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Academic Ranking of World Universities
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|italic title = |image_file = Academic Ranking of World Universities logo.png|image_size =|image_caption = |editor = |staff_writer = |frequency = Annual|circulation = |category = Higher education|company = |publisher = Shanghai Ranking Consultancy (2009–present)Shanghai Jiao Tong University (2003–2008)|firstdate = |country = China|language = Ten languages with English & Chineseweblink}}|issn = }}Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings. The league table was originally compiled and issued by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2003, making it the first global university ranking with multifarious indicators.JOURNAL, Global university rankings - a comparative analysis, Pavel, Adina-Petruta, Procedia Economics and Finance, 26, 54–63, 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00838-2, 2015, NEWS,weblink World university rankings: how much influence do they really have?, The Guardian, 2013, 27 January 2015, The first international rankings, the Academic Ranking of World Universities or Shanghai Rankings, Since 2009, ARWU has been published and copyrighted annually by Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, an independent organization focusing on higher education.WEB,weblink About Academic Ranking of World Universities, 2014, Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, 26 September 2014, Since 2009 the Academic Ranking of World Universities has been published and copyrighted by ShanghaiRanking Consultancy., In 2011, a board of international advisory consisting of scholars and policy researchers was established to provide suggestions.WEB,weblink Shanghai rankings rattle European universities, 8 December 2010, ABS-CBN Interactive, 27 January 2015, France's higher education minister travelled to Jiaotong University's suburban campus last month to discuss the rankings, the Norwegian education minister came last year and the Danish minister is due to visit next month.; The idea for the rankings was born in 1998, when Beijing decreed China needed several world-leading universities., WEB,weblink ARWU International Advisory Board, 2014, Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, 27 January 2015, The publication currently includes global league tables for institutions and a whole and for a selection of individual subjects, alongside independent regional Greater China Ranking and Macedonian HEIs Ranking.ARWU is regarded as one of the three most influential and widely observed university rankings, alongside QS World University Rankings and Times Higher Education World University Rankings.NEWS,weblink The history and development of higher education ranking systems - QS WOWNEWS, Network, QS Asia News, 2018-03-02, QS WOWNEWS, 2018-03-29, WEB,weblink About Academic Ranking of World Universities {{!, About ARWU|website=www.shanghairanking.com|access-date=2018-03-29}}JOURNAL,weblink New world university ranking puts Harvard back on top, Christian Science Monitor, Ariel Zirulnick, Those two, as well as Shanghai Jiao Tong University, produce the most influential international university rankings out there, 2010-09-16, NEWS, Top schools don't always get top marks, Indira Samarasekera & Carl Amrhein, The Edmonton Journal,weblink There are currently three major international rankings that receive widespread commentary: The Academic World Ranking of Universities, the QS World University Rankings and the Times Higher Education Rankings., dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101003203348weblink">weblink October 3, 2010, WEB,weblink The State of the Rankings, Inside Higher Ed, Philip G. Altbach, 11 November 2010, 27 January 2015, The major international rankings have appeared in recent months — the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Rankings, and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings (THE)., NEWS,weblink Strength and weakness of varsity rankings, 2016-09-14, NST Online, 2018-03-29, NEWS,weblink University rankings: which world university rankings should we trust?, Marszal, Andrew, 2012-10-04, 2018-03-29, 0307-1235, It is often praised for the objectivity, stability and transparency of its methodology, but draws some criticism as it does not adequately adjust for the size of the institution, and thus larger institutions would tend to rank above smaller ones.WEB,weblink "Shanghai Academic Ranking: a French Controversy" by Marc Goetzmann, for La Jeune Politique, Lajeunepolitique.com, 29 August 2013, 9 June 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150109003645weblink">weblink 9 January 2015, WEB,weblink International university rankings: For good or ill?, Bahram Bekhradnia, Higher Education Policy Institute, 15 December 2016, 10 June 2017, ARWU presents a further data issue. Whereas in the case of the other rankings the results are adjusted to take account of the size of institutions, hardly any such adjustment is made by ARWU. So there is a distortion in favour of large institutions. If two institutions were to merge, the very fact of merger would mean that the merged institution would do nearly twice as well as either of the individual institutions prior to merger, although nothing else had changed., 16,

Global rankings

Overall

Methodology{| class"wikitable"

! Criterion !! Indicator !! Code !! Weighting !! Source|
  • 10%
Official websites of Nobel Laureates & Fields Medalists{{#tag:ref|Official datum sources adopted by ARWU: Nobel Laureate Web, Fields Medalist Web, Thomson Reuters' survey of highly cited researchers & Thomson Reuters' Web of Science.|group=Note|name=one}}
|
  • Staff as Nobel Laureates & Fields Medalists
  • Highly cited researchers in 21 broad subject categories
  • 20%
  • 20%
Official websites of Nobel Laureates & Fields Medalists{{#tag:ref||group=Note|name=one}} Thomson Reuters' survey of highly cited researchers{{#tag:ref||group=Note|name=one}}
|
  • Papers published in Nature and ScienceNot applicable to institutions specialized in humanities and social sciences whose N&S scores are relocated to other indicators.
  • Papers indexed in Science Citation Index-expanded and Social Science Citation Index
  • 20%
  • 20%
Citation index
|
  • Per capita academic performance of an institution
  • 10%
-- *

Reception

ARWU is praised by several media and institutions for its methodology and influence. A survey on higher education published by The Economist in 2005 commented ARWU as "the most widely used annual ranking of the world's research universities."WEB,weblink A world of opportunity, The Economics, 8 September 2005, 30 January 2015, It is no accident that the most widely used annual ranking of the world's research universities, the Shanghai index, is produced by a Chinese university., dead,weblink" title="archive.is/20120718153816weblink">weblink 18 July 2012, In 2010, The Chronicle of Higher Education called ARWU "the best-known and most influential global ranking of universities".JOURNAL,weblink International Group Announces Audit of University Rankings, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 10 October 2010, 30 January 2015, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, which produces the best-known and most influential global ranking of universities..., EU Research Headlines reported the ARWU's work on 31 December 2003: "The universities were carefully evaluated using several indicators of research performance."WEB, European Research Headlines, Chinese study ranks world's top 500 universities,weblink 2003, 4 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150109004500weblink">weblink 2015-01-09, dead, Chancellor of University of Oxford, Chris Patten and former Vice-Chancellor of Australian National University, Ian Chubb, said: "the methodology looks fairly solid ... it looks like a pretty good stab at a fair comparison." and "The SJTU rankings were reported quickly and widely around the world... (and they) offer an important comparative view of research performance and reputation." respectively.BOOK,weblink Rankings and Accountability in Higher Education: Uses and Misuses, United Nations Educational, 2013, 30 January 2015, 26, 9789230011567, Philip G. Altbach named ARWU's 'consistency, clarity of purpose, and transparency' as significant strengths.WEB,weblink The State of the Rankings, Philip G. Altbach, INSIDE HIGHER ED, 11 September 2010, 30 January 2015, Nonetheless, AWRU's consistency, clarity of purpose, and transparency are significant advantages., While ARWU has originated in China, the ranking have been praised for being unbiased towards Asian institutions.WEB, Academic Ranking of World Universities 2013 released,weblink Times Higher Education (THE), 2016-01-20, 2013-08-15,

Criticism

The ranking is condemned for "relying too much on award factors" thus undermining the importance of quality of instruction and humanities.NEWS,weblink University rankings: which world university rankings should we trust?, 2015, The Telegraph, 27 January 2015, It is a remarkably stable list, relying on long-term factors such as the number of Nobel Prize-winners a university has produced, and number of articles published in Nature and Science journals. But with this narrow focus comes drawbacks. China's priority was for its universities to 'catch up' on hard scientific research. So if you're looking for raw research power, it's the list for you. If you're a humanities student, or more interested in teaching quality? Not so much., Marszal, Andrew, JOURNAL,weblink Business School Prestige: Research versus Teaching, J. Scott Armstrong and Tad Sperry, Energy & Environment, 18, 2, 13–43, 1994, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100620223714weblink">weblink 2010-06-20, WEB,weblink 1741-7015-5-30.fm, 9 June 2014, A 2007 paper published in the journal Scientometrics found that the results from the Shanghai rankings could not be reproduced from raw data using the method described by Liu and Cheng.JOURNAL, Irreproducibility of the results of the Shanghai academic ranking of world universities, Scientometrics, Răzvan V. Florian, 17 June 2007, 10.1007/s11192-007-1712-1, 72, 1, 25–32, A 2013 paper in the same journal finally showed how the Shanghai ranking results could be reproduced.JOURNAL, Reproducibility of the results of the Shanghai academic ranking of world universities, Scientometrics, Domingo Docampo, 1 July 2012, 10.1007/s11192-012-0801-y, 94, 2, 567–587, In a report from April 2009, J-C. Billaut, D. Bouyssou and Ph. Vincke analyse how the ARWU works, using their insights as specialists of Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). Their main conclusions are that the criteria used are not relevant; that the aggregation methodology has a number of major problems; and that insufficient attention has been paid to fundamental choices of criteria.WEB,weblink Should you believe in the Shanghai ranking?, Jean-Charles Billaut, Denis Bouyssou & Philippe Vincke, 30 January 2015, CCSD, The ARWU researchers themselves, N.C Liu and Y Cheng, think that the quality of universities cannot be precisely measured by mere numbers and any ranking must be controversial. They suggest that university and college rankings should be used with caution and their methodologies must be understood clearly before reporting or using the results. ARWU has been criticised by the European Commission as well as some EU member states for "favour[ing] Anglo-Saxon higher education institutions". For instance, ARWU is repeatedly criticised in France, where it triggers an annual controversy, focusing on its ill-adapted character to the French academic systemWEB,weblink "Shanghai Academic Ranking: a French Controversy" by Marc Goetzmann, for La Jeune Politique, Lajeunepolitique.com, 29 August 2013, 9 June 2014, WEB, Spongenberg, Helena,weblink EUobserver / EU to test new university ranking in 2010, Euobserver.com, 5 June 2014, 9 June 2014, and the unreasonable weight given to research often performed decades ago.NEWS, Dagorn, Gary,weblink Universités : pourquoi le classement de Shanghaï n'est pas un exercice sérieux, lemonde.fr, 16 August 2016, 17 August 2016, fr, Le Monde.fr, It is also criticised in France for its use as a motivation for fusing universities into larger ones.WEB, Gérand, Christelle,weblink Aix-Marseille, laboratoire de la fusion des universités, September 2016, 8 September 2016, www.monde-diplomatique.fr, fr, Indeed, a further criticism has been that the metrics used are not independent of university size, e.g. number of publications or award winners will mechanically add as universities are grouped, independently of research (or teaching) quality; thus a merger between two equally-ranked institutions will almost double the merged institutions score and give it a higher ranking, without any change in quality.URLHTTP://WWW.SHANGHAIRANKING.COM/ARWU2018.HTML, titleAcademic Ranking of World Universities 2018, last, first, date2018, website, publisherShanghai Ranking Consultancy, accessdate15 August 2018, {{#tag:ref|Order shown in accordance with the latest result.|groupNote|nametwo}}">

Results{|class"wikitable sortable"URLHTTP://WWW.SHANGHAIRANKING.COM/ARWU2018.HTML, titleAcademic Ranking of World Universities 2018, last, first, date2018, website, publisherShanghai Ranking Consultancy, accessdate15 August 2018, {{#tag:ref|Order shown in accordance with the latest result.|groupNote|nametwo}}

(File:Academic Ranking of World Universities.png|thumb|Academic Ranking of World Universities, 2003-2018, Top ten)! Institution !! 2003 !! 2004 !! 2005 !! 2006 !! 2007 !! 2008 !! 2009 !! 2010 !! 2011 !! 2012!! 2013 !! 2014 !! 2015 !! 2016 !! 2017!2018USA}} Harvard University|1|1USA}} Stanford University|2|2UK}} University of Cambridge|3|3USA}} Massachusetts Institute of Technology|4|4USA}} University of California, Berkeley|5|5USA}} Princeton University|6|6UK}} University of Oxford|7|7USA}} Columbia University|8|8USA}} California Institute of Technology|9|9USA}} University of Chicago|10|10

Alternative

As it may take much time for rising universities to produce Nobel laureates and Fields Medalists with numbers comparable to those of older institutions, the Institute created alternative rankings excluding such award factors so as to provide another way of comparisons of academic performance. The weighting of all the other factors remains unchanged, thus the grand total of 70%.{|class="wikitable sortable" |group=Note|name=two}}! Institution !! 2014WEB,weblink Alternative Ranking 2014 ( Excluding Award Factor ) ( Excluding Award Factor ), Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, 2014, 30 January 2015, !! 2015WEB,weblink Alternative Ranking 2015 ( Excluding Award Factor ), Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, 2015, 4 September 2015, USA}} Harvard University11USA}} Stanford University22USA}} Massachusetts Institute of Technology43USA}} University of California, Berkeley34USA}} California Institute of Technology55UK}} University of Oxford66UK}} University of Cambridge87USA}} University of California, San Diego78USA}} University of Washington109USA}} Yale University910

Subject

There are two categories in ARWU's disciplinary rankings, broad subject fields and specific subjects. The methodology is similar to that adopted in the overall table, including award factors, paper citation, and the number of highly cited scholars.{| class="wikitable"! Broad fieldsWEB,weblink Academic Rankings of World Universities in subject fields, Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, 2014, 31 January 2015, ! Specific subjectsWEB,weblink Academic Rankings of World Universities in specific subjects, Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, 2014, 31 January 2015, | Natural sciences and mathematics | Mathematics | Computer science and engineering| Physics| Life and agricultural sciences| Chemistry| Clinical medicine and pharmacy| Computer science | Social sciences| Economics and business

Regional rankings

Considering the development of specific areas, two independent regional league tables with different methodologies were launched.{{Citation needed|date=August 2017}}

Greater China

URLHTTP://WWW.SHANGHAIRANKING.COM/GREATER_CHINA_RANKING/GREATER-CHINA-RANKING-METHODOLOGY-2014.HTML, titleGreater China Ranking – Methodology, publisherShanghai Ranking Consultancy, date2014, accessdate31 January 2015, {{#tag:ref||groupNote|nametwo}}">

Methodology{| class"wikitable"URLHTTP://WWW.SHANGHAIRANKING.COM/GREATER_CHINA_RANKING/GREATER-CHINA-RANKING-METHODOLOGY-2014.HTML, titleGreater China Ranking – Methodology, publisherShanghai Ranking Consultancy, date2014, accessdate31 January 2015, {{#tag:ref||groupNote|nametwo}}

! Criterion !! Indicator !! Weight |
  • Percentage of graduate students
  • Percentage of non-local students
  • Ratio of academic staff to students
  • Doctoral degrees awarded
  • Alumni as Nobel Laureates & Fields Medalists
  • 5%
  • 5%
  • 5%
  • 10%
  • 10%
|
  • Annual research income
  • Nature & Science Papers
  • SCIE & SSCI papers
  • International patents
  • 5%
  • 10%
  • 10%
  • 10%
|
  • Percentage of academic staff with a doctoral degree
  • Staff as Nobel Laureates and Fields Medalists
  • Highly cited researchers
  • 5%
  • 10%
  • 10%
|
  • Annual budget
  • 5%
|groupNote|nametwo}}WEB, urweblink titleGreater China Rankings, publisherShanghai Ranking Consultancy, date2018, accessdate4 February 2019, ">

Results{|class"wikitable sortable"|groupNote|nametwo}}WEB, urweblink titleGreater China Rankings, publisherShanghai Ranking Consultancy, date2018, accessdate4 February 2019,

! Institution !! 2011 !! 2012!! 2013 !! 2014 !! 2015 !! 2016 !! 2017 !! 2018PRC}} Tsinghua University|1PRC}} Peking University|2TWN}} National Tsing Hua University|3HK}} The Chinese University of Hong Kong|4PRC}} Zhejiang University|5PRC}} University of Science and Technology of China|6PRC}} Shanghai Jiao Tong University|7HK}} The University of Hong Kong|8TWN}} National Taiwan University|9PRC}} Fudan University|10

Notes

{{Reflist|group=Note}}

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{University ranking systems}}

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