wiley-Blackwell, 1995, {{ISBN|978-0-631-19807-9}}, p. 92: "Illyrii was once no more than the name of a single people... astride the modern frontier between Albania and Yugoslav Montenegro"File:Butrint_-_Ancient_amphitheatre_(by_Pudelek).JPG|thumb|left|The remains of the Roman amphitheatre in ButrintButrintThe territory known as Illyria corresponded roughly to the area east of the Adriatic sea, extending in the south to the mouth of the Vjosë river.The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, {{ISBN|978-0-631-19807-9}}, page 92, "Appian's description of the Illyrian territories records a southern boundary with Chaonia and Thesprotia, where ancient Epirus began south of river Aoous (Vjose)" also mapCambridge University Press. The Cambridge ancient history. 2000. {{ISBN|0-521-23447-6}}, page 261,"... down to the mouth of Aous" The first account of the Illyrian groups comes from Periplus of the Euxine Sea, an ancient Greek text written in the middle of the 4th century BC.The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 94 The south was inhabited by the Greek tribe of the Chaonians,{{harvnb|Hammond|1998}}; {{harvnb|Lewis|Boardman|1994|pp=430, 434}}; {{harvnb|Boardman|Hammond|1982|p=284}}; {{harvnb|Wilkes|1995|p=104}}; {{harvnb|Encyclopædia Britannica ("Epirus")|2013}} whose capital was at Phoenice, while numerous colonies, such as Apollonia, Epidamnos and Amantia, were established by Greek city-states on the coast by the 7th century BC.{{harvnb|Wilkes|1995|p=96}}; {{harvnb|Wilson|2006|p=594}}; {{harvnb|Chamoux|2003|p=97}} The west was inhabited by the Thracian tribe of the Bryges.The Illyrian tribe of the Ardiaei centered in Montenegro ruled over much of nowadays Albania. The Ardiaean Kingdom reached its greatest extent under Agron, son of Pleuratus II. Agron extended his rule over other neighboring tribes as well.BOOK, A History of Macedonia: 336–167 B.C,weblink Clarendon Press, 1 January 1972, 978-0-19-814815-9, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière, Hammond, Frank William, Walbank, After Agron's death in 230 BC, his wife Teuta inherited the Ardiaean kingdom. Teuta's forces extended their operations further southward into the Ionian Sea.BOOK, Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide,weblink ABC-CLIO, 1 January 1999, 978-1-57607-091-8, Guida Myrl, Jackson-Laufer, 382–383, In 229 BC, Rome declared warBOOK, The History of Rome,weblink D. Appleton & Company, 1 January 1846, 259, on the kingdom for extensively plundering Roman ships. The war ended in Illyrian defeat in 227 BC. Teuta was eventually succeeded by Gentius in 181 BC.BOOK, The Illyrians,weblink Wiley, 9 January 1996, 978-0-631-19807-9, John, Wilkes, 189, Gentius clashed with the Romans in 168 BC, initiating the Third Illyrian War. The conflict resulted in Roman conquest of the region by 167 BC. After that the Roman split the region into three administrative divisions.Marjeta Å aÅ¡el Kos, "The Illyrian King Ballaeus – Some Historical Aspects", Épire, Illyrie, Macédoine: Mélanges offerts au professeur Pierre Cabanes, ed. Danièle Berranger (Clermont-Ferrand: Presses Universitaires Blaise Pascal, 2007), 127.{{Clear}}

Middle Ages

{{Further|Stratioti|Arbëreshë people|l2=Arbëreshë}}File:Krujë-KrujaAlbania 2016.jpg|thumb|right|The city of Krujë was the capital of the Principality of ArbanonPrincipality of ArbanonAfter the Roman Empire was divided into East and West in the 4th century, the territory of Albania remained within the Eastern Roman Empire.BOOK, Bideleux, Robert, Jeffries, Ian, Balkans: A Post-Communist History,weblink 24 January 2007, Routledge, 978-1-134-58328-7, 25, From AD 548 onward, the lands now known as Albania began to be overrun from the north by ever-increasing ..., In the centuries that followed, the Balkan Peninsula suffered from the Barbarian invasions. The Illyrians are mentioned for the last time in a text from the 7th century.{{citation|last=Schaefer|first=Richard T.|title=Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society|year=2008|publisher=SAGE Publications|isbn=978-1-4129-2694-2|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=jscZAQAAIAAJ|ref=harv}} Towards the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th centuries, Serbs and Venetians started to take possession over the territory.WEB, Zickel, Raymond, Iwaskiw, Walter R., 1994, "The Barbarian Invasions and the Middle Ages," Albania: A Country Study,weblink 9 April 2008,
The ethnogenesis of the Albanians is uncertain however the first undisputed mention of Albanians dates back in historical records from 1079 or 1080 in a work by Michael Attaliates, who referred to the Albanoi as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople.BOOK, Madgearu, Alexandru, Gordon, Martin, The wars of the Balkan Peninsula: Their medieval origins, 2008, Lanham, Scarecrow Press,weblink 9780810858466, harv, At this point the Albanians were fully christianized.File:Venezia_-_Ex_Scola_degli_albanesi_(sec._XV)_-_Foto_Giovanni_Dall%27Orto,_12-Aug-2007_-_11_-_Maometto_II_assedia_Scutari.jpg|thumb|left|A relief of the Scuola degli Albanesi commemorating the Siege of Shkodra. It illustrates Sultan Mehmet II laying siege to the Albanian town of Scutari then part of Venetian EmpireVenetian EmpireThe first semi-autonomous Albanian polity was formed in 1190, when archon Progon of Kruja established the Principality of Arbanon with the capital in Krujë within the Byzantine Empire. Progon, was succeeded by his sons Gjin and Dhimitri, the latter which attained the height of the realm. Following the death of Dhimiter, the last member of the Progon family, the principality came under the Albanian-Greek Gregory Kamonas and later Golem of Kruja.BOOK,weblink Illyrisch-albanische Forschungen, Jireček, Konstantin, Thopia, 1916, 239, Griechen Gregorios Kamonas, BOOK,weblink The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 5, C.1198-c.1300, 978-0-521-36289-4, Abulafia, David, McKitterick, 21 October 1999, 786, Greco-Albanian lord Gregorios Kamonas, BOOK,weblink The Genealogist, 1980, 40, In the 13th century, the principality was dissolved.Clements, John (1992), Clements encyclopedia of world governments, Vol. 10. Political Research, Inc. p. 31: "By 1190, Byzantium's power had so receded that the archon Progon succeeded in establishing the first Albanian state of the Middle Ages, a principality"BOOK, Pickard, Rob, Çeliku, Florent, Analysis and Reform of Cultural Heritage Policies in South-East Europe, 2008, Strasbourg, Council of Europe Publishing, 978-92-871-6265-6,weblink 16, BOOK, Norris, H. T., Islam in the Balkans: religion and society between Europe and the Arab world,weblink 1993, University of South Carolina Press, 978-0-87249-977-5, 35, Arbanon is considered to be the first sketch of an Albanian state, that retained a semi-autonomous status as the western extremity of the Byzantine Empire, under the Byzantine Doukai of Epirus or Laskarids of Nicaea.BOOK, Studies on Kosova, East European Monographs #155, Pipa, Arshi, Repishti, Sami, 1984, 978-0-88033-047-3, 7–8, Few years after the dissolution of Arbanon, Charles of Anjou concluded an agreement with the Albanian rulers, promising to protect them and their ancient liberties. In 1272, he established the Kingdom of Albania and conquered regions back from the Despotate of Epirus. The kingdom claimed all of central Albania territory from Dyrrhachium along the Adriatic Sea coast down to Butrint. A catholic political structure was a basis for the papal plans of spreading Catholicism in the Balkan Peninsula. This plan found also the support of Helen of Anjou, a cousin of Charles of Anjou, who was at that time ruling territories in North Albania. Around 30 Catholic churches and monasteries were built during her rule mainly in Northern Albania.BOOK, Regnum Albaniae, the Papal Curia, and the Western Visions of a Borderline Nobility, Etleva, Lala, Cambridge University Press, 2008,weblink Internal power struggles within the Byzantine Empire in the fourteenth century, enabled Serbs' most powerful medieval ruler, Stefan Dusan, to establish a short-lived empire that included all of Albania except Durrës. In 1367, various Albanian rulers established the Despotate of Arta. During that time, several Albanian principalities were created, most notable amongst them the Balsha, Thopia, Kastrioti, Muzaka and Arianiti. In the first half of the 14th century, the Ottoman Empire invaded most of Albania and the League of Lezhë was held under Skanderbeg as a ruler, who became the national hero of the Albanian medieval history.{{Clear}}

Albania under the Ottoman Empire

{{See also|League of Lezhë}}{{Further|Islamization of Albania}}File:Gjergj Kastrioti.jpg|upright|thumb|right|After serving the Ottoman Empire for nearly 20 years, Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg deserted and began a rebellion against the empire that halted Ottoman advance into Europe for 25 years.]]The Ottoman invasion of the territory of Albania marked a new era in its history and introduced enormous changes in the political and cultural environment of the area. The Ottomans erected their garrisons across the south of Albania in 1415 and occupied the majority in 1431 although they reached Albanian coast for first time at 1385.JOURNAL, Licursi, Emiddio Pietro, Empire of Nations: The Consolidation of Albanian and Turkish National Identities in the Late Ottoman Empire, 1878–1913,weblink 2011, Columbia University, New York, 19, By 1415, after a chaotic interregnum, Sultan Mehmet I sent the military to erect the first Ottoman garrisons throughout southern Albania, establishing direct military authority in the region ... l jurisdiction over most of Albania ..., 10022/AC:P:10297, The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism by D. Hupchick, page 110 Upon their arrival, Islam was introduced in the country as a second religion resulting a massive emigration of Christian Albanians to other Christian European countries such as the Arbëreshë to Italy while Muslim Albanians gradually settled to Turkey and other part of the Ottoman Empire such as Algeria, Egypt and Iraq.BOOK, Gjonça, Arjan, Communism, Health and Lifestyle: The Paradox of Mortality Transition in Albania, 1950–1990,weblink 2001, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-31586-2, 7–, BOOK, Norris, H. T., Islam in the Balkans: religion and society between Europe and the Arab world,weblink 1993, University of South Carolina Press, 978-0-87249-977-5, 196, In 1443, a great and longstanding revolt broke out under the lead of Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg that lasted until 1479, many times defeating major Ottoman armies led by Murad II and Mehmed II. Skanderbeg united initially the princes of Albania and later on established a centralized authority over most of the non-conquered territories becoming the ruling Lord of Albania.Skanderbeg pursued relentlessly but rather unsuccessfully to create a European coalition against the Ottomans. He thwarted every attempt by the Ottomans to regain Albania which they envisioned as a springboard for the invasion of Italy and Western Europe. His unequal fight against the mightiest power of the time, won the esteem of Europe as well as some financial and military aid from Naples, Venice, Sicily and the Papacy.WEB,weblink Albania :: The decline of Byzantium, Encyclopædia Britannica, 13 September 2014, File:Ali Pasha Tepelena, Oil paint of Agim Sulaj.jpg|upright|thumb|left|Ali Pasha of Tepelena was one of the most powerful autonomous Muslim Albanian rulers reigning over Yanina and even attempted to rival the Dey of AlgiersDey of AlgiersWhen the Ottomans were gaining a firm foothold in the region, Albanian towns were organised into four principal sanjaks. The government fostered trade by settling a sizeable Jewish colony of refugees fleeing persecution in Spain. The city of Vlorë saw passing through its ports imported merchandise from Europe such as velvets, cotton goods, mohairs, carpets, spices and leather from Bursa and Constantinople. Some citizens of Vlorë even had business associates throughout Europe.As Muslims, some Albanians attained important political and military positions within the empire and culturally contributed to the wider Muslim world.Clayer, Nathalie (2012). "Albania" in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, Rokovet, John Nawas, Everett Rowson (eds.). Brill Online.Enjoying this privileged position, Muslim Albanians held various high administrative positions with over two dozen Albanian Grand Viziers among others Köprülü Mehmed Pasha, Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed and Muhammad Ali Pasha."Arnawutluḳ." in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online, 2012.The most significant impact on the Albanians was the gradual Islamisation process of a large majority of the population, although it became widespread only in the 17th century. The process was an incremental one, commencing from the arrival of the Ottomans. Timar holders, the bedrock of early Ottoman control in Southeast Europe, were not necessarily converts to Islam, and occasionally rebelled, with the most famous of these being Skanderbeg.Mainly Catholic Albanians converted in the 17th century, while the Orthodox Albanians followed suit mainly in the following century. Initially confined to the main city centres of Elbasan and Shkodër, by this period the countryside was also embracing the new religion. The motives for conversion according to some scholars were diverse, depending on the context. The lack of source material does not help when investigating such issues.{{Clear}}

Rilindja

{{See also|Albanian Renaissance}}{{Further|League of Prizren}}File:NaumVeqilharxhi.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Naum Veqilharxhi was among the most important figures of the early National Renaissance.]]The origins of the Albanian Renaissance can be traced back to around the 19th century that was a very difficult period for Albania. During the period, the modern culture of Albania flourished especially in literature and art as well inspired by romanticism and enlightenment.The victory of Russia over the Ottoman Empire following the Russian-Ottoman War resulted the execution of the Treaty of San Stefano that overlooked to assign Albanian-populated regions to the Slavic neighbors. The United Kingdom as well as Austria-Hungary consequently, blocked the arrangement and caused the Treaty of Berlin. At this point, Albanians started to organize themselves with the aim to protect and unite the Albanian-populated regions into a unitary nation. This led to the formation of the League of Prizren in the old town of Prizren.
File:Dora_d%27Istria.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The Albanian-Romanian feminist, Dora d'Istria, was the main advocate in Europe for the Albanian cause.WEB, Observator CulturalObservator CulturalAt first the Ottoman authorities supported the League, whose initial position was based on the religious solidarity of Muslim landlords and people connected with the Ottoman administration. The Ottomans favoured and protected the Muslim solidarity and called for defense of Muslim lands, including present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. This was the reason for naming the league The Committee of the Real Muslims.{{Citation |last=Kopecek |first=Michal |authorlink= |first2= Ahmed|last2= Ersoy|first3=Maciej|last3=Gorni |first4=Vangelis |last4= Kechriotis |first5= Boyan |last5= Manchev |first6= Balazs |last6= Trencsenyi |first7= Marius |last7= Turda |title= Discourses of collective identity in Central and Southeast Europe (1770–1945)|url=weblink|accessdate= 18 January 2011 |edition= |series= |volume= 1|year=2006 |publisher=Central European University Press |location= Budapest, Hungary|isbn=978-963-7326-52-3 |page= 348 |quote= The position of the League in the beginning was based on religious solidarity. It was even called Komiteti i Myslimanëve të Vërtetë (The Committee of the Real Muslims) ... decisions are taken and supported mostly by landlords and people closely connected with Ottoman administration and religious authorities.. |ref= }}The league issued a decree known as Kararname that contained a proclamation that the people from northern Albania, Epirus and Bosnia are willing to defend the territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire by all possible means against the troops of the kingdoms of Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro. However, it was signed by 47 Muslim deputies of the league on 18 June 1878.WEB,weblink 1878 The Resolutions of the League of Prizren, Robert, Elsie, Robert Elsie, albanianhistory.net,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100908114200weblink">weblink 8 September 2010, yes, 20 February 2011, On 10 June 1878, ... The League of Prizren, Alb. Lidhja e Prizrenit, ... On 13 June 1878, the League submitted an eighteen-page memorandum to Benjamin Disraeli, the British representative at the Congress of Berlin, Approximately 300 Muslims participated in the assembly, including delegates from Bosnia and mutasarrif of the Sanjak of Prizren as representatives of the central authorities and no delegates from Vilayet of Scutari.{{Citation |last=Kopeček |first=Michal |first2= Ahmed|last2= Ersoy|first3=Maciej|last3=Gorni | first4=Vangelis |last4= Kechriotis |first5= Boyan |last5= Manchev |first6= Balazs |last6=Trencsenyi |first7= Marius |last7= Turda |title= Discourses of collective identity in Central and Southeast Europe (1770–1945)|chapter-url=weblink|accessdate= 18 January 2011 |volume= 1|year=2006 |publisher=Central European University Press |location= Budapest, Hungary|isbn=978-963-7326-52-3 |page=347 |chapter= Program of the Albanian League of Prizren |quote= there were no delegates from Shkodra villayet and a few Bosnian delegates also participated. Present was also mutasarrif (administrator of sandjak) of Prizren as representative of the central authorities }}{{check quotation}} The Ottomans cancelled their support when the league, under the influence of Abdyl Bey Frashëri, became focused on working toward the Albanian autonomy and requested merging of four Ottoman vilayets, which included Kosovo, Scutari, Monastir and Ioannina into a new vilayet within the empire, the Albanian Vilayet. The league used military force to prevent the annexing areas of Plav and Gusinje assigned to Montenegro by the Congress of Berlin. After several successful battles with Montenegrin troops such as in Novsice, under the pressure of the great powers, the league was forced to retreat from their contested regions of Plav and Gusinje and later on, the league was defeated by the Ottoman army sent by the Sultan.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Albanian League,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 January 2012, {{Clear}}

Independence

{{Further|Independent Albania}}File:Flag_of_Albanian_Provisional_Government_(1912-1914).svg|thumb|right|The official flag of Independent AlbaniaIndependent AlbaniaThe independence of Albania from the Ottoman Empire was proclaimed on 28 November 1912 by Ismail Qemali in Vlorë. Immediately after, the leaders of the Assembly of Vlorë established the senate as well as the first government of the country on 4 December 1912 that consisted of only ten members.BOOK, Giaro, Tomasz, Modernisierung durch Transfer zwischen den Weltkriegen,weblink 24 January 2011, 2007, Vittorio Klosterman GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 978-3-465-04017-0, 185, The Albanian legal and constitutional system between the World Wars, From its own members congress elected a senate (Pleqësi), composed of 18 members, which assumed advisory role to the government., WEB,weblink Ismail Kemal bey Vlora: Memoirs, Ismail, Qemali, 23 January 2011,  November 15th–28th, 1912 ..., yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100617232905weblink">weblink 17 June 2010, WEB,weblink Ismail Kemal bey Vlora: Memoirs, Ismail, Qemali, 23 January 2011,  On the resumption of the sitting, I was elected President of the Provisional Government, with a mandate to form a Cabinet ..., yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100617232905weblink">weblink 17 June 2010, BOOK, Giaro, Tomasz, Modernisierung durch Transfer zwischen den Weltkriegen,weblink 24 January 2011, 2007, Vittorio Klosterman GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 978-3-465-04017-0, 185, The Albanian legal and constitutional system between the World Wars,  a provisional government, consisting of ten members and led by Vlora, was formed on 4 December., The country's independence was recognized by the Conference of London on 29 July 1913.WEB, Elsie, Robert, 1913 The Conference of London,weblink 5 January 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110717005551weblink">weblink 17 July 2011, dmy-all, The treaty delineated the borders of the country and its neighbors leaving many ethnic Albanians outside Albania. This population was largely divided between Montenegro and Serbia in the north and east and Greece in the south.Headquartered in Vlorë, the International Commission of Control was established on 15 October 1913 to take care of the administration of newly established Albania, until its own political institutions were in order.{{Citation |last= Jelavich |first= Barbara |title=History of the Balkans: Twentieth century |chapter-url=https://books.google.com/?id=Hd-or3qtqrsC&pg=PA100 |accessdate= 21 January 2011 |volume=2 |origyear= 1983 |year= 1999 |publisher= The Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge |location= Cambridge, United Kingdom |isbn= 978-0-521-27459-3 |page= 101 |chapter= The end of Ottoman rule in Europe |quote= the International Commission ... had headquarters in Vlorë}}HTTP://WWW.CECL.GR/RIGASNETWORK/DATABANK/REPORTS/R23/ZAHARIA.HTML> TITLE = THE POST – 1989 CONSTITUTIONAL COURSE OF SOUTH EAST EUROPE LAST = ZAHARIA PUBLISHER = CENTRE FOR EUROPEAN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW ARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110616151647/HTTP://WWW.CECL.GR/RIGASNETWORK/DATABANK/REPORTS/R23/ZAHARIA.HTML DEAD-URL = YESInternational Gendarmerie was established as the first law enforcement agency of the Principality of Albania. In November, the first gendarmerie members arrived in the country. Prince of Albania Wilhelm of Wied (Princ Vilhelm Vidi) was selected as the first prince of the principality.{{Citation >last=Seton-Watson author2= J. Dover Wilson author4= Arthur Greenwood chapter-url=http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10668/10668.txt weblink>archivedate=2012-11-13 origyear= 1915 edition=1st chapter= III Germany |quote=Prince William of Wied, the first Prince of Albania}} On 7 March, he arrived in the provisional capital of Durrës and started to organise his government, appointing Turhan Pasha Përmeti to form the first Albanian cabinet.File:Flag of Koritsa.svg|thumb|left|The official flag of the autonomous Albanian Republic of Korçë that was supported by French forces.]]In November 1913, the Albanian pro-Ottoman forces had offered the throne of Albania to the Ottoman war Minister of Albanian origin, Ahmed Izzet Pasha.WEB,weblink Albania under prince Wied, Robert, Elsie, Robert Elsie,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110717003848weblink">weblink pro-Ottoman forces ... were opposed to the increasing Western influence ... In November 1913, these forces, ... had offered the vacant Albanian throne to General Izzet Pasha ... War Minister who was of Albanian origin., 17 July 2011, yes, 25 January 2011, The pro-Ottoman peasants believed that, the new regime of the Principality of Albania was a tool of the six Christian Great Powers and local landowners, that owned half of the arable land.{{Citation |last= Jelavich |first= Barbara |title=History of the Balkans: Twentieth century |url=https://books.google.com/?id=Hd-or3qtqrsC&pg=PA100 |accessdate= 25 January 2011 |volume=2 |origyear= 1983 |year= 1999 |publisher= The Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge |location= Cambridge, United Kingdom |isbn= 978-0-521-27459-3 |page=103 |quote= peasants..willing listeners to Ottoman propaganda ... attached the new regime as a tool of the beys and Christian powers }}In February 1914, the Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus was proclaimed in Gjirokastër by the local Greek population against incorporation to Albania. This initiative was short lived and in 1921, the southern provinces were finally incorporated to the Albanian Principality.BOOK, Bowden, William, Epirus Vetus : the archaeology of a late antique province, 2003, Duckworth, London, 978-0-7156-3116-4, 28,weblink the Greek Epirote population of the area refused to be incorporated into the new Albanian state and in February 1914 declared the Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus ... in 1921 Albania was recognised as an independent sovereign state, with its borders established on their present lines., BOOK, ed, Gregory C. Ference, Chronology of 20th century eastern European history, 1994, Gale Research, Detroit [u.a.], 978-0-8103-8879-6, 9,weblink February 28 George Zographos, a former foreign minister of Greece, proclaims at Gjirokaster the establishment of the Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus, with Zographos as president. He notifies the International Commission that his government has been established because the Great Powers have not provided the Greeks in southern Albania any guarantees for the protection of the life, property and religious freedom, and ethnic existence., Meanwhile, the revolt of Albanian peasants against the new Albanian regime erupted under the leadership of the group of Muslim clerics gathered around Essad Pasha Toptani, who proclaimed himself the savior of Albania and Islam.WEB,weblink The Efforts to settle amputated Albania state, albaniainbrief.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110601023209weblink">weblink 1 June 2011, yes, 28 January 2011, Thousands of muslim peasants, ... were exploited by their leaders Haxhi Qamili, Arif Hiqmeti, Musa Qazimi and Mustafa Ndroqi, ... to rebel, BOOK, Vickers, Miranda, The Albanians: a modern history, I.B. Tauris, 1999, He gathered round him a group of discontented Muslim priests ... and proclaimed himself the savior of Albania and the Champion of Islam., 81, 978-1-86064-541-9,weblink In order to gain support of the Mirdita Catholic volunteers from the northern part of Albania, Prince Wied appointed their leader, Prênk Bibë Doda, to be the foreign minister of the Principality of Albania. In May and June 1914, the International Gendarmerie was joined by Isa Boletini and his men, mostly from Kosovo,WEB,weblink Albania under prince Wied, Robert, Elsie, Robert Elsie,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110717003848weblink">weblink  mostly volunteers from Kosova under their leader Isa Boletini, 17 July 2011, yes, 25 January 2011, and northern Mirdita Catholics, were defeated by the rebels who captured most of Central Albania by the end of August 1914.WEB,weblink Albania under prince Wied, Robert, Elsie, Robert Elsie,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110717003848weblink">weblink Panic broke out in Durrës, and the royal family sought refuge on an Italian vessel ..., 17 July 2011, yes, 25 January 2011, The regime of Prince Wied collapsed and later he left the country on 3 September 1914.BOOK, Springer, Elisabeth, Leopold Kammerhofer, Archiv und Forschung, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 1993, 346, 978-3-486-55989-7, {{Clear}}

First Republic

{{See also|World War II in Albania}}{{Further|The Holocaust in Albania|List of Albanian Righteous Among the Nations|l2=Albanian Righteous Among the Nations}}File:Galeazzo-Ciano.jpg|thumb|right|Zog I of Albania with Italian Foreign Minister, Galeazzo CianoGaleazzo CianoFollowing the end of the government of Fan Noli, the parliament adopted a new constitution and proclaimed the country as a parliamentary republic in which Zog I of Albania served as the head of state for a seven years term. Immediately after, Tirana was endorsed officially as the country's permanent capital.BOOK, The Albanians: A Modern History,weblink I.B. Tauris, 1 January 1999, 978-1-86064-541-9, Miranda, Vickers, 118, The politics of Zogu was authoritarian and conservative with the primary aim of which was the maintenance of stability and order. He was forced to adopt a policy of cooperation with Italy where a pact had been signed between both countries, whereby Italy gained a monopoly on shipping and trade concessions.BOOK, The Albanians: A Modern History,weblink I.B. Tauris, 1 January 1999, 978-1-86064-541-9, Miranda, Vickers, In 1928, the country was eventually replaced by another monarchy with a strong support by the fascist regime of Italy however, both maintained close relations until the Italian invasion of the country. Zogu remained a conservative but initiated reforms and placed great emphasis on the development of infrastructure.In an attempt at social modernization, the custom of adding one's region to one's name was dropped. He also made donations of land to international organisations for the building of schools and hospitals. The armed forces were trained and supervised by instructors from Italy, as a counterweight, he kept British officers in the Gendarmerie despite strong Italian pressure to remove them.
File:Jewish_Families_Kavajë.png|thumb|left|Portrait of a Jewish family in Kavajë. During the Holocaust, predominantly Muslim Albanians saved almost 2000 Jews from deportation to the concentration camps during (World War II]].WEB, BESA: A CODE OF HONOR Muslim Albanians Who Rescued Jews During the Holocaust,weblink Yad Vashem, English, )After being militarily occupied by Italy from 1939 until 1943, the Kingdom of Albania was a protectorate and a dependency of the Kingdom of Italy governed by Victor Emmanuel III and his government. In October 1940, Albania served as a staging ground for an unsuccessful Italian invasion of Greece. A counterattack resulted in a sizable portion of southern Albania coming under Greek military control until April 1941 when Greece capitulated during the German invasion. In April 1941, territories of Yugoslavia with substantial Albanian population were annexed to Albania inclusively western Macedonia, a strip of eastern Montenegro, the town of Tutin in central Serbia and most of Kosovo{{Small|{{efn|name=status}}}}.BOOK, Bogdani, Mirela, Loughlin, John, Albania and the European Union: The Tumultuous Journey Towards Integration and Accession,weblink 15 March 2007, I.B. Tauris, 978-1-84511-308-7, 230, Germans started to occupy the country in September 1943 subsequently announced that they would recognize the independence of a neutral Albania and set about organizing a new government, military and law enforcement. Balli Kombëtar, which had fought against Italy, formed a neutral government and side by side with the Germans fought against the communist-led National Liberation Movement of Albania.BOOK, Morrock, Richard, The Psychology of Genocide and Violent Oppression: A Study of Mass Cruelty from Nazi Germany to Rwanda,weblink 11 October 2010, McFarland, 978-0-7864-5628-4, 55, The nationalist Balli Kombetar, which had fought against Italy, made a deal with the German invaders, and formed a "neutral" government in Tirana which ..., During the last years of the war, the country fell into a civil war-like state between the communists and nationalists. The communist however defeated the last anti-communist forces in the south in 1944. Before the end of November, the main German troops had withdrawn from Tirana, and the communists took control by attacking it. The partisans entirely liberated the country from German occupation on 29 November 1944. A provisional government, which the communists had formed at Berat in October, administered Albania with Enver Hoxha as the head of government.By the end of the Second World War, the main military and political force of the nation, the Communist party sent forces to northern Albania against the nationalists to eliminate its rivals. They faced open resistance in Nikaj-Mërtur, Dukagjin and Kelmend led by Prek Cali.BOOK,weblink The Albanians: An Ethnic History from Prehistoric Times to the Present, Edwin E. Jacques, McFarland, 1995, 1995, 431, 9780899509327, 15 February 2014, On 15 January 1945, a clash took place between partisans of the first Brigade and nationalist forces at the Tamara Bridge, resulting in the defeat of the nationalist forces. About 150 KelmendiBOOK,weblink Live to Tell: A True Story of Religious Persecution in Communist Albania, Zef Pllumi, iUniverse, 2008, 9780595452989, 15 February 2014, {{page needed|date=November 2017}} people were killed or tortured. This event was the starting point of many other issues which took place during Enver Hoxha's dictatorship. Class struggle was strictly applied, human freedom and human rights were denied.WEB, Albanian Nationalism,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, 22 November 2016, The Kelmend region was almost isolated by both the border and by a lack of roads for another 20 years, the institution of agricultural cooperatives brought about economic decline. Many Kelmendi people fled, some were executed trying to cross the border. {{Clear}}

Communism

{{Further|Bunkers in Albania}}File:HODŽA_druhá_míza_crop.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Enver Hoxha served as Prime Minister and First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania.]]In the aftermath of World War II and the defeat of Nazi Germany, the country became initially a satellite state of the Soviet Union and Enver Hoxha emerged consequently as the leader of the newly established People's Republic of Albania.WEB, Envery Hoxha,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, 22 November 2016, Soviet-Albanian relations began to deteriorate after Stalin's death in 1953. At this point, the country started to develop foreign relations with other communist countries among others with the People's Republic of China.During this period, the country experienced an increasing industrialisation and urbanization, a rapid collectivisation and economic growth which led to a higher standard of living. The government called for the development of infrastructure and most notably the introduction of a railway system that completely revamped transportation.The new land reform laws were passed granting ownership of the land to the workers and peasants who tilled it. Agriculture became cooperative and production increased significantly, leading to the country's becoming agriculturally self-sufficient. In the field of education, illiteracy was eliminated among the country's adult population.40 Years of Socialist Albania, Dhimiter Picani The government also oversaw the emancipation of women and the expansion of healthcare and education throughout the country.NEWS, Qori, Arlind, February 22, 2019, From Faculty to Factory,weblink Jacobin (magazine), Jacobin, March 14, 2019, The average annual increase in the country's national income was 29% and 56% higher than the world and European average, respectively.JOURNAL, Dalakoglou, Dimitris, The Road from Capitalism to Capitalism, Mobilities, 7, 4, 571–586,weblink 11 November 2012, 10.1080/17450101.2012.718939, 2012, {{Failed verification|date=November 2016}}. The nation incurred large debts initially with Yugoslavia until 1948, then the Soviet Union until 1961 and China from the middle of the 1950s.BOOK,weblink Comparative Economic Systems, Prybyla, Jan S., 1969-01-01, Ardent Media, 9780390719003, 294–, en, The constitution of the communist regime did not allow taxes on individuals, instead, taxes were imposed on cooperatives and other organizations, with much the same effect.WEB, Pano, Aristotel, Panorama of the Economic-Social Development of Socialist Albania,weblink 11 April 2012, File:Bunker in Albanian Alps.jpg|thumb|left|A bunker overlooking the Albanian AlpsAlbanian AlpsToday a secular state without any official religion, religious freedoms and practices were severely curtailed during the communist era with all forms of worship being outlawed. In 1945, the Agrarian Reform Law meant that large swaths of property owned by religious groups were nationalized, mostly the waqfs along with the estates of mosques, tekkes, monasteries and dioceses. Many believers, along with the ulema and many priests, were arrested and executed. In 1949, a new Decree on Religious Communities required that all their activities be sanctioned by the state alone.Library of Congress Country Studies, Albania: Hoxha's Antireligious CampaignAfter hundreds of mosques and dozens of Islamic libraries, containing priceless manuscripts were destroyed, Hoxha proclaimed Albania the world's first atheist state in 1967.Kombësia dhe feja në Shqipëri, 1920–1944 / Roberto Morocco dela Roka; e përktheu nga origjinali Luan Omari.BOOK, Historical Dictionary of Albania, Elsie, Robert, The Scarecrow Press, 2010, 978-0-8108-6188-6, 2nd, Historical Dictionaries of Europe, No. 75, Lanham, MD, and Plymouth, 27, The churches had not been spared either, and many were converted into cultural centers for young people. A 1967 law banned all fascist, religious, warmongerish, antisocialist activity and propaganda. Preaching religion carried a three to ten-year prison sentence.Nonetheless, many Albanians continued to practice their beliefs secretly. The anti-religious policy of Hoxha attained its most fundamental legal and political expression a decade later: "The state recognizes no religion", states the 1976 constitution, "and supports and carries out atheistic propaganda in order to implant a scientific materialistic world outlook in people". {{Clear}}

Fourth Republic

{{Further|Pyramid schemes in Albania|Albanian civil war of 1997|l1=Pyramid schemes|l2=civil war of 1997}}File:Tirana Square 1988.jpg|thumb|right|In 1988, people were allowed to walk into the Skanderbeg Square of TiranaTiranaAfter forty years of communism and isolation as well as the revolutions of 1989, people and most notably students started to become politically active and consequently to campaign against the government that led to the transformation of the existing order. Following the popular support in the first multi-party elections of 1991,WEB,weblink Report: The Elections in Albania, 2016-05-27, the communists retained a stronghold in the parliament until the victory in the general elections of 1992 led by the Democratic Party.Considerable economic and financial resources have been devoted to the Ponzi pyramid schemes that were widely supported by the government. The schemes swept up somewhere between one sixth and one third of the population of the country.JOURNAL, Jarvis, Christopher, 2000,weblink The Rise and Fall of the Albanian Pyramid Schemes, Finance and Development, 37, 1, 1, JOURNAL, Bezemer, Dirk, 2001, Post-socialist Financial Fragility: The Case of Albania, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 25, 1, 1–25, 10.1093/cje/25.1.1, 23599718, 10419/85494, free, Despite the warnings of the International Monetary Fund, Sali Berisha defended the schemes as large investment firms, leading more people to redirect their remittances and sell their homes and cattle for cash to deposit in the schemes.JOURNAL, Musaraj, Smoki, 2011, Tales from Albarado: The Materiality of Pyramid Schemes in Post-socialist Albania, Cultural Anthropology, 26, 1, 84–110, 10.1111/j.1548-1360.2010.01081.x, The schemes began to collapse in late 1996, leading many of the investors to join initially peaceful protests against the government, requesting their money back. The protests turned violent in February 1997 as government forces responded with fire. In March, the Police and Republican Guard deserted, leaving their armories open. These were promptly emptied by militias and criminal gangs. The resulting crisis caused a wave of evacuations of foreign nationals and refugees.For the most part, the Albanian refugees emigrated to Italy, Greece, Switzerland, Germany, or North America.The crisis led both Aleksandër Meksi and Sali Berisha to resign from office in the wake of the general election. In April 1997, Operation Alba, a UN peacekeeping force led by Italy, entered the country with two goals exclusively to assist with the evacuation of expatriates and to secure the ground for international organizations. The main international organization, that was involved, was the Western European Union's multinational Albanian Police element, which worked with the government to restructure the judicial system and simultaneously the Albanian Police.{{Clear}}

Contemporary

{{See also|Accession of Albania to the European Union|Albania–NATO relations|l1=Accession of Albania to the EU|l2=NATO}}File:Mimi_Kodheli_(cropped).jpg|thumb|right|upright|Mimi Kodheli was the first female to serve as the Defence Minister of Albania.]]When the communist system collapsed in 1990, Albania rediscovered foreign policy after decades of isolationism and began to develop closer ties considerably with other countries of Western Europe and the United States. At this point, its top foreign policy ambition was achieving integration into modern economic and security organizations.Previously a member of the Warsaw Pact, the newly established democratic country broadly pursued an integrationist agenda in becoming a member of the NATO.WEB, Brandon Burden, NATO's small states: Albania as a case study,weblink calhoun.nps.edu, 44–60, English, PDF, December 2016, The organisation invited Albania and Croatia to join the alliance at the 2008 Bucharest summit. In April 2014, it became a full member of the organisation and was among the first Southeast European countries to join the partnership for peace programme.Albania applied to join the European Union, becoming an official candidate for accession to the European Union in June 2014. Although Albania received candidate status for the European Union membership in 2014 (based on its 2009 application), the European Union has twice rejected full membership.WEB,weblink Albania country profile, 15 December 2016, BBC News, BBC News, 8 February 2017, The [2013] election was closely monitored by the European Union, which has twice rejected Albania's membership application and warned that the poll would be a crucial test for its further progress towards integration in the bloc., The European Parliament warned the Government leaders in early 2017 that the 2017 parliamentary elections in June must be free and fair before negotiations could begin to admit the country into the union.WEB,weblink Foreign affairs MEPs assess reform efforts in Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina, 31 January 2017, European Parliament, European Parliament, 8 February 2017, Albania needs to implement EU-related reforms credibly, and ensure that its June parliamentary elections are free and fair, if it is to start EU accession negotiations, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170211080700weblink">weblink 11 February 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Albania and Bosnia fail to impress at EU membership meeting over democratic value concerns, Culbertson, Alix, 1 February 2017, Express, 8 February 2017, Albania and Bosnia have stumbled at the first hurdle of becoming fully-fledged European Union (EU) members after MEPs questioned the credibility of their democratic values., On 23 June 2013, the eighth parliamentary elections took place, won by Edi Rama of the Socialist Party. During his tenure as Prime Minister, Albania has implemented numerous reforms focused on the modernizing the economy and democratizing of state institutions inclusively the judiciary and law enforcement of the country. Unemployment has been steadily reduced ranking 4th in terms of lowest unemployment rate in the Balkans.WEB,weblink Ahmetaj: Premtimi për 300 mijë vende punë është mbajtur - Gazeta SHQIP Online, Gazeta, Shqip, gazeta-shqip.com, Rama has placed gender equality at the center of its agenda, since 2017 almost 50% of the ministers are female, making it the largest number of women serving in the country's history.WEB, PM Rama at "Global Leader Woman" Summit,weblink ambasadat.gov.al, English, {{Clear}}

Geography

File:Valbona_nga_Kukaj.jpg|thumb|right|300px|The Albanian Alps are an extension of the Dinaric AlpsDinaric AlpsAlbania is defined in an area of {{convert|28748|km2|0|abbr=off}} and located on the Balkan Peninsula in South and Southeast Europe.WEB, Eftimi, R.,weblink Some Considerations on Seawater-freshwater Relationship in Albanian Coastal Area, ITA Consult, Its coastline faces the Adriatic Sea to the northwest and the Ionian Sea to the southwest within the Mediterranean Sea.The country lies mostly between latitudes 42° and 39° N, and longitudes 21° and 19° E. Its northernmost point is Vërmosh at 42° 35' 34" northern latitude; the southernmost is Konispol at 39° 40' 0" northern latitude; the westernmost point is Sazan Island at 19° 16' 50" eastern longitude; and the easternmost point is Vërnik at 21° 1' 26" eastern longitude.WEB,weblink Tregues Sipas Qarqeve Indicators by Prefectures, 2010-11-12, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110724163040weblink">weblink 24 July 2011, dmy-all, The highest point of the country is Mount Korab at {{convert|2764|m|ft|2}} above the Adriatic. The lowest point is the Adriatic Sea at {{convert|0|m|ft|2}}. The distance from the east to west is only {{convert|148|km|mi|0}}, while from the north to south about {{convert|340|km|mi|0}}.File:Gjipe beach, Albania.JPG|thumb|left|Gjipe is located on the confluence of the Adriatic and Ionian SeaIonian SeaFor a small country, much of Albania rises into mountains and hills that run in different directions across the length and breadth of the country. The most extensive mountain ranges are the Albanian Alps in the north, the Korab Mountains in the east, the Pindus Mountains in the southeast, the Ceraunian Mountains in the southwest and the Skanderbeg Mountains in the center.One of the most remarkable features about the country is the presence of numerous important lakes. The Lake of Shkodër is the largest lake in Southern Europe and located in northwest.WEB, Bolevich, Maria, Largest lake in southern Europe under threat from "eco-resort",weblink newscientist.com, English, 3 January 2017, In the southeast rises the Lake of Ohrid that is one of the oldest continuously existing lakes in the world.WEB, Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid region,weblink whc.unesco.org, UNESCO, English, Situated on the shores of Lake Ohrid, the town of Ohrid is one of the oldest human settlements in Europe; Lake Ohrid is a superlative natural phenomenon, providing refuge for numerous endemic and relict freshwater species of flora and fauna dating from the tertiary period. As a deep and ancient lake of tectonic origin, Lake Ohrid has existed continuously for approximately two to three million years., WEB,weblink Lake Ohrid; Invest in Macedonia – Agency for Foreign Investments of the Republic of Macedonia, InvestInMacedonia.com, 3 June 2017, yes,weblink" title="archive.today/20080914032610weblink">weblink 14 September 2008, dmy-all, Further south extend the Large and Small Lake of Prespa, which are among the highest positioned lakes in the Balkans.Rivers originate mostly in the east of Albania and discharge into the Adriatic Sea in the west. The longest river in the country, measured from its mouth to its source, is probably the Drin that starts at the confluence of its two headwaters, the Black and White Drin. Though of particular concern is the Vjosë that represents one of the last intact large river systems in Europe.{{Clear}}

Climate

File:Ksamill-1.jpg|thumb|right|The Albanian Riviera in the south has a mediterranean climatemediterranean climateThe climate in the country is highly variable and diverse owing to the differences in latitude, longitude and altitude.WEB, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Environmental Performance Reviews Albania,weblink unece.org, 30, English, WEB, Ministry of Environment of Albania, The First National Communication of the Republic of Albania to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC),weblink unfccc.int/, Tirana, 33–34, English, Albania experiences predominantly a mediterranean and continental climate, with four distinct seasons.WEB, Ministry of Environment (Albania), Ministry of Environment of Albania, Albania's Second National Communication to the Conference of Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,weblink unfccc.int, Tirana, 28, English, Defined by the Köppen classification, it accommodates five major climatic types ranging from mediterranean and subtropical in the western half to oceanic, continental and subarctic in the eastern half of Albania.The warmest areas of the country are immediately located along the Adriatic and Ionian Sea Coasts. On the contrary, the coldest areas are positioned within the northern and eastern highlands. The mean monthly temperature ranges between {{convert|-1|°C|°F|lk=on}} in winter to {{convert|21.8|°C|°F|lk=off}} in summer. The highest temperature of {{convert|43.9|°C|°F|lk=off}} was recorded in Kuçovë on 18 July 1973. The lowest temperature of {{convert|-29|°C|°F|lk=off}} was registered in the village of Shtyllë, Librazhd on 9 January 2017.WEB, PERGATITJA E PROFILIT KOMBETAR SHQIPETAR PER TE VLERESUAR STRUKTUREN KOMBETARE NE MENAXHIMIN E KIMIKATEVE DHE ZBATIMIN E UDHEZIMEVE TE SAICM,weblink WEB, Moti, regjistrohet temperatura rekord në Shqipëri, - 29 gradë në Librazhd,weblink File:Maja e Thatë (2406 m) in the Albanian Alps.jpg|thumb|left|The Albanian Alps in the north enjoy a subarctic climatesubarctic climateRainfall varies from season to season and from year to year. The country receives most of precipitation in winter months and less in summer months. The average precipitation is about {{convert|1485|mm|in|abbr=off}}. The mean annual precipitation ranges between {{convert|600|mm|in|abbr=off}} and {{convert|3000|mm|in|abbr=off}} depending on geographical location. The northwestern and southeastern highlands receive the higher amount of precipitation, whilst the northeastern and southwestern highlands as well as the western lowlands the smaller amount.WEB, Alban Kuriqi, Climate and climate change data for Albania,weblink drinkadria.fgg.uni-lj.si, Tirana, 3–5, English, The Albanian Alps in the far north of the country are considered to be among the wettest regions of Europe, receiving at least {{convert|3100|mm|1|abbr=on}} of rain annually. An expedition from the University of Colorado discovered four glaciers within these mountains at a relatively low altitude of {{convert|2000|m|ft}}, which is almost unique for such a southerly latitude.JOURNAL,weblink Twenty-first Century Glaciers and Climate in the Prokletije Mountains, Albania Journal Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research Publisher Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado ISSN 1523-0430 (Print) 1938–4246 (Online) Issue Volume 41, Number 4 / November 2009 DOI 10.1657/1938-4246-41.4.455 Pages 455–459 Online Date: 30 November 2009, Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 41, 4, 455–459, 30 November 2009, 27 August 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130807110936weblink">weblink 7 August 2013, dmy-all, 10.1657/1938-4246-41.4.455, Hughes, Philip D., Snowfall occurs regularly in winter in the highlands of the country, particularly on the mountains in the north and east, including the Albanian Alps and Korab Mountains. Snow also falls on the coastal areas in the southwest almost every winter such as in the Ceraunian Mountains, where it can lie even beyond March.{{Clear}}

Biodiversity

{{See also|List of ecoregions in Albania|Protected areas of Albania|l1=Ecoregions}}File:Golden_eagle_(13434882845).jpg|thumb|right|The golden eaglegolden eagleA biodiversity hotspot, Albania possesses an exceptionally rich and contrasting biodiversity thanks to its geographical location at the center of the Mediterranean Sea and the great diversity in its climatic, geological and hydrological conditions.WEB, Mediterranean Basin Biodiversity Hotspot,weblink cepf.net, 1–339, English, July 2017, WEB, BIODIVERSITY IN ALBANIA REPORT ON NATIONAL SITUATION OF BIODIVERSITY IN ALBANIA,weblink macfungi.webs.com, 2, English, Its biodiversity is conserved in 14 national parks, 1 marine park, 4 ramsar sites, 1 biosphere reserve and 786 protected areas of different categories.WEB, Albania's Biodiversity and Protected Areas An Executive Summary,weblink al.undp.org, English, Due to remoteness, the mountains and hills are endowed with forests, trees and grasses that are essential to the lives for a wide variety of animals among other for two of the most iconic endangered species of the country, the lynx and brown bear, as well as the wildcat, gray wolf, red fox, golden jackal and last but not least for the egyptian vulture and golden eagle, the national animal of the country.WEB, Ministry of Tourism and Environment (Albania), Ministry of Tourism and Environment, FIFTH NATIONAL REPORT OF ALBANIA TO THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY (CBD),weblink cbd.int, 4, English, WEB, UNECE, Albania Environmental Performance Reviews,weblink unece.org, 141, English, WEB, On the status and distribution of the large carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora) in Albania,weblink catsg.org, Tirana, 4, English, WEB, Die potentielle Verbreitung der Wildkatze (Felis silvestris silvestris) in Österreich als Entscheidungsgrundlage für weitere Schutzmaßnahmen,weblink wildkatze-in-oesterreich.at, Salzburg, 19, German, The estuaries, wetlands and lakes are particularly important for the greater flamingo, pygmy cormorant and the extremely rare and perhaps the most iconic bird of the country, the dalmatian pelican.WEB, Protection and Preservation of Natural Environment in Albania, Albanian Nature,weblink ppnea.org, English, 4 January 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180831152920weblink">weblink 31 August 2018, yes, dmy-all, Of particular importance are the mediterranean monk seal, loggerhead sea turtle and green sea turtle that use to nest on the country's coastal waters and shores.File:Gjiri_Skaloma_Beget._Karaburun.jpg|thumb|left|The Karaburun-Sazan Marine Park has a coastline on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea.]]In terms of phytogeography, Albania is part of the Boreal Kingdom and stretches specifically within the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal and Mediterranean Region. Its territory can be conventionally subdivided into four terrestrial ecoregions of the Palearctic ecozone inclusively the Illyrian deciduous forests, Balkan mixed forests, Pindus Mountains mixed forests and Dinaric Mountains mixed forests.WEB, NaturAL, Albania towards NATURA 2000,weblink natura.al, Tirana, 1, English, WEB, The National Parks Of Albania The fifteen national parks in Albania encompass an area of 210,668.48 hectares which accounts for about 3.65% of the overall territory of the country.,weblink worldatlas.com, English, The territory of Albania can be divided into four ecoregions: Dinaric Alpine (mixed forests in the far north). Balcanic (mixed forest in the north-east). Pindus mountain (mixed forests covering the central and southeast mountains). Illyrian deciduous (forest covering the rest of the country)., Approximately 3,500 different species of plants can be found in Albania which refer mostly to a Mediterranean and Eurasian character. The country has a rich tradition of herbal and medicinal practices. At least 300 plants growing locally are used in the preparation of herbs and medicines.WEB, Ministry of Environment (Albania), Ministry of Environment, GAP ANALYSIS FOR NATURE PROTECTION LEGAL ACTS ON WILD FAUNA CONSERVATION AND HUNTING (Albania),weblink al.undp.org, 86–99, English, 4 January 2019,weblink 14 October 2018, yes, dmy-all, The trees within the forests are mostly made up of fir, oak, beech and pine.In the 2010 Environmental Performance Index, Albania was ranked 23rd out of 163 countries in the world.WEB, University of Yale, 2010 Environmental Performance Index,weblink epi.yale.edu, 4, English, {{Dead link|date=January 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} In 2012, the country advanced from 23rd to 15th, whereas it had the highest ranking in South and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.WEB, Yale University, University of Yale, 2012 Environmental Performance Index,weblink wbc-rti.info, 11, English, The country was the 24th greenest country in the world according to the 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index.WEB, 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index,weblink earth.columbia.edu, 3, English, Nevertheless, for 2016, the country was ranked the 13th best performing country on the Happy Planet Index by the United Nations.WEB, Happy Planet Index Score,weblink happyplanetindex.org, English, {{Clear}}

Administrative divisions

The sovereign state of Albania is a unitary state defined in a total area of {{convert|28748|km2|0|abbr=off}}. It is apportioned into 12 counties each with their own council and administration.WEB, Government of Albania, REFORMA ADMINISTRATIVO-TERRITORIALE,weblink parlament.al, 8, Albanian, The counties are the country's primary administrative divisions and further subdivided into 61 municipalities.WEB, Fletorja Zyrtare e Republikës së Shqipërisë, STRATEGJIA NDËRSEKTORIALE PËR DECENTRALIZIMIN DHE QEVERISJEN VENDORE 2015–2020,weblink qbz.gov.al, 9, Albanian, They are responsible for geographical, economic, social and cultural purposes inside the counties.The counties were created on 31 July 2000 to replace the 36 former districts.WEB, A Brief History of the Administrative-territorial Organization in Albania,weblink reformaterritoriale.al, English, A Brief History of the Administrative-territorial Organization in Albania {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150524170836weblink |date=24 May 2015 }} The government introduced the new administrative divisions to be implemented in 2015, whereby municipalities were reduced to 61, while the rurals were abolished. The defunct municipalities are known as neighborhoods or villages.WEB,weblink Ndarja administrative, njësitë vendore në lagje dhe fshatra, 7 December 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170925225940weblink">weblink 25 September 2017, yes, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Ndarja e re, mbeten 28 bashki, shkrihen komunat – Shekulli Online, Shekulli.com.al, 23 July 2016, yes,weblink" title="archive.today/20140113102623weblink">weblink 13 January 2014, dmy-all, There are overall 2980 villages or communities in the entire country, formerly known as localities. The municipalities are the first level of local governance, responsible for local needs and law enforcement.WEB,weblink On the Organization and Functioning of the Local Government, Republic of Albania, 2000, 27 August 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100215175046weblink">weblink 15 February 2010, yes, dmy, WEB,weblink Ndarja e re, mbeten 28 bashki, shkrihen komunat | Shekulli Online, Shekulli.com.al, 10 January 2014, 15 February 2014, yes,weblink" title="archive.today/20140113102623weblink">weblink 13 January 2014, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Reforma Territoriale – KRYESORE, Reformaterritoriale.al, 15 August 2014, The largest county in Albania, by population, is Tirana County with over 800,000 people followed by Fier County with over 300,000 people. The smallest county, by population, is Gjirokastër County with over 70,000 people. The largest in the county, by area, is Korçë County encompassing {{convert|3711|km²|sqmi}} of the southeast of Albania followed by Shkodër County with {{convert|3562|km²|sqmi}} in the northwest of Albania. The smallest county, by area, is Durrës County with an area of {{convert|766|km²|sqmi}} in the west of Albania.{| style="margin:auto;" cellpadding="10"146px|right){{div col|colwidth=18em}}
  1. {{colorbox|FA3F50}} Shkodër
  2. {{colorbox|FFE04E}} Kukës
  3. {{colorbox|64C668}} Lezhë
  4. {{colorbox|82498D}} Dibër
  5. {{colorbox|00B4E8}} Durrës
  6. {{colorbox|FF8200}} Tiranë
  7. {{colorbox|008C7C}} Elbasan
  8. {{colorbox|937963}} Korçë
  9. {{colorbox|D2007D}} Fier
  10. {{colorbox|4571D6}} Berat
  11. {{colorbox|B06F29}} Vlorë
  12. {{colorbox|ACBF29}} Gjirokastër
{{div col end}}{{Clear}}

Politics

Government

File:Tirana, consiglio dei ministri, 02.JPG|thumb|right|Kryeministria, the official workplace of the Prime Minister of Albania located in TiranaTiranaAlbania is a parliamentary constitutional republic and sovereign state whose politics operate under a framework laid out in the constitution wherein the president functions as the head of state and the prime minister as the head of government.WEB, OSCE, 1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA,weblink osce.org, 1–3, English, PDF, The sovereignty is vested in the Albanian people and exercised by the Albanian people through their representatives or directly.The government is based on the separation and balancing of powers among the legislative, judiciary and executive. The legislative power is held by the parliament and is elected every four years by a system of party-list proportional representation by the Albanian people on the basis of free, equal, universal and periodic suffrage by secret ballot.
The civil law, codified and based on the Napoleonic Code, is divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts. The judicial power is vested in the supreme court, constitutional court, appeal court and administrative court.WEB, LAW Nr. 8436, dated 28 December 1998 ON THE ORGANIZATION OF THE JUDICIAL POWER IN THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA,weblink osce.org, 1–12, English, PDF, Law enforcement in the country is primarily the responsibility of the Albanian Police, the main and largest state law enforcement agency. It carries out nearly all general police duties including criminal investigation, patrol activity, traffic policing and border control.The executive power is exercised by the president and prime minister whereby the power of the president is very limited. The president is the commander-in-chief of the military and the representative of the unity of the Albanian people.WEB, OSCE, 1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA,weblink osce.org, 17–19, English, PDF, The tenure of the president depends on the confidence of the parliament and is elected for a five-year term by the parliament by a majority of three-fifths of all its members. The prime minister, appointed by the president and approved by the parliament, is authorized to constitute the cabinet. The cabinet is composed primarily of the prime minister inclusively its deputies and ministers.WEB, OSCE, 1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA,weblink osce.org, 19–21, English, PDF,

Foreign relations

File:Artigianato Arberesh.jpg|thumb|right|Assisted by the governments of Kosovo and Albania, an official application for the inclusion of the Arbëreshës in the list of UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage is being prepared.WEB, Arbëreshët kërkojnë ndihmë nga Tirana (Video),weblink telegrafi.com, 4 April 2017, Albanian, ]]In the time since the end of communism and isolationism, Albania has extended its responsibilities and position in continental and international affairs, developing and establishing friendly relations with other countries around the world. Its main objectives are the accession into the European Union, the international recognition of Kosovo and the expulsion of Cham Albanians as well as helping and protecting the rights of the Albanians in Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Greece, Serbia, Italy and Diaspora.Konferencë për shtyp e Ministrit të Punëve të Jashtme z. Panariti lidhur me vizitën e fundit në Greqi, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Albania, 2012-10-06 (in Albanian)The admission of Albania into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was considered by Albanian politicians as a primary ambition for the country. The country has been extensively engaged with the organization and has maintained its position as a stability factor and a strong ally of the United States and European Union in the troubled and divided region of the Balkans.Albania and Kosovo are culturally, socially and economically very closely rooted due to the Albanian majority population in Kosovo. In 1998, the country contributed in supporting allied efforts to end the humanitarian tragedy in Kosovo and secure the peace after the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia.Albania enjoys friendly and close ties with the United States ever after it supported the country's independence and its democracy.WEB, U.S. Relations With Albania,weblink state.gov, English, In present day, the two countries have maintained close economic and defense relations and have signed a number of agreements and treaties. In 2007, Albania welcomed George W. Bush who became the first President of the United States ever to visit the country.Albania has been an active member of the United Nations since 1955. They country took on membership for the United Nations Economic and Social Council from 2005 to 2007 as well as in 2012.WEB, Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs (Albania), Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Albania and the United Nations 60 Years of Partnership,weblink punetejashtme.gov.al, 9, English, It served as vice president of the ECOSOC in 2006 and 2013. In 2014, it also joined the United Nations Human Rights Council from 2015 to 2017 and was elected vice president in 2015.WEB, Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs (Albania), Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Albania and the United Nations 60 Years of Partnership,weblink punetejashtme.gov.al, 13, English, Albania is a full member of numerous international organizations inclusively the Council of Europe, International Organization for Migration, World Health Organization, Union for the Mediterranean, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization and La Francophonie.

Military

File:Albanian special operations forces, provide security as Afghan Border Police (ABP) break ground on a new checkpoint in the district of Spin Boldak, Kandahar province, Afghanistan, March 25, 2013 130325-A-MX357-127.jpg|thumb|right|Albanian soldiers in the Province of Kandahar, AfghanistanAfghanistanThe Albanian Armed Forces consist of Land, Air and Naval Forces and constitute the military and paramilitary forces of the country. They are led by a commander-in-chief under the supervision of the Ministry of Defense and by the President as the supreme commander during wartime however, in times of peace its powers are executed through the Prime Minister and the Defence Minister.CONSTITUTION, 169, 1, Albania, 28 November 1998,weblink 6 July 2016, The chief purpose of the armed forces of Albania is the defence of the independence, the sovereignty and the territorial integrity of the country, as well as the participation in humanitarian, combat, non-combat and peace support operations. Military service is voluntary since 2010 with the age of 19 being the legal minimum age for the duty.WEB, Albania to end conscription by 2010,weblink wri-irg.org, English, 22 August 2008, WEB, Albania Military 2017,weblink theodora.com, Albania has committed to increase the participations in multinational operations.WEB, Ministry of Defence (Albania), Ministry of Defence, Engagement Policy and evidence of AAF participation in PK missions,weblink mod.gov.al, English, Since the fall of communism, the country has participated in six international missions but participated in only one United Nations mission in Georgia sending of 3 military observers. Since February 2008, Albania has participated officially in NATO's Operation Active Endeavor in the Mediterranean Sea.sues/active_endeavour/index.html Operation Active Endeavour. nato.int {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110830210539weblink |date=30 August 2011 }} It was invited to join NATO on 3 April 2008, and it became a full member on 2 April 2009.WEB, Albania membership Nato, NATO,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110728003727weblink">weblink 28 July 2011, Albania reduced the number of active troops from 65,000 in 1988 to 14,500 in 2009.NEWS,weblink BBC News, Albania sells off its military hardware, 17 April 2002, WEB,weblink Albania to abolish conscription by 2010, SETimes.com, 21 August 2008, 29 December 2009, The military now consists mainly of a small fleet of aircraft and sea vessels. In the 1990s, the country scrapped enormous amounts of obsolete hardware from China, such as tanks and SAM systems. Increasing the military budget was one of the most important conditions for NATO integration. Military spending has generally been low. As of 1996 military spending was an estimated 1.5% of the country's GDP, only to peak in 2009 at 2% and fall again to 1.5%.WEB, Albanian military expenditure as % of GDP,weblink World Bank,

Economy

File:Toptani Shopping Mall Tirana 2016.jpg|thumb|right|TiranaTiranaThe transition from a socialist planned economy to a capitalist mixed economy in Albania has been largely successful.WEB,weblink Albania, World Diplomacy, 1 August 2014, The country has a developing mixed economy classified by the World Bank as an upper-middle income economy. In 2016, it had the 4th lowest unemployment rate in the Balkans with an estimated value of 14.7%. Its largest trading partners are Italy, Greece, China, Spain, Kosovo and the United States. The lek (ALL) is the country's currency and is pegged at approximately 132,51 lek per euro.The cities of Tirana and Durrës constitute the economic and financial heart of Albania due to their high population, modern infrastructure and strategic geographical location. The country's most important infrastructure facilities take course through both of the cities, connecting the north to the south as well as the west to the east. Among the largest companies are the petroleum Taçi Oil, Albpetrol, ARMO and Kastrati, the mineral AlbChrome, the cement Antea, the investment BALFIN Group and the technology Albtelecom, Vodafone, Telekom Albania and others.In 2012, Albania's GDP per capita stood at 30% of the European Union average, while GDP (PPP) per capita was 35%.WEB,weblink GDP per capita in purchasing power standards in 2012, Eurostat, 14 December 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131227203914weblink">weblink 27 December 2013, yes, dmy-all, Albania were one of three countries in Europe to record an economic growth in the first quarter of 2010 after the global financial crisis.Business: Albania, Cyprus register economic growth SEtimes.comStrong economic growth potential puts Albania and Panama top of long term investment list, Propertywire.com {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090414045328weblink |date=14 April 2009 }} The International Monetary Fund predicted 2.6% growth for Albania in 2010 and 3.2% in 2011.International Monetary Fund (IMF), 9 October 2010. Albania and the IMF According to the Forbes {{as of|2016|December|lc=y}}, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was growing at 2.8%. The country had a trade balance of −9.7% and unemployment rate of 14.7%.WEB,weblink Instituti i Statistikave, Instituti i Statistikave – Tiranë, 2016-05-06,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161220203637weblink">weblink 20 December 2016, yes, dmy-all, The Foreign direct investment has increased significantly in recent years as the government has embarked on an ambitious program to improve the business climate through fiscal and legislative reforms. The economy is expected to expand in the near term, driven by a recovery in consumption and robust investments. Growth is projected to be 3.2% in 2016, 3.5% in 2017, and 3.8% in 2018.

Primary sector

File:Berat_kale_-_panoramio.jpg|thumb|right|Grapes in Berat. Due to the mediterranean climate, wine, olives and citrus fruitcitrus fruitAgriculture in the country is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units. It remains a significant sector of the economy of Albania. It employs 41%WEB, Albanian employment rate increases in agriculture, services sector in Q1 2016,weblink fdi.gov.cn, 15 June 2016, English, of the population, and about 24.31% of the land is used for agricultural purposes. One of the earliest farming sites in Europe has been found in the southeast of the country.WEB,weblink UC Research Reveals One of the Earliest Farming Sites in Europe, University of Cincinnati, 2012-04-16, 2016-06-17, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150910103042weblink">weblink 10 September 2015, As part of the pre-accession process of Albania to the European Union, farmers are being aided through IPA funds to improve Albanian agriculture standards.WEB,weblink IPA National Programme 2011 for Albania Project Fiche 7: Support to Agriculture and Rural Development, ec.europa.eu, Albania produces significant amounts of fruits (apples, olives, grapes, oranges, lemons, apricots, peaches, cherries, figs, sour cherries, plums, and strawberries), vegetables (potatoes, tomatoes, maize, onions, and wheat), sugar beets, tobacco, meat, honey, dairy products, traditional medicine and aromatic plants. Further, the country is a worldwide significant producer of salvia, rosemary and yellow gentian.WEB, Dhimitër Doka, Albaniens vergessener Exportschlager,weblink humboldt-foundation.de, 10 May 2016, German, The country's proximity to the Ionian Sea and the Adriatic Sea give the underdeveloped fishing industry great potential. The World Bank and European Community economists report that, Albania's fishing industry has good potential to generate export earnings because prices in the nearby Greek and Italian markets are many times higher than those in the Albanian market. The fish available off the coasts of the country are carp, trout, sea bream, mussels and crustaceans.Albania has one of Europe's longest histories of viticulture.winealbania.com {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110208101841weblink |date=8 February 2011 }} Wine Albania Portal The today's region was one of the few places where vine was naturally grown during the ice age. The oldest found seeds in the region are 4,000 to 6,000 years old.BOOK, Tom Stevenson, The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia,weblink 2011, Dorling Kindersley, 978-1-4053-5979-5, In 2009, the nation produced an estimated 17,500 tonnes of wine.WEB,weblink Wine production (tons), Food and Agriculture Organization, 28, 2011-04-18,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110520105103weblink">weblink 20 May 2011, yes, During the communist era, the production area expanded to some {{convert|20000|ha}}.name="winealbania1"winealbania.com {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110208101841weblink |date=8 February 2011 }} Wine Albania Portal

Secondary sector

{{See also|Category:Mines in Albania}}File:Something in Albania (10759257413).jpg|thumb|right|The Antea factory in Fushë-KrujëFushë-KrujëThe secondary sector of Albania have undergone many changes and diversification, since the collapse of the communist regime in the country. It is very diversified, from electronics, manufacturing,WEB, Manufacturing & garment industry,weblink 1 June 2014, textiles, to food, cement, mining,WEB, Mining sector,weblink 1 June 2014, and energy. The Antea Cement plant in Fushë-Krujë is considered as one of the largest industrial greenfield investments in the country.WEB, ANTEA, the company with the highest working standards,weblink anteacement.com, English, Albanian oil and gas is represents of the most promising albeit strictly regulated sectors of its economy. Albania has the second largest oil deposits in the Balkan peninsula after Romania, and the largest oil reservesNEWS,weblink Reuters, UPDATE 1-Bankers Petroleum's key Albanian oilfield output jumps in Q1, 2011-04-07, in Europe. The Albpetrol company is owned by the Albanian state and monitors the state petroleum agreements in the country. The textile industry has seen an extensive expansion by approaching companies from the European Union (EU) in Albania. According to the Institute of Statistics (INSTAT) {{As of|2016|lc=y}}, the textile production marked an annual growth of 5.3% and an annual turnover of around 1.5 billion euros.WEB, Textile industry in Albania is unprepared for a potential influx of import orders,weblink balkaneu.com, English, 24 August 2014, Albania is a significant minerals producer and is ranked among the world's leading chromium producers and exporters.BOOK, Europe Review 2003/04: The Economic and Business Report, 3–7,weblink English, 9780749440671, 2003, The nation is also a notable producer of copper, nickel and coal.WEB, Albania – Mining and Minerals,weblink English, 15 August 2016, The Batra mine, Bulqizë mine, and Thekna mine are among the most recognised Albanian mines that are still in operation.

Tertiary sector

{{See also|Banking in Albania|Telecommunications in Albania|Tourism in Albania|l1=Banking|l2=Telecommunications}}File:Ksamil Albania . Albanian Riviera.jpg|thumb|right|The Islands of Ksamil in the south of the Albanian Ionian Sea CoastAlbanian Ionian Sea CoastThe tertiary sector represents the fastest growing sector of the country's economy. 36% of the population work in the service sector which contributes to 65% of the country's GDP.WEB, Oltiana Muharremi, Filloreta Madani, Erald Pelari, The Development of the Service Sector in Albania and Its Future,weblink researchgate.net, 2–9, English, PDF, Ever since the end of the 20th century, the banking industry is a major component of the tertiary sector and remains in good conditions overall due to privatization and the commendable monetary policy.WEB, Analysis of the Albanian Banking System in the Transition Years,weblink ijbcnet.com, English, Previously one of the most isolated and controlled countries in the world, telecommunication industry represents nowadays another major contributor to the sector. It developed largely through privatization and subsequent investment by both domestic and foreign investors. Eagle, Vodafone and Telekom Albania are the leading telecommunications service providers in the country.Tourism is recognised as an industry of national importance and has been steadily increasing since the beginnings of the 21st century.WEB, TOURISM AND EMPLOYMENT IN ALBANIA – IS THERE A STRONG CORRELATION?,weblink asecu.gr, 1–9, English, WEB, Eglantina Hysa - Epoka University, INFLUENCE OF TOURISM SECTOR IN ALBANIAN GDP: ESTIMATION USING MULTIPLE REGRESSION METHOD,weblink researchgate.net, Tirana, 1–6, English, PDF, It directly accounted for 8.4% of GDP in 2016 though including indirect contributions pushes the proportion to 26%.WEB, World Travel & Tourism Council, Travel & Tourism: Economic Impact 2017: Albania,weblink wttc.org, London, 12, English, {{dead link|date=November 2017}} In the same year, the country received approximately 4.74 million visitors mostly from across Europe and the United States as well.WEB, Arrivals of foreign citizens by Lëvizjet e shtetasve shqiptarë dhe të huaj and Month,weblink databaza.instat.gov.al, English, {{dead link|date=November 2017}}File:Lake Koman Albania 2016.jpg|thumb|left|The narrow gorges and high rocks of Lake of Koman, within the Albanian Alps, remind sometimes of the Scandinavian fjordfjordThe increase of foreign visitors has been dramatic. Albania had only 500,000 visitors in 2005, while in 2012 had an estimated 4.2 million, an increase of 740 percent in only 7 years. In 2015, tourism in summer increased by 25 percent in contrast the previous year according to the country's tourism agency.WEB,weblinkauthor= website=Travel Gazette access-date=9 February 2017, {{dead linkLonely Planet named as a top travel destination,HTTP://WWW.LONELYPLANET.COM/…/TRAVEL-TIPS-AND-ARTICLES/76164 ACCESSDATE=7 AUGUST 2013 date=November 2017The New York Times placed Albania as number 4 global touristic destination in 2014.HTTPS://WWW.NYTIMES.COM/…/01/10/TRA…/2014-PLACES-TO-GO.HTML…WORK=THE NEW YORK TIMESdate=November 2017}}The bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic and Ionian Sea in the west of the country. However, the Albanian Riviera in the southwest has the most scenic and pristine beaches, and is often called the pearl of the Albanian coast. Its coastline has a considerable length of {{convert|446|km|abbr=off}}.BOOK, Sustainable Development of Sea-Corridors and Coastal Waters: The TEN ECOPORT project in South East Europe, Springer, 9783319113852, 85, Chrysostomos Stylios, Tania Floqi, Jordan Marinski, Leonardo Damiani, 2015-04-07, The coast has a particular character because it is rich in varieties of virgin beaches, capes, coves, covered bays, lagoons, small gravel beaches, sea caves and many landforms. Some parts of this seaside are very clean ecologically, which represent in this prospective unexplored areas, which are very rare within the Mediterranean.WEB,weblink Coastline | Visit Albania | The Official website of Albanian Tourism, Albania.al, 15 August 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140809003858weblink">weblink 9 August 2014, yes, dmy-all, Other attractions include the mountainous areas such as the Albanian Alps, Ceraunian Mountains and Korab Mountains but also the historical cities of Berat, Durrës, Gjirokastër, Sarandë, Shkodër and Korçë.{{Clear}}

Transport

File:Mali i Gjallices nga Kalimashi.jpg|thumb|right|The A1 connects the Adriatic Sea in the southwest with the Albanian AlpsAlbanian AlpsTransportation in Albania has undergone significant changes and improvements in the past two decades. Improvements to the public transport, road and rail infrastructure, water and air travel have all led to a vast improvement in transportation.The international airport of Tirana serves as the premier gateway to the country and carries almost 2.5 million passengers per year with connections to many destinations in different countries around Europe.WEB, Institute of Statistics (Albania), Institute of Statistics of Albania (INSTAT), Statistikat e transportit Dhjetor 2017,weblink instat.gov.al, Tirana, 2, English, WEB, Institute of Statistics (Albania), Institute of Statistics of Albania (INSTAT), Statistikat e transportit Gusht, 2018,weblink instat.gov.al, Tirana, 2, Albanian, The country plans to increase the number of airports especially in the south with possible locations in Sarandë, Gjirokastër and Vlorë.WEB, Tirana Times, Turkish consortium bids to build Vlora airport as Albania prepares to launch national carrier,weblink tiranatimes.com, English, 17 January 2018, File:Terminal jashte.jpg|thumb|left|Tirana International Airport is named in honour of the Albanian nun and missionary Mother TeresaMother TeresaThe roads of Albania are well maintained and still under construction. The A1 is the longest motorway of the country and represents a major transportation corridor in Albania. It will prospectively link Durrës on the Adriatic Sea across Pristina in Kosovo with the Pan-European Corridor X in Serbia.WEB, South East Europe Transport Observatory (SEETO), THE CORE TRANSPORT NETWORK South-East Europe Transport Observatory SEETO,weblink ec.europa.eu, 2, English, WEB, Serbia and Kosovo Only Beginning to Form Infrastructural Links: Peace Highway to Connect the Region,weblink kossev.info, English, 15 April 2018, The A2 is part of the Adriatic–Ionian Corridor as well as the Pan-European Corridor VIII and connects Fier with Vlorë. The A3 is currently under construction and will connect, after its completion, Tirana and Elbasan with the Pan-European Corridor VIII. When all three corridors are completed, Albania will have an estimated {{convert|759|km}} of highway linking it with all of its neighboring countries.
File:Panorama of Durres Port.jpg|thumb|right|The highly advantageous location of Durrës makes its port the busiest in Albania and among the largest in the Adriatic SeaAdriatic SeaDurrës is the busiest and largest seaport in the country followed by Vlorë, Shëngjin and Sarandë. {{as of|2014}}, it is as one of the largest passenger ports on the Adriatic Sea with annual passenger volume of approximately 1.5 million. The ports serve a system of ferries connecting numerous islands and coastal cities in Croatia, Greece and Italy.The rail network is administered by the national railway company Hekurudha Shqiptare which was extensively promoted by the dictator Enver Hoxha. There has been a considerable increase in car ownership and bus usage while rail use decreased since the end of communism. However a new railway line from Tirana and its airport to Durrës is currently planned. The location of this railway, connecting the most populated urban areas in Albania, makes it an important economic development project.WEB, Rabeta, Lorenc, Trenat e rinj Tiranë-Durrës-Rinas me 222 pasagjerë, 112 të ulur,weblink dailynews.al, 12 January 2017, WEB, Hekurudha Tiranë-Rinas-Durrës, Haxhinasto: Projekti përfundon në 2019,weblink top-channel.tv, Albanian, 25 June 2016, 4 January 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170928055749weblink">weblink 28 September 2017, yes, dmy-all,

Infrastructure

Education

File:Akademia_e_arteve_Ergys_Veliu_Photography.jpg|thumb|right|The University of Arts is the largest higher education institute dedicated to the study of artsarts
In the country, education is secular, free, compulsory and based on three levels of education which is segmented in primary, secondary and tertiary education.WEB, LANGUAGE EDUCATION POLICY PROFILE: ALBANIA Country Report,weblink rm.coe.int, Tirana, English, PDF, October 2016, WEB, The Albanian education system described and compared with the Dutch system,weblink epnuffic.nl, English, 1 January 2015, The academic year is apportioned into two semesters beginning in September or October and ending in June or July. The use of the Albanian language serves as the primary language of instruction in all educational institutions across the country.Compulsory primary education is divided into two levels, elementary and secondary school, from grade one to five and six to nine, respectively. Pupils are required to attend school from the age of six until they turn 16. Upon successful completion of primary education, all pupils are entitled to attend high schools with specializing in any particular field including arts, sports, languages, sciences or technology.The country's tertiary education, an optional stage of formal learning following secondary education, has undergone a thorough reformation and restructuring in compliance with the principles of the Bologna Process. There is a significant number of private and public institutions of higher education well dispersed in the major cities of Albania.WEB, Overview of the Higher Education System Albania,weblink eacea.ec.europa.eu, 12–16, English, February 2017, Studies in tertiary education are organized at three successive levels which include bachelor, master and doctorate.The study of a first foreign language is mandatory and are taught most often at elementary and bilingual schools.WEB, Language Education Policy Profile 2015 – 2017 ALBANIA,weblink rm.coe.int, Tirana, 13–18, English, PDF, The languages which are taught in schools are English, Italian, French and German. The country has a school life expectancy of 16 years and a literacy rate of 98.7%, with 99.2% for males and 98.3% for females.WEB, SCHOOL LIFE EXPECTANCY,weblink world.bymap.org, English, 31 January 2017, {{Clear}}

Energy

File:Lake_komani_2016_Albania.jpg|thumb|right|Lake Koman was formed as a result of the construction of the Koman Hydroelectric Power StationKoman Hydroelectric Power StationAlbania is mostly dependent on hydroelectricity.WEB, Electricity production from hydroelectric sources (% of total),weblink Almost 94.8% of the country's electricity consumption comes from hydroelectrical stations and ranks 7th in the world by percentage.WEB, The World Factbook, Albania,weblink cia.gov, 1, English, WEB, Ministry of Infrastructure and Energy (Albania), Ministry of Infrastructure and Energy of Albania, Albania Renewable Energy Progress Reports 2014–2015,weblink energy-community.org, 2, English, There are six hydroelectric power stations, including Fierza, Koman, Skavica and Vau i Dejës situated within the Drin River. Further, there are two stations under construction, namely Banjë and Moglicë located in the Devoll River. Both are expected to be completed between 2016 and 2018.Albania has considerably large deposits of oil. It has the 10th largest oil reserves in europe and the 58th in the world.WEB, Energy Information Administration, Crude Oil Proved Reserves 2016,weblink eia.gov, 1, English, 3 September 2016, The country's main petroleum deposits are located around the Albanian Adriatic Sea Coast and Myzeqe Plain within the Western Lowlands, where the country's largest reserve is located. Although, Patos-Marinza, also located within the area, is the largest onshore oil field in Europe.WEB, Dr. Lorenc Gordani, Albania, from the largest continental onshore oil reserves in Europe, to the new bridge between the Balkans and Italy, by Dr Lorenc Gordani,weblink esc.albaniaenergy.org, 1, English, 21 June 2017, {{Dead link|date=January 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}In 2015, {{convert|498|km}} of natural gas pipelines and {{convert|249|km}} of oil pipelines spanned the country's territory. The planned Trans Adriatic Pipeline, a major trans Adriatic Sea gas pipeline, will delivers natural gas from Azerbaijan to Albania and Western Europe through Italy and will be completed in 2020.WEB, Trans Adriatic Pipeline,weblink tap-ag.com, Tirana, 8, English, Further, Albania and Croatia have discussed the possibility of jointly building a nuclear power plant at Lake Shkodër, close to the border with Montenegro, a plan that has gathered criticism from Montenegro due to seismicity in the area.WEB,weblink Albania, Croatia plan nuclear power plant, Balkaninsight.com, 27 August 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100328065915weblink">weblink 28 March 2010, In 2009, the company Enel announced plans to build an 800 MW coal-fired power plant in the country, to diversify electricity sources.Enel Albanian Joint Venture Introduces Coal In Albania's Power Mix, Business Monitor Online, 24 February 2009 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120219093411weblink |date=19 February 2012 }}{{Clear}}

Technology and media

File:Skeda-Ahmet-Zogu.jpg|thumb|In 1938, King Zog and Queen Geraldine launched Radio Televizioni Shqiptar.]]With the political and economic changings in 1993, human resources in sciences and technology have drastically decreased. As of various reports, during 1991 to 2005 approximately 50% of the professors and scientists of the universities and science institutions in the country have left Albania.WEB,weblink Research for Development, DFID, 13 September 2014, In 2009, the government approved the National Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation in Albania covering the period 2009 to 2015.WEB,weblink Strategy of Science, Technology and Innovation 2009–2015, 27 August 2010, It aims to triple public spending on research and development to 0.6% of GDP and augment the share of GDE from foreign sources, including the framework programmes for research of the European Union, to the point where it covers 40% of research spending, among others.Albania has an estimated 257 media outlets, including 66 radio stations and 67 television stations, with 65 national and more than 50 cable television stations. Radio began officially in 1938 with the founding of Radio Televizioni Shqiptar, while television broadcasting began in 1960. 4 regional radio stations serve in the four extremities of the country. The international service broadcasts radio programmes in Albanian including seven other languages through medium wave and short wave, using the theme from the song "Keputa një gjethe dafine" as its signature tune.WEB,weblink Radio Tirana's Broadcasting Schedule  â€“ RadioTirana.org, Picasaweb.google.es, 25 October 2008, 5 May 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091117115205weblink">weblink 17 November 2009, dmy-all, The international television service through satellite was launched since 1993 and aims at Albanian communities in the neighboring countries and the Albanian diaspora. Nowadays, the country has organized several shows as a part of worldwide series like Dancing with the Stars, Big Brother, Got Talent, The Voice and X Factor.{{Clear}}

Health

File:Olive-oil-1412361 1920.jpg|thumb|right|The Albanian cuisine, which is characterized by the use of fruits, vegetables and olive oilolive oilThe constitution of Albania guarantees equal, free and universal health care for all its citizens.WEB, OSCE, 1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA,weblink osce.org, 10, English, PDF, The health care system of the country is currently organized in three levels, among others primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare, and is in a process of modernisation and development.WEB, Albania Demographic and Health Survey 2008-09,weblink dhsprogram.com, English, 37, March 2010, WEB,weblink Albania-prel.pmd, 29 December 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091227181701weblink">weblink 27 December 2009, no, dmy, The life expectancy at birth in Albania is at 77.8 years and ranks 37th in the world outperforming several developed countries.WEB,weblink Life Expectancy at Birth, CIA â€“ The World Factbook, The average healthy life expectancy is at 68.8 years and ranks as well 37th in the world.WEB, WHO, Healthy life expectancy at birth, 2000-2015,weblink gamapserver.who.int, English, The country's infant mortality rate is estimated at 12 per 1,000 live births in 2015. In 2000, the country had the 55th best healthcare performance in the world, as defined by the World Health Organization.JOURNAL,weblink Measuring overall health system performance for 191 countries, World Health Organization, New York University, Cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death in the country accounting 52% of total deaths.WEB, Albania Demographic and Health Survey 2008-09,weblink dhsprogram.com, English, 37, March 2010, Accidents, injuries, malignant and respiratory diseases are other major causes of death. Neuropsychiatric disease has increased also due to recent demographic, social and economic changes in the country.
In 2009, the country had a fruit and vegetable supply of 886 grams per capita per day, the fifth highest supply in Europe.WEB, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Albania,weblink euro.who.int, 3, English, In comparison to other developed and developing countries, Albania has a relatively low rate of obesity probably thanks to the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.WEB, The World Is Getting Fatter and No One Knows How to Stop It,weblink bloomberg.com, English, 6 April 2016, WEB, Living Smart, the Mediterranean Way of Being Albanian,weblink agroweb.org, English, 1 May 2017, According to World Health Organisation data from 2016, 21.7% of adults in the country are clinically obese, with a Body Mass Index (BMI) score of 25 or more.WEB, Prevalence of obesity, ages 18+, 2010–2014,weblink WHO, World Health Organisation, 26 February 2016, {{Clear}}

Demography

{{See also|Albanian people}}File:Albania_demography.svg|thumb|The Albanian population development in the last sixty years]]The population of Albania, as defined by Institute of Statistics, was estimated in 2016 to be approximately 2,886,026.WEB,weblink Population of Albania, 2017-06-02, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171015202133weblink">weblink 15 October 2017, dmy-all, The country's total fertility rate of 1.51 children born per woman is one of the lowest in the world.WEB, Albania,weblink cia.gov, English, Its population density stands at 259 inhabitants per square kilometre. The overall life expectancy at birth is 78.5 years; 75.8 years for males and 81.4 years for females. The country is the 8th most populous country in the Balkans and ranks as the 137th most populous country in the world. The population of the country rose steadily from 2,5 million in 1979 until 1989, when it peaked at 3.1 million.WEB, Institute of Statistics (Albania), Institute of Statistics of Albania, Albania Population and Population dynamics new demographic horizons?,weblink unstats.un.org, 25, English, It is forecasted that the population should not reach its peak number of 1989 until 2031, depending on the actual birth rate and the level of net migration.WEB, Institute of Statistics (Albania), Institute of Statistics of Albania, Albania Population Projections 2011–2031,weblink instat.gov.al, 37, English, The explanation for the recent population decrease is the fall of communism in Albania. It was marked by large economic mass emigration from Albania to Greece, Italy and the United States. 40 years of isolation from the world, combined with its disastrous economic, social and political situation, had caused this exodus. The external migration was prohibited outright during the communist era, while internal migration was quite limited, hence this was a new phenomenon. At least, 900,000 people left Albania during this period, about 600,000 of them settling in Greece."Albania: Looking Beyond Borders". Migration Policy Institute. The migration affected the country's internal population distribution. It decreased particularly in the north and south, while it increased in the center within the cities of Tirana and Durrës.{{Citation needed|date=March 2009}} According to the Institute of Statistics (INSTAT) {{as of|2015|January|1|lc=y}}, the population of Albania is 2,893,005.WEB, Republic of Albania Institute of Statistics, Population of Albania 1 January 2016,weblink 29 June 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170713221549weblink">weblink 13 July 2017, yes, dmy-all, About 53.4% of the country's population is living in cities. The three largest counties by population account for half of the total population. Almost 30% of the total population is found in Tirana County followed by Fier County with 11% and Durrës County with 10%.WEB, Institute of Statistics (Albania), Institute of Statistics of Albania,weblink Population of Albania 1 January 2017, instat.gov.al, Tirana, 4, English, Over 1 million people are concentrated in Tirana and Durrës, making it the largest urban area in Albania.WEB, Popullsia e Shqipërisë,weblink 19 February 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160412123357weblink">weblink 12 April 2016, dmy-all, Tirana is one of largest cities in the Balkan Peninsula and ranks 7th with a population about 800,000.WEB,weblink Population, INSTAT, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130316054551weblink">weblink 16 March 2013, dmy-all, The second largest city in the country by population is Durrës, with a population of 201.110, followed by Vlorë with a population of 141.513.{|class="infobox" style="text-align:left; width:97%; margin-right:10px; font-size:90%"!colspan="8" style="background:#e9e9e9; padding:0.3em; line-height:1.2em;"|The country's largest urban areas by population {{as of|2011|lc=y}}.WEB, INSTAT, POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS 2011,weblink instat.gov.al,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170630084756weblink">weblink 30 June 2017, Albanian, English, !rowspan=23 width:130|(File:Tirana_from_South.jpg|160px|Tirana){{small|Tirana}}(File:Amphitheatre_of_durres_albania_2016.jpg|160px|Durrës){{small|Durrës}}! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"|#! style="text-align:left; background:#f5f5f5;"|City! style="text-align:left; background:#f5f5f5;"|Population! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"|#! style="text-align:left; background:#f5f5f5;"|City! style="text-align:left; background:#f5f5f5;"|Population!rowspan=23 width:130| (File:Gjirokaster_2016-2017.jpg|160px|Gjirokastër){{small|Gjirokastër}}(File:CIty_of_Saranda_Albania_2016.jpg|160px|Sarandë){{small|Sarandë}} 1 align=leftTirana > 11 align=leftKavajë >| 20,192 2 align=leftDurrës > 12 align=leftGjirokastër >| 19,836 3 align=leftVlorë > 13 align=leftSarandë >| 17,233 4 align=leftShkodër > 14 align=leftLaç >| 17,086 5 align=leftElbasan > 15 align=leftKukës >| 16,719 6 align=leftFier > 16 align=leftPatos, Albania>Patos 15,937 7 align=leftKorçë > 17 align=leftLezhë >| 15,510 8 align=leftBerat > 18 align=leftPeshkopi >| 13,251 9 align=leftLushnjë > 19 align=leftKuçovë >| 12,654 10 align=leftPogradec > 20 align=leftKrujë >| 11,721 {{Clear}}

Minorities

Issues of ethnicity are a delicate topic and subject to debate. Contrary to official statistics that show an over 97 per cent Albanian majority in the country, minority groups (such as Greeks, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Roma and Aromanians) have frequently disputed the official numbers, asserting a higher percentage of the country's population. According to the disputed 2011 census, ethnic affiliation was as follows: Albanians 2,312,356 (82.6% of the total), Greeks 24,243 (0.9%), Macedonians 5,512 (0.2%), Montenegrins 366 (0.01%), Aromanians 8,266 (0.30%), Romani 8,301 (0.3%), Balkan Egyptians 3,368 (0.1%), other ethnicities 2,644 (0.1%), no declared ethnicity 390,938 (14.0%), and not relevant 44,144 (1.6%). On the quality of the specific data the Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities stated that "the results of the census should be viewed with the utmost caution and calls on the authorities not to rely exclusively on the data on nationality collected during the census in determining its policy on the protection of national minorities.".WEB, Third Opinion on Albania adopted on 23 November 2011,weblink Advisory Committee on the Framework for the Protection of National Minorities, 29 June 2017, Albania recognizes nine national or cultural minorities: Greek, Macedonian, Wallachian, Montenegrin, Serb, Roma, Egyptian, Bosnian and Bulgarian peoples.NEWS, staff, Albania has Recognized the Bulgarian Minority in the Country,weblink 4 December 2017, novinite.com, Sofia News Agency, 12 October 2017, Other Albanian minorities are Gorani, Aromanians and Jews.WEB, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees,weblink World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples â€“ Albania : Overview, UNHCR, 11 May 2005, 5 May 2013, Regarding the Greeks, "it is difficult to know how many Greeks there are in Albania". The estimates vary between 60,000 and 300,000 ethnic Greeks in Albania. According to Ian Jeffries, most of Western sources put the number at around 200,000. The 300,000 mark is supported by Greek government as well.BOOK, RFE/RL Research Report: Weekly Analyses from the RFE/RL Research Institute,weblink 22 December 2012, 1993, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Incorporated, Albanian officials alleged that the priest was promoting irredentist sentiments among Albania's Greek minority â€“ estimated at between 60,000 and 300,000., BOOK, Robert Bideleux, Ian Jeffries, The Balkans: A Post-Communist History,weblink 6 September 2013, 15 November 2006, Routledge, 978-0-203-96911-3, 49, The Albanian government claimed that there were only 60,000, based on the biased 1989 census, whereas the Greek government claimed that there were upwards of 300,000. Most Western estimates were around the 200,000 mark ..., BOOK, Sabrina P. Ramet, Nihil Obstat: Religion, Politics, and Social Change in East-Central Europe and Russia,weblink 6 September 2013, 1998, Duke University Press, 978-0-8223-2070-8, 222, that between 250,000 and 300,000 Orthodox Greeks reside in Albania, BOOK, Ian Jeffries, Eastern Europe at the Turn of the Twenty-first Century: A Guide to the Economies in Transition,weblink 6 September 2013, 2002, Routledge, 978-0-415-23671-3, 69, It is difficult to know how many ethnic Greeks there are in Albania. The Greek government, it is typically claimed, says that there are around 300,000 ethnic Greeks in Albania, but most Western estimates are around the 200,000 mark., BOOK, Europa Publications, The Europa World Year Book 2008,weblink 22 December 2012, 24 June 2008, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-85743-452-1,  and Greece formally annulled claims to North Epirus (southern Albania), where there is a sizeable Greek minority. ... strained by concerns relating to the treatment of ethnic Greeks residing in Albania (numbering an estimated 300,000) ..., The CIA World Factbook estimates the Greek minority at 0.9%WEB,weblink Albania, CIA, 13 September 2014, of the total population. The US State Department uses 1.17% for Greeks and 0.23% for other minorities.WEB,weblink Albania, U.S. Department of State, 13 September 2014, The latter questions the validity of the census data about the Greek minority, due to the fact that measurements have been affected by boycott.WEB, International Religious Freedom Report for 2014: Albania,weblink 5, www.state.gov, United States Department of State, 20 October 2015, Ethnic Greek minority groups had encouraged their members to boycott the census, affecting measurements of the Greek ethnic minority and membership in the Greek Orthodox Church., Macedonian and some Greek minority groups have sharply criticized Article 20 of the Census law, according to which a $1,000 fine will be imposed on anyone who will declare an ethnicity other than what is stated on his or her birth certificate. This is claimed to be an attempt to intimidate minorities into declaring Albanian ethnicity, according to them the Albanian government has stated that it will jail anyone who does not participate in the census or refuse to declare his or her ethnicity.WEB, Macedonians and Greeks Join Forces against Albanian Census,weblink balkanchronicle, 24 September 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120112095639weblink">weblink 12 January 2012, Genc Pollo, the minister in charge has declared that: "Albanian citizens will be able to freely express their ethnic and religious affiliation and mother tongue. However, they are not forced to answer these sensitive questions".NEWS, Albania passes census law,weblink MINA, The amendments criticized do not include jailing or forced declaration of ethnicity or religion; only a fine is envisioned which can be overthrown by court.WEB, Census Legislation,weblink WEB,weblink ÿþMicrosoft Word â€“ Law Nr 10442 date 07.07.2011.doc, 25 March 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130509014821weblink">weblink 9 May 2013, yes, dmy-all, Greek representatives form part of the Albanian parliament and the government has invited Albanian Greeks to register, as the only way to improve their status. On the other hand, nationalists, various organizations and political parties in Albania have expressed their concern that the census might artificially increase the numbers of the Greek minority, which might be then exploited by Greece to threaten Albania's territorial integrity.WEB, The politics of numbers and identity in Albania,weblink EUDO Observatory on Citizenship, 20 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130224021716weblink">weblink 24 February 2013, yes, dmy-all, WEB, Maria Karathanos, Constantine Callaghan, Ethnic tensions in Albania,weblink Athensnews, 7 January 2013,  in line with Albanian nationalist sentiment alleging that the census poses a threat to Albanian territorial integrity,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120208123850weblink">weblink 8 February 2012, yes, dmy-all, WEB, Likmeta, Besar, Albania Nationalist Leader Resigns from Top Justice Job,weblink Balkannsight, 7 January 2013, WEB, Census stirs Balkan melting pot, 20 October 2011,weblink  nationalist critics are up in arms at efforts to provide an accurate picture of Albania's ethnic breakdown, seeing a plot to weaken the state ... The group has denounced the ethnicity section of the national census, and Spahiu warns the results could upset Albania's "good model" of ethnic and religious tolerance ..., 18 December 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130605183435weblink">weblink 5 June 2013, yes, dmy-all, NEWS, Some Albanians consider changing nationality for profit,weblink SETimes, NEWS, Courts in Albania suspend changing nationality to Greek,weblink SETimes, NEWS, Greek Consul Statement Angers Albanian MPs,weblink BalkanInsight, {{multiple image |align=center |total_width=700 |image_style=border:none; caption1=Regions with a traditional presence of ethnic groups other than Albanian.caption2=Distribution of ethnic groups within Albania, as of the 2011 census. Districts colored gray are those where a majority of people did not declare an ethnicity (the question was optional). The census was criticized and boycotted by minorities in Albania.caption3=Traditional locations of linguistic and religious communities in Albania.}}

Language

File:Dialect_map_albania.png|left|200px|thumb|The dialects of the Albanian languageAlbanian languageAlbanian is the official language of the Republic of Albania. Its standard spoken and written form is revised and merged from the two main dialects, Gheg and Tosk, though it is notably based more on the Tosk dialect. The Shkumbin river is the rough dividing line between the two dialects. Also a dialect of Greek that preserves features now lost in standard modern Greek is spoken in areas inhabited by the Greek minority. Other languages spoken by ethnic minorities in Albania include Aromanian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Gorani, and Roma.WEB,weblink Languages of Albania, 31 October 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090123044546weblink">weblink 23 January 2009, Macedonian is official in the Pustec Municipality in East Albania. According to the 2011 population census, 2,765,610 or 98.767% of the population declared Albanian as their mother tongue (mother tongue is defined as the first or main language spoken at home during childhood).Greek is the second most-spoken language in the country, with 0.5 to 3% of the population speaking it as first language,WEB, What Languages Are Spoken In Albania?,weblink WorldAtlas, en, WEB, The Second Most Spoken Languages Around the World,weblink Kathimerini, 12 June 2017, .5% speak it as first language., WEB, The Greek language is widely spoken in Albania (H Ελληνική γλώσσα γίνεται καθομιλουμένη στην Αλβανία),weblink Kathimerini, 12 June 2017, and with two-thirds of mainly Albanian families having at least one member that speaks Greek, most having learned it in the post communist era (1992–present) due to private schools or migration to Greece. Outside of the small designated "minority area" in the south the teaching of Greek was banned during the communist era.BOOK, Bugajski, Janusz, Ethnic politics in Eastern Europe : a guide to nationality policies, organizations, and parties, 1995, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y., 9781563242823, 268, With a new postscript.,weblink "The stalinist regime of Enver Hoxha imposed a ruthless dictatorship in the country the lasted with little respite{{nbsp, ..."}} As of 2003 Greek is offered at over 100 private tutoring centers all over Albania and at a private school in Tirana, the first of its kind outside Greece. {{multiple image
|align = right
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|image1 = Pustec Multilingual Road Signs.jpg
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|footer = One road sign in Albanian and a minority language (Macedonian) and one in Albanian and a foreign language for tourists (English) in Pustec (left) Road sign in Albanian and a minority language (Greek) in Goranxi (right)}}In recent years, the shrinking number of pupils in schools dedicated to the Greek minority has caused problems for teachers.WEB, Përqëndrimi shkollave të minoritetit dhe kundërshtitë e saj,weblink DW, 2010, The Greek language is spoken by an important percentage in the southern part of the country, due to cultural and economic links with adjacent Greece.BOOK, Nitsiakos, Vasilēs G., Balkan Border Crossings: Second Annual of the Konitsa Summer School, 2011, LIT Verlag Münster, 9783643800923, 150,weblink en, in the Albanian south... The Greek language is spoken by an important percentage of the Albanians of the south., In a 2017 study carried out by Instat, the Albanian government statistical agency, 39.9% of the 25–64 years old is able to use at least one foreign language, with English first at 40.0%, followed by Italian with 27.8% and Greek with 22.9%.NEWS,weblink Press release of the Adult Education Survey, 10 May 2018, Albanian Institute of Statistics, 23 May 2018, Among young people aged 25 or less, English, German and Turkish have seen a rising interest after 2000. Italian and French have had a stable interest, while Greek has lost most of the interest. The trends are linked with cultural and economic factors.BOOK, Gjovalin Shkurtaj, Urgjenca gjuhësore: -huazime të zëvendësueshme me fjalë shqipe- : (fjalorth), 2017, Naimi, Sic u permend me lart, per shkak te shkaqeve kulturore dhe ekonomike, trendet e mesimit te gjuheve nga te rinjte (grupmosha deri ne 25 vjec) ndryshojne. Keto trende jane percaktues i nje sere fenomeneve shoqerore, sic do te shohim me tej. Keshtu nga viti 2000 e ketej, gjuha angleze, gjermane dhe ajo turke kane pasur nje rritje te interest. Gjuha italiane, por edhe ajo franceze kane pasur nje stabilitet, pra as rritje dhe as ulje te interesit te pergjithshem nga ana e grupmoshes te siperpermendur. Vihet re se gjuha greke ka pesuar nje renie te forte te interesit. Ne fakt, shumica e interesit ka rene per kete gjuhe. Arsyet per kete gjuhe specifike do ti trajtojme me tej ne kapitulin e trete., 9789928234049, 15–16,
The young people have shown a growing interest in German language in recent years. Some of them go to Germany for studying or various experiences. Albania and Germany have agreements for cooperating in helping young people of the two countries know both cultures better.WEB,weblink Gjuha gjermane, shumë e kërkuar në Shqipëri, 10 April 2014, albinfo.ch, albinfo, 26 May 2018, Due to a sharp rise in economic relations with Turkey, interest in learning Turkish, in particular among young people, has been growing on a yearly basis. Young people, attracted by economic importance of Turkish investments and common values between the two nations, gain from cultural and academic collaboration of universities.WEB,weblink Në Shqipëri vazhdon të rritet interesi për gjuhën turke, 5 October 2016, voal.ch, voal, 26 May 2018, In 2011 Turkish-owned Epoka University, where Turkish along with English and French is taught, was chosen the best foreign-owned university in Albania.WEB,weblink 10 universitetet me cilesore te shqiperise, Bledi Mane, 17 September 2011, gazetatema.net, TemA, 26 May 2018, {{Clear}}

Religion

File:Great Mosque of Durres 2016 Albania.jpg|thumb|The Great Mosque of Durrës. Islam is the majority faith and arrived mostly during the Ottoman periodOttoman periodAlbania is a secular state without an official religion, with the freedom of religion being a constitutional right.WEB, 1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA,weblink osce.org, 2, English, PDF, The 2011 census, for the first time since 1930, included an optional open-ended question on religion; the census recorded a majority of Muslims (58.79%), which include Sunni (56.70%) and Bektashi Muslims (2.09%).WEB,weblink Third Opinion on Albania adopted on 23 November 2011, Strasbourg, 4 June 2012, {{citation-needed|reason=The COE paper cited mentions no percentages of Sunni, Muslim, or Bektashi populations|date=June 2019}} Christians, making up 16.92% of the population, include Catholics (10.03%), Orthodox (6.75%) and evangelical Protestants (0.14%).WEB,weblink Presentation of the main results of the Census of Population and Housing 2011., 15 August 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170326091156weblink">weblink 26 March 2017, dmy-all, Atheists accounted for 2.5% of the population and 5.49% were non-affiliated believers, while 13.79% preferred not to answer.The preliminary results of the 2011 census seemed to give widely different results, with 70% of respondents refusing to declare belief in any of the listed faiths.NEWS,weblink Regjistrimi: 70% e banorëve nuk kanë deklaruar besimin fetar, Ateistët, 2012-04-18,weblink 8 August 2017, yes, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Censusi permbys fete, 70 per qind refuzojne ose nuk e deklarojne besimin, Shqiperia.com, 2016-03-30, The Albanian Orthodox Church officially refused to recognize the results, claiming that 24% of the total population adhered to its faith.WEB,weblink Kisha Ortodokse Autoqefale e Shqipërisë - Deklaratë zyrtare, Peshku pa uje, 11 December 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171212032043weblink">weblink 12 December 2017, yes, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Kisha Ortodokse: Censusi fshehu 17% të besimtarëve, Shqiptarja.com, 23 July 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160701165316weblink">weblink 1 July 2016, yes, dmy-all, Some Muslim Community officials expressed unhappiness with the data claiming that many Muslims were not counted and that the number of adherents numbered some 70% of the Albanian population.WEB,weblink Fete kunder censusit, bektashinjte: Nuk u pyetem, Panorama, 8 December 2017, BOOK, Jazexhi, Olsi, Albania, Nielsen, Jørgen, Akgönül, Samim, Alibašić, Ahmet, Racius, Egdunas, Yearbook of Muslims in Europe: Volume 5, 2013, Leiden, Brill, 9789004255869,weblink 21–36, harv, "Some officials from the Muslim community of Albania have expressed their unhappiness with the census result, claiming that according to their calculations the percentage of the Muslims was 70%. They have also claimed that many members of the Muslim Community were not counted in the census." The Albanian Catholic Bishops Conference also cast doubts on the census, complaining that many of its believers were not contacted.WEB,weblink Katolikët kundër Censusit: Do të regjistrojmë besimtarët - Arkiva Shqiptare e Lajmeve, www.arkivalajmeve.com, en, 2017-12-08, The Muslim Albanians are spread throughout the country. Orthodox and Bektashis are mostly found in the south, whereas Catholics mainly live in the north.WEB,weblink Albania: International Religious Freedom Report 2007, U.S. State Department, 14 September 2007, 27 August 2010, dmy, In 2008, there were 694 Catholic churches and 425 orthodox churches, 568 mosques and 70 bektashi tekkes in the country.WEB, Korrieri online – Shqip,weblink 23 May 2005, 17 November 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050523030433weblink">weblink 23 May 2005, WEB, Në Shqipëri P. ka 1119 kisha dhe 638 xhami,weblink Ateistët, 17 November 2015, yes,weblink 18 November 2015, dmy-all, File:Orthodox_Church_Tirana_2016_albania.jpg|thumb|right|The Resurrection Cathedral of Tirana is the third largest Orthodox church in Europe. Eastern orthodoxy was first introduced during the Roman periodRoman periodReligious tolerance is one of the most important values of the tradition of the Albanians. It is widely accepted that Albanians generally value a peaceful coexistence among the believers of different religious communities in the country.WEB, UNESCO, Island of Peace: Documentary on Religious Coexistence in Albania,weblink unesco.org, 22 July 2011, 1, English, WEB, BBC, The country that's famous for tolerance,weblink bbc.com, 1, English, During an official visit in Tirana, Pope Francis hailed Albania as model of religious harmony, due to the long tradition of religious coexistence and tolerance.WEB, Telegraph Media Group, The Telegraph, Pope Francis hails Albania as model of religious harmony in attack on religious extremism,weblink telegraph.co.uk, 1, English, The country is ranked among the least religious countries in the world.WEB,weblink Gallup Global Reports, Gallup, 25 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131014034457weblink">weblink 14 October 2013, Furthermore, religion plays an important role in the lives of only 39% of the country's population.WEB, Telegraph Media Group, The Telegraph, Mapped: The world's most (and least) religious countries,weblink telegraph.co.uk, 1, English, In the WIN/Gallup International Report of 2016, 56% of the Albanian people considered themselves religious, 30% considered themselves non-religious, while 9% defined themselves as convinced atheists; 80% believed in God and 40% believed in life after death. However, 40% believed in hell, while 42% believed in heaven.WEB, WIN/GIA, Worldwide Independent Network/Gallup International Association, Religion prevails in the world,weblink wingia.com, 4 & 7, English, 27 February 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171114113506weblink">weblink 14 November 2017, yes, dmy-all, During classical times, there are thought to have been about seventy Christian families in Durrës, as early as the time of the Apostles.WEB, ALBANIA,weblink religion-freedom-report.org.uk, 2, English, The Archbishopric of Durrës was purportedly founded by Paul the Apostle, while preaching in Illyria and Epirus.WEB, BERNHARD TONNES, Religious Persecution in Albania,weblink biblicalstudies.org.uk, English, WEB,weblink Early Christianity – Albania – Reformation Christian Ministries – Albania & Kosovo, reformation.edu, Meanwhile, in medieval times, the Albanian people first appeared within historical records from the Byzantines. At this point, they were mostly Christianized. Islam arrived for the first time in the late 9th century to the region, when Arabs raided parts of the eastern banks of the Adriatic Sea.BOOK, Jørgen Nielsen, Samim Akgönül, Ahmet Alibašić, Egdunas Racius, Yearbook of Muslims in Europe, Albania, 23, 5,weblink 12 March 2016, Brill, 2013, Leiden, Boston, New York, 9789004255869, It later emerged as the majority religion, during the centuries of Ottoman Period, though a significant Christian minority remained.During modern times, the Albanian republican, monarchic and later communist regimes followed a systematic policy of separating religion from official functions and cultural life. The country has never had an official religion either as a republic or as a kingdom. File:Kisha e Manastirit Te Rubikut 03.jpg|thumb|right|The Monastery of Rubik was constructed between 1166.]] In the 20th century, the clergy of all faiths was weakened under the monarchy and ultimately eradicated during the 1950s and 1960s, under the state policy of obliterating all organized religion from the territories of Albania. The communist regime persecuted and suppressed religious observance and institutions and entirely banned religion. The country was then officially declared to be the world's first atheist state. Although, the country's religious freedom has returned, since the end of communism.Islam survived communist era persecution and reemerged in the modern era as a practiced religion in Albania.BOOK, Merdjanova, Ina, Rediscovering the Umma: Muslims in the Balkans between nationalism and transnationalism, 2013, Oxford, Oxford University Press,weblink 9780190462505, 6–7, 39–40, harv, Some smaller Christian sects in Albania include Evangelicals and several Protestant communities including Seventh-day Adventist Church, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Jehovah's Witnesses.WEB,weblink Albania, TED Adventist, 25 March 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130224022017weblink">weblink 24 February 2013, yes, dmy-all, WEB, Famous British celebrity visits ADRA Albania,weblink WEB, LDS Newsroom-Country Profile-Albania,weblink The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100825075459weblink">weblink 25 August 2010, BOOK, 2015 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, Watch Tower Society, 178, The first recorded Protestant of Albania was Said Toptani, who traveled around Europe and returned to Tirana in 1853, where he preached Protestantism. Due to that, he was arrested and imprisoned by the Ottoman authorities in 1864. First evangelical Protestants appeared in the 19th century and the Evangelical Alliance was founded in 1892. Nowadays, it has 160 member congregations from different Protestant denominations.Albania was the only country in Europe where the Jewish population increased significantly during the Holocaust.Samer, Haroey (1997), "Rescue in Albania: One Hundred Percent of Jews in Albania Rescued from Holocaust", The Jews of Albania, California: Brunswick Press, archived from the original on 2008-05-10, retrieved 21 October 2012WEB, THE ALBANIAN ETHNOTYPE AND THE SAVING OF THE JEWS DURING WAR,weblink maximilian-kolbe-stiftung.de, 1–5, English, WEB, The Rescue of Jews in Albania Through the Perspective of the Yad Vashem Files of the Righteous Among the Nations,weblink yadvashem.org, 1–11, English, Following the mass emigration to Israel, since the fall of communism, only 200 Albanian Jews are left in the country.WEB,weblink 1st chief rabbi inaugurated in Albania – Israel Jewish Scene, Ynetnews, Ynetnews, 15 February 2014, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ariel Scheib,weblink Albania Virtual Jewish Tour, Jewish Virtual Library, 15 February 2014, {{Clear}}

Culture

Symbols

File:Mak.jpg|thumb|right|The national flower of Albania is the red poppyred poppyAlbania shares many symbols associated with its history, culture and belief. These include the colours red and black, animals such as the golden eagle living across the country, costumes such as the fustanella, plis and opinga which are worn to special events and celebrations, plants such as the olive and red poppy growing as well across the country.The flag of Albania is a red flag with a black double-headed eagle in the centre.WEB, Center of Official Publications (Albania), Fletorja zyrtare e Republikës së Shqipërisë, PËR FORMËN DHE PËRMASAT E FLAMURIT KOMBËTAR, PËRMBAJTJEN E HIMNIT KOMBËTAR, FORMËN DHE PËRMASAT E STEMËS SË REPUBLIKËS TË SHQIPËRISË DHE MËNYRËN E PËRDORIMIT TË TYRE,weblink qbz.gov.al, Tirana, Albanian, The red colour symbolizes the bravery, strength and valour of the Albanian people and the black colour appears as a symbol of freedom and heroism. The eagle has been used by Albanians since the Middle Ages including the establishment of the Principality of Arbër and by numerous noble ruling families such as the Kastrioti, Muzaka, Thopia and Dukagjini.BOOK, Historia e popullit shqiptar, Botimet Toena, 2002, Tirana, 294–298, 433–434, Instituti i Historisë (Akademia e Shkencave e RSH), Albanian, Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu, who fought and began a rebellion against the Ottoman Empire which halted Ottoman advance into Europe for nearly 25 years, placed the double-headed eagle on his flag and seal.BOOK, Paulist Fathers, Catholic World, Band 23, Paulist Fathers, 1876, 235,weblink English, 1876, BOOK, Francis Tapon, The Hidden Europe: What Eastern Europeans Can Teach Us, SonicTrek, Inc., 2011, 9780976581222, 441,weblink English, 2011-12-08, The country's national motto, Ti Shqipëri, më jep nder, më jep emrin Shqipëtar, finds its origins in the early 19th century. The first to express this motto was Naim Frashëri in his poem Ti Shqipëri më jep nder.WEB, Bagëti e Bujqësia (analizë),weblink letersia.fajtori.com, 1, Albanian, This poem is notable as refers to the values and ambitions of the Albanian people to remain separate from and independent of, those neighbouring countries around it, which have tried to dominate it.The duart e kryqëzuara, also referred to as the eagle gesture, is a gesture performed particularly by the Albanian people around the world in order to visually illustrate the double-headed eagle, the symbol of Albania.

Cuisine

File:4Gambas.jpg|thumb|right|Scampis are one of the favoured dishes among the Albanians on the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Coasts.]]In the course of the centuries, Albanian cuisine has been widely influenced by the culture, geography and history of Albania and therefore different parts of the country have a specific regional cuisine. The cooking traditions vary especially between the north and the south owing to differing topography and climate that contribute to the excellent growth conditions for a wide array of herbs, fruits and vegetables.WEB, Albania Mania,weblink agroweb.org, English,
Albanians produces and uses many varieties of fruits such as lemons, oranges, figs and most notably olives which are perhaps the most important element of Albanian cooking. Spices and other herbs such as basil, lavender, mint, oregano, rosemary and thyme are widely used, as are vegetables such as garlics, onions, peppers, potatoes and tomatoes as well as legumes of all types.File:Albanian_cuisine_-_Pite_dhe_Speca.jpg|thumb|left|Roasted peppers served with Pite, a traditional and prominent layered Albanian pie.]]While having a coastline along the Adriatic and Ionian Sea of the Mediterranean Sea, fish, crustaceans and seafood are a popular and an integral part of the Albanian diet. Otherwise lamb is the traditional meat for different holidays and religious festivals for both Christians and Muslims, and poultry, beef, and pork are also in plentiful supply.Tavë Kosi is a national dish in Albania and consists of garlicky lamb and rice baked under a thick, tart veil of yogurt. Fërgesë is another national dish in the country and is made up with peppers, tomatoes and cottage cheese. Another beloved dish is Pite which is generally a filled and baked pastry with a filling of a mixture of spinach and gjizë or mish as it is known in Albania.File:Bukë_kollomoqe,_bukë_misri.JPG|thumb|right|Bukë Misri is a staple on the Albanian table.]]Petulla, a traditionally fried dough, is as well a popular speciality and is served with powdered sugar or feta cheese and different sorts of fruit jams. Also popular is Flia consisting of multiple crepe-like layers brushed with cream and served with sour cream. Krofne, similar to Berliner, are filled with jam, or chocolate and often eaten during the cold winter months.Coffee is very much a part of the people's lifestyle in Albania. Different variations of coffee is best enjoyed within the family or friends but also outside at cafés or bars. A small country in size, Albania ranked first with the most coffee houses per capita in the world.WEB,weblink Albania ranked first in the World for the number of Bars and Restaurants per inhabitant, Tea is enjoyed both at home or outside at cafés, bars or restaurants. Çaj Mali is enormously beloved and is part of a daily routine for most of the Albanians. It is cultivated across Southern Albania and noted for its medicinal properties. Black tea with a slice of lemon and sugar, milk or honey is also a popular type of tea.Wine drinking is popular throughout the Albanians. The country has a long and ancient history of wine production, as it belongs to the old world of wine producing countries.WEB, Why Albania Is A Great Destination For Wine Drinkers,weblink epicureandculture.com, 5 January 2017, English, WEB, Wines of Albania,weblink winesofbalkans.com, 1, English, 18 January 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140107005025weblink">weblink 7 January 2014, yes, dmy-all, Its wine is characterized for its sweet taste and traditionally indigenous varieties.{{Clear}}

Arts

File:Amphitheatre of Butrint 2009.jpg|thumb|right|Butrint has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage SiteWorld Heritage Site
The artistic history of Albania has been particularly influenced by a multitude of ancient and medieval people, traditions and religions. It covers a broad spectrum with mediums and disciplines that include painting, pottery, sculpture, ceramics and architecture all of them exemplifying a great variety in style and shape, in different regions and period.The rise of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empire in the Middle Ages was accompanied by a corresponding growth in Christian and Islamic art in the lands of Albania which are apparent in examples of architecture and mosaics throughout the country.WEB, L. Shumka from Agricultural University of Tirana, Considering Importance of Light in the PostByzantine Church in Central Albania,weblink ijirset.com, Tirana, English, WEB, Robert Elsie: Arti Shqiptar,weblink www.albanianart.net, 22 November 2015, Centuries later, the Albanian Renaissance proved crucial to the emancipation of the modern Albanian culture and saw unprecedented developments in all fields of literature and art whereas artists sought to return to the ideals of Impressionism and Romanticism.BOOK, MaryLee Knowlton, Albania - Band 23 von Cultures of the world, Marshall Cavendish, 2004, 9780761418528, 102–103,weblink English, 2005, However, Onufri, Kolë Idromeno, David Selenica, Kostandin Shpataraku and the Zografi Brothers are the most eminent representatives of Albanian art.File:Codex Beratinus 0011b.jpg|thumb|left|The Codices of Berat are eminently important for the global community and the development of ancient biblical, liturgical and hagiographical literature.WEB, UNESCO Memory of the World Programme, MEMORY OF THE WORLD REGISTER NOMINATION FORM Codex Beratinus 1 and 2,weblink unesco.org, English, PDF, In 2005, it was inscribed on the UNESCO's Memory of the World RegisterMemory of the World RegisterThe architecture of Albania reflects the legacy of various civilizations tracing back to the classical antiquity. Major cities in Albania have evolved from within the castle to include dwellings, religious and commercial structures, with constant redesigning of town squares and evolution of building techniques. Nowadays, the cities and towns reflect a whole spectrum of various architectural styles. In the 20th century, many historical as well as sacred buildings bearing the ancient influence were demolished during the communist era.WEB, Karin Myhrberg - University of Gothenburg, Heritage from the Communist Period in Albania - An Unwanted Heritage Today?,weblink gupea.ub.gu.se, 12, Ancient architecture is found throughout Albania and most visible in Byllis, Amantia, Phoenice, Apollonia, Butrint, Antigonia, Shkodër and Durrës. Considering the long period of rule of the Byzantine Empire, they introduced castles, citadels, churches and monasteries with spectacular wealth of visible murals and frescos. Perhaps the best known examples can be found in the southern Albanian cities and surroundings of Korçë, Berat, Voskopojë and Gjirokastër. Involving the introduction of Ottoman architecture there was a development of mosques and other Islamic buildings, particularly seen in Berat and Gjirokastër.File:Castle_of_Bashtov%C3%AB.jpg|thumb|right|The Fortress of Bashtovë is on the tentative list for inscribing it as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.WEB, UNESCOUNESCOA productive period of Historicism, Art Nouveau and Neoclassicism merged into the 19th century, best exemplified in Korçë. The 20th century brought new architectural styles such as the modern Italian style, which is present in Tirana such as the Skanderbeg Square and Ministries. It is also present in Shkodër, Vlorë, Sarandë and Durrës. Moreover, other towns received their present-day Albania-unique appearance through various cultural or economic influences.Socialist classicism arrived during the communist era in Albania after the Second World War. At this period many socialist-styled complexes, wide roads and factories were constructed, while town squares were redesigned and numerous of historic and important buildings demolished. Notable examples of that style include the Mother Teresa Square, Pyramid of Tirana, Palace of Congresses and so on.Three Albanian archaeological sites are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. These include the ancient remains of Butrint, the medieval Historic Centres of Berat and Gjirokastër, and Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid region site shared with North Macedonia since 2019.WEB, UNESCO, Butrint,weblink whc.unesco.org, English, WEB, UNESCO, Historic Centres of Berat and Gjirokastra,weblink whc.unesco.org, English, Furthermore, the royal Illyrian tombs, the remains of Apollonia, the ancient Amphitheatre of Durrës and the Fortress of Bashtovë has been included on the tentative list of Albania.{{Clear}}

Music

File:A_traditional_male_folk_group_from_Skrapar.JPG|right|thumb|The Albanian iso-polyphony is UNESCO's Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.WEB, UNESCOUNESCOThe Albanian folk music is a prominent section of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Albanian music. Although, it can be divided into two stylistic groups, as performed by the northern Ghegs and southern Labs and Tosks. The northern and southern traditions are contrasted by the rugged tone of the north and the relaxed form of the south.Many of the songs are about events from history and culture, including the traditional themes about honour, hospitality, treachery and revenge. The first compilation of Albanian folk music was made by two Himariot musicians Neço Muka and Koço Çakali in Paris, during their interpretations with the song Diva Tefta Tashko Koço. Several gramophone compilations were recorded in those years by this genial trio of artists which eventually led to the recognition of the Himariot Isopolyphonic Music as an UNESCO World Cultural Heritage.WEB,weblink Kujtimet për Koço Çakalin, themeluesin e këngës himariote, shekulli.com.al, 23 July 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160829090701weblink">weblink 29 August 2016, dmy-all, File:Les Danseurs Albanais by Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps (c. 1835).jpg|thumb|left|The Albanian dancers wearing Fustanellas, the national costume of Albania]]The contemporary music artists Rita Ora, Bebe Rexha, Era Istrefi, Dua Lipa, Bleona, Elvana Gjata, Ermonela Jaho and Inva Mula have achieved international recognition for their music.WEB, Era Istrefi requires Albanian citizenship, meets with President Nishani,weblink ocnal, 12 November 2016, Sporano Ermonela Jaho has been described by The Economist as the World's most acclaimed Soprano.NEWS, How Ermonela Jaho became the world's most acclaimed soprano,weblink 28 May 2016, The Economist, 28 May 2016, One widely recognized musician from Elbasan is Saimir Pirgu, an Albanian international opera singer. He was nominated for the 2017 Grammy Award.WEB, Tenori shqiptar Saimir Pirgu nominohet në "Grammy Awards"! (Foto),weblink Telegrafi, 7 December 2016, Every cultural and geographical region of Albania has its own specific variety of costume that vary in style, material, color, shape, detail and form.{{citation| chapter-url=https://books.google.com/?id=lazWAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA15&q=moons%2C%20stars%2C%20and%20snakes| page=16| title=Encyclopedia of National Dress: Traditional Clothing Around the World| chapter=Albania| editor=Jill Condra| author=Leyla Belkaid| volume=I| publisher=ABC-CLIO| year=2013|isbn= 9780313376368}} Presently, the national costumes are most often worn with connection to special events and celebrations, mostly at ethnic festivals, religious holidays, weddings and by dancing groups as well. Some conservative old men and women mainly from the high northern as well as southern regions and wear traditional clothing in their daily lives. The clothing was made mainly of products from the local agriculture and livestock such as leather, wool, linen, hemp fiber and silk. Nowadays, the traditional textiles are still embroidered in very collaborate ancient patterns.

Literature

{{Refimprove section|date=October 2018}}File:Meshari.jpg|thumb|right|An excerpt from the Meshari (The Missal) written by Gjon BuzukuGjon BuzukuThe Albanian language comprises its own branch of the Indo-European language family. The language is considered an isolate within the Indo-European. The only other languages that are the sole surviving member of a branch of Indo-European are Armenian and Greek. It was proved to be an Indo-European language in 1854 by the German philologist Franz Bopp. Albanian is often held to be related to the Illyrian languages, a language spoken in the Balkans during classical times. Scholars argue that Albanian derives from IllyrianEncyclopedia of Indo-European Culture By J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams Edition: illustrated Published by Taylor & Francis, 1997 {{ISBN|978-1-884964-98-5}}, {{ISBN|978-1-884964-98-5}} ("Although there are some lexical items that appear to be shared between Romanian (and by extension Dacian) and Albanian, by far the strongest connections can be argued between Albanian and Illyrian." page 11)Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World By Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie Contributor Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie Edition: illustrated Published by Elsevier, 2008 {{ISBN|978-0-08-087774-7}}, {{ISBN|978-0-08-087774-7}} ("Albanian constitutes a single branch of the Indo-European family of languages. It is often held to be related to Illyrian, a poorly attested language spoken in the Western Balkans in classical times" page 22) while some othersWEB,weblink The Thracian language, The Linguist List, 27 January 2008, An ancient language of Southern Balkans, belonging to the Satem group of Indo-European. This language is the most likely ancestor of modern Albanian (which is also a Satem language), though the evidence is scanty. 1st Millennium BC â€“ 500 AD.,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080203035926weblink">weblink 3 February 2008, yes, dmy, claim that it derives from Daco-Thracian. (Illyrian and Daco-Thracian, however, might have been closely related languages; see Thraco-Illyrian.)The cultural renaissance was first of all expressed through the development of the Albanian language in the area of church texts and publications, mainly of the Catholic region in the northern of Albania, but also of the Orthodox in the south. The Protestant reforms invigorated hopes for the development of the local language and literary tradition, when cleric Gjon Buzuku brought into the Albanian language the Catholic liturgy, trying to do for the Albanian language, what Martin Luther did for the German language. Meshari (The Missal) written by Gjon Buzuku was published in 1555 and is considered as one of the first literary work of written Albanian during the Middle Ages. The refined level of the language and the stabilised orthography must be the result of an earlier tradition of written Albanian, a tradition that is not well understood. However, there is some fragmented evidence, pre-dating Buzuku, which indicates that Albanian was written from at least the 14th century.The earliest evidence dates from 1332 AD with a Latin report from the French Dominican Guillelmus Adae, Archbishop of Antivari, who wrote that Albanians used Latin letters in their books although their language was quite different from Latin. Other significant examples include: a baptism formula (Unte paghesont premenit Atit et Birit et spertit senit) from 1462, written in Albanian within a Latin text by the Bishop of Durrës, Pal Engjëlli; a glossary of Albanian words of 1497 by Arnold von Harff, a German who had travelled through Albania, and a 15th-century fragment of the Bible from the Gospel of Matthew, also in Albanian, but written in Greek letters.{{multiple image|align = left|total_width = 230|image1 = NaumVeqilharxhi.jpg|caption1 = Naum Veqilharxhi lawyer and scholar (1797–1854)|image2 = Parashqevi-qirjazi_152_186.jpg|caption2 = Parashqevi Qiriazi teacher and feminist (1880–1970)}}Albanian writings from these centuries must not have been religious texts only, but historical chronicles too. They are mentioned by the humanist Marin Barleti, who in his book Siege of Shkodër (Rrethimi i Shkodrës) from 1504, confirms that he leafed through such chronicles written in the language of the people (in vernacula lingua) as well as his famous biography of Skanderbeg Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis (History of Skanderbeg) from 1508. The History of Skanderbeg is still the foundation of Skanderbeg studies and is considered an Albanian cultural treasure, vital to the formation of Albanian national self-consciousness.During the 16th and the 17th centuries, the catechism (E mbësuame krishterë) (Christian Teachings) from 1592 written by Lekë Matrënga, (Doktrina e krishterë) (The Christian Doctrine) from 1618 and (Rituale romanum) 1621 by Pjetër Budi, the first writer of original Albanian prose and poetry, an apology for George Castriot (1636) by Frang Bardhi, who also published a dictionary and folklore creations, the theological-philosophical treaty Cuneus Prophetarum (The Band of Prophets) (1685) by Pjetër Bogdani, the most universal personality of Albanian Middle Ages, were published in Albanian. The most famous Albanian writer in the 20th and 21st century is probably Ismail Kadare. He has been mentioned as a possible recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature several times.

Cinema

File:Eliza Dushku (3756552915).jpg|thumb|right|Albanian-American actress Eliza Dushku produced the documentary Dear AlbaniaNEWS,weblink Why You Must Visit Albania, The Huffington Post, September 2, 2011, March 11, 2012, Eliza, Dushku, with a crew from Travel Channel and Lonely PlanetLonely PlanetCinematography became popular in the 20th century, when foreign films and documentaries were shown in the cities of Shkodër and Korçë.WEB,weblink AQSHF, www.aqshf.gov.al, The first public showing to occur in Albania was a little-known title, Paddy the Reliable a comical story.The first Albanian films were mostly documentaries; the first was about the Monastir Congress that sanctioned the Albanian alphabet in 1908. During communism, the Albanian Film Institute that later became known as Kinostudio Shqipëria e Re was founded with Soviet assistance, focusing mostly on propaganda of wartime struggles. After 1945, the communist government founded the Kinostudio Shqipëria e Re in 1952. This was followed by the first Albanian epic film, the Great Warrior Skanderbeg, a cooperation with Soviet artists chronicling the life and fight of the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg. In addition the film was awarded the International Prize at the 1954 Cannes Film Festival.By 1990, about 200 movies had been produced, and Albania had over 450 theaters. With the economic transition after the collapse of communism in the 1990s, the Kinostudio was broken up and privatised. A new National Center of Cinematography was established, while cities built modern cinema theatres showing mostly American movies. The Tirana International Film Festival was established in 2003 and has become the premier and largest film festival in the country as well as in the Balkans. Durrës hosts the International Film Summerfest of Durrës, the second largest international film festival in the country which takes place every year in late August or early September in Durrës Amphitheatre.Notable Albanian film directors include Andamion Murataj, Besim Sahatçiu, Xhanfize Keko, Dhimitër Anagnosti, Kujtim Çashku, Luljeta Hoxha, Saim Kokona, Saimir Kumbaro, Kristaq Mitro, Leon Qafzezi and Gjergj Xhuvani. Famous actors in Albania include Nik Xhelilaj, Klement Tinaj, Masiela Lusha, Blerim Destani, Aleksandër Moisiu, Tinka Kurti, Pjetër Malota, Sandër Prosi and Margarita Xhepa.There are internationally renowned actors in the Albanian diaspora, such as the Albanian-Americans Eliza Dushku, Jim and John Belushi, Kosovo-Albanians Bekim Fehmiu and Arta Dobroshi and Turkish-Albanian Barish Arduç.{{Clear}}

Sports

{{See also|Albania at the Olympics|Albania at the Mediterranean Games}}{{multiple image
|total_width = 230
|image1 = FBBP01 - FCN - 20151028 - Coupe de la Ligue - Lorik Cana.jpg
|image2 = Loro borici.jpg
|footer = Lorik Cana is Albania's most capped player of all time. He captained the French Olympique de Marseille, as well as the Albanian national team. (left) Lorenzo Boriçi captained Albania in winning the 1946 Balkan Cup. (right) }}
Albania participated at the Olympic Games in 1972 for the first time. The country made their Winter Olympic Games debut in 2006. Albania missed the next four games, two of them due to the 1980 and 1984 boycotts, but returned for the 1992 games in Barcelona. Since then, Albania have participated in all games. Albania normally competes in events that include swimming, athletics, weightlifting, shooting and wrestling. The country have been represented by the National Olympic Committee of Albania since 1972. The nation has participated at the Mediterranean Games since the games of 1987 in Syria. The Albanian athletes have won a total of 43 (8 gold, 17 silver and 18 bronze) medals from 1987 to 2013.Popular sports in Albania include Football, Weightlifting, Basketball, Volleyball, Tennis, Swimming, Rugby, and Gymnastics. Football is by far the most popular sport in Albania. It is governed by the Football Association of Albania (, F.SH.F.), which was created in 1930 and has membership in FIFA and UEFA. Football arrived in Albania early in the 20th century when the inhabitants of the northern city of Shkodër were surprised to see a strange game being played by students at a Christian mission.The Albania national football team, ranking 51st in the World in 2017 (highest 22nd on 22 August 2015) have won the 1946 Balkan Cup and the Malta Rothmans International Tournament 2000, but had never participated in any major UEFA or FIFA tournament, until UEFA Euro 2016, Albania's first ever appearance at the continental tournament and at a major men's football tournament. Albania scored their first ever goal in a major tournament and secured their first ever win in European Championship when they beat Romania by 1–0 in a UEFA Euro 2016 match on 19 June 2016.WEB,weblink Euro 2016: Albania 0–1 Romania – Armando Sadiku scores the only goal to seal his country's first ever win at a major competition, telegraph.co.uk, 19 June 2016, WEB,weblink Romania 0–1 Albania – Sadiku scores landmark goal to provide last 16 hope, 19 June 2016, mirror.co.uk, 19 June 2016, The most successful football clubs in the country are Skënderbeu, KF Tirana, Dinamo Tirana, Partizani and Vllaznia.Weightlifting is one of the most successful individual sport for the Albanians, with the national team winning medals at the European Weightlifting Championships and the rest international competitions. Albanian weightlifters have won a total of 16 medals at the European Championships with 1 of them being gold, 7 silver and 8 bronze. In the World Weightlifting Championships, the Albanian weightlifting team has won in 1972 a gold in 2002 a silver and in 2011 a bronze medal.{{Clear}}

Diaspora

Historically, the Albanian people have established several communities in many regions throughout Southern Europe. The Albanian diaspora has been formed since the late Middle Ages, when they emigrated to places such as Italy, especially in Sicily and Calabria, and Greece to escape either various socio-political difficulties or the Ottoman conquest of Albania.BOOK, Historia e popullit shqiptar, Stafi i Akedemise se Shkencave, 2003, Botimet Toena, 252–254, Following the fall of communism, large numbers of Albanians have migrated to countries such as Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Scandinavia, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the United States. Albanian minorities are present in the neighboring territories such as the west of North Macedonia, the east of Montenegro, Kosovo in its entirety and southern Serbia. In Kosovo, Albanians make up the largest ethnic group in the country. Altogether, the number of ethnic Albanian living abroad its territory is estimated to be higher than the total population inside the territory of Albania.

See also

Notes

{{notes| notes ={{efn| name = status| {{Kosovo-note}}}}}}

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • History of the Party of Labor of Albania. Tirana: Institute of Marxist–Leninist Studies, 1971. 691 p.
  • BOOK, Abrahams, Fred, Modern Albania: From Dictatorship to Democracy in Europe, 2015, NYU Press, 978-0-8147-0511-7, 384,

External links

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