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2016 United States presidential election
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{{For|related races|2016 United States elections}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use American English|date=February 2019}}{{short description|58th election of President of the United States}}{{Use mdy dates|date=May 2019}}







factoids
) (HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/DATA/TABLES/TIME-SERIES/DEMO/VOTING-AND-REGISTRATION/P20-580.HTML >TITLE= VOTING AND REGISTRATION IN THE ELECTION OF NOVEMBER 2016 UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU >DATE=MAY 2017 percentage point>pp | image_size = 200x200px| image1 = Donald Trump official portrait (cropped).jpg| nominee1 = Donald Trump| party1 = Republican Party (United States)New York (state)>New York| running_mate1 = Mike Pence304{{efn>name=pledgedFaithless electors in the 2016 United States presidential election>faithless electors. Vice Presidential candidates Pence and Kaine lost one and five votes, respectively.}}30 + 2016 United States presidential election in Maine>ME-02| popular_vote1 = 62,984,828 62,984,8281|pad=yes}}| image2 = Hillary Clinton by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg| nominee2 = Hillary Clinton| party2 = Democratic Party (United States)New York (state)>New York| running_mate2 = Tim Kainename=pledged}}2016 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia>DC| popular_vote2 = 65,853,514 65,853,5141|pad=yes}}'''| map_size = 350px| map = {{2016 United States presidential election imagemap}}electoral votes allotted to the winner of each state.Faithless electors in the 2016 United States presidential election>Faithless electors: Colin Powell 3 (2016 United States presidential election in Washington (state)), John Kasich 1 (2016 United States presidential election in Texas>TX), Ron Paul 1 (TX), Bernie Sanders 1 (HI), Faith Spotted Eagle 1 (WA)| title = President| before_election = Barack Obama| before_party = Democratic Party (United States)| after_election = Donald Trump| after_party = Republican Party (United States)}}{{US 2016 presidential elections series}}The 2016 United States presidential election was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016. The Republican ticket of businessman Donald Trump and Indiana Governor Mike Pence defeated the Democratic ticket of former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and U.S. Senator from Virginia Tim Kaine, despite losing the popular vote.BOOK, Larry Sabato, Kyle Kondik, Geoffrey Skelley, Trumped: The 2016 Election That Broke All the Rules,weblink 2017, Rowman & Littlefield, 7, 9781442279407, Trump took office as the 45th president, and Pence as the 48th vice president, on January 20, 2017.Trump emerged as the front-runner amidst a wide field of Republican primary candidates, while Clinton defeated Senator Bernie Sanders and became the first female presidential nominee of a major American party. Trump's populist, nationalist campaign, which promised to "Make America Great Again" and opposed political correctness, illegal immigration, and many free-trade agreements,Becker, Bernie (February 13, 2016). "Trump's 6 populist positions". Politico. Retrieved March 8, 2018. garnered extensive free media coverage.Nicholas Confessore & Karen Yourish, "Measuring Donald Trump's Mammoth Advantage in Free Media", The New York Times (March 16, 2016).Walsh, Kenneth. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160225000859weblink">"How Donald Trump's Media Dominance Is Changing the 2016 Campaign". US News & World Report. Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2016. Clinton emphasized her extensive political experience, denounced Trump and many of his supporters as bigots, and advocated the expansion of President Obama's policies; racial, LGBT, and women's rights; and "inclusive capitalism".Chozick, Amy (March 4, 2016). "Clinton Offers Economic Plan Focused on Jobs". The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2018. The tone of the general election campaign was widely characterized as divisive and negative.Wallace, Gregory (November 8, 2016). "Negative ads dominate in campaign's final days". CNN. Retrieved March 8, 2018.Cassidy, John (November 5, 2016). "Closing Arguments: The Logic of Negative Campaigning". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 8, 2018. – "This Presidential campaign has been the most bitter in recent American history."Pew Research Center (November 21, 2016). "Voters’ evaluations of the campaign: Campaign viewed as heavy on negative campaigning, light on issues". Retrieved March 8, 2018 Trump faced controversy over his views on race and immigration, incidents of violence against protestors at his rallies,Tiefenthaler, Ainara (March 14, 2016). "Trump's History of Encouraging Violence". The New York Times. Retrieved November 8, 2016.Nguyen, Tina (March 11, 2016). "Donald Trump's Rallies Are Becoming Increasingly Violent". Vanity Fair. Retrieved March 12, 2016.Jacobs, Ben (March 11, 2016). "Trump campaign dogged by violent incidents at rallies". The Guardian. Retrieved March 12, 2016. and his alleged sexual misconduct, while Clinton's campaign was undermined by declining approval ratingsGallup News (July 25, 2016). "Clinton's Image at Lowest Point in Two Decades". Retrieved March 8, 2018. due to concerns about her ethics and trustworthiness,McCarthy, Justin (July 1, 2016). "Americans' Reactions to Trump, Clinton Explain Poor Images". Gallup News. Retrieved August 20, 2019. and an FBI investigation of her improper use of a private email server, which received more media coverage than any other topic during the campaign.NEWS,weblink News Coverage of the 2016 National Conventions: Negative News, Lacking Context, September 21, 2016, Shorenstein Center, December 7, 2017, en-US, WEB,weblink Partisanship, Propaganda, and Disinformation: Online Media and the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election {{!, Berkman Klein Center|website=cyber.harvard.edu|language=en|access-date=December 7, 2017}}Clinton led in nearly every pre-election nationwide poll and in most swing state polls, leading some commentators to compare Trump's victory to that of Harry S. Truman in 1948 as one of the greatest political upsets in modern U.S. history.WEB,weblink Flashback: It's happened before: Truman's defeat of Dewey had hints of Trump-Clinton, Grossman, Ron, November 11, 2016, www.chicagotribune.com, Chicago Tribune, December 3, 2017, WEB,weblink Trump Stole a Page From "Give 'Em Hell" Harry, Stone, Roger, February 15, 2017, www.realclearpolitics.com, RealClearPolitics, December 3, 2017, While Clinton received 2.87 million more votes than Trump did (the largest margin ever for a losing presidential candidate),NEWS,weblink Did Clinton win more votes than any white man in history?, December 12, 2016, BBC News, September 9, 2018, en-GB, Trump received a majority of electoral votes and won upset victories in the pivotal Rust Belt region. Trump won six states that Democrat Barack Obama had won in 2012: Florida, Iowa, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.WEB,weblink United States election results, US Election Atlas, Dave Leip, 29 June 2019, Ultimately, Trump received 304 electoral votes and Clinton garnered 227, as two faithless electors defected from Trump and five defected from Clinton. Trump is the fifth person in U.S. history to become president while losing the nationwide popular vote.{{efn|In early elections, beginning with the election of George Washington, many electors were chosen by state legislatures instead of public balloting and, in those states which practiced public balloting, votes were cast for undifferentiated lists of candidates, leaving no or only partial vote totals. Some states continued to allocate electors by legislative vote as late as 1876.Moore, John L., ed. (1985). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc. p. 266.}} He is the first president with neither prior public service nor military experience, and the oldest person to be inaugurated for a first presidential term.The United States government's intelligence agencies concluded on January 6, 2017 that the Russian government had interfered in the 2016 electionsNEWS, Miller, Greg, Entous, Adam, Declassified report says Putin 'ordered' effort to undermine faith in U.S. election and help Trump,weblink The Washington Post, January 6, 2017, WEB, Fleitz, Fred, Was Friday's declassified report claiming Russian hacking of the 2016 election rigged?,weblink Fox News, January 7, 2017, WEB, Eichenwald, Kurt, Trump, Putin and the hidden history of how Russia interfered in the U.S. presidential election,weblink Newsweek, en, January 10, 2017, in order to "undermine public faith in the U.S. democratic process, denigrate Secretary Clinton, and harm her electability and potential presidency".NEWS, Intelligence Report on Russian Hacking,weblink January 8, 2017, The New York Times, January 6, 2017, 11, A Special Counsel investigation of alleged collusion between Russia and the Trump campaign began in May 2017NEWS, Rosenstein, Rod, Rod Rosenstein's Letter Appointing Mueller Special Counsel,weblink November 3, 2017, The New York Times, May 17, 2017, WEB, Grand Jury Indicts Thirteen Russian Individuals and Three Russian Companies for Scheme to Interfere in the United States Political System,weblink United States Department of Justice, February 16, 2018, and ended in March 2019. The investigation concluded that Russian interference to favor Trump's candidacy occurred "in sweeping and systematic fashion", but "did not establish that members of the Trump campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government".Mueller Report, vol I

Background

{{Further|United States presidential election}}File:President Barack Obama (cropped).jpg|thumb|upright|Barack ObamaBarack ObamaArticle Two of the United States Constitution provides that the President and Vice President of the United States must be natural-born citizens of the United States, at least 35 years old, and residents of the United States for a period of at least 14 years. Candidates for the presidency typically seek the nomination of one of the political parties, in which case each party devises a method (such as a primary election) to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. Traditionally, the primary elections are indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate. The party's delegates then officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The general election in November is also an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College; these electors in turn directly elect the president and vice president.President Barack Obama, a Democrat and former U.S. Senator from Illinois, was ineligible to seek reelection to a third term due to the restrictions of the Twenty-second Amendment; in accordance with Section 1 of the Twentieth Amendment, his term expired at noon eastern standard time on January 20, 2017.

Primary process

The series of presidential primary elections and caucuses took place between February and June 2016, staggered among the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories. This nominating process was also an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who in turn elected their party's presidential nominee.Speculation about the 2016 campaign began almost immediately following the 2012 campaign, with New York magazine declaring that the race had begun in an article published on November 8, two days after the 2012 election.NEWS, Amira, Dan, Let the 2016 Campaign Season Begin!,weblink July 5, 2015, New York, November 8, 2012, On the same day, Politico released an article predicting that the 2016 general election would be between Clinton and former Florida Governor Jeb Bush, while a New York Times article named New Jersey Governor Chris Christie and Senator Cory Booker from New Jersey as potential candidates.NEWS, Martin, Johnathon, Haberman, Maggie, Back to the future: Clinton vs. Bush?,weblink March 22, 2017, Politico, November 8, 2012, NEWS, Barbaro, Micharl, After Obama, Christie Wants a G.O.P. Hug,weblink July 5, 2015, The New York Times, November 8, 2012,

Nominations

Republican Party

Primaries

With seventeen major candidates entering the race, starting with Ted Cruz on March 23, 2015, this was the largest presidential primary field for any political party in American history.NEWS, More People Are Running for Presidential Nomination Than Ever,weblink Time (magazine), Time, February 14, 2016, Jack, Linshi, July 7, 2015, Prior to the Iowa caucuses on February 1, 2016, Perry, Walker, Jindal, Graham, and Pataki withdrew due to low polling numbers. Despite leading many polls in Iowa, Trump came in second to Cruz, after which Huckabee, Paul, and Santorum withdrew due to poor performances at the ballot box. Following a sizable victory for Trump in the New Hampshire primary, Christie, Fiorina, and Gilmore abandoned the race. Bush followed suit after scoring fourth place to Trump, Rubio, and Cruz in South Carolina. On March 1, 2016, the first of four "Super Tuesday" primaries, Rubio won his first contest in Minnesota, Cruz won Alaska, Oklahoma, and his home of Texas, and Trump won the other seven states that voted. Failing to gain traction, Carson suspended his campaign a few days later.WEB,weblink Ben Carson Suspends 2016 Campaign at CPAC, NBC News, March 9, 2016, March 4, 2016, Andrew, Rafferty, On March 15, 2016, the second "Super Tuesday", Kasich won his only contest in his home state of Ohio, and Trump won five primaries including Florida. Rubio suspended his campaign after losing his home state.NEWS,weblink Marco Rubio Suspends His Presidential Campaign, March 16, 2016, Barbaro, Michael, Peters, Jeremy, The New York Times, March 16, 2016, Between March 16 and May 3, 2016, only three candidates remained in the race: Trump, Cruz, and Kasich. Cruz won the most delegates in four Western contests and in Wisconsin, keeping a credible path to denying Trump the nomination on first ballot with 1,237 delegates. Trump then augmented his lead by scoring landslide victories in New York and five Northeastern states in April, followed by a decisive victory in Indiana on May 3, 2016, securing all 57 of the state's delegates. Without any further chances of forcing a contested convention, both CruzWEB, Rosenfeld, Everett, Ted Cruz suspends presidential campaign,weblink CNBC, May 4, 2016, May 3, 2016, and KasichNEWS,weblink John Kasich Drops Out of Presidential Race, Kaplan, Thomas, May 4, 2016, The New York Times, 0362-4331, May 4, 2016, suspended their campaigns. Trump remained the only active candidate and was declared the presumptive Republican nominee by Republican National Committee chairman Reince Priebus on the evening of May 3, 2016.WEB, Reince Priebus on Twitter,weblink Twitter, November 13, 2016, May 3, 2016, ".@realDonaldTrump will be presumptive @GOP nominee, we all need to unite...", A 2018 study found that media coverage of Trump led to increased public support for him during the primaries. The study showed that Trump received nearly $2 billion in free media, more than double any other candidate. Political scientist John Sides argued that Trump's polling surge was "almost certainly" due to frequent media coverage of his campaign. Sides concluded "Trump is surging in the polls because the news media has consistently focused on him since he announced his candidacy on June 16".JOURNAL, Reuning, Kevin, Dietrich, Nick, 2018, Media Coverage, Public Interest, and Support in the 2016 Republican Invisible Primary,weblink Perspectives on Politics, en, 1–14, 10.1017/S1537592718003274, 1537-5927, Prior to clinching the Republican nomination, Trump received little support from establishment Republicans.JOURNAL, Albert, Zachary, Barney, David J., November 4, 2018, The Party Reacts: The Strategic Nature of Endorsements of Donald Trump, American Politics Research, en, 1532673X1880802, 10.1177/1532673x18808022, 1532-673X,

Nominees

{{Donald Trump series |expanded=Campaigns }}{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%; text-align:center;"(File:Republican Disc.png|65px|center|link=Republican Party (United States)|Republican Party (United States))2016 Republican Party ticket! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:{{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}; width:200px;"|{{colored link|white|Donald Trump}}! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:{{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}; width:200px;"|{{colored link|white|Mike Pence}} style="color:#000; font-size:100%; background:#ffd0d7;"for Presidentfor Vice Presidentcenterborder)centerborder)| Chairman of The Trump Organization(1971–2017)List of Governors of Indiana>50thGovernor of Indiana(2013–2017)Campaign(File:Trump-Pence 2016.svg275px)HTTP://WWW.BUSINESSINSIDER.COM/DONALD-TRUMPS-BIG-2016-ANNOUNCEMENT--2015-6 >TITLE=DONALD TRUMP IS RUNNING FOR PRESIDENT DATE=JUNE 16, 2015 NEWSPAPER=THE WASHINGTON POST ACCESSDATE=JUNE 16, 2015, HTTP://DOCQUERY.FEC.GOV/PDF/291/15031432291/15031432291.PDF >TITLE=DONALD TRUMP FEC FILING DATE=JUNE 22, 2015, June 24, 2015,

Candidates

Major candidates were determined by the various media based on common consensus. The following were invited to sanctioned televised debates based on their poll ratings.Trump received 14,010,177 total votes in the primary. Trump, Cruz, Rubio and Kasich each won at least one primary, with Trump receiving the highest number of votes and Ted Cruz receiving the second highest.{| class="wikitable"†Candidates in this section are sorted by reverse date of withdrawal from the primaries! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|John Kasich! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Ted Cruz! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Marco Rubio! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Ben Carson! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Jeb Bush! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Jim Gilmore! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Carly Fiorina! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Chris Christiecenter|120x120px)center|120x120px)center|120x120px)center|120x120px)center|120x120px)center|120x120px)center|120x120px)center|120x120px) style="text-align:center"List of governors of Ohio>69thGovernor of Ohio(2011–2019)United States Senate>U.S. Senatorfrom Texas(2013–present)|U.S. Senatorfrom Florida(2011–present)|Dir. of Pediatric Neurosurgery,Johns Hopkins Hospital(1984–2013)List of governors of Florida>43rdGovernor of Florida(1999–2007)List of governors of Virginia>68thGovernor of Virginia(1998–2002)Chief executive officer>CEO ofHewlett-Packard(1999–2005)List of governors of New Jersey>55thGovernor of New Jersey(2010–2018) style="text-align:center"John Kasich 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignTed Cruz 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignMarco Rubio 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignBen Carson 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignJeb Bush 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignJim Gilmore 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignCarly Fiorina 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignChris Christie 2016 presidential campaign>Campaign style="text-align:center"|W: May 44,287,479 votes|W: May 37,811,110 votes|W: Mar 153,514,124 votes|W: Mar 4857,009 votes|W: Feb 20286,634 votes|W: Feb 1218,364 votes|W: Feb 1040,577 votes|W: Feb 1057,634 votes style="text-align:center"DATE=JULY 23, 2015 ACCESSDATE=JULY 28, 2015, DATE=MARCH 22, 2015 LOS ANGELES TIMES >ACCESSDATE=MARCH 23, 2015 LAST1=MASCARO LAST2=LAUTER, HTTPS://WWW.WASHINGTONPOST.COM/BLOGS/POST-POLITICS/WP/2015/03/23/TED-CRUZ-ANNOUNCES-PRESIDENTIAL-RUN >TITLE=TED CRUZ ANNOUNCES HE'S RUNNING FOR PRESIDENT NEWSPAPER=THE WASHINGTON POST AUTHOR=ZEZIMA, KATIE, HTTP://DOCQUERY.FEC.GOV/PDF/891/15031403891/15031403891.PDF >TITLE=TED CRUZ FEC FILING WORK=FEC.GOV, April 1, 2015, DATE=APRIL 13, 2015 THE NEW YORK TIMES >ACCESSDATE=APRIL 13, 2015 DATE=APRIL 13, 2015 TITLE=MARCO RUBIO MAKES HIS PITCH AS THE FRESH FACE OF THE GOP IN 2016 NATIONAL JOURNAL >ACCESSDATE=APRIL 14, 2015, HTTP://DOCQUERY.FEC.GOV/PDF/229/15031412229/15031412229.PDF >TITLE=MARCO RUBIO FEC FILING PUBLISHER=FEC.GOV, May 7, 2015, DATE=MAY 3, 2015 LAST1=TERRIS ACCESSDATE=MAY 4, 2015, HTTP://WWW.NBCNEWS.COM/POLITICS/ELECTIONS/BEN-CARSON-ANNOUNCES-2016-RUN-N353241 >TITLE=BEN CARSON ANNOUNCES 2016 RUN PUBLISHER=NBCNEWS.COM AUTHOR=RAFFERTY, ANDREW, HTTP://DOCQUERY.FEC.GOV/PDF/874/15031422874/15031422874.PDF >TITLE=BEN CARSON FEC FILING PUBLISHER=FEC.GOV, May 7, 2015, DATE=JUNE 15, 2015 NBC NEWS >ACCESSDATE=JUNE 15, 2015 DATE=JUNE 15, 2015 ACCESSDATE=JUNE 16, 2015, WORK=USA TODAY ACCESSDATE=JULY 30, 2015 PUBLISHER=FEC.GOV ACCESSDATE=JULY 29, 2015, DATE=MAY 4, 2015 POLITICO >ACCESSDATE=MAY 4, 2015 DATE=MAY 4, 2015 ACCESSDATE=MAY 7, 2015, DATE=JUNE 30, 2015 THE NEW YORK TIMES >ACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2015 DATE=JULY 1, 2015 ACCESSDATE=JULY 6, 2015, ! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Rand Paul! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Rick Santorum! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Mike Huckabee! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|George Pataki! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Lindsey Graham! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Bobby Jindal! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Scott Walker! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Rick Perrycenter|120x120px)center|120x120px)center|120x120px)center|123x123px)center|120x120px)center|120x120px)center|120x120px)center|120x120px) style="text-align:center"|U.S. Senatorfrom Kentucky(2011–present)|U.S. Senatorfrom Pennsylvania(1995–2007)List of governors of Arkansas>44thGovernor of Arkansas(1996–2007)List of governors of New York>53rdGovernor of New York(1995–2006)|U.S. Senator from South Carolina(2003–present)List of governors of Louisiana>55thGovernor of Louisiana(2008–2016)|45thGovernor of Wisconsin(2011–2019)List of governors of Texas>Governor of Texas(2000–2015) style="text-align:center"Rand Paul 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignRick Santorum 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignMike Huckabee 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignGeorge Pataki 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignLindsey Graham 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignBobby Jindal 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignScott Walker 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignRick Perry 2016 presidential campaign>Campaign style="text-align:center"|W: Feb 366,781 votes|W: Feb 316,622 votes|W: Feb 151,436 votes|W: December 29, 20152,036 votes|W: December 21, 20155,666 votes|W: November 17, 2015222 votes|W: September 21, 20151 write-in vote in New Hampshire|W: September 11, 20151 write-in vote in New Hampshire style="text-align:center"DATE=APRIL 7, 2015 ACCESSDATE=APRIL 7, 2015 DATE=APRIL 7, 2015 ACCESSDATE=APRIL 7, 2015 DATE=APRIL 8, 2015 ACCESSDATE=APRIL 9, 2015, DATE=MAY 27, 2015 USA TODAY >ACCESSDATE=MAY 28, 2015 DATE=MAY 27, 2015 ACCESSDATE=JUNE 1, 2015, DATE=MAY 5, 2015 THE NEW YORK TIMES >ACCESSDATE=MAY 5, 2015 PUBLISHER=FEC.GOV, May 10, 2015, DATE=JUNE 2, 2015 ACCESSDATE=JUNE 4, 2015, "Graham bets on foreign experience in White House bid announcement", CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2015.HTTP://DOCQUERY.FEC.GOV/PDF/870/15031430870/15031430870.PDF DATE=JUNE 1, 2015 ACCESSDATE=JUNE 2, 2015, DATE=JUNE 24, 2015 THE WASHINGTON POST >ACCESSDATE=JUNE 24, 2015 AUTHOR2=HOHMANN, JAMES, HTTP://DOCQUERY.FEC.GOV/PDF/728/15031432728/15031432728.PDF >TITLE=BOBBY JINDAL FEC FILING PUBLISHER=FEC.GOV, June 30, 2015, DATE=JULY 13, 2015 ACCESSDATE=JULY 13, 2015 AUTHOR2=LEE, MJ WEBSITE=FEC ACCESSDATE=JULY 13, 2015, HTTP://SOS.NH.GOV/2016REPPRESPRIM.ASPX?ID=8589957200 >TITLE=2016 PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY – REPUBLICAN PRESIDENT – NHSOS ACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 9, 2016, DATE=JUNE 4, 2015 TIME (MAGAZINE)>TIME AUTHOR=BECKWITH, RYAN TEAGUE DATE=JUNE 19, 2015 ACCESSDATE=JUNE 22, 2015,

Vice presidential selection

Trump turned his attention towards selecting a running mate after he became the presumptive nominee on May 4, 2016.NEWS, Keneally, Meghan, Donald Trump Teases Possible VP Requirements,weblink May 4, 2016, ABC News, May 4, 2016, In mid-June, Eli Stokols and Burgess Everett of Politico reported that the Trump campaign was considering New Jersey Governor Chris Christie, former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich from Georgia, Senator Jeff Sessions of Alabama, and Oklahoma Governor Mary Fallin.NEWS, Stokols, Eli, Everett, Burgess, Trump's performance raises hard question: Who'd want to be his VP?,weblink June 21, 2016, Politico, June 17, 2016, A June 30 report from The Washington Post also included Senators Bob Corker from Tennessee, Richard Burr from North Carolina, Tom Cotton from Arkansas, Joni Ernst from Iowa, and Indiana Governor Mike Pence as individuals still being considered for the ticket.NEWS, Costa, Robert, Gingrich, Christie are the leading candidates to be Trump's running mate,weblink July 1, 2016, The Washington Post, June 30, 2016, Trump also stated that he was considering two military generals for the position, including retired Lieutenant General Michael Flynn.NEWS, Zurcher, Anthony, US election: Who will Trump pick as his vice-president?,weblink July 8, 2016, BBC, July 8, 2016, In July 2016, it was reported that Trump had narrowed his list of possible running mates down to three: Christie, Gingrich, and Pence.WEB, O'Donnell, Kelly,weblink Team Trump Plans Public Event Friday With VP Pick, NBC News, July 12, 2016, July 12, 2016, On July 14, 2016, several major media outlets reported that Trump had selected Pence as his running mate. Trump confirmed these reports in a message on Twitter on July 15, 2016, and formally made the announcement the following day in New York.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump selects Mike Pence as VP, CNN, July 14, 2016, July 14, 2016, Dana Bash, Bash, Dana, Jim Acosta, Acosta, Jim, Lee, MJ, WEB, Ivan, Levingston,weblink Donald Trump officially names Mike Pence as his VP, CNBC, July 15, 2016, July 16, 2016, On July 19, the second night of the 2016 Republican National Convention, Pence won the Republican vice presidential nomination by acclamation.NEWS, Cook, Tony, Gov. Mike Pence formally nominated as the Republican Party's vice presidential candidate,weblink July 20, 2016, The Indianapolis Star, July 19, 2016,

Democratic Party

Primaries

Former secretary of state Hillary Clinton, who also served in the U.S. Senate and was the First Lady of the United States, became the first Democrat in the field to formally launch a major candidacy for the presidency with an announcement on April 12, 2015, via a video message.NEWS,weblink Hillary Clinton Expected To Go Small With Big Announcement, April 10, 2015, NPR, Montanar, Domenico, Keith, Tamara, April 12, 2015, While nationwide opinion polls in 2015 indicated that Clinton was the front-runner for the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination, she faced strong challenges from Independent Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont,NEWS,weblink Second straight poll shows Bernie Sanders leading in New Hampshire, Boston Globe, August 26, 2015, who became the second major candidate when he formally announced on April 30, 2015, that he was running for the Democratic nomination.NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders is running for president, April 30, 2015, CNN, Merica, Dan, July 6, 2015, September 2015 polling numbers indicated a narrowing gap between Clinton and Sanders.NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders surpasses Hillary Clinton in New Hampshire polls, August 25, 2015, The Huffington Post, August 25, 2015, NEWS,weblink Huffpost Pollster, October 1, 2015, The Huffington Post, October 1, 2015, On May 30, 2015, former Governor of Maryland Martin O'Malley was the third major candidate to enter the Democratic primary race,NEWS,weblink Martin O'Malley jumps into presidential race, May 30, 2015, USA Today, Cooper, Allen, May 30, 2015, Jackson, David, followed by former independent governor and Republican senator of Rhode Island Lincoln Chafee on June 3, 2015,NEWS,weblink Lincoln Chafee announces long-shot presidential bid, June 3, 2015, The Washington Post, June 3, 2015, DelReal, Jose A., NEWS,weblink Rhode Island's Chafee enters 2016 Democratic contest, June 3, 2015, Boston Herald, Associated Press, June 3, 2015, former Virginia Senator Jim Webb on July 2, 2015,WEB,weblink Jim Webb Announces For President, July 2, 2015, U.S. News & World Report, July 2, 2015, Catanese, David, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150703113357weblink">weblink July 3, 2015, and former Harvard law professor Lawrence Lessig on September 6, 2015.NEWS,weblink Lessig: I'm running for president, September 6, 2015, Slate, September 7, 2015, Meyer, Theodoric, On October 20, 2015, Webb announced his withdrawal from the primaries, and explored a potential Independent run.WEB,weblink Jim Webb to consider running as an independent, Politico, October 25, 2015, The next day Vice-President Joe Biden decided not to run, ending months of speculation, stating, "While I will not be a candidate, I will not be silent."WEB,weblink Biden says he's not running in 2016, OnPolitics, October 25, 2015, WEB,weblink Joe Biden Not Running for President, October 21, 2015, ABC News, October 25, 2015, On October 23, Chafee withdrew, stating that he hoped for "an end to the endless wars and the beginning of a new era for the United States and humanity".NEWS,weblink Lincoln Chafee ends Democratic bid for president, Wagner, John, October 23, 2015, Weigel, David, The Washington Post, 0190-8286, October 25, 2015, On November 2, after failing to qualify for the second DNC-sanctioned debate after adoption of a rule change negated polls which before might have necessitated his inclusion in the debate, Lessig withdrew as well, narrowing the field to Clinton, O'Malley, and Sanders.WEB,weblink Lessig drops out of presidential race, November 2, 2015, Politico, November 2, 2015, Strauss, Daniel, On February 1, 2016, in an extremely close contest, Clinton won the Iowa caucuses by a margin of 0.2 points over Sanders. After winning no delegates in Iowa, O'Malley withdrew from the presidential race that day. On February 9, Sanders bounced back to win the New Hampshire primary with 60% of the vote. In the remaining two February contests, Clinton won the Nevada caucuses with 53% of the vote and scored a decisive victory in the South Carolina primary with 73% of the vote.NEWS,weblink Nevada Caucus Results, The New York Times, February 28, 2016, NEWS,weblink South Carolina Primary Results, The New York Times, February 28, 2016, On March 1, 11 states participated in the first of four "Super Tuesday" primaries. Clinton won Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Massachusetts, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia and 504 pledged delegates, while Sanders won Colorado, Minnesota, Oklahoma, and his home state of Vermont and 340 delegates. The following weekend, Sanders won victories in Kansas, Nebraska, and Maine with 15–30-point margins, while Clinton won the Louisiana primary with 71% of the vote. On March 8, despite never having a lead in the Michigan primary, Sanders won by a small margin of 1.5 points and outperforming polls by over 19 points, while Clinton won 83% of the vote in Mississippi.WEB,weblink Why The Polls Missed Bernie Sanders's Michigan Upset, March 9, 2016, FiveThirtyEight, May 1, 2016, On March 15, the second "Super Tuesday", Clinton won in Florida, Illinois, Missouri, North Carolina, and Ohio. Between March 22 and April 9, Sanders won six caucuses in Idaho, Utah, Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, and Wyoming, as well as the Wisconsin primary, while Clinton won the Arizona primary. On April 19, Clinton won the New York primary with 58% of the vote. On April 26, in the third "Super Tuesday" dubbed the "Acela primary", she won contests in Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, while Sanders won in Rhode Island. Over the course of May, Sanders accomplished another surprise win in the Indiana primaryWEB,weblink Bernie Sanders pulls off shock victory over Hillary Clinton in Indiana, Roberts, Dan, Jacobs, Ben, May 4, 2016, The Guardian, May 4, 2016, and also won in West Virginia and Oregon, while Clinton won the Guam caucus and Kentucky primary (and also non-binding primaries in Nebraska and Washington).On June 4 and 5, Clinton won two victories in the Virgin Islands caucus and Puerto Rico primary. On June 6, 2016, the Associated Press and NBC News reported that Clinton had become the presumptive nominee after reaching the required number of delegates, including pledged delegates and superdelegates, to secure the nomination, becoming the first woman to ever clinch the presidential nomination of a major U.S. political party.NEWS,weblink Clinton hits 'magic number' of delegates to clinch nomination, Dann, Carrie, June 6, 2016, NBC News, June 7, 2016, On June 7, Clinton secured a majority of pledged delegates after winning primaries in California, New Jersey, New Mexico, and South Dakota, while Sanders only won in Montana and North Dakota. Clinton also won the final primary in the District of Columbia on June 14. At the conclusion of the primary process, Clinton had won 2,204 pledged delegates (54% of the total) awarded by the primary elections and caucuses, while Sanders had won 1,847 (46%). Out of the 714 unpledged delegates or "superdelegates" who were set to vote in the convention in July, Clinton received endorsements from 560 (78%), while Sanders received 47 (7%).WEB,weblink Democratic Convention 2016, thegreenpapers.com, May 14, 2016, Although Sanders had not formally dropped out of the race, he announced on June 16, 2016, that his main goal in the coming months would be to work with Clinton to defeat Trump in the general election.NEWS,weblink Sanders vows to help Clinton beat Trump, but keeps campaign alive, June 17, 2016, Reuters, June 20, 2016, On July 8, appointees from the Clinton campaign, the Sanders campaign, and the Democratic National Committee negotiated a draft of the party's platform.NEWS,weblink Sanders backers frustrated by defeats at Orlando platform meeting, Orlando Sentinel, July 25, 2016, On July 12, Sanders formally endorsed Clinton at a rally in New Hampshire in which he appeared with her.NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders Endorses Hillary Clinton For President, July 12, 2016, Huffington Post, Reily, Molly, July 13, 2016,

Nominees

{{Hillary Clinton series}}{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%; text-align:center;"(File:U.S. Democratic Party logo (transparent).svgcenterDemocratic Party (United States))2016 Democratic Party ticket! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:{{Democratic Party (United States)/meta/color}}; width:200px;"|{{colored link|white|Hillary Clinton}}! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:{{Democratic Party (United States)/meta/color}};"|{{colored link|white|Tim Kaine}} style="color:#000; font-size:100%; background:#c8ebff;"for Presidentfor Vice Presidentcenter|200x200px)center|200x200px)List of Secretaries of State of the United States>67thU.S. Secretary of State(2009–2013)United States Senate>U.S. Senatorfrom Virginia(2013–present)Campaign(File:Clinton Kaine.svg275px)HTTPS://WWW.NYTIMES.COM/2015/04/13/US/POLITICS/HILLARY-CLINTON-2016-PRESIDENTIAL-CAMPAIGN.HTML >TITLE=HILLARY CLINTON ANNOUNCES 2016 PRESIDENTIAL BID THE NEW YORK TIMES >ACCESSDATE=APRIL 12, 2015 DATE=APRIL 12, 2015 POLITICO >ACCESSDATE=APRIL 18, 2015 DATE=APRIL 13, 2015 ACCESSDATE=APRIL 13, 2015,

Candidates

The following candidates were frequently interviewed by major broadcast networks and cable news channels, or were listed in publicly published national polls. Lessig was invited to one forum, but withdrew when rules were changed which prevented him from participating in officially sanctioned debates.Clinton received 16,849,779 votes in the primary.{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%" †Candidates in this section are sorted by date of withdrawal from the primaries! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Bernie Sanders! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Martin O'Malley! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Lawrence Lessig! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Lincoln Chafee! scope="col" style="width:3em; font-size:120%;"|Jim Webbcenter|120x120px)center|120x120px)center|120x120px)center|120x120px)center|120x120px) style="text-align:center"|U.S. Senator from Vermont (2007–present)|61stGovernor of Maryland(2007–2015)Harvard Law School>Harvard Law professor(2009–2016)|74thGovernor of Rhode Island(2011–2015)|U.S. Senatorfrom Virginia(2007–2013) style="text-align:center"Bernie Sanders 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignMartin O'Malley 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignLawrence Lessig 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignLincoln Chafee 2016 presidential campaign>CampaignJim Webb 2016 presidential campaign>Campaign style="text-align:center"{{abbr>LN|lost nomination}}: July 26, 201613,167,848 votes{{abbr>W|withdrew}}: February 1, 2016110,423 votes{{abbr>W|withdrew}}: November 2, 20154 write-in votes in New Hampshire{{abbr>W|withdrew}}: October 23, 20150 votes{{abbr>W|withdrew}}: October 20, 20152 write-in votes in New HampshireLAST2=MERICALAST3=ZELENYTITLE=BERNIE SANDERS ENDORSES HILLARY CLINTONACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 3, 2017DATE=JULY 12, 2016, "Iowa Results: Martin O'Malley drops out after third-place finish", Vox (website)>Vox.com. Retrieved February 1, 2016.HTTP://WWW.BALTIMORESUN.COM/NEWS/MARYLAND/POLITICS/BLOG/BAL-MARTIN-O-MALLEY-ENDORSES-HILLARY-CLINTON-20160609-STORY.HTML >TITLE=MARTIN O'MALLEY ENDORSES HILLARY CLINTON NEWSPAPER=BALTIMORE SUN FIRST1=JOHN, June 20, 2016, ||Merica, Dan; LoBianco, Tom (October 23, 2015) "Lincoln Chafee drops out of Democratic primary race", CNN.com. Retrieved October 23, 2015|Walsh, Michael (October 20, 2015) "Jim Webb drops out of Democratic primary race", Yahoo! Politics. Retrieved October 23, 2015.

Vice presidential selection

In April 2016, the Clinton campaign began to compile a list of 15 to 20 individuals to vet for the position of running mate, even though Sanders continued to challenge Clinton in the Democratic primaries.NEWS,weblink Hillary Clinton's Campaign, Cautious but Confident, Begins Considering Running Mates, April 23, 2016, The New York Times, Healy, Patrick, April 23, 2016, In mid-June, The Wall Street Journal reported that Clinton's shortlist included Representative Xavier Becerra from California, Senator Cory Booker from New Jersey, Senator Sherrod Brown from Ohio, Housing and Urban Development Secretary Julián Castro from Texas, Mayor of Los Angeles Eric Garcetti from California, Senator Tim Kaine from Virginia, Labor Secretary Tom Perez from Maryland, Representative Tim Ryan from Ohio, and Senator Elizabeth Warren from Massachusetts.NEWS,weblink Hillary Clinton's VP shortlist has leaked. Here are the pros and cons of each., June 16, 2016, Vox, Matthews, Dylan, July 23, 2016, Subsequent reports stated that Clinton was also considering Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack, retired Admiral James Stavridis, and Governor John Hickenlooper of Colorado.NEWS,weblink Two names emerge from Clinton's VP deliberations: Kaine and Vilsack, July 19, 2016, The Washington Post, Gearan, Anne, July 20, 2016, In discussing her potential vice presidential choice, Clinton stated that the most important attribute she looked for was the ability and experience to immediately step into the role of president.On July 22, Clinton announced that she had chosen Senator Tim Kaine from Virginia as her running mate.NEWS,weblink Sen. Timothy M. Kaine of Virginia chosen as Hillary Clinton's VP, July 22, 2016, The Washington Post, Wagner, John, Gearan, Anne, July 23, 2016, The delegates at the 2016 Democratic National Convention, which took place July 25–28, formally nominated the Democratic ticket.

Third parties and independents

File:Stein,_Johnson_signs_2016.jpg|thumb|right|Campaign signs of third-party candidates Jill Stein and Gary Johnson, October 2016 in St. Johnsbury, VermontSt. Johnsbury, VermontThird party and independent candidates who have obtained more than 100,000 votes nationally and one percent of the vote in at least one state are listed separately.

Libertarian Party

{{Gary Johnson series}}{{William Weld series}}

Additional Party Endorsements: Independence Party of New York
Ballot access to all 538 electoral votesNominees{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%; text-align:center;"(File:Libertarian Party Text logo.PNGcenter|Libertarian Party Text logo)2016 Libertarian Party ticket! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:#FED105; width:200px;"| {{color|black|Gary Johnson}}! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:#FED105; width:200px;"| {{color|black|Bill Weld}} style="color:#000; font-size:100%; background:#ffffbf;"for Presidentfor Vice Presidentcenter|200x200px)center|200x200px)List of Governors of New Mexico>29thGovernor of New Mexico(1995–2003)List of Governors of Massachusetts>68thGovernor of Massachusetts(1991–1997)Campaign(File:Johnson Weld 2016.svg250px)COLLINS >FIRST=ELIZA URL=HTTP://WWW.POLITICO.COM/STORY/2016/01/GARY-JOHNSON-2016-PRESIDENTIAL-BID-217403 POLITICO >DATE=JANUARY 6, 2016 PUBLISHER=FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION, November 13, 2016, {{clear}}

Green Party

{{Jill Stein series}} Ballot access to 480 electoral votes (522 with write-in):WEB,weblink New Hampshire Secretary of State Says Jill Stein Petition is Valid, ballot-access.org, September 2, 2016, – (:File:Green Party ballot access (2016).svg|map)
  • As write-in: Georgia, Indiana, North CarolinaWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160505231521weblink">weblink May 5, 2016, Ballot Access, gp.org, June 19, 2016, WEB,weblink Jill Stein Qualifies for Write-in Status in North Carolina; No Other Write-in Presidential Candidate Does So, Ballot Access News, August 20, 2016, August 11, 2016, Richard, Winger,
  • Ballot access lawsuit pending: OklahomaWEB,weblink Rocky De La Fuente and Jill Stein File Oklahoma Ballot Access Case, Richard, Winger, Ballot Access News, August 10, 2016, September 10, 2016,
  • No ballot access: Nevada, South DakotaWEB,weblink Nevada Green Party Loses Ballot Access Lawsuit, ballot-access.org, September 2, 2016,
Nominees{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%; text-align:center;"(File:Green Party of the United States New Logo.pngcenter|link=Green Party of the United States)2016 Green Party ticket! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:#17AA5C; width:200px;"| {{color|black|Jill Stein}}! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:#17AA5C; width:200px;"| {{color|black|Ajamu Baraka}} style="color:#000; font-size:100%; background:#6BDE9D;"for Presidentfor Vice Presidentcenter|200x200px)center|x200px)| Physicianfrom Lexington, Massachusetts| Activistfrom Washington, DCCampaign(File:SteinBaraka.png275px)HTTP://WWW.DEMOCRACYNOW.ORG/2015/6/22/EXCLUSIVE_GREEN_PARTYS_JILL_STEIN_ANNOUNCES >TITLE=EXCLUSIVE: GREEN PARTY'S JILL STEIN ANNOUNCES SHE IS RUNNING FOR PRESIDENT ON DEMOCRACY NOW! DEMOCRACY NOW! >DATE=JUNE 22, 2015 DATE=AUGUST 1, 2016, August 1, 2016, {{clear}}

Independent



Ballot access to 84 electoral votes (451 with write-in):WEB, McMullin, Evan, 34 States and Counting,weblinkweblink dead, October 2, 2016, Evan McMullin for President, Rumpf, Sarah, October 2, 2016, – (:File:Evan McMullin ballot access (2016).svg|map)
  • As write-in: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, WisconsinWEB,weblinkstatewide-elections/2016-general/list-write-in-candidates.pdf, November 8, 2016, General Election Certified List of Write-In Candidates, October 28, 2016, elections.cdn.sos.ca.gov, California Secretary of State, October 28, 2016, WEB, http:www.sots.ct.gov/sots/lib/sots/electionservices/lead_communications/2016/20161027114816968.pdf, Registered Write-In Candidates November 8, 2016, October 28, 2016, sots.ct.gov, Connecticut Secretary of State, October 28, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161029050252weblink">weblink October 29, 2016, dead, MAGAZINE,weblink Missouri Secretary of State Releases List of Presidential Write-in Candidates, Richard, Winger, Ballot Access News, October 31, 2016, November 2, 2016, WEB,weblink Six Write-in Presidential Candidates File to Have North Dakota Write-ins Counted, Richard, Winger, Ballot Access News, ballot-access.org, October 20, 2016, October 20, 2016,
  • No ballot access: District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, Indiana, Mississippi, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wyoming
In some states, Evan McMullin's running mate was listed as Nathan Johnson on the ballot rather than Mindy Finn, although Nathan Johnson was intended to only be a placeholder until an actual running mate was chosen.NEWS, Strauss, Daniel, Whoops: Independent candidate appears to have accidentally picked a running mate,weblink November 16, 2016, Politico, September 7, 2016, {| class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%; text-align:center;"2016 Independent ticket! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:#FF5800; width:200px;"| {{color|white|Evan McMullin}}! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:#FF5800; width:200px;"| {{color|white|Mindy Finn}} style="color:#000; font-size:100%; background:orange;"for Presidentfor Vice Presidentcenter|200x200px)center|200x200px)House Republican Conference {{nowrap>(2015–2016)}}| President ofEmpowered Women(2015–present)Campaign(File:EvanMcMullinMindyFinn2016.png275px)HTTPS://WWW.BUZZFEED.COM/MCKAYCOPPINS/ANTI-TRUMP-REPUBLICAN-LAUNCHING-INDEPENDENT-PRESIDENTIAL-BID >TITLE=ANTI-TRUMP REPUBLICAN LAUNCHING INDEPENDENT PRESIDENTIAL BID BUZZFEED >ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 8, 2016,

Constitution Party

Ballot access to 207 electoral votes (451 with write-in):WEB,weblink Ballot access {{!, The Constitution Party |website=www.constitutionparty.com |access-date=October 3, 2016}}WEB,weblink September 7, 2016, Richard, Winger, Ballot Access News, North Dakota Says All Three Independent Presidential Petitions are Valid, Richard Winger, – (:File:Constitution Party ballot access (2016).svg|map)
  • As write-in: Alabama, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, VirginiaWEB,weblink 2016 Election Information, Arizona Secretary of State, azsos.gov, September 28, 2016, WEB,weblink Qualifying Candidate Information, Brian, Kemp, Georgia Secretary of State, sos.ga.gov, September 12, 2016, September 13, 2016, WEB,weblink 2016 Candidate Listing, Maryland State Board of Elections, elections.state.md.us, 2016, September 21, 2016, WEB,weblink 2016 Certification of Write-in Candidates – President and Vice President, Virginia Department of Elections, November 9, 2016,
  • No ballot access: California, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Oklahoma
Nominees{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%; text-align:center;" 2016 Constitution Party ticket! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:purple; width:200px;"| {{color|white|Darrell Castle}}! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:purple; width:200px;"| {{color|white|Scott Bradley}} style="color:#000; font-size:100%; background:#A049AF;"for Presidentfor Vice Presidentcenter|200x200px)| | Attorneyfrom Memphis, Tennessee| Businessmanfrom UtahCampaign(File:Castle 2016 logo, flat.png)CONSTITUTION PARTY NOMINATES DARRELL CASTLE AND SCOTT BRADLEY >URL=HTTP://BALLOT-ACCESS.ORG/2016/04/16/CONSTITUTION-PARTY-NOMINATES-DARRELL-CASTLE/ ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 23, 2016,

Other nominations

{|class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center;"!style="width:15em;"|Party!Presidential nominee!Vice presidential nominee!style="width:5em;" data-sort-type="number"|Attainable Electors(write-in)!style="width:5em;" data-sort-type="number"|Popular Vote!style="width:18em;"|States with ballot access(write-in)American Delta PartyReform Party of the United States of America>Reform Party|Rocky De La FuenteBusinessman from CaliforniaMichael Steinberg (lawyer)>Michael SteinbergLawyer from Florida305)(:File:Rocky De La Fuente 2016 general election ballot access.svg>map)|33,133(0.02%)LAST=WINGER DATE=SEPTEMBER 1, 2016 WORK=BALLOT ACCESS NEWS NUMBER=4 DATE=SEPTEMBER 9, 2016 WEBSITE=BALLOT-ACCESS.ORG URL-STATUS=DEAD TITLE=FEDERAL NOMINATIONS FILED FOR THE 2016 GENERAL ELECTION WEBSITE=ELECTIONS.NY.GOV ACCESS-DATE=AUGUST 11, 2016, HTTP://BALLOT-ACCESS.ORG/2016/09/09/RHODE-ISLAND-SECRETARY-OF-STATE-SAYS-THREE-INDEPENDENT-PRESIDENTIAL-PETITIONS-HAVE-ENOUGH-VALID-SIGNATURES/ >TITLE=RHODE ISLAND SECRETARY OF STATE SAYS THREE INDEPENDENT PRESIDENTIAL PETITIONS HAVE ENOUGH VALID SIGNATURES WORK=BALLOT ACCESS NEWS, HTTP://BALLOT-ACCESS.ORG/2016/09/08/WYOMING-SAYS-JILL-STEIN-AND-ROCKY-DE-LA-FUENTE-HAVE-ENOUGH-VALID-SIGNATURES-STILL-CHECKING-EVAN-MCMULLIN/ >TITLE=WYOMING SAYS JILL STEIN AND ROCKY DE LA FUENTE HAVE ENOUGH VALID SIGNATURES WORK=BALLOT ACCESS NEWS, (Alabama, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Indiana, Kansas, Maryland, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia)HTTP://WWW.SOS.KS.GOV/ELECTIONS/16ELEC/2016_GENERAL_ELECTION-WRITE-IN_PRESIDENTIAL_CANDIDATES.PDF >TITLE=2016 GENERAL ELECTION WRITE-IN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES WEBSITE=SOS.KS.GOV ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 2, 2016, HTTPS://WWW.ELECTIONS.NY.GOV/NYSBOE/DOWNLOAD/LAW/OFFICIALPRESIDENTIALWRITE-INS2016.PDF >TITLE=OFFICIAL WRITE-IN CANDIDATES FOR PRESIDENT WEBSITE=WWW.ELECTIONS.NY.GOV ACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 24, 2016 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20161025115417/HTTPS://WWW.ELECTIONS.NY.GOV/NYSBOE/DOWNLOAD/LAW/OFFICIALPRESIDENTIALWRITE-INS2016.PDF LAST=WINGER DATE=JULY 1, 2016 PAGE=4 NUMBER=2 QUOTE=STATES THAT ALLOW WRITE-INS IN THE GENERAL ELECTION, AND DON'T HAVE WRITE-IN FILING LAWS, ARE LEGALLY OBLIGED TO COUNT ALL WRITE-INS: ALABAMA, IOWA, NEW HAMPSHIRE, NEW JERSEY, PENNSYLVANIA, RHODE ISLAND, SOUTH CAROLINA, AND VERMONT.... ONLY ONE STATE, SOUTH CAROLINA, HAS A LAW THAT SAYS THAT ALTHOUGH WRITE-INS IN GENERAL ELECTIONS ARE PERMITTED, THEY ARE NOT PERMITTED FOR PRESIDENT., HTTP://ELECTIONS.DELAWARE.GOV/PDFS/2016GENERALELECTIONDECLAREDWRITEINCANDIDATES.PDF >TITLE=DECLARED WRITE-IN CANDIDATES, NOVEMBER 8, 2016 GENERAL ELECTION WEBSITE=ELECTIONS.DELAWARE.GOV ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 21, 2016, HTTP://WWW.IN.GOV/SOS/ELECTIONS/FILES/2016%20GENERAL%20ELECTION%20CANDIDATE%20ABBREVIATED%20LIST%2008%2022%2016.PDF >TITLE=2016 GENERAL ELECTION CANDIDATE ABBREVIATED LIST WEBSITE=WWW.IN.GOV ACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 11, 2016, HTTP://BALLOT-ACCESS.ORG/2016/10/31/MISSOURI-SECRETARY-OF-STATE-ADDS-ROCKY-DE-LA-FUENTE-TO-THE-LIST-OF-DECLARED-WRITE-IN-PRESIDENTIAL-CANDIDATES/ >TITLE=MISSOURI SECRETARY OF STATE ADDS ROCKY DE LA FUENTE TO THE LIST OF DECLARED WRITE-IN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES LAST=WINGER WEBSITE=BALLOT-ACCESS.ORG ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 1, 2016, HTTP://WWW.THEGREENPAPERS.COM/G16/NE >TITLE=NEBRASKA 2016 GENERAL ELECTION LAST=ROZA YEAR=2016 WEBSITE=BALLOTPEDIA.ORG ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 20, 2016, HTTPS://WWW.SOS.WA.GOV/_ASSETS/ELECTIONS/CANDIDATES/2016-WRITE-IN-PRESIDENTAL.PDF >TITLE=OFFICIAL LIST OF WRITE-IN CANDIDATES FOR THE 2016 GENERAL ELECTION PUBLISHER=WASHINGTON SECRETARY OF STATE YEAR=2016 PUBLISHER=WEST VIRGINIA SECRETARY OF STATE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=SEPTEMBER 10, 2016, |Party for Socialism and LiberationPeace and FreedomWEB,weblink Peace & Freedom Party Nominates Gloria LaRiva for President, Richard, Winger, Ballot Access News, August 13, 2016, August 13, 2016, Liberty Union PartyNEWS,weblink Liberty Union Party of Vermont Nominates Gloria La Riva for President, Winger, Richard, May 15, 2016, Ballot Access News, May 16, 2016, |Gloria La RivaNewspaper printer and activist from California|Eugene PuryearActivist from Washington, DC226)(:File:Gloria La Riva ballot access (2016).svg>map)|74,402(0.05%)FIRST=RICHARD WEBSITE=BALLOT-ACCESS.ORG NUMBER=4 DATE=SEPTEMBER 1, 2016 PUBLISHER=FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE, DIVISION OF ELECTIONS YEAR=2016 Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, West Virginia)HTTP://WWW.THEGREENPAPERS.COM/G16/MN#P EDITOR=TONY ROZA YEAR=2016, October 26, 2016, Socialist Workers Party (United States)>Socialist Workers Party|Alyson KennedyMineworker and Labor Leader from Illinois|Osborne Hartof Pennsylvania123)(:File:Socialist Workers Party ballot access, 2016.svg>map)|12,465(0.01%)|Colorado, Louisiana, Minnesota, New Jersey, Tennessee, Utah, Washington(Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)|Workers World PartyMonica Mooreheadperennial candidate and political activist from AlabamaHTTP://INDEPENDENTPOLITICALREPORT.COM/2015/11/WORKERS-WORLD-PARTY-NOMINATES-MONICA-MOOREHEAD-FOR-PRESIDENT/ DATE=NOVEMBER 9, 2015 ACCESS-DATE=AUGUST 2, 2016, Lamont Lillyof North CarolinaHTTP://WWW.INDYWEEK.COM/NEWS/ARCHIVES/2016/06/16/DURHAMS-LAMONT-LILLY-IS-RUNNING-FOR-VICE-PRESIDENT-OF-THE-UNITED-STATES LAST=HUDNALL ACCESS-DATE=AUGUST 2, 2016, 235)(:File:Workers World Party ballot access 2016.svg>map)|4,319(0.00%)Alabama, Indiana, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, New Hampshire, New, York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia)HTTP://WWW.SOS.IDAHO.GOV/ELECT/CANDIDAT/2016/16_GENERAL_WRITEIN_LIST.PDF PUBLISHER=IDAHO SECRETARY OF STATE DATE=OCTOBER 11, 2016 EDITOR=TONY ROZA YEAR=2016 FIRST=RICHARD PUBLISHER=BALLOT ACCESS NEWS DATE=NOVEMBER 2, 2016 ARCHIVEDATE=SEPTEMBER 29, 2016 FIRST=HENRY PUBLISHER=MONTANA SECRETARY OF STATE DATE=OCTOBER 5, 2016 FIRST=LAURA PUBLISHER=OHIO SECRETARY OF STATE DATE=OCTOBER 3, 2016 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 12, 2016, HTTP://WWW.SOS.STATE.TX.US/ELECTIONS/FORMS/2016-WRITEIN-PRESIDENTIAL-CERTIFICATIONS.PDF >TITLE=2016 WRITE-IN CERTIFICATE WITH NEW PRESIDENTIAL WRITE-IN WEBSITE=SOS.STATE.TX.US ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 22, 2016 ARCHIVE-DATE=SEPTEMBER 13, 2016, dead, |Socialist Party USANatural Law PartyWEB,weblink Natural Law Party of Michigan Nominates Socialist Party National Ticket | Ballot Access News, Ballot-access.org, August 2, 2016, Mimi Soltysikformer National Co-Chair of the Socialist Party USA from CaliforniaHTTP://BALLOT-ACCESS.ORG/2015/10/17/SOCIALIST-PARTY-NATIONAL-TICKET-NOMINATED/ DATE=OCTOBER 17, 2015 BALLOT ACCESS NEWS >LAST1=WINGER ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 17, 2015, Campaign|Angela Nicole Walkerof Wisconsin209)(:File:Emidio Soltysik ballot access 2016.svg>map)|2,704(0.00%)GuamHTTP://BALLOT-ACCESS.ORG/2016/09/25/SOCIALIST-PARTY-IS-ONLY-PARTY-BESIDES-REPUBLICANS-AND-DEMOCRATS-TO-FILE-FOR-GUAM-ADVISORY-PRESIDENTIAL-VOTE/ FIRST=RICHARD EDITOR= WEBSITE=BALLOT-ACCESS.ORG ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 26, 2016, (Alabama, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Wisconsin)HTTPS://ELECTIONS.UTAH.GOV/ELECTION-RESOURCES/2016-CANDIDATE-FILINGS#FEDERAL%7CTITLE=2016 >TITLE=2016 CANDIDATE FILLINGS WEBSITE=ELECTIONS.UTAH.GOV ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 10, 2016, |Prohibition PartyJames Hedgesformer Tax Assessor for Thompson Township, Fulton County, PennsylvaniaHTTP://BALLOT-ACCESS.ORG/2015/07/31/PROHIBITION-PARTY-NOMINATES-NATIONAL-TICKET/ WORK=BALLOT ACCESS NEWS ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 3, 2015, HTTP://DOCQUERY.FEC.GOV/PDF/045/201510270300031045/201510270300031045.PDF >TITLE=JAMES HEDGES FEC FILING WORK=FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION, October 30, 2015, |Bill Bayesof Mississippi116)(:File:Prohibition Party ballot access (2016).svg>map)|5,617(0.00%)|Arkansas, Colorado, Mississippi(Alabama, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia)|Independent|Mike SmithLawyer, Colorado|Daniel White|20(222)|9,345(0.01%)Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington. West Virginia)HTTP://WWW.ELECTIONS.ALASKA.GOV/ELECTION/2016/GENERAL/CANDIDATE_INFO_GEN_2016.PHP WEBSITE=ELECTIONS.ALASKA.GOV YEAR=2016 WEBSITE=APPS.SOS.KY.GOV URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=SEPTEMBER 30, 2016, |Independent|Richard DuncanReal Estate Agent from Ohio|Ricky JohnsonPreacher from Pennsylvania|18(173)|24,307(0.02%)FIRST=JON PUBLISHER=OHIO SECRETARY OF STATE DATE=AUGUST 24, 2016 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160919062914/HTTP://WWW.SOS.STATE.OH.US/SOS/MEDIACENTER/2016/2016-08-24.ASPX URL-STATUS=DEAD, (Alabama, Alaska, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia)|Independent|Laurence KotlikoffEconomics Professor at Boston University, MassachusettsEdward E. LeamerEconomics Professor at University of California, Los Angeles>UCLA, California428)(:File:Laurence Kotlikoff ballot access (2016).svg>map)|3,596(0.00%)Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin)HTTP://ELECTIONS.WI.GOV/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/PAGE/REGISTERED_WRITE_IN_CANDIDATES_10_19_2016_PDF_54893.PDF ARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 23, 2016 PUBLISHER=WISCONSIN ELECTIONS COMMISSION ACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 19, 2016, HTTP://BALLOT-ACCESS.ORG/2016/09/19/GEORGIA-SECRETARY-OF-STATE-NOW-SAYS-LAURENCE-KOTLIKOFF-MAY-BE-A-DECLARED-WRITE-IN-PRESIDENTIAL-CANDIDATE/ >TITLE=GEORGIA SECRETARY OF STATE NOW SAYS LAURENCE KOTLIKOFF MAY BE A DECLARED WRITE-IN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE LAST=WINGER WEBSITE=BALLOT-ACCESS.ORG ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 21, 2016, HTTP://WWW.COOKCOUNTYCLERK.COM/ELECTIONS/2016ELECTIONS/PAGES/110816WRITEINCANDIDATES.ASPX >TITLE=NOVEMBER 8, 2016 WRITE-IN CANDIDATES WEBSITE=COOKCOUNTYCLERK.COM ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 11, 2016 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20161012075627/HTTP://WWW.COOKCOUNTYCLERK.COM/ELECTIONS/2016ELECTIONS/PAGES/110816WRITEINCANDIDATES.ASPX PUBLISHER=MAINE BUREAU OF CORPORATIONS, ELECTIONS & COMMISSIONS DATE=SEPTEMBER 9, 2016 url=http://sos.tn.gov/elections first=Kathy publisher=Tennessee Secretary of State date=October 4, 2016 |accessdate=October 4, 2016}}|America's PartyTom Hoeflingactivist from IowaZIGGLER URL=HTTP://WWW.INDEPENDENTPOLITICALREPORT.COM/2016/01/TOM-HOEFLING-ANNOUNCES-2016-PRESIDENTIAL-CAMPAIGN/ PUBLISHER=INDEPENDENT POLITICAL REPORT ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 15, 2016, |Steve Schulinof South Carolina369)(:File:Tom Hoefling ballot access (2016).svg>map)|4,845(0.00%)FIRST=RICHARD PUBLISHER=BALLOT ACCESS NEWS DATE=SEPTEMBER 26, 2016, September 26, 2016, (Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin)|Veterans Party of AmericaTexasHTTP://CHRISKENISTON2016.COM/ URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=AUGUST 29, 2015, NevadaHTTP://WWW.VETERANSPARTYOFAMERICA.ORG/WEBSITE=VETERANS PARTY OF AMERICA, 196)(:File:Veterans Party ballot access, 2016.svg>map)|7,248(0.01%)|Colorado, Louisiana(Alabama, Alaska, Idaho, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin)|Legal Marijuana Now Party|Dan Vacekof Minnesota|Mark Elworth Jr.of Nebraska|16(77)|13,537(0.01%)|Iowa, Minnesota(Alabama, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)|Independent|Lynn KahnDoctor of Clinical Psychology from Maryland|Kathleen Monahanof Florida|12(160)|5,730(0.00%)|Arkansas, Iowa(Alabama, Delaware, Idaho, Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia)|American Solidarity Party|Mike Maturensales professional and magician from Michigan|Juan Muñozof Texas332)(:File:Mike Maturen ballot access (2016) (1).svg>map)|6,714(0.00%)EDITOR=WAYNE WILLIAMS WEBSITE=SOS.STATE.CO.US ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 10, 2016, (Alabama, Alaska, California, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin)|Independent|Joseph Allen Maldonadoof Oklahoma|Douglas K. Terranova|9(212)|961(0.00%)|Colorado(Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin)|Independent|Ryan Alan Scott|Bruce Kendall Barnard|9(108)|749(0.00%)|Colorado(Alabama, Delaware, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)American Party of South Carolina>American Party (South Carolina)|Peter SkewesAnimal Science Professor at Clemson University, South Carolina|Michael Lacy|9(83)|3,246(0.00%)TITLE=AMERICAN PARTY OF SOUTH CAROLINA NOMINATES PETER SKEWES FOR PRESIDENT WEBSITE=BALLOT ACCESS NEWS DATE=JUNE 1, 2016, (Alabama, Connecticut, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)|Approval Voting Party|Frank Atwoodof Colorado|Blake Huberof Colorado|9(76)|337(0.00%)|Colorado(Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)|Independent American Party|Kyle Kenley Kopitkeof Michigan|Narthan R. Sorenson|9(76)|1,096(0.00%)|Colorado(Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)|Nutrition PartyRod Silva (businessman)>Rod Silvarestaurateur from New JerseyHTTP://DOCQUERY.FEC.GOV/PDF/407/201510209003140407/201510209003140407.PDF >TITLE=FEC FORM 2: STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY PUBLISHER=FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION >LAST1=SILVA ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 22, 2015, HTTP://RODSILVA2016.COM/ >TITLE=MY FELLOW AMERICANS LAST1=SILVA ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 22, 2015 ARCHIVE-DATE=DECEMBER 23, 2015, dead, |Richard Silva|9(76)|751(0.00%)|Colorado(Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)|United States Pacifist Party|Bradford Lyttlepeace activist from Illinois|Hannah Walsh|9(76)|382(0.00%)|Colorado(Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)Socialist Equality Party (United States)>Socialist Equality PartyJerry White (socialist)>Jerry Whitepeace activist from Michigan|Niles Niemuthjournalist from Wisconsin|8(166)|481(0.00%)EDITOR=TOM SCHEDLER WEBSITE=SOS.LA.GOV ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 10, 2016, (Alabama, California, Delaware, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia)|Independent|Princess Khadijah Jacob-Fambroof California|Milton Fambroof California|8(75)|749(0.00%)|Louisiana(Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)|Independent American Party|Rocky Giordanifrom California|Farley Andersonactivist from Utah|6(79)|2,752(0.00%)|Utah(Alabama, Iowa, Kansas, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)|Constitution Party of Idaho|Scott Copelandof Texas|J.R. Meyers|4(71)|2,356(0.00%)PUBLISHER=IDAHO SECRETARY OF STATE DATE=SEPTEMBER 1, 2016, September 10, 2016, (Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)

General election campaign

(File:2016 Presidential Election ballot.jpg|thumb|left|A general election ballot, listing the presidential and vice presidential candidates.)Hillary Clinton focused her candidacy on several themes, including raising middle class incomes, expanding women's rights, instituting campaign finance reform, and improving the Affordable Care Act. In March 2016, she laid out a detailed economic plan basing her economic philosophy on inclusive capitalism, which proposed a "clawback" that rescinds tax relief and other benefits for companies that move jobs overseas; with provision of incentives for companies that share profits with employees, communities and the environment, rather than focusing on short-term profits to increase stock value and rewarding shareholders; as well as increasing collective bargaining rights; and placing an "exit tax" on companies that move their headquarters out of the U.S. in order to pay a lower tax rate overseas.NEWS,weblink Clinton Offers Economic Plan Focused on Jobs, Amy, Chozick, The New York Times, March 4, 2016, Clinton promoted equal pay for equal work to address current alleged shortfalls in how much women are paid to do the same jobs men do,NEWS,weblink Hillary Clinton: Equal pay, problem-solving would be top priorities, February 24, 2015, CBS News, promoted explicitly focus on family issues and support of universal preschool,NEWS,weblink Clinton patches relations with liberals at campaign's outset, The Big Story, Associated Press, Lisa, Lerder, April 19, 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150623162718weblink">weblink June 23, 2015, expressed support for the right to same-sex marriage, and proposed allowing undocumented immigrants to have a path to citizenship stating that it "{{bracket|i}}s at its heart a family issue".NEWS, Chozick, Amy, A Path to Citizenship, Clinton Says, 'Is at Its Heart a Family Issue',weblink The New York Times, May 5, 2015, Donald Trump's campaign drew heavily on his personal image, enhanced by his previous media exposure.WEB,weblink Explaining Donald Trump's Massive Branding Power, Geoff, Colvin, April 28, 2016, en-US, July 16, 2016, Fortune, The primary slogan of the Trump campaign, extensively used on campaign merchandise, was Make America Great Again. The red baseball cap with the slogan emblazoned on the front became a symbol of the campaign, and has been frequently donned by Trump and his supporters.WEB, Mai-Duc, Christine, Inside the Southern California factory that makes the Donald Trump hats,weblink latimes.com, July 17, 2016, November 12, 2015, Trump's right-wing populist positions—reported by The New Yorker to be nativist, protectionist, and semi-isolationist—differ in many ways from traditional conservatism.MAGAZINE,weblink Donald Trump Is Transforming the G.O.P. Into a Populist, Nativist Party, Cassidy, John, The New Yorker, February 29, 2016, March 5, 2016, What is perhaps more surprising, at least to Washington-based conservatives, is how many Republicans are also embracing Trump's populist lines on ending free trade, protecting Social Security, and providing basic health care., He opposed many free trade deals and military interventionist policies that conservatives generally support, and opposed cuts in Medicare and Social Security benefits. Moreover, he has insisted that Washington is "broken" and can only be fixed by an outsider.WEB,weblink How Trump Exposed the Tea Party, Politico Magazine, For years the Republican elite has gotten away with promoting policies about trade and entitlements that are the exact opposites of the policies favored by much of their electoral base. Populist conservatives who want to end illegal immigration, tax the rich, protect Social Security and Medicare, and fight fewer foreign wars have been there all along. It's just that mainstream pundits and journalists, searching for a libertarian right more to their liking (and comprehension), refused to see them before the Summer of Trump., NEWS, Nicholas Confessore, How the G.O.P. Elite Lost Its Voters to Donald Trump,weblink The New York Times, March 28, 2016, March 28, 2016, While wages declined and workers grew anxious about retirement, Republicans offered an economic program still centered on tax cuts for the affluent and the curtailing of popular entitlements like Medicare and Social Security., NEWS, Greg Sargent, This one anecdote perfectly explains how Donald Trump is hijacking the GOP,weblink The Washington Post, March 28, 2016, March 29, 2016, Support for Trump was high among working and middle-class white male voters with annual incomes of less than $50,000 and no college degree.NEWS, Thomas B. Edsall, Who Are the Angriest Republicans?,weblink The New York Times, March 30, 2016, March 30, 2016, This group, particularly those with less than a high-school education, suffered a decline in their income in recent years.NEWS, Steve Rattner, Steven Rattner, White, working class men back Trump, charts show,weblink March 25, 2016, Morning Joe MNSBC, January 8, 2016, video, Steve Rattner breaks down the demographics of who is supporting Donald Trump and how these supporters are doing financially. Duration: 2:25, According to The Washington Post, support for Trump is higher in areas with a higher mortality rate for middle-age white people.NEWS, Jeff Guo, Death predicts whether people vote for Donald Trump,weblink March 18, 2016, The Washington Post, March 4, 2016, Even after controlling for these other factors, the middle-aged white death rate in a county was still a significant predictor of the share of votes that went to Trump, A sample of interviews with more than 11,000 Republican-leaning respondents from August to December 2015 found that Trump at that time found his strongest support among Republicans in West Virginia, followed by New York, and then followed by six Southern states.Nate Cohn, Donald Trump's Strongest Supporters: A Certain Kind of Democrat, The New York Times (December 31, 2015).Clinton had an uneasy – and, at times, adversarial – relationship with the press throughout her life in public service.NEWS, Glenn, Thrush, Maggie, Haberman, What Is Hillary Clinton Afraid Of,weblink Politico, May 2014, Weeks before her official entry as a presidential candidate, Clinton attended a political press corps event, pledging to start fresh on what she described as a "complicated" relationship with political reporters.NEWS, Dan, Merica, Hillary Clinton seeks 'new beginning' with the press,weblink CNN, March 24, 2015, Clinton was initially criticized by the press for avoiding taking their questions,NEWS, Jason, Horowitz, Hillary Clinton, Acutely Aware of Pitfalls, Avoids Press on Campaign Trail,weblink The New York Times, May 22, 2015, it makes all the political sense in the world for Mrs. Clinton to ignore them, NEWS, Paul, Waldman, Why Hillary Clinton needs to start treating the press better,weblink The Washington Post, June 2, 2015, after which she provided more interviews.In contrast, Trump benefited from free media more than any other candidate. From the beginning of his campaign through February 2016, Trump received almost $2 billion in free media attention, twice the amount that Clinton received.Nicholas Confessore & Karen Yourish, Measuring Donald Trump's Mammoth Advantage in Free Media, The New York Times (March 16, 2016). According to data from the Tyndall Report, which tracks nightly news content, through February 2016, Trump alone accounted for more than a quarter of all 2016 election coverage on the evening newscasts of NBC, CBS and ABC, more than all the Democratic campaigns combined.WEB, How much does Donald Trump dominate TV news coverage? This much,weblink CNN, February 17, 2016, WEB, Tyndall, Andrew, COMMENTS: Campaign 2016 Coverage: Annual Totals for 2015,weblink February 17, 2016, NEWS, Byers, Dylan, Donald Trump: Media King, 2015,weblink CNN, February 17, 2016, Observers noted Trump's ability to garner constant mainstream media coverage "almost at will".MAGAZINE, Walsh, Kenneth, How Donald Trump's Media Dominance Is Changing the 2016 Campaign,weblink US News & World Report, February 17, 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160225000859weblink">weblink February 25, 2016, However, Trump frequently criticized the media for writing what he alleged to be false stories about himWEB, 43 Times Donald Trump Has Attacked The Media As A Presidential Candidate,weblink The Huffington Post, February 17, 2016, and he has called upon his supporters to be "the silent majority".NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Defiantly Rallies a New 'Silent Majority' in a Visit to Arizona, The New York Times, July 17, 2015, Nicholas, Fandos, July 11, 2015, Trump also said the media "put false meaning into the words I say", and says he does not mind being criticized by the media as long as they are honest about it.Walsh, Kenneth. "Trump: Media Is 'Dishonest and Corrupt'" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160916083614weblink |date=September 16, 2016 }}, U.S. News and World Report (August 15, 2016).Koppel, Ted. "Trump: 'I feel I'm an honest person'", CBS News (July 24, 2016).Both Clinton and Trump were seen unfavorably by the general public, and their controversial nature set the tone of the campaign.WEB,weblink RealClearPolitics – Clinton & Trump: Favorability Ratings, Real Clear Politics, November 16, 2016, File:Donald Trump with supporters (30354747180).jpg|thumb|Trump campaigns in Phoenix, ArizonaPhoenix, ArizonaClinton's practice during her time as Secretary of State of using a private email address and server, in lieu of State Department servers, gained widespread public attention back in March 2015.NEWS,weblink Using Private Email, Hillary Clinton Thwarted Record Requests, Schmidt, Michael S., Chozick, Amy, The New York Times, March 3, 2015, Concerns were raised about security and preservation of emails, and the possibility that laws may have been violated.NEWS,weblink Clinton e-mail review could find security issues, Leonnig, Carol D., Helderman, Rosalind S., Gearan, Anne, The Washington Post, March 6, 2015, After allegations were raised that some of the emails in question fell into this so-called "born classified" category, an FBI probe was initiated regarding how classified information was handled on the Clinton server.NEWS,weblink Clinton Emails Held Indirect References to Undercover CIA Officers, Ken, Dilanian, NBC News, February 4, 2016, NEWS, Scott, Shane, Michael S., Schmidt, Hillary Clinton Emails Take Long Path to Controversy,weblink The New York Times, August 8, 2015, NEWS, Douglas, Cox,weblink Hillary Clinton email controversy: How serious is it?, July 27, 2015, CNN, NEWS, Glenn, Kessler,weblink How did 'top secret' emails end up on Hillary Clinton's server?, February 4, 2016, The Washington Post, The FBI probe was concluded on July 5, 2016, with a recommendation of no charges, a recommendation that was followed by the Justice Department.Also, on September 9, 2016, Clinton stated: "You know, just to be grossly generalistic, you could put half of Trump's supporters into what I call the basket of deplorables. They're racist, sexist, homophobic, xenophobic, Islamophobic—you name it."WEB, Hillary Clinton's 'Basket Of Deplorables,' In Full Context Of This Ugly Campaign,weblink National Public Radio, NPR, Domenico, Montanaro, September 10, 2016, The remarks also remind of inflammatory remarks in recent presidential elections on both sides — from Barack Obama's assertion in 2008 that people in small towns are "bitter" and "cling to guns or religion," to Mitt Romney's 2012 statement that 47 percent of Americans vote for Democrats because they are "dependent upon government" and believe they are "victims," to his vice presidential pick Paul Ryan's comment that the country is divided between "makers and takers.", Donald Trump criticized her remark as insulting his supporters.NEWS,weblink Clinton Calls Some Trump Supporters 'Basket of Deplorables', Bloomberg News, Jennifer, Epstein, September 10, 2016, Republican pollster Frank Luntz described Clinton's comments as her "47 percent moment," a reference to Republican Mitt Romney's remarks at a private fundraiser in the 2012 campaign., NEWS, Hillary Clinton Calls Many Trump Backers 'Deplorables,' and GOP Pounces,weblink New York Times, Amy, Chozick, September 10, 2016, Prof. Jennifer Mercieca, an expert in American political discourse at Texas A&M University, said in an email that the "deplorable" comment "sounds bad on the face of it" and compared it to Mr. Romney's 47 percent gaffe. "The comment demonstrates that she (like Romney) lacks empathy for that group," Professor Mercieca said., The following day Clinton expressed regret for saying "half", while insisting that Trump had deplorably amplified "hateful views and voices".NEWS, Hillary Clinton Says She Regrets Part of Her 'Deplorables' Comment,weblink Time (magazine), Time, Katie, Reilly, September 10, 2016, Previously on August 25, 2016, Clinton gave a speech criticizing Trump's campaign for using "racist lies" and allowing the alt-right to gain prominence.NEWS,weblink Hillary Clinton Says 'Radical Fringe' Is Taking Over G.O.P. Under Donald Trump, New York Times, Matt, Flegenheimer, August 25, 2016, File:Hillary Clinton Raleigh (29892054003).jpg|thumb|left|Clinton campaigns in Raleigh, North CarolinaRaleigh, North CarolinaOn September 11, 2016, Clinton left a 9/11 memorial event early due to illness.WEB,weblink Hillary Clinton stumbles -- will her campaign follow?, Stephen Collinson, CNN, CNN, Video footage of Clinton's departure showed Clinton becoming unsteady on her feet and being helped into a van.WEB,weblink Press rips Clinton campaign's handling of health incident, Gabriel, Debenedetti, POLITICO, Later that evening, Clinton reassured reporters that she was "feeling great".WEB,weblink Suffering from pneumonia, Clinton falls ill at 9/11 memorial,..., September 12, 2016, www.reuters.com, After initially stating that Clinton had become overheated at the event, her campaign later added that she had been diagnosed with pneumonia two days earlier. The media criticized the Clinton campaign for a lack of transparency regarding Clinton's illness. Clinton cancelled a planned trip to California due to her illness. The episode drew renewed public attention to questions about Clinton's health.On the other side, on October 7, 2016, video and accompanying audio were released by The Washington Post in which Trump referred obscenely to women in a 2005 conversation with Billy Bush while they were preparing to film an episode of Access Hollywood. In the recording, Trump described his attempts to initiate a sexual relationship with a married woman and added that women would allow male celebrities to grope their genitalia (Trump used the phrase "grab 'em by the pussy"). The audio was met with a reaction of disbelief and disgust from the media.Cassidy, John, A Sexual Predator in the Republican Party's Midst, The New Yorker, October 8, 2016.WEB,weblink Trump recorded having extremely lewd conversation about women in 2005, October 7, 2016, WEB,weblink 2005 Video Shows Donald Trump Saying Lewd Things About Women, October 7, 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161008100545weblink">weblink October 8, 2016, Following the revelation, Trump's campaign issued an apology, stating that the video was of a private conversation from "many years ago".WEB,weblink Trump on hot mic: 'When you're a star ... You can do anything' to women, October 7, 2016, The incident was condemned by numerous prominent Republicans like Reince Priebus, Mitt Romney, John Kasich, Jeb BushNEWS, Harrington, Rebecca, RNC Chair Reince Priebus condemns Trump for obscene comments about women in 2005 video,weblink October 7, 2016, October 8, 2016, Business Insider, and the Speaker of the House Paul Ryan.WEB,weblink Speaker Paul Ryan disinvites Trump to his campaign event, says he's 'sickened' by tape, Los Angeles Times, October 7, 2016, October 7, 2016, Lee, Kurtis, By October 8, several dozen Republicans had called for Trump to withdraw from the campaign and let Pence head the ticket.NEWS,weblink Here's the fast-growing list of Republicans calling for Donald Trump to drop out, Blake, Aaron, October 8, 2016, The Washington Post, October 8, 2016, Trump insisted he would never drop out.NEWS, Costa, Robert, Amid growing calls to drop out, Trump vows to 'never withdraw',weblink October 8, 2016, The Washington Post, October 8, 2016, Trump apologized for the remarks.WEB,weblink Trump: 'I Said It, I Was Wrong, And I Apologize.', Olivia, Nuzzi, October 8, 2016, The Daily Beast, The ongoing controversy of the election made third parties attract voters' attention. On March 3, 2016, Libertarian Gary Johnson addressed the Conservative Political Action Conference in Washington DC, touting himself as the third-party option for anti-Trump Republicans.WEB,weblink Gary Johnson: Third party is going to be the Libertarian Party | On Air Videos, Fox Business, April 27, 2016, Benjy Sarlin, Anti-Trump forces have few options for third party alternative, MSNBC (March 4, 2016): "'I am the third party,' former New Mexico Gov. Gary Johnson, the party's 2012 nominee, told conservative gathering CPAC on Thursday. 'The Libertarian Party will be on the ballot in all 50 states.'" In early May, some commentators opined that Johnson was moderate enough to pull votes away from both Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump who were very disliked and polarizing.NEWS, Rogers, Ed,weblink Who is Gary Johnson?, The Washington Post, December 14, 2012, May 12, 2016, Both conservative and liberal media noted that Johnson could get votes from "Never Trump" Republicans and disaffected Bernie Sanders supporters.WEB,weblink As Between Trump and Clinton, Gary Johnson (or Austin Petersen) is the Best Choice for President, RedState, May 4, 2016, May 12, 2016, Johnson also began to get time on national television, being invited on ABC News, NBC News, CBS News, CNN, Fox News, MSNBC, Bloomberg, and many other networks.NEWS, Watkins, Eli,weblink Libertarian candidate Gary Johnson: What Donald Trump says is 'ridiculous', CNN, May 12, 2016, In September and October 2016, Johnson suffered a "string of damaging stumbles when he has fielded questions about foreign affairs".NEWS, Maggie Haberman, Alexander Burns,weblink Gary Johnson Equates Syria Deaths Caused by Assad and West, The New York Times, October 5, 2016, NEWS, Weigel, David,weblink Gary Johnson gives a foreign policy speech and chides the media for giving him pop quizzes, The Washington Post, October 7, 2016, Johnson tried to put a string of foreign policy gaffes behind him on Friday .., On September 8, Johnson, when he appeared on MSNBC's Morning Joe, was asked by panelist Mike Barnicle, "What would you do, if you were elected, about Aleppo?" (referring to a war-torn city in Syria). Johnson responded, "And what is Aleppo?"NEWS,weblink Wright, David, What is Aleppo?, CNN, September 9, 2016, His response prompted widespread attention, much of it negative.WEB,weblink Politico, Libertarian candidate Gary Johnson: 'What is Aleppo?', Louis, Nelson, September 8, 2016, September 11, 2016, Later that day, Johnson said that he had "blanked" and that he did "understand the dynamics of the Syrian conflict – I talk about them every day."On the other hand, Green Party candidate Jill Stein stated that the Democratic and Republican parties are "two corporate parties" that have converged into one.WEB,weblink I am Jill Stein, Green Party candidate for President, AMA! • /r/IAmA, reddit, July 19, 2016, Concerned by the rise of the far right internationally and the tendency towards neoliberalism within the Democratic Party, she has said, "The answer to neofascism is stopping neoliberalism. Putting another Clinton in the White House will fan the flames of this right-wing extremism."WEB,weblink WATCHJill Stein: To stop Trump's neofascism, we must stop Clinton's neoliberalism, Haaretz.com, July 31, 2016, WEB, https:www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvAJ2WrJm3Q, Left Forum 2016, Is Sanders the Answer to Building Left and Black Power?, youtube, Open University of the Left, August 17, 2016, In response to Johnson's growing poll numbers, the Clinton campaign and Democratic allies increased their criticism of Johnson in September 2016, warning that "a vote for a third party is a vote for Donald Trump" and deploying Senator Bernie Sanders (Clinton's former primary rival, who supported her in the general election) to win over voters who might be considering voting for Johnson or for Stein.WEB, Jonathan Easley, Ben Kamisar,weblink Democrats target Libertarian ticket, September 28, 2016, The Hill, On October 28, eleven days before the election, FBI Director James Comey informed Congress that the FBI was analyzing additional Clinton emails obtained during its investigation of an unrelated case.NEWS,weblink Comey notified Congress of email probe despite DOJ concerns, Perez, Evan, Brown, Pamela, October 29, 2016, CNN, October 29, 2016, NEWS,weblink FBI discovered Clinton-related emails weeks ago, Perez, Evan, Brown, Pamela, October 31, 2016, CNN, October 31, 2016, On November 6, he notified Congress that the new emails did not change the FBI's earlier conclusion.WEB,weblink FBI finds no criminality in review of newly discovered Clinton emails, NBC News, November 6, 2016, November 6, 2016, NEWS,weblink Emails Warrant No New Action Against Hillary Clinton, F.B.I. Director Says, November 6, 2016, The New York Times, November 6, 2016, style"background:lightgrey;"">

Ballot access {|class"wikitable" style"background:lightgrey;"

! rowspan="2"|Presidential ticket! rowspan="2"|Party! colspan="3"|Ballot access! rowspan="2"|VotesWEB, Official 2016 Presidential General Election Results,weblink Federal Election Commission, December 2017, February 12, 2018, NEWS, Leip, David, January 20, 2017, 2016 Presidential General Election Results,weblink Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections, Newton, Massachusetts, February 4, 2018, ! rowspan="2"|Percentage style="background:lightgrey;"!States!Electors!% of voters{{Party shading/Republican}}|Trump / Pence|Republican50 + Washington, DC>DC|538|100%|62,984,828|46.09%{{Party shading/Democratic}}|Clinton / Kaine|Democratic50 + Washington, DC>DC|538|100%|65,853,514|48.18%{{Party shading/Libertarian}}|Johnson / Weld|Libertarian50 + Washington, DC>DC|538|100%|4,489,341|3.28%{{Party shading/Green}}|Stein / Baraka|Green44 + Washington, DC>DC|480|89%|1,457,218|1.07%{{Party shading/Independent}}|McMullin / Finn|Independent|11|84|15%|731,991|0.54%{{Party shading/Constitution}}|Castle / Bradley|Constitution|24|207|39%|203,090|0.15%
  • Candidates in bold were on ballots representing 270 electoral votes, without needing write-in states.
  • All other candidates were on the ballots of fewer than 25 states, but had write-in access greater than 270.

Party conventions

{{Location map many | USA |left| width=400| caption={{Legend|blue|Democratic Party}}{{Legend|red|Republican Party}}{{Legend|gold|Libertarian Party}}{{Legend|green|Green Party}}{{Legend|purple|Constitution Party}}| alt=Map of United States showing Philadelphia, Cleveland, Orlando, and Houston mark1size=10 lon1_deg=-75.1667 position1=bottom mark2size=10 lon2_deg=-81.6697 position2=top mark3size=8 lon3_deg=-81.2989 position3=top mark4size=8 lon4_deg=-95.3773 position4=top mark5size=8 lon5_deg=-111.883 position5=top}}
Democratic Party
  • July 25–28, 2016: Democratic National Convention was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.NEWS,weblink Democrats pick Philadelphia for 2016 convention, USA Today, February 12, 2015, February 12, 2015, Camia, Catalina, Martha A., Moore,


Republican Party
  • July 18–21, 2016: Republican National Convention was held in Cleveland, Ohio.WEB,weblink August 8, 2014, RNC officially approves Cleveland as 2016 convention host, CBS News, August 14, 2014, WEB, Isenstadt, Alex, January 14, 2014,weblink GOP convention set for July 18–21 in 2016, Politico, January 15, 2015,


Libertarian Party
  • May 26–30, 2016: Libertarian National Convention was held in Orlando, Florida.WEB,weblink Libertarian Party Moves into National Party Headquarters That it Owns, Ballot Access News, July 11, 2014, July 11, 2014, Winger, Richard, Richard Winger, WEB,weblinkweblink February 8, 2016, dead, Libertarian National Committee Minutes July 15–16, 2012, Libertarian National Committee, July 11, 2014, 4,


Green Party


Constitution Party

Campaign finance

This is an overview of the money used in the campaign as it is reported to Federal Election Commission (FEC) and released in September 2016. Outside groups are independent expenditure only committees—also called PACs and SuperPACs. The sources of the numbers are the FEC and Center for Responsive Politics.WEB, 2016 Presidential Race,weblink OpenSecrets.org, Center for Responsive Politics, February 26, 2016, Some spending totals are not available, due to withdrawals before the FEC deadline. {{as of|2016|September|df=US}}, ten candidates with ballot access have filed financial reports with the FEC.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="font-size:12px; text-align: center;"! rowspan="2" |Candidate! colspan="4" |Campaign committee (as of December 9)! colspan="3" |Outside groups (as of December 9)! rowspan="2" |Total spent! Money raised! Money spent! Cash on hand! Debt! Money raised! Money spent! Cash on handHillary ClintonHTTP://WWW.OPENSECRETS.ORG/PRES16/CANDIDATE.PHP?ID=N00000019 >TITLE=SUMMARY DATA FOR HILLARY CLINTON, 2016 CYCLE YEAR=2016 PUBLISHER=FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION YEAR=2016, October 23, 2016, |$497,808,791|$435,367,811|$62,440,979|$111,238 |$205,909,959|$204,267,754|$1,642,205|$639,635,565Donald TrumpHTTPS://WWW.OPENSECRETS.ORG/PRES16/CANDIDATE.PHP?ID=N00023864 >TITLE=SUMMARY DATA FOR DONALD TRUMP, 2016 CYCLE YEAR=2016 PUBLISHER=FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION YEAR=2016, October 23, 2016, |$247,541,449|$231,546,996|$15,994,454|$2,086,572|$74,905,285|$70,941,922|$3,963,363|$302,488,918Gary JohnsonHTTPS://WWW.OPENSECRETS.ORG/PRES16/CANDIDATE.PHP?ID=N00033226 >TITLE=SUMMARY DATA FOR GARY JOHNSON, 2016 CYCLE YEAR=2016 PUBLISHER=FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION YEAR=2016, October 23, 2016, |$11,410,313|$10,308,873|$1,101,440|$0|$1,386,554|$1,310,578|$75,976|$11,619,451Rocky De La FuenteHTTP://WWW.FEC.GOV/FECVIEWER/CANDIDATECOMMITTEEDETAIL.DO?TABINDEX=1&CANDIDATECOMMITTEEID=P60016342&ELECTIONYR=2016 >TITLE=DETAILS FOR CANDIDATE ID: P60016342 WORK=FEC.GOV ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 23, 2016, |$7,351,270|$7,354,663 -$3,392|$0|$0|$0|$0|$7,354,663Jill SteinHTTPS://WWW.OPENSECRETS.ORG/PRES16/CANDIDATE.PHP?ID=N00033776 >TITLE=SUMMARY DATA FOR JILL STEIN, 2016 CYCLE YEAR=2016 PUBLISHER=FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION YEAR=2016, October 23, 2016, |$3,509,477|$3,451,174|$58,303|$87,740|$0|$0|$0|$3,451,174Evan McMullinHTTP://WWW.FEC.GOV/FECVIEWER/CANDIDATECOMMITTEEDETAIL.DO?TABINDEX=1&CANDIDATECOMMITTEEID=P60022654&ELECTIONYR=2016 >TITLE=DETAILS FOR CANDIDATE ID: P60022654 WORK=FEC.GOV ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 23, 2016, |$1,644,102|$1,642,165|$1,937|$0|$0|$0|$0|$1,642,165Darrell CastleHTTP://WWW.FEC.GOV/FECVIEWER/CANDIDATECOMMITTEEDETAIL.DO?TABINDEX=1&CANDIDATECOMMITTEEID=P60021102&ELECTIONYR=2016 >TITLE=DETAILS FOR CANDIDATE ID: P60021102 WORK=FEC.GOV ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 23, 2016, |$52,234|$51,365|$869|$2,500|$0|$0|$0|$51,365Gloria La RivaHTTP://WWW.FEC.GOV/FECVIEWER/CANDIDATECOMMITTEEDETAIL.DO?TABINDEX=1&CANDIDATECOMMITTEEID=P80005572&ELECTIONYR=2016 >TITLE=DETAILS FOR CANDIDATE ID: P80005572 WORK=FEC.GOV ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 23, 2016, |$29,243|$24,207|$5,034|$0|$0|$0|$0|$24,207Monica MooreheadHTTP://WWW.FEC.GOV/FECVIEWER/CANDIDATECOMMITTEEDETAIL.DO?TABINDEX=1&CANDIDATECOMMITTEEID=C00607788&ELECTIONYR=2016 >TITLE=DETAILS FOR COMMITTEE ID: C00607788 WORK=FEC.GOV ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 23, 2016, |$11,547|$9,127|$2,419|$4,500|$0|$0|$0|$9,127Peter SkewesHTTP://WWW.FEC.GOV/FECVIEWER/CANDIDATECOMMITTEEDETAIL.DO?TABINDEX=1&CANDIDATECOMMITTEEID=P60012960&ELECTIONYR=2016 >TITLE=DETAILS FOR CANDIDATE ID: P60012960 WORK=FEC.GOV ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 23, 2016, |$7,966|$4,238|$7,454|$8,000|$0|$0|$0|$4,238

Voting rights

The 2016 presidential election was the first in 50 years without all the protections of the original Voting Rights Act.WEB, Berman, Ari, The Nation,weblink The GOP's Attack on Voting Rights Was the Most Under-Covered Story of 2016, November 9, 2016, Fourteen states had new voting restrictions in place, including swing states such as Virginia and Wisconsin.WEB, Brennan Center for Justice,weblink New Voting Restrictions in America, WEB, The Nation, Wisconsin's Voter-ID Law Suppressed 200,000 Votes in 2016 (Trump Won by 22,748); A new study shows how voter-ID laws decreased turnout among African-American and Democratic voters, May 9, 2017, Berman, Ari,weblink WEB, Green, Matthew, KQED,weblink MAP: States With New Voting Restrictions in Place for the 2016 Presidential Election, November 8, 2016, WEB, Milligan, Susan, U.S. News & World Report, I (Wish I) Voted: Recent changes to voting rights impact elections, April 1, 2016,weblink WEB, Berry, Deborah Barfield, USA Today, January 29, 2016,weblink New state voting laws face first presidential election test,

Newspaper endorsements

Clinton was endorsed by The New York Times,NEWS, Editorial Board, Hillary Clinton for President, The New York Times, September 24, 2016,weblink September 24, 2016, the Los Angeles Times,NEWS, Politico staff, LA Times endorses Clinton, bashes Trump, Politico, September 23, 2016,weblink September 24, 2016, the Houston Chronicle,NEWS,weblink Hillary Clinton endorsed by Houston Chronicle, Trump 'danger to the Republic', Naomi, Lim, CNN, August 1, 2016, the San Jose Mercury News,NEWS,weblink Editorial: In battle for America's soul, Hillary Clinton is our pick, October 21, 2016, The San Jose Mercury News, the Chicago Sun-TimesWEB,weblink Editorial: Vote for Clinton and avert a train wreck, Chicago Sun-Times, September 30, 2016, and the New York Daily NewsNEWS,weblink Daily News Editorial Board says Vote Hillary Clinton: She's the best choice for President, while Donald Trump represents a clear and present danger to the republic, July 28, 2016, Daily News (New York), Daily News, New York, editorial boards. Trump, who has frequently criticized the mainstream media, was not endorsed by the vast majority of newspapers,NEWS, Diaz, John, Trump strikes out on newspaper endorsements,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, October 26, 2016, October 7, 2016, WEB, Hod, Italy, Donald Trump Makes History With Zero Major Newspaper Endorsements,weblink Yahoo News, October 26, 2016, with the Las Vegas Review-Journal,WEB, Editorial:Donald Trump for president,weblink Las Vegas Journal-Review, October 26, 2016, The Florida Times-Union,WEB, Editorial: Trump is the change agent America needs,weblink jacksonville.com, and the tabloid National Enquirer his highest profile supporters.WEB,weblink Cannon, Carl, Trump's tabloid, RealClearPolitics.com, May 9, 2016, May 15, 2016, Several papers which endorsed Clinton, such as the Houston Chronicle, The Dallas Morning News,NEWS,weblink We recommend Hillary Clinton for president, September 6, 2016, The Dallas Morning News, The San Diego Union-Tribune,NEWS,weblink Endorsement Why Hillary Clinton is the safe choice for president, September 30, 2016, U-T San Diego, The Columbus DispatchNEWS,weblink For president: Trump unfit, Clinton is qualified, The Columbus Dispatch, October 9, 2016, and The Arizona Republic,WEB,weblink Endorsement: Hillary Clinton is the only choice to move America ahead, The Arizona Republic Editorial Board, September 27, 2016, endorsed their first Democratic candidate for many decades. USA Today, which had not endorsed any candidate since it was founded in 1982, broke tradition by giving an anti-endorsement against Trump, declaring him "unfit for the presidency".WEB,weblink Campaign 2016 updates: Another newspaper that has long backed GOP candidates bucks Donald Trump, LA Times, WEB,weblink USA Today's Editorial Board: Trump is 'unfit for the presidency', The Atlantic, which has been in circulation since 1857, gave Clinton its third-ever endorsement (after Abraham Lincoln and Lyndon Johnson).WEB,weblink The Case for Hillary Clinton And Against Donald Trump, October 5, 2016, Other traditionally Republican papers, including the New Hampshire Union Leader, which had endorsed the Republican nominee in every election for the last 100 years,NEWS,weblink Union Leader breaks with 100-year tradition, endorses Gary Johnson, Daniella, Diaz, Cassie, Spodak, CNN, September 14, 2016, September 27, 2016, The Detroit News, which had not endorsed a non-Republican in its 143 years,WEB,weblink Endorsement: Libertarian Gary Johnson for president, October 6, 2016, and the Chicago Tribune,NEWS, Editorial: A principled option for U.S. president: Endorsing Gary Johnson, Libertarian,weblink Chicago Tribune, October 26, 2016, September 30, 2016, endorsed Gary Johnson.

Russian involvement

On December 9, 2016, the Central Intelligence Agency issued an assessment to lawmakers in the US Senate, stating that a Russian entity hacked the DNC and John Podesta's emails to assist Donald Trump. The Federal Bureau of Investigation agreed.WEB,weblink FBI in agreement with CIA that Russia aimed to help Trump win White House, washingtonpost.com, December 21, 2016, President Barack Obama ordered a "full review" into such possible intervention.NEWS,weblink Barack Obama orders 'full review' of possible Russian hacking in US election, Washington, Spencer Ackerman David Smith in, December 9, 2016, The Guardian, en-GB, 0261-3077, December 10, 2016, Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper in early January 2017 testified before a Senate committee that Russia's meddling in the 2016 presidential campaign went beyond hacking, and included disinformation and the dissemination of fake news, often promoted on social media.WEB,weblink Top U.S. intelligence official: Russia meddled in election by hacking, spreading of propaganda, January 5, 2017, The Washington Post, President-elect Trump originally called the report fabricated,NEWS,weblink Trump, Mocking Claim That Russia Hacked Election, at Odds with G.O.P., Sanger, David E., December 10, 2016, The New York Times, 0362-4331, December 10, 2016, and Wikileaks denied any involvement by Russian authorities.NEWS,weblink Secret CIA assessment says Russia was trying to help Trump win White House, The Washington Post, Entous, Adam, Nakashima, Ellen, Miller, Greg, December 9, 2016, Days later, Trump said he could be convinced of the Russian hacking "if there is a unified presentation of evidence from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other agencies".WEB, Damian Paletta & Kate O'Keeffe,weblink Donald Trump's Team Tones Down Skepticism on Russia Hacking Evidence, Wall Street Journal, December 18, 2016, Several U.S. senators—including Republicans John McCain, Richard Burr, and Lindsey Graham—demanded a congressional investigation.WEB,weblink Chuck Schumer Calls For Investigation Into Russian Interference In The Election, Levine, Sam, December 10, 2016, The Huffington Post, December 10, 2016, The Senate Intelligence Committee announced the scope of their (:File:Joint Statement on Committee Inquiry into Russian Intelligence Activities.pdf|official inquiry) on December 13, 2016, on a bipartisan basis; work began on January 24, 2017.A formal Special Counsel investigation headed by former FBI director Robert Mueller was initiated in May 2017 to uncover the detailed interference operations by Russia, and to determine whether any people associated with the Trump campaign were complicit in the Russian efforts. Mueller concluded his investigation on March 22, 2019, by submitting his report to Attorney General William Barr.WEB, Special Counsel Mueller submits report to attorney general,weblink NBC News, March 22, 2019, March 22, 2019, On March 24, 2019, Barr submitted a letter describing Mueller's conclusions,WEB,weblink Letter, Scribd, en, March 24, 2019, WEB,weblink Trump did not collude with Russia, says Mueller, and is cleared of obstruction by the attorney general, Kimball, Jacob Pramuk, Spencer, March 24, 2019, www.cnbc.com, March 24, 2019, and on April 18, 2019, a redacted version of the Mueller Report was released to the public. It concluded that Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election did occur "in sweeping and systematic fashion" and "violated U.S. criminal law."WEB, Inskeep, Steve, Detrow, Scott, Johnson, Carrie, Davis, Susan, Greene, David, Redacted Mueller Report Released; Congress, Trump React,weblink NPR, 22 April 2019, WEB, The Mueller Report,weblink YaleGlobal Online, MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies, The first method detailed in the final report was the usage of the Internet Research Agency, waging "a social media campaign that favored presidential candidate Donald J. Trump and disparaged presidential candidate Hillary Clinton".NEWS, Main points of Mueller report,weblink Agence France-Presse, April 20, 2019,weblink April 20, 2019, The Internet Research Agency also sought to "provoke and amplify political and social discord in the United States".WEB, Harris, Shane, Nakashima, Ellen, Timberg, Craig, Through email leaks and propaganda, Russians sought to elect Trump, Mueller finds,weblink April 18, 2019, The Washington Post, April 23, 2019, The second method of Russian interference saw the Russian intelligence service, the GRU, hacking into email accounts owned by volunteers and employees of the Clinton presidential campaign, including that of campaign chairman John Podesta, and also hacking into "the computer networks of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) and the Democratic National Committee (DNC)". As a result, the GRU obtained hundreds of thousands of hacked documents, and the GRU proceeded by arranging releases of damaging hacked material via the WikiLeaks organization and also GRU's personas "DCLeaks" and "Guccifer 2.0."WEB, Mackey, Robert, Risen, James, Aaronson, Trevor, Annotating special counsel Robert Mueller's redacted report,weblink The Intercept, April 23, 2019, WEB, Dunleavy, Jerry, Mueller says Russia's GRU stole Clinton, DNC emails and gave them to WikiLeaks,weblink Washington Examiner, April 23, 2019, Mueller Report, vol. I, p. 4: At the same time that the IRA operation began to focus on supporting candidate Trump in early 2016, the Russian government employed a second form of interference: cyber intrusions (hacking) and releases of hacked materials damaging to the Clinton Campaign. The Russian intelligence service known as the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Russian Army (GRU) carried out these operations. In March 2016, the GRU began hacking the email accounts of Clinton Campaign volunteers and employees, including campaign chairman John Podesta. In April 2016, the GRU hacked into the computer networks of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) and the Democratic National Committee (DNC). The GRU stole hundreds of thousands of documents from the compromised email accounts and networks. Around the time that the DNC announced in mid-June 2016 the Russian government's role in hacking its network, the GRU began disseminating stolen materials through the fictitious online personas "DCLeaks" and "Guccifer 2.0." The GRU later released additional materials through the organization WikiLeaks.To establish whether a crime was committed by members of the Trump campaign with regard to Russian interference, the special counsel's investigators "applied the framework of conspiracy law", and not the concept of "collusion", because collusion "is not a specific offense or theory of liability found in the United States Code, nor is it a term of art in federal criminal law."WEB, Morais, Betsy, Collusion by any other name,weblink April 18, 2019, Columbia Journalism Review, April 23, 2019, Mueller Report, vol. I, p. 2: In evaluating whether evidence about collective action of multiple individuals constituted a crime, we applied the framework of conspiracy law, not the concept of "collusion." In so doing, the Office recognized that the word "collud[e]" was used in communications with the Acting Attorney General confirming certain aspects of the investigation's scope and that the term has frequently been invoked in public reporting about the investigation. But collusion is not a specific offense or theory of liability found in the United States Code, nor is it a term of art in federal criminal law. For those reasons, the Office's focus in analyzing questions of joint criminal liability was on conspiracy as defined in federal law. They also investigated if members of the Trump campaign "coordinated" with Russia, using the definition of "coordination" as having "an agreement â€” tacit or express â€” between the Trump campaign and the Russian government on election interference". Investigators further elaborated that merely having "two parties taking actions that were informed by or responsive to the other's actions or interests" was not enough to establish coordination.Mueller Report, vol. I, p. 2: In connection with that analysis, we addressed the factual question whether members of the Trump Campaign "coordinat[ed]" â€” a term that appears in the appointment order â€” with Russian election interference activities. Like collusion, "coordination" does not have a settled definition in federal criminal law. We understood coordination to require an agreement â€” tacit or express â€” between the Trump Campaign and the Russian government on election interference. That requires more than the two parties taking actions that were informed by or responsive to the other's actions or interests. We applied the term coordination in that sense when stating in the report that the investigation did not establish that the Trump Campaign coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities.The Mueller Report writes that the investigation "identified numerous links between the Russian government and the Trump campaign", found that Russia "perceived it would benefit from a Trump presidency" and that the 2016 Trump presidential campaign "expected it would benefit electorally" from Russian hacking efforts. Ultimately, "the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities".WEB, Ostriker, Rebecca, Puzzanghera, Jim, Finucane, Martin, Datar, Saurabh, Uraizee, Irfan, Garvin, Patrick, What the Mueller report says about Trump and more,weblink The Boston Globe, April 22, 2019, MAGAZINE, Law, Tara, Here Are the Biggest Takeaways From the Mueller Report,weblink Time (magazine), Time, April 22, 2019, However, investigators had an incomplete picture of what had really occurred during the 2016 campaign, due to some associates of Trump campaign providing either false, incomplete or declined testimony, as well as having deleted, unsaved or encrypted communications. As such, the Mueller Report "cannot rule out the possibility" that information then unavailable to investigators would have presented different findings.WEB, Yen, Hope, AP Fact Check: Trump, Barr distort Mueller report findings,weblink Associated Press, May 2, 2019, WEB, Lemon, Jason, Trump campaign figures deleted communications before Mueller could see them, potentially altering report,weblink Newsweek, May 8, 2019,

Notable expressions, phrases, and statements

  • Basket of deplorables: A controversial phrase coined by Hillary Clinton to describe half of those who support Trump.
  • Because you'd be in jail: Off the cuff quip by Donald Trump during the second presidential debate, in rebuttal to Clinton stating it was “awfully good someone with the temperament of Donald Trump is not in charge of the law in our country”.
  • Big-league: A word used by Donald Trump most notably during the first presidential debate, misheard by many as bigly, when he said, "I'm going to cut taxes big-league, and you're going to raise taxes big-league."
WEB,weblink Trump ends debate on 'bigly' vs. 'big league', Hensch, Mark, October 28, 2016, The Hill,
  • Birdie Sanders: During a campaign stop in Portland, Oregon, a house finchIs This House Finch Feeling The Bern?. Audubon. landed on Sanders's lectern while he was addressing a large crowd of supporters.NEWS, Dake, Lauren, March 25, 2016, Call him Birdie Sanders: bird interrupts Oregon rally to thunderous applause,weblink live, US Politics, The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, Portland, Oregon,weblink June 5, 2018, June 4, 2018, The event became popular with the Sanders community and Sanders even began to publicize the bird as "Birdie Sanders".
  • Build the wall: A chant used at many Trump campaign rallies, and Donald Trump's corresponding promise of the Mexican Border Wall.
  • Drain the swamp: A phrase Donald Trump invoked late in the campaign to describe what needs to be done to fix problems in the federal government. Trump acknowledged that the phrase was suggested to him, and he was initially skeptical about using it.NEWS, Trump explains why he 'didn't like' the phrase 'drain the swamp' but now does,weblink October 26, 2016, April 3, 2018, Washington Post,
  • Feel the Bern: A phrase chanted by supporters of the Bernie Sanders campaign which was officially adopted by his campaign.MAGAZINE,weblink Here's the Origin Story of Bernie Sanders' 'Feel the Bern' Hashtag, Time, February 12, 2018, February 9, 2018,
  • Grab 'em by the pussy: A remark made by Trump during a 2005 behind-the-scenes interview with presenter Billy Bush on NBCUniversal's Access Hollywood, which was released during the campaign. The remark was part of a conversation in which Trump boasted that "when you're a star, they let you do it" (i.e. grope women's genitalia).
  • I like people who weren't captured: Donald Trump's criticism of Senator John McCain, who was a prisoner of war of the North Vietnamese.WEB,weblink The 21 craziest quotes from the campaign trail, Gass, Nick, November 25, 2015, Politico, WEB,weblink 16 Memorable Quotes from the 2016 Campaign Trail, December 21, 2015, PBS,
  • I'm with her: Clinton's unofficial campaign slogan ("Stronger Together" was the official slogan).WEB,weblink The Story Behind "I'm With Her", April 11, 2017, Meg, Miller,
  • Lock her up: A chant first used at the Republican convention to claim that Hillary Clinton is guilty of a crime. The chant was later used at many Trump campaign rallies.NEWS,weblink November 22, 2016, Peter, Stevenson, A brief history of the 'Lock her up!' chant by Trump supporters against Clinton, Washington Post,
  • Make America great again: Donald Trump's campaign slogan.
  • Mexico will pay for it: Trump's campaign promise that if elected he will build a wall on the border between the US and Mexico, with Mexico financing the project.NEWS, 'Build that wall' has taken on a life of its own at Donald Trump's rallies — but he's still serious, Washington Post, February 12, 2016,weblink Jenna, Johnson, NEWS,weblink September 1, 2016, Trump insists after meeting: 'Mexico will pay for the wall!', Politico, Nick, Gass,
  • Nicknames used by Trump to deride his opponents: These include "Crooked Hillary", "Little Marco", "Low-energy Jeb", and "Lyin' Ted".
  • Russia, if you're listening: Used by Donald Trump to invite Russia to illegally "find the 30,000 emails that are missing" (from Hillary Clinton) during a July 2016 news conference.WEB,weblink Trump's 'Russia, if you're listening' remark one year ago today still dogging him, Diaz, Alex, July 27, 2017, Fox News Network,
  • Such a nasty woman: Donald Trump's response to Hillary Clinton after her saying that her proposed rise in Social Security Contributions would also include Trump's Social Security contributions, "assuming he can't figure out how to get out of it". Later reappropriated by supporters of ClintonWEB, MemeOfTheWeek: Nasty Woman, Donald Trump, Hillary Clinton And Janet Jackson, October 20, 2016, Sanders, Sam,weblink NPR, WEB, Goldman, Nate, October 20, 2016, Presenting The Best Memes Of The Third Presidential Debate,weblink Wired (magazine), Wired, WEB, The New York Times, How Pepe the Frog and Nasty Woman Are Shaping the Election, Williams, Alex, October 28, 2016,weblink and women's rights.WEB, 'Nasty': A Feminist History, October 12, 2016, Garber, Megan,weblink The Atlantic, WEB, Nasty Women, November 1, 2016, Jones, Ann,weblink The Huffington Post, WEB, The Guardian, 'This is just the beginning': women who marched against Trump vow to fight on, Siddiqui, Sabrina, Gambino, Lauren, Redden, Molly, Walters, Joanna, January 22, 2017,weblink
  • They're bringing drugs. They're bringing crime. They're rapists. And some, I assume, are good people: Donald Trump's controversial description of those crossing the Mexico–United States border during his June 2015 announcing the launch of his campaign.WEB, Full text: Donald Trump announces a presidential bid,weblink The Washington Post, June 16, 2015, March 9, 2019,
  • What is Aleppo?: Uttered by Gary Johnson during an interview when questioned about the status of Aleppo during the Syrian Civil War.WEB,weblink Libertarian candidate Gary Johnson: 'What is Aleppo?', September 8, 2016, Politico, Nelson, Strauss, Louis, Daniel,
  • What, like with a cloth or something?: Said by Hillary Clinton in response to being asked whether she "wiped" her emails during an August 2015 press conference.
  • What the hell do you have to lose?: Said by Donald Trump to inner-city African Americans at rallies starting on August 19, 2016.NEWS, LoBianco, Tom, Killough, Ashley, Trump pitches black voters: "What the hell do you have to lose?",weblink May 9, 2018, CNN, August 19, 2016, NEWS, Gass, Nick, Trump defends telling black voters "what do you have to lose?",weblink May 9, 2018, POLITICO, September 21, 2016, "Then one day I said, 'what do you have to lose?' I mean what do you have to lose? I'm going to fix it. What do you have to lose?" Trump said. "And somehow that resonated.",
  • When they go low, we go high: Said by then-first lady Michelle Obama during her Democratic convention speech.WEB,weblink 20 memorable quotes from 2016 presidential election, Follett, Taylor, November 8, 2016, The Daily Californian,
  • Why aren’t I 50 points ahead?: Question asked by Hillary Clinton during a video address to the Laborers' International Union of North America on September 21, 2016, which was then turned into an opposition ad by the Trump campaign.NEWS,weblink Clinton asks why she isn’t beating Trump by 50 points, The Washington Post, John, Wagner, September 21, 2016, January 24, 2019, NEWS,weblink Clinton: Why aren't I 50 points ahead? New Trump ad: Uh, here's why, AdAge, Simon, Dumenco, September 30, 2016, January 24, 2019,

Debates

Primary election

General election

{{Location map+| USA| width = 320| caption = Sites of the 2016 general election debates| alt = Map of United States showing debate locations| places =
{{Location map~ | USA
| label = Hofstra UniversityHempstead, NY
| label_size = 75
| position = top
| lat_deg = 40.712167
| lon_deg = -73.599529
}}
{{Location map~ | USA
| label = Longwood UniversityFarmville, VA
| mark = Green pog.svg
| label_size = 75
| position = bottom
| lat_deg = 37.301556
| lon_deg = -78.394194
}}
{{Location map~ | USA
| label = Washington UniversitySt. Louis, MO
| label_size = 75
| position = top
| lat_deg = 38.648
| lon_deg = -90.305
}}
{{Location map~ | USA
| label = University of NevadaLas Vegas
| label_size = 75
| position = bottom
| lat_deg = 36.10779
| lon_deg = -115.14376
}}
}}The Commission on Presidential Debates (CPD), a non-profit organization, hosted debates between qualifying presidential and vice-presidential candidates. According to the commission's website, to be eligible to opt to participate in the anticipated debates, "in addition to being Constitutionally eligible, candidates must appear on a sufficient number of state ballots to have a mathematical chance of winning a majority vote in the Electoral College, and have a level of support of at least 15 percent of the national electorate as determined by five selected national public opinion polling organizations, using the average of those organizations' most recently publicly-reported results at the time of the determination.""The Commission on Presidential Debates: An Overview" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160926232716weblink |date=September 26, 2016 }}, Debates.org.The three locations (Hofstra University, Washington University in St. Louis, University of Nevada, Las Vegas) chosen to host the presidential debates, and the one location (Longwood University) selected to host the vice presidential debate, were announced on September 23, 2015. The site of the first debate was originally designated as Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio; however, due to rising costs and security concerns, the debate was moved to Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York.WEB,weblink Hofstra University offers debate spots for WSU students, Dayton Daily News, July 19, 2016, July 21, 2016, Hulsey, Lynn, On August 19, Kellyanne Conway, Trump's campaign manager confirmed that Trump would participate in a series of three debates.WEB, Flores, Reena, Campaign manager: Trump will attend all three presidential debates,weblink CBS News, August 19, 2016, WEB,weblink CPD Announces 2016 Debate Host Applicants, Commission on Presidential Debates, April 2, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150403010620weblink">weblink April 3, 2015, dead, WEB, Sanchez, Stephen M., Three Texas Locations Vie For 2016 Presidential Debates,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150403202820weblink">weblink April 3, 2015, San Antonio Daily News, April 2, 2015, WEB, Commission on Presidential Debates announces sites and dates for 2016 general election debates,weblink Commission on Presidential Debates, September 23, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151018233608weblink">weblink October 18, 2015, dead, Trump had complained two of the scheduled debates, one on September 26 and the other October 9, would have to compete for viewers with National Football League games, referencing the similar complaints made regarding the dates with low expected ratings during the Democratic Party presidential debates.WEB,weblink Trump wants three presidential debates, accuses Clinton of rigging schedule, Politico, July 29, 2016, July 30, 2016, Lima, Cristiano, There were also debates between independent candidates.{| class="wikitable" style="white-space: nowrap; text-align: center;"|+ Debates among candidates for the 2016 U.S. presidential election †!No.|| Date || Time || Host || City || Moderator(s) || Participants!Viewership(Millions)|P1| September 26, 2016| 9 p.m. EDT| Hofstra UniversityHempstead (village), New York>Hempstead, New York| Lester Holt|Donald TrumpHillary ClintonWEBSITE=WWW.DEBATES.ORG, April 21, 2019, |VP| October 4, 2016| 9 p.m. EDT| Longwood University| Farmville, Virginia| Elaine Quijano|Mike PenceTim Kaine|37.0|P2| October 9, 2016| 8 p.m. CDT| Washington University in St. Louis| St. Louis, Missouri| Anderson CooperMartha Raddatz|Donald TrumpHillary Clinton|66.5|P3| October 19, 2016| 6 p.m. PDT| University of Nevada, Las Vegas| Las Vegas, NevadaChris Wallace (journalist)>Chris Wallace|Donald TrumpHillary Clinton|71.6

General election polling

Results

File:Barack Obama casts an early vote in the 2016 election (cropped).jpg|thumb|President Barack Obama casting his vote early in ChicagoChicago

Election night

The news media and election experts were surprised twice: first, at Trump's winning the GOP nomination; second, at his winning the electoral college. English political scientist Lloyd Gruber said, "One of the major casualties of the 2016 election season has been the reputation of political science, a discipline whose practitioners had largely dismissed Donald Trump's chances of gaining the Republican nomination."Lloyd Gruber, "How political scientists got Trump exactly wrong." USApp– American Politics and Policy Blog (01 Jun 2016) The final polls showed a lead by Clinton—and in the end she did receive more votes.Fred Andrew Wright and Alec Aidan Wright, "How Surprising Was Trump's Victory? Notes on Predictions in the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election" (January 16, 2017). online at SSRN Trump himself expected, based on polling, to lose the election, and rented a small hotel ballroom to make a brief concession speech; "I said if we're going to lose I don't want a big ballroom", he later remarked.NEWS, Jacobs, Jennifer, House, Billy, Trump Says He Expected to Lose Election Because of Poll Results,weblink Bloomberg L.P., December 14, 2016, December 15, 2016, The Republican candidate performed surprisingly well in all battleground states, especially Florida, Iowa, Ohio and North Carolina. Even Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and Michigan, states that had been predicted to vote Democratic, were won by Trump.NEWS,weblink Live Coverage: Election Night 2016, November 8, 2016, Kansas Public Radio, November 10, 2016, Cindy Adams, present at Trump Tower, reported that "Trumptown knew they'd won by 5:30. Math, calculations, candidate dislike causing voter abstention begat the numbers."NEWS,weblink I know exactly who Trump is: A man who keeps his promises, Adams, Cindy, November 9, 2016, New York Post, Cindy Adams, Trump said that he was surprised by how "that map was getting red as hell. That map was bleeding red ... I always used to believe in [polls]. I don't believe them anymore."{{r|bloomberg20161213}}According to the authors of (Shattered: Inside Hillary Clinton's Doomed Campaign), by late Tuesday night the White House had concluded that Trump would win the election. Obama's political director David Simas called Clinton campaign manager Robby Mook to persuade Clinton to concede the election, with no success. Obama then called Clinton directly, citing the importance of continuity of government, to ask her to publicly acknowledge that Trump had won.BOOK, Allen, Jonathan, Parnes, Amie, "I'm sorry",weblink Shattered: inside Hillary Clinton's doomed campaign, Crown, New York, 2017, 9780553447095, Believing that Clinton was still unwilling to concede, the president then called her campaign chair John Podesta, but the call to Clinton had likely already persuaded her.VIDEO,weblink Inside Hillary Clinton's Hotel Room on Election Night 2016, April 24, 2017, Press, Bill, YouTube, Peter Ogburn, Amie Parnes, Jonathan Allen, 1:45,

The next day

On Wednesday morning at 2:30 a.m. Eastern Time (ET), it was reported that Trump had secured Wisconsin's 10 electoral votes, giving him a majority of the 538 electors in the Electoral College, enough to make him the president-elect of the United States.NEWS, Ciara McCarthy, Claire Phipps, Election results timeline: how the night unfolded,weblink The Guardian, November 9, 2016, October 29, 2018, Clinton called Trump early that morning to concede defeat,WEB, Martosko, David, Conway: Huma Abedin placed the call when Clinton conceded to Trump,weblink Mail Online, November 13, 2016, November 9, 2016, and at 2:50 a.m., Trump gave his victory speech. Clinton was unable to make a public concession that night, as she had no concession speech written.WEB,weblink Hillary admits she had no concession speech ready, Marisa, Schultz, September 10, 2017, Later that day, Clinton asked her supporters to accept the result and hoped that Trump would be "a successful president for all Americans".NEWS,weblink Highlights of Hillary Clinton's Concession Speech and President Obama's Remarks, Rappeport, Alan, November 9, 2016, Burns, Alexander, The New York Times, 0362-4331, November 9, 2016, In his speech, Trump appealed for unity, saying "it is time for us to come together as one united people", and praised Clinton as someone who was owed "a major debt of gratitude for her service to our country".NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Is Elected President in Stunning Repudiation of the Establishment, Flegenheimer, Matt, November 9, 2016, Barbaro, Michael, The New York Times, 0362-4331, November 9, 2016,

Statistical analysis

Six states plus a portion of Maine that Obama won in 2012 switched to Trump (Electoral College votes in parentheses): Florida (29), Pennsylvania (20), Ohio (18), Michigan (16), Wisconsin (10), Iowa (6), and Maine's second congressional district (1). Initially, Trump won exactly 100 more Electoral College votes than Mitt Romney had in 2012, with two lost to faithless electors in the final tally. Thirty-nine states swung more Republican compared to the previous presidential election, while eleven states and the District of Columbia swung more Democratic.Based on United States Census Bureau estimates of the voting age population (VAP), turnout of voters casting a vote for president was nearly 1% higher than 2012. Examining overall turnout in the 2016 election, University of Florida Prof. Michael McDonald estimated that 138.8 million Americans cast a ballot.WEB,weblink 2016 November General Election Turnout Rates, United States Elections Project, December 17, 2016, 65.9 million of those ballots were counted for Clinton and just under 63 million for Trump, representing 20.3% (Clinton) and 19.4% (Trump) of a census estimate of U.S. population that day of 324 million.U.S. Census Bureau. (2016). Population clock. Retrieved fromweblink Considering a VAP of 250.6 million people and voting eligible population (VEP) of 230.6 million people, this is a turnout rate of 55.4% VAP and 60.2% VEP. Based on this estimate, voter turnout was up compared to 2012 (54.1% VAP) but down compared to 2008 (57.4% VAP). A FEC report of the election recorded an official total of 136.7 million votes cast for President — more than any prior election.Data scientist Hamdan Azhar noted the paradoxes of the 2016 outcome, saying that "chief among them [was] the discrepancy between the popular vote, which Hillary Clinton won by 2.8 million votes, and the electoral college, where Trump won 304-227".NEWS, Azhar, Hamdan, December 29, 2016, 2016 Vs. 2012: How Trump's Win And Clinton's Votes Stack Up To Romney And Obama,weblink Forbes, New York City, February 4, 2018, He said Trump outperformed Mitt Romney's 2012 results, while Clinton only just matched Barack Obama's 2012 totals. Hamdan also said Trump was "the highest vote earner of any Republican candidate ever," exceeding George W. Bush's 62.04 million votes in 2004, though neither reached Clinton's 65.9 million, nor Obama's 69.5 million votes in 2008, the overall record. He concluded, with help from The Cook Political Report, that the election hinged not on Clinton's large 2.8 million overall vote margin over Trump, but rather on about 78,000 votes from only three counties in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and Michigan (by the same logic, Obama won in 2012 due to three counties in Florida, Ohio, and Pennsylvania).{{Citation |url=http://cookpolitical.com/story/10201 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170715170550weblink |journal=The Cook Political Report |title=56 Interesting Facts About the 2016 Election |date=December 16, 2016 |archivedate=July 15, 2017}}

Conservative analysis

Conservative political analyst Yuval Levin interpreted the election results as a great victory for the Republican Party, but not necessarily for conservatism. He argued in 2017 that Trump:
not only did not run as a conservative but actually ran in a way that highlighted the limits of conservatism’s power within the party and in national politics beyond. He ignored or derided countless conservative shibboleths at various times during the campaign, offered instead a vigorous populist appeal, and soundly defeated no fewer than fifteen plainly conservative opponents in the primaries. When he clinched the nomination in May, Trump made this implication of his win explicit: “This is called the Republican Party,” he told an interviewer, “it’s not called the Conservative Party”....Trump’s appeal, and his victory, had a great deal to do with his ability to give voice to a growing (and in key respects surely justified) alienation from the dominant streams of the culture, economy, and politics in America.Yuval Levin, "Conservatism in an Age of Alienation" Modern Age (Spring 2017) 59#2 pp 11-22, quoting pages 12, 13.
Trump supporters were profoundly alienated with the status quo in America, Levin argues:
The idea that there was something fraudulent about our social order and its institutions was everywhere in Trump’s rhetoric—directed at various points to the electoral process, the media, the political parties, the legal system, the judiciary, the IRS, the FBI, and on and on among our institutions. The sense that this incomprehensible fraud perpetrated on the public by its own elites had robbed America of hope was key to the willingness of many on the right to overlook Trump’s own shortcomings and welcome the potential for disruption that he introduced.Levin, p. 14.

Liberal analysis

Liberal professor Michael S. Hogue in 2018 listed the factors that liberal interpreters have emphasized in explaining Trump's success:
a confluence of many dynamics contributed to the outcome—from the strategic misinformation spread through Russian “active measures” to white racial resentment and evangelical Christian cultural retrenchment; from the xenophobic scapegoating of Muslims and refugees to the conspiratorial hatred of all things Clintonian; from the false equivalencies of mainstream news to social media’s monetizing of cognitive bias; from Republican voter suppression and gerrymandering to Democratic infighting and the left’s protest votes and nonvotes.Michael S. Hogue, "Trump: The Apotheosis of American Exceptionalism" p 88 in Jeffrey W. Robbins and Clayton Crockett, eds., Doing Theology in the Age of Trump: A Critical Report on Christian Nationalism (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2018) pages 82–88, isbn=978-1-5326-0886-5

The Impact of Automation

A 2017 study done by Economists and Economic Historians Carl Benedikt Frey, Chinchih Chen and Thor Berger exams the link between the adoption of automation and the results of the 2016 election. The study points out that since the 1980s, the advancement of technology has often led to a significant fraction of the workforce being worse off. Low skilled workers effected by technology driven job displacement had to replace their middle income jobs with lower income service jobs, or were pushed out of the workforce altogether, while the advancement of technology increased the demand for high income jobs among skilled workers. Frey and his co-authors note a positive trend between automation driven income inequality and the movement toward political polarization in the United States. The study found a strong correlation between areas affected by technological automation and the increase of support for Donald Trump among low-skilled workers in the affected voting districts, concluding that:While the Computer Revolution has not rendered the workforce redundant, a large share of American’s have lost the race to technology, which is reflected in the reallocation of millions of workers from middle-income jobs to low-income occupations or non-employment as their jobs have been automated away...the victims of the Computer Revolution have a higher propensity to opt for radical political change: electoral districts with a higher share of jobs exposed to automation were significantly more likely to support Trump. The 2016 U.S. Presidential Election can thus be described as a riot against machines by democratic means.JOURNAL, Frey, Carl Benedikt, Berger, Thor, Chen, Chinchih, July 23, 2017, Political Machinery: Automation Anxiety and the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election,weblink Oxford Review of Economist Policy,

Candidates table

{{U.S. presidential ticket box rowspan|name=Donald Trump|party=Republican|state=New York|pv=62,984,828|pv_pct=46.09%|ev-projected=306|ev=304 (306)|vp_count=1|vp_name=Mike Pence|vp_party=Republican|vp_state=Indiana|vp_ev=304}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box rowspan|name=Hillary Clinton|party=Democratic|state=New York|pv=65,853,514|pv_pct=48.18%|ev-projected=232|ev=227 (232)|vp_count=1|vp_name=Tim Kaine|vp_party=Democratic|vp_state=Virginia|vp_ev=227}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box row|name=Gary Johnson| party=Libertarian| state=New Mexico| pv=4,489,341| pv_pct=3.28%| ev-projected=0| ev=0| vp_name=Bill Weld| vp_party=Libertarian| vp_state=Massachusetts}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box row|name=Jill Stein| party=Green| state=Massachusetts| pv=1,457,218| pv_pct=1.07%| ev-projected=0| ev=0| vp_name=Ajamu Baraka| vp_party=Green| vp_state=Illinois}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box row| name=Evan McMullin| party=Independent| state=Utah| pv=731,991| pv_pct=0.54%| ev-projected=0| ev=0| vp_name=Mindy Finn| vp_party=Independent| vp_state=District of Columbia}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box row| name=Darrell Castle|| party=Constitution| state=Tennessee| pv=203,090| pv_pct=0.15%| ev-projected=0| ev=0| vp_name=Scott Bradley| vp_party=Constitution| vp_state=Utah}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box rowspan| name=Bernie Sanders{{efn|name=faithless}}| party=Independent| state=Vermont| pv=111,850{{efn|name=write-in}}| pv_pct=0.08%{{efn|name=write-in}}| ev-projected=0| ev=1 (0)| vp_count=1| vp_name=Elizabeth Warren{{efn|name=faithless}}|vp_party=Democratic| vp_state=Massachusetts| vp_ev=1}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box row|name=Gloria La Riva|party=Socialism and Liberation|state=California| pv=74,401| pv_pct=0.05%| ev-projected=0| ev=0| vp_name=Eugene Puryear|vp_party=Socialism and Liberation| vp_state=District of Columbia}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box rowspan| name=John Kasich{{efn|name=faithless}}{{efn|name=paul-kasich|Two faithless electors from Texas cast their presidential votes for Ron Paul and John Kasich, respectively. Chris Suprun stated that he cast his presidential vote for John Kasich and his vice presidential vote for Carly Fiorina. The other faithless elector in Texas, Bill Greene, cast his presidential vote for Ron Paul but cast his vice presidential vote for Mike Pence, as pledged. John Kasich received recorded write-in votes in Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Vermont.}}| party=Republican| state=Ohio| pv=2,684{{efn|name=write-in}}| pv_pct=0.00%{{efn|name=write-in}}| ev-projected=0| ev=1 (0)| vvp_count=1| vp_name=Carly Fiorina{{efn|name=faithless}}{{efn|name=paul-kasich}}|vp_party=Republican| vp_state=Virginia| vp_ev=1}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box rowspan| name=Ron Paul{{efn|name=faithless}}{{efn|name=paul-kasich}}| party=Libertarian| state=Texas| pv=124{{efn|name=write-in}}| pv_pct= 0.00%{{efn|name=write-in}}| ev-projected=0| ev=1 (0)| vp_name=Mike Pence|vp_party=Republican| vp_state=Indiana|vp_ev=1}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box rowspan| name=Colin Powell{{efn|name=faithless|Received electoral vote(s) from a faithless elector.}}| party=Republican| state=Virginia| pv=25{{efn|name=write-in|Candidate received votes as a write-in. The exact numbers of write-in votes for Sanders have been published for three states: California, Vermont, and New Hampshire.{{#tag:ref|CA: weblink and weblink NH: weblink VT: weblink}} It was possible to vote Sanders as a write-in candidate in 14 states.{{refn|name=Heavy|WEB,weblink How Many Write-In Votes Did Bernie Sanders Get in the Election?, Stephanie Dube, Dwilson, November 16, 2016, {{Unreliable source?|date=January 2019}}}}}}| pv_pct=0.00%{{efn|name=write-in}}| ev-projected=0| ev=3 (0)| vp_count=3| vp_name=Elizabeth Warren{{efn|name=faithless}}|vp_party=Democratic| vp_state=Massachusetts| vp_ev=1}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box vp subrow| vp_name=Maria Cantwell{{efn|name=faithless}}|vp_party=Democratic| vp_state=Washington| vp_ev=1}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box vp subrow| vp_name=Susan Collins{{efn|name=faithless}}|vp_party=Republican| vp_state=Maine| vp_ev=1}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box rowspan| name=Faith Spotted Eagle{{efn|name=faithless}}| party=Democratic| state=South Dakota| pv=0| pv_pct=0.00%| ev-projected=0| ev=1 (0)| vp_name=Winona LaDuke{{efn|name=faithless}}|vp_party=Green| vp_state=Minnesota| vp_ev=1}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box other|footnote=|pv=760,210|pv_pct=0.56%}}Notes:{{notelist}}{| style="width:100%; text-align:center"|+ ↓ style="color:white" 48.18% 3.28% 1.07% 0.54% 0.84% 46.09% Clinton Johnson Stein McMullin Others Trump{{bar box|title=Popular vote|titlebar=#ddd|width=600px|barwidth=410px|bars={{bar percent|Clinton|{{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}|48.18}}{{bar percent|Trump|{{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}|46.09}}{{bar percent|Johnson|{{Libertarian Party (US)/meta/color}}|3.28}}{{bar percent|Stein|{{Green Party (US)/meta/color}}|1.07}}{{bar percent|McMullin|#777777|0.54}}{{bar percent|Others|#777777|0.84}}}}{| style="width:100%; text-align:center"|+ ↓ style="color:white" 232 306 Clinton Trump{{bar box|title=Electoral vote—Pledged|titlebar=#ddd|width=600px|barwidth=410px|bars={{bar percent|Trump/Pence|{{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}|56.88}}{{bar percent|Clinton/Kaine|{{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}|43.12}}}}{{bar box|title=Electoral vote—President|titlebar=#ddd|width=600px|barwidth=410px|bars={{bar percent|Trump|{{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}|56.51}}{{bar percent|Clinton|{{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}|42.19}}{{bar percent|Powell|{{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}|0.56}}{{bar percent|Kasich|{{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}|0.19}}{{bar percent|Paul|{{Libertarian Party (US)/meta/color}}|0.19}}{{bar percent|Sanders|#777777|0.19}}{{bar percent|Spotted Eagle|{{Green Party (US)/meta/color}}|0.19}}}}{{bar box|title=Electoral vote—Vice President|titlebar=#ddd|width=600px|barwidth=410px|bars={{bar percent|Pence|{{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}|56.69}}{{bar percent|Kaine|{{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}|42.19}}{{bar percent|Warren|{{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}|0.37}}{{bar percent|Cantwell|{{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}|0.19}}{{bar percent|Collins |{{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}|0.19}}{{bar percent|Fiorina|{{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}|0.19}}{{bar percent|LaDuke|{{Green Party (US)/meta/color}}|0.19}}}}

Results by state

The table below displays the official vote tallies by each state's Electoral College voting method. The source for the results of all states is the official Federal Election Commission report. The column labeled "Margin" shows Trump's margin of victory over Clinton (the margin is negative for every state that Clinton won).A total of 29 third party and independent presidential candidates appeared on the ballot in at least one state. Former Governor of New Mexico Gary Johnson and physician Jill Stein repeated their 2012 roles as the nominees for the Libertarian Party and the Green Party, respectively.WEB, Geier, Ben, The 2016 Presidential Election Could Have Two Spoiler Candidates,weblink Fortune (magazine), Fortune, September 25, 2016, June 27, 2016, With ballot access to the entire national electorate, Johnson received nearly 4.5 million votes (3.27%), the highest nationwide vote share for a third-party candidate since Ross Perot in 1996,WEB,weblink 2016 Presidential Ballot Access Map, while Stein received almost 1.45 million votes (1.06%), the most for a Green nominee since Ralph Nader in 2000.Independent candidate Evan McMullin, who appeared on the ballot in 11 states, received over 732,000 votes (0.53%). He won 21.4% of the vote in his home state of Utah, the highest share of the vote for a third-party candidate in any state since 1992.WEB,weblink Presidential Election of 2016, Despite dropping out of the election following his defeat in the Democratic primary, Senator Bernie Sanders received 5.7% of the vote in his home state of Vermont, the highest write-in draft campaign percentage for a presidential candidate in American history.WEB, Warner, Claire,weblink Ralph Nader Got The Most Write-In Votes For President Ever, But Election Write-Ins Have A Long History, December 2, 2016, (Because of this, some of his supporters have suggested that Bernie would have won, meaning that Sanders could have beaten Trump even though Clinton was unable to.) Johnson and McMullin were the first third party candidates since Nader to receive at least 5% of the vote in one or more states, with Johnson crossing the mark in 11 states and McMullin crossing it in two.Aside from Florida and North Carolina, the states which secured Trump's victory are situated in the Great Lakes/Rust Belt region. Wisconsin went Republican for the first time since 1984, while Pennsylvania and Michigan went Republican for the first time since 1988.NEWS, Schleifer, Theodore, Trump stomps all over the Democrats' Blue Wall,weblink November 3, 2017, CNN, November 9, 2016, Angst over the economy helps Trump flip Great Lakes states, Chicago Tribune, November 9, 2016.Donald Trump's Promise of Bringing Back Jobs Worked With Many Michigan Voters, The Wall Street Journal, November 9, 2016. Trump also won Maine's 2nd congressional district, which had also not been won by a Republican presidential candidate since 1988. Stein petitioned for a recount in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Pennsylvania. The Clinton campaign pledged to participate in the Green Party recount efforts, while Trump backers challenged them in court.WEB, Trump election: Wisconsin prepares for vote recount,weblink BBC News, November 26, 2016, November 26, 2016, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161203123227weblink">weblink December 3, 2016, Michigan Board to Hear Trump's Challenge to Recount Effort, Meanwhile, American Delta Party/Reform Party presidential candidate Rocky De La Fuente petitioned for and was granted a partial recount in Nevada.NEWS, The Latest: 5 Nevada counties to recount presidential race,weblinkweblink dead, December 1, 2016, The Washington Post, November 30, 2016, {|class="wikitable"{{Party shading/Democratic}}Hillary Clinton>Clinton/Kaine{{Party shading/Republican}}Donald Trump>Trump/PenceElectoral methods
  • WTA—Winner-takes-all
  • CD—Congressional district★
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:right"! colspan=2 |! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Hillary ClintonDemocratic! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Donald TrumpRepublican! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Gary JohnsonLibertarian! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Jill SteinGreen! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Evan McMullinIndependent! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Others! style="text-align:center;" colspan="2"| Margin! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Total! align=center | State ordistrict! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" data-sort-type="number" | Electoralmethod! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| #! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| %! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" data-sort-type="number" | Electoralvotes! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| #! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| %! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" data-sort-type="number" | Electoralvotes! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| #! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| %! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" data-sort-type="number" | Electoralvotes! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| #! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| %! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" data-sort-type="number" | Electoralvotes! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| #! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| %! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" data-sort-type="number" | Electoralvotes! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| #! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| %! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" data-sort-type="number" | Electoralvotes! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number" | #! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number" | %! style="text-align:center;" data-sort-type="number"| #! style="text-align:center; font-size: 80%" | State! style="text-align:center; font-size: 80%" | Source(s){{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Alabama >DATE=NOVEMBER 29, 2016, December 1, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Alaska >DATE=NOVEMBER 30, 2016, December 1, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Arizona >DATE=NOVEMBER 29, 2016 date=September 2018 fix-attempted=yes }}{{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Arkansas >DATE=NOVEMBER 23, 2016, November 27, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in California >WORK=CALIFORNIA SECRETARY OF STATE, December 20, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in Colorado >PUBLISHER=COLORADO SECRETARY OF STATE ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 10, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in Connecticut >PUBLISHER=CONNECTICUT SECRETARY OF STATE, December 1, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in Delaware >ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 17, 2016 ARCHIVE-DATE=DECEMBER 12, 2018 ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 23, 2017, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia >ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 18, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Florida >URL-STATUS=DEAD TITLE=FLORIDA PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES RESULTS, November 23, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Georgia >ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 22, 2016, HTTP://SOS.GA.GOV/INDEX.PHP/ELECTIONS/2016_VOTES_CAST_FOR_CERTIFIED_WRITE-IN_CANDIDATES >TITLE=2016 VOTES CAST FOR CERTIFIED WRITE-IN CANDIDATES, December 18, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in Hawaii >ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 16, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Idaho >PUBLISHER=IDAHO SECRETARY OF STATE, December 3, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in Illinois >PUBLISHER=ILLINOIS STATE BOARD OF ELECTIONS, December 6, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Indiana >PUBLISHER=INDIANA SECRETARY OF STATE ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 12, 2017, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Iowa >URL=HTTPS://ELECTIONRESULTS.SOS.IOWA.GOV/VIEWS/TABULARDATA.ASPX?TABVIEW=STATERACES^FEDERAL%20/%20STATEWIDE%20RACES^86&ELECTIONID=86 ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 10, 2016 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20161224162855/HTTPS://ELECTIONRESULTS.SOS.IOWA.GOV/VIEWS/TABULARDATA.ASPX?TABVIEW=STATERACES%5EFEDERAL%20%2F%20STATEWIDE%20RACES%5E86&ELECTIONID=86, December 24, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Kansas >PUBLISHER=KANSAS SECRETARY OF STATE, December 1, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Kentucky >PUBLISHER=KENTUCKY SECRETARY OF STATE, December 1, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Louisiana >ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 23, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in Maine (at-lg) >name=maine-split}} 357,73547.83%2335,59344.87%–38,1055.09%–14,2511.91%–1,8870.25%–3560.05%–−22,142−2.96%747,927ME–a/l rowspan="2"PUBLISHER=NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLISHER=MAINE DEPARTMENT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE, January 7, 2017, {{Party shading/Democratic}}''Maine's 1st congressional district''>name=maine-split}} 212,77453.96%1154,38439.15%–18,5924.71%–7,5631.92%–8070.20%–2090.05%–−58,390−14.81%394,329ME-1{{Party shading/Republican}}''Maine's 2nd congressional district''>name=maine-split}} 144,81740.98%–181,17751.26%119,5105.52%–6,6851.89%–1,0800.31%–1470.04%–36,36010.29%353,416ME-2{{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in Maryland >PUBLISHER=MARYLAND STATE BOARD OF ELECTIONS ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 10, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in Massachusetts >PUBLISHER=MASSACHUSETTS SECRETARY OF STATE, December 1, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Michigan >DATE=NOVEMBER 28, 2016, November 30, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in Minnesota >PUBLISHER=MINNESOTA SECRETARY OF STATE, December 1, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Mississippi >PUBLISHER=MISSISSIPPI SECRETARY OF STATE ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 31, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Missouri >PUBLISHER=MISSOURI SECRETARY OF STATE, December 13, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Montana >ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20161220084738/HTTP://SOS.MT.GOV/ELECTIONS/2016/2016GENERALSTATEWIDECANVASS.PDF PUBLISHER=MONTANA SECRETARY OF STATE ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20161220090038/HTTP://SOS.MT.GOV/ELECTIONS/2016/CANVASSREPORT-WRITE-INS.PDF PUBLISHER=MONTANA SECRETARY OF STATE, December 10, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Nebraska (at-lg)>OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE BOARD OF STATE CANVASSERS >URL=HTTP://WWW.SOS.NE.GOV/ELEC/2016/PDF/2016-CANVASS-BOOK.PDF ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 7, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}''Nebraska's 1st congressional district >100,126>35.46%>158,626>56.18%>14,031>4.97%>3,374>1.19%>58,500>20.72%>282,338''>|NE-1{{Party shading/Republican}}''Nebraska's 2nd congressional district >131,030>44.92%>137,564>47.16%>13,245>4.54%>3,347>1.15%>6,534>2.24%>291,680''>|NE-2{{Party shading/Republican}}''Nebraska's 3rd congressional district >53,290>19.73%>199,657>73.92%>11,657>4.32%>2,054>0.76%>146,367>54.19%>270,109''>|NE-3{{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in Nevada >|1,125,385NVSILVER STATE ELECTION NIGHT RESULTS >URL=HTTP://SILVERSTATEELECTION.COM/USPRESIDENTIAL/ ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 4, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in New Hampshire>PUBLISHER=NEW HAMPSHIRE SECRETARY OF STATE, December 2, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in New Jersey >PUBLISHER=STATE OF NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF STATE, December 8, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in New Mexico >|−65,567PUBLISHER=NEW MEXICO SECRETARY OF STATE ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 12, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in New York >|−1,736,590PUBLISHER=NEW YORK STATE BOARD OF ELECTIONS, December 25, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in North Carolina >PUBLISHER=NORTH CAROLINA STATE BOARD OF ELECTIONS, December 2, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in North Dakota >ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 18, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Ohio >ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 7, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Oklahoma >N/A>N/A>ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 17, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in Oregon >|−219,703PUBLISHER=OREGON SECRETARY OF STATE, December 10, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania >PAHTTP://WWW.ELECTIONRETURNS.PA.GOV/ENR_NEW/GENERAL/SUMMARYRESULTS?ELECTIONID=54&ELECTIONTYPE=G&ISACTIVE=1 >TITLE=2016 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20161221084401/HTTP://WWW.ELECTIONRETURNS.PA.GOV/ENR_NEW/GENERAL/SUMMARYRESULTS?ELECTIONID=54&ELECTIONTYPE=G&ISACTIVE=1 URL-STATUS=DEAD, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in Rhode Island >|−71,982PUBLISHER=STATE OF RHODE ISLAND BOARD OF ELECTIONS, December 23, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in South Carolina>ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 16, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in South Dakota >PUBLISHER=NATIONAL ARCHIVES, December 17, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Tennessee >PUBLISHER=TENNESSEE SECRETARY OF STATE, December 15, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Texas>PUBLISHER=TEXAS SECRETARY OF STATE, December 1, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Utah >PUBLISHER=2016 GENERAL ELECTION – STATEWIDE CANVASS, January 29, 2017, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in Vermont >178,57356.68%395,36930.27%–10,0783.20%–6,7582.14%–6390.20%–23,6507.51%–−83,204ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 23, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in Virginia >|−212,030ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 23, 2016, {{Party shading/Democratic}}2016 United States presidential election in Washington (state) >133,2584.02%4−520,971PUBLISHER=FEC ELECTION RESULTS, March 23, 2017, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in West Virginia>PUBLISHER=WEST VIRGINIA SECRETARY OF STATE ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20161225112543/HTTP://SERVICES.SOS.WV.GOV/APPS/ELECTIONS/RESULTS/RESULTS.ASPX?YEAR=2016&EID=23&COUNTY=STATEWIDE URL-STATUS=DEAD, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Wisconsin >TITLE=COUNTY BY COUNTY REPORT DATE=DECEMBER 13, 2016, December 13, 2016, {{Party shading/Republican}}2016 United States presidential election in Wyoming >ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 16, 2016, !U.S. total || – || 65,853,514 || 48.18% || 227 || 62,984,828 || 46.09% || 304 || 4,489,341 || 3.28% || – || 1,457,218 || 1.07% ||–|| 731,991 || 0.54% || – || 1,154,084 || 0.84% || 7 || −2,868,686 || −2.10%!| 136,669,276 ||US||! colspan=2 |! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Hillary ClintonDemocratic! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Donald TrumpRepublican! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Gary JohnsonLibertarian! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Jill SteinGreen! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Evan McMullinIndependent! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Others! style="text-align:center;" colspan="2"| Margin! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Total★Two states (Maine and Nebraska) allow for their electoral votes to be split between candidates.{{efn|name=maine-split|Maine split its electoral votes for the first time since 1828.WEB,weblink Maine Splits its Electoral Votes for First Time Since 1828, ballot-access.org, }} The winner within each congressional district gets one electoral vote for the district. The winner of the statewide vote gets two additional electoral votes.WEB,weblink State of Maine Certificate of Ascertainment of Electors, December 18, 2012, WEB,weblink Official Results of Nebraska General Election – November 6, 2012, December 26, 2012, Results are from The New York Times.NEWS, Presidential Election Results: Donald J. Trump Wins,weblink The New York Times, November 9, 2016, December 20, 2016, File:Presidential Election Results Swing by State from 2012 to 2016.svg|thumb|300px|Vote margin swing by state 2012 to 2016. Only eleven states (as well as the District of Columbia) trended more Democratic: Arizona, California, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Texas, Washington, Virginia and Utah. The large swing in Utah is mostly, but not completely, due to the votes for third candidate Evan McMullin and the 2012 candidacy of Mitt RomneyMitt Romney

Close races

Red denotes states (or congressional districts whose electoral votes are awarded separately) won by Republican Donald Trump; blue denotes those won by Democrat Hillary Clinton.States where the margin of victory was under 1% (50 electoral votes; 46 won by Trump, 4 by Clinton):
  1. Michigan, 0.23% – 16
  2. New Hampshire, 0.37% – 4
  3. Pennsylvania, 0.72% – 20 (tipping point state, including 2 faithless Texas GOP electors)WEB, Donald Trump Had A Superior Electoral College Strategy,weblink FiveThirtyEight, February 6, 2017,
  4. Wisconsin, 0.77% – 10 (tipping point state, excluding the 2 faithless GOP electors)
States/districts where the margin of victory was between 1% and 5% (83 electoral votes; 56 won by Trump, 27 by Clinton):
  1. Florida, 1.20% – 29
  2. Minnesota, 1.52% – 10
  3. Nebraska's 2nd Congressional District, 2.24% – 1
  4. Nevada, 2.42% – 6
  5. Maine, 2.96% – 2
  6. Arizona, 3.55% – 11
  7. North Carolina, 3.66% – 15
  8. Colorado, 4.91% – 9
States where the margin of victory was between 5% and 10% (94 electoral votes; 76 won by Trump, 18 by Clinton):
  1. Georgia, 5.16% – 16
  2. Virginia, 5.32% – 13
  3. Ohio, 8.13% – 18
  4. New Mexico, 8.21% – 5
  5. Texas, 8.99% – 36
  6. Iowa, 9.41% – 6
">

Breakdown by ticket {| class"wikitable"

!State!Party!Presidential vote!Vice presidential vote!Name of Elector!ReferencesNationwide! style="background:{{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}};"||Donald Trump, 304|Mike Pence, 305Pledged! style="background:{{Democratic Party (United States)/meta/color}};"|Hillary Clinton 2016 presidential campaign>Hillary Clinton, 227|Tim Kaine, 227|Hawaii! style="background:{{Democratic Party (United States)/meta/color}};"|Bernie Sanders 2016 presidential campaign>Bernie Sanders (I-VT)|Elizabeth Warren (D-MA)|David MulinixLAST=HELLMANN DATE=DECEMBER 19, 2016 ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 20, 2016, Texas!style="background:{{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}};"|John Kasich 2016 presidential campaign>John Kasich (R-OH)Carly Fiorina 2016 presidential campaign>Carly Fiorina (R-VA)|Christopher Suprun|Sean Collins Walsh, "All but 2 Texas members of the Electoral College choose Donald Trump," Statesman.com (December 19, 2016).Texas electors cast 36 votes for Trump, 1 for Kasich, 1 for Ron Paul. Texas Tribune (December 19, 2016). Retrieved December 19, 2016.!style="background:{{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}};"|Ron Paul presidential campaign, 2012>Ron Paul (L-TX / R-TX)|Mike Pence (as pledged)Bill Greene (faithless elector)>Bill Greene|Washington!style="background:{{Democratic Party (United States)/meta/color}};"|Colin Powell (R-VA){{refnDATE=MAY 24, 2016 WikiLeaks emails,HTTP://WWW.POLITICO.COM/STATES/NEW-YORK/ALBANY/STORY/2016/09/LEAKED-EMAILS-SHOW-COLIN-POWELLS-DEVOTION-TO-CITY-COLLEGE-105720 PUBLISHER=, and per his 'verified' social media account.HTTPS://WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/GENPOWELL/ABOUT/ >TITLE=GENERAL COLIN L. POWELL – INFORMATIO PUBLISHER=, }}|Maria Cantwell (D-WA)|Levi Guerra4 Washington state electors to be fined $1,000 for vote," bigstory.ap.org (December 22, 2016).HTTP://WWW.SEATTLETIMES.COM/SEATTLE-NEWS/POLITICS/FOUR-WASHINGTON-ELECTORS-BREAK-RANKS-AND-DONT-VOTE-FOR-CLINTON/ LAST=BRUNNER DATE=DECEMBER 19, 2016 NEWSPAPER=THE SEATTLE TIMESVIA=, !style="background:{{Democratic Party (United States)/meta/color}};"||Susan Collins (R-ME)Esther John (faithless elector)>Esther John|!style="background:{{Democratic Party (United States)/meta/color}};"||Elizabeth Warren (D-MA)|Bret Chiafalo|!style="background:{{Democratic Party (United States)/meta/color}};"|Faith Spotted Eagle (D-SD)HTTP://WWW.SEATTLETIMES.COM/SEATTLE-NEWS/POLITICS/MEET-FAITH-SPOTTED-EAGLE-THE-NATIVE-ELDER-VOTED-FOR-PRESIDENT-BY-A-WASHINGTON-STATE-ELECTOR/ DATE=DECEMBER 19, 2016, Winona LaDuke (Green Party of Minnesota>G-MN)|Robert Satiacum, Jr.URL-STATUS=DEADTITLE=4 WASHINGTON STATE ELECTORS PICK CANDIDATES OTHER THAN CLINTON FIRST=RACHEL NEWSPAPER=ASSOCIATED PRESS ACCESS-DATE=DECEMBER 20, 2016, The Olympian,

Battleground states

Most media outlets announced the beginning of the presidential race about twenty months prior to Election Day. Soon after the first contestants declared their candidacy, Larry Sabato listed Virginia, Colorado, Iowa, New Hampshire, Florida, Nevada, and Ohio as the seven states most likely to be contested in the general election. After Donald Trump clinched the Republican presidential nomination, many pundits felt that the major campaign locations might be different from what had originally been expected.WEB,weblink Poll: Clinton, Trump running tight race in NJ, LoBianco, Tom, May 31, 2016, edition.cnn.com, CNN, September 30, 2016, Rust Belt states such as Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and even Michigan were thought to be in play with Trump as the nominee, while states with large minority populations, such as Colorado and Virginia, were expected to shift towards Clinton.WEB,weblink Larry J. Sabato's Crystal Ball " The Electoral College: The Only Thing That Matters, www.centerforpolitics.org, June 11, 2016, By the conventions period and the debates, however, it did not seem as though the Rust Belt states could deliver a victory to Trump, as many of them were considered to be part of the "blue wall" of Democratic-leaning states. Trump's courting of the Polish-American vote, a sizable number of whom were Reagan Democrats, has been cited as the cause for the loss of the Rust Belt by the Democratic nominee.WEB,weblink Trump Wouldn't Win Without Polish-Americans. An Interview With William "Bill" Ciosek, November 21, 2016, According to PoliticoNEWS,weblink Donald Trump's path to victory, Politico, January 12, 2017, and the 538 online blog, his path to victory went through states such as Florida, North Carolina, Nevada, New Hampshire, and possibly Colorado.NEWS,weblink Clinton's Leading In Exactly The States She Needs To Win, September 22, 2016, FiveThirtyEight, en-US, January 12, 2017, NEWS,weblink Three paths that deliver Trump the win, Politico, January 12, 2017, NEWS,weblink Trump cracks the Electoral College lock, Politico, January 12, 2017, NEWS,weblink Trump's incredible shrinking map, Politico, January 12, 2017, Early polling indicated a closer-than-usual race in former Democratic strongholds such as Washington, Delaware, New Jersey, Connecticut, Maine (for the two statewide electoral votes), and New Mexico.NEWS,weblink Clinton tops Trump in Connecticut race, Douglas, Schwartz, June 7, 2016, January 27, 2017, NEWS,weblink Clinton can sweep Northeast, Kimball, Spencer, September 7, 2016, January 27, 2017, WEB,weblink Emerson poll finds Clinton's lead over Trump precariously thin in R.I., Gregg, Katherine, September 7, 2016, www.providencejournal.com, September 30, 2016, Meanwhile, research indicators from inside of a host of Republican-leaning states such as Arizona, Indiana, Georgia, South Carolina, Alaska, Utah, Texas, Kansas, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, and South Dakota reported weaker support for Trump than expected, although the nominee's position solidified in a few other areas. Some reviews took this information as evidence of an expanded 'swing-state map'.NEWS,weblink Election Update: Why Clinton's Position Is Worse Than Obama's, November 3, 2016, FiveThirtyEight, en-US, November 6, 2016, A consensus among political pundits developed throughout the primary election season regarding swing states.WEB,weblink The 2016 Results We Can Already Predict, Politico Magazine, June 11, 2016, From the results of presidential elections from 2004 through to 2012, the Democratic and Republican parties would generally start with a safe electoral vote count of about 150 to 200.WEB,weblink 2016 Presidential Election Interactive Map, 270toWin.com, June 11, 2016, WEB,weblink Larry J. Sabato's Crystal Ball " The Electoral College: The Only Thing That Matters, www.centerforpolitics.org, June 11, 2016, However, the margins required to constitute a swing state are vague, and can vary between groups of analysts.WEB,weblink Why Mormons in America's most conservative state could turn a Trump stronghold questionably Democratic, Levin, Sam, March 21, 2016, the Guardian, June 11, 2016, WEB,weblink Poll: Utah would vote for a Democrat for president over Trump, Roche, Lisa Riley, March 20, 2016, DeseretNews.com, June 11, 2016, It was thought that left-leaning states in the Rust Belt could become more conservative, as Trump had strong appeal among many blue-collar workers.WEB,weblink The Great Republican Revolt, Frum, David, en-US, August 3, 2016, They represent a large portion of the American populace and were a major factor in Trump's eventual nomination. Trump's primary campaign was propelled by victories in Democratic states, and his supporters often did not identify as Republican.WEB,weblink Presidential Ratings {{!, The Rothenberg & Gonzales Political Report|website=rothenberggonzales.com|access-date=November 6, 2016}} In addition, local factors may come into play. For example, Utah was the reddest state in 2012, although the Republican share was boosted significantly by the candidacy of Mormon candidate Mitt Romney. Despite its partisan orientation, some reports suggested a victory there by independent candidate Evan McMullin, particularly if there was a nationwide blowout.Media reports indicated that both candidates planned to concentrate on Florida, Pennsylvania, Ohio and North Carolina.NEWS, Haberman, Maggie, Electoral Map Gives Donald Trump Few Places to Go,weblink July 31, 2016, The New York Times, July 30, 2016, NEWS, Challan, David, Road to 270: CNN's new electoral college map,weblink CNN, July 31, 2016, July 20, 2016, Among the Republican-leaning states, potential Democratic targets included Nebraska's second congressional district, Georgia, and Arizona.NEWS, Balz, Dan, The Republican Party's uphill path to 270 electoral votes in 2016 elections,weblink October 3, 2014, The Washington Post, January 18, 2014, Trump's relatively poor polling in some traditionally Republican states, such as Utah, raised the possibility that they could vote for Clinton, despite easy wins there by recent Republican nominees.MAGAZINE, Villa, Lissandra, Why Utah Doesn't Like Donald Trump,weblink July 18, 2016, Time, July 10, 2016, However, many analysts asserted that these states were not yet viable Democratic destinations.WEB,weblink Hillary Clinton's path to victory, August 3, 2016, NEWS,weblink The 2016 Results We Can Already Predict, May 3, 2015, Politico, Skelley, Geoffrey, Sabato, Larry, Kondik, Kyle, September 22, 2015, Several sites and individuals publish electoral predictions. These generally rate the race by the likelihood for each party to win a state.NEWS,weblink A totally legal, totally shady way that Republicans could ensure Hillary Clinton's defeat, November 8, 2014, Vox, Yglesias, Matthew, November 8, 2014, The "tossup" label is usually used to indicate that neither party has an advantage, "lean" to indicate a party has a slight edge, "likely" to indicate a party has a clear but not overwhelming advantage, and "safe" to indicate a party has an advantage that cannot be overcome.NEWS,weblink President Obama's Disproportionate Battleground State Focus Started Early, Echoed Predecessors' Actions, July 31, 2012, Monkey Cage, Doherty, Brendan, November 4, 2014, As the parameters of the race established themselves, analysts converged on a narrower list of contested states, which were relatively similar to those of recent elections. On November 7, the Cook Political Report categorized Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Iowa, Michigan, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin as states with close races. Additionally, a district from each of Maine and Nebraska were considered to be coin flips.WEB,weblink Electoral Vote Scorecard, cookpolitical.com, November 8, 2016, Meanwhile, FiveThirtyEight listed twenty-two states as potentially competitive about a month before the election – Maine's two at-large electoral votes, New Mexico, Minnesota, Michigan, Colorado, Virginia, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, Nevada, Florida, North Carolina, Ohio, Iowa, Arizona, Georgia, Alaska, South Carolina, Texas, Indiana, Missouri, and Utah – as well as Maine's second and Nebraska's second congressional districts.NEWS,weblink Election Update: Where Are The Undecided Voters?, October 25, 2016, FiveThirtyEight, en-US, November 8, 2016, Nate Silver, the publication's editor-in-chief, subsequently removed Texas, South Carolina, Missouri, and Indiana from the list after the race tightened significantly.NEWS,weblink Election Update: The State Of The States, November 7, 2016, FiveThirtyEight, en-US, November 25, 2016, These conclusions were supported by models such as the Princeton Elections Consortium, the New York Times Upshot, and punditry evaluations from Sabato's Crystal Ball and the Cook Political Report.WEB,weblink Larry J. Sabato's Crystal Ball » Our Final 2016 picks, www.centerforpolitics.org, December 15, 2016, NEWS,weblink FiveThirty Eight Polls Plus Forecast, 270toWin.com, December 15, 2016, WEB,weblink Electoral Vote Scorecard, cookpolitical.com, December 15, 2016, WEB,weblink Ratings Roundup: 2016 Statewide Elections, www.governing.com, December 15, 2016, Clinton won states like New Mexico by less than 10 percentage points.WEB,weblink New Mexico – Election Night Results, November 8, 2016, New Mexico Secretary of State, en-US, February 8, 2017, Among the states where the candidates finished at a margin of within 7 percent, Clinton won Virginia (13 electoral votes), Colorado (9), Maine (2), Minnesota (10), and New Hampshire (4). On the other hand, Trump won Michigan (16), Pennsylvania (20), Wisconsin (10), Florida (29), North Carolina (15), Arizona (11), Nebraska's second district (1), and Georgia (16). States won by Obama in the 2012, such as Ohio (18), Iowa (6), and Maine's second district (1), were also won by Trump. The close result in Maine was not expected by most commentators, nor were Trump's victory of over 10 points in the second district and their disparities.NEWS,weblink Election Update: The State Of The States, November 7, 2016, FiveThirtyEight, en-US, January 26, 2017, NEWS,weblink Trump takes 1 of Maine's 4 electoral votes, in a first for the state – The Portland Press Herald, November 8, 2016, The Portland Press Herald, en-US, January 26, 2017, WEB,weblink Clinton wins Maine, but Trump takes one electoral vote, Cousins, Christopher, Staff, B. D. N., The Bangor Daily News, January 26, 2017, The dramatic shift of Midwestern states towards Trump were contrasted in the media against the relative movement of Southern states towards the Democrats.NEWS,weblink Election Update: Maybe It's Time For Ohio And Pennsylvania To Part Ways, October 5, 2016, FiveThirtyEight, en-US, January 26, 2017, For example, former Democratic strongholds such as Minnesota and Maine leaned towards the GOP. Meanwhile, Iowa voted more Republican than Texas did, Georgia was more Democratic than Ohio, and the margin of victory for Trump was greater in North Carolina than Arizona.NEWS,weblink The Real Story Of 2016, January 19, 2017, FiveThirtyEight, en-US, January 26, 2017, NEWS,weblink Ohio Was A Bellwether After All, January 25, 2017, FiveThirtyEight, en-US, January 26, 2017, Trump's smaller victories in Alaska and Utah also took some experts by surprise.NEWS,weblink Pence to make late campaign visit to Utah, Politico, January 26, 2017, After the conventions of the national parties, Clinton and Trump carried out a total of 72 visits to Florida, 59 to Pennsylvania, 52 to North Carolina, 43 to Ohio, 25 to Virginia, 24 to Michigan, 23 to Iowa, 22 to New Hampshire, 19 to Colorado, 16 to Nevada, 15 to Wisconsin, and 10 to Arizona.{{Citation needed|date=December 2018}}

Maps

File:Results by state, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote 2016.svg|Results by state, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote.File:2016 Presidential Election by Vote Distribution Among States.svg|Results by vote distribution among states. The size of each state's pie chart is proportional to its number of electoral votes.File:2016 Presidential Election by County.svg|Results by county. Red denotes counties that went to Trump; blue denotes counties that went to Clinton.File:United States presidential election results by county, 2016.svg|Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote.File:2016 Presidential Election by County (Red-Blue-Purple View).svg|Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote (red-purple-blue view).File:ElectorScaledUS2016.svg|Results by state and DC, scaled by number of Electors per state.File:United States presidential election, 2016 Cartogram.png|Cartogram of the election.File:Cartogram—2016 Electoral Vote.svg|Cartogram of the election.File:2016 presidential election, results by congressional district (popular vote margin).svg|Results of the election by congressional district, shaded by vote margin.File:U.S. 2012 to 2016 presidential election swing.svg|County swing from 2012 to 2016.File:2016 Presidential Election by County - Trump.svg|Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Trump.File:2016 Presidential Election by County - Clinton.svg|Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Clinton.File:Gary Johnson strength map by county, 2016.svg|Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Johnson (0%–10% scale).

Voter demographics

Voter demographic data for 2016 were collected by Edison Research for the National Election Pool, a consortium of ABC News, CBS News, MSNBC, CNN, Fox News and the Associated Press. The voter survey is based on exit polls completed by 24,537 voters leaving 350 voting places throughout the United States on Election Day, in addition to 4,398 telephone interviews with early and absentee voters.WEB, exit polls,weblink CNN, November 10, 2016, Trump's crucial victories in the Midwest were aided in large part by his strong margins among non-college whites – while Obama lost those voters by a margin of 10 points in 2012, Clinton lost this group by 20 percent. The election also represented the first time that Republicans performed better among lower-income whites than among affluent white voters.NEWS,weblink How the Obama Coalition Crumbled, Leaving an Opening for Trump, Cohn, Nate, December 23, 2016, December 25, 2016, The New York Times, To some analysts' surprise, Trump narrowed Clinton's margin compared to Obama by 7 points among blacks and African-Americans, 8 points among Latinos, and 11 points among Asian-Americans. Meanwhile, Trump increased his lead with non-Hispanic white voters through 1 percent over Mitt Romney's performance, and American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Pacific Islanders shifted their support towards the Republican candidate using the same relative amount.NEWS,weblink Election 2016: Exit Polls, Strickland, Produced By Jon Huang, Samuel Jacoby, Michael, November 8, 2016, The New York Times, August 8, 2017, Lai, K. k Rebecca, en-US, 0362-4331, Additionally, although 74 percent of Muslim voters supported Clinton, Trump nearly doubled his support among those voters compared to Mitt Romney, according to the Council on American–Islamic Relations exit poll.NEWS,weblink Trump Inches Toward Naming Domestic Cabinet Members, November 22, 2016, The New York Times, November 26, 2016, However, "more convincing data"Sabato, Larry J. "The 2016 Election that Broke All, or At Least Most, of the Rules", in Trumped: The 2016 Election That Broke All the Rules, ed. Larry Sabato, Kyle Kondik, Geoffrey Skelley. Rowman & Littlefield (2017), p. 10. {{ISBN|9781442279407}} from the polling firm Latino Decisions indicates that Clinton received a higher share of the Hispanic vote, and Trump a lower share, than the Edison exit polls showed. Using wider, more geographically and linguistically representative sampling, Latino Decisions concluded that Clinton won 79% of Hispanic voters (also an improvement over Obama's share in 2008 and 2012), while Trump won only 18% (lower than previous Republicans such as Romney and McCain).Matt Barreto, Thomas Schaller, and Gary Segura. "Latinos and the 2016 Election," in Trumped: The 2016 Election That Broke All the Rules, ed. Larry Sabato, Kyle Kondik, Geoffrey Skelley. Rowman & Littlefield (2017), pp.123–35. {{ISBN|9781442279407}} Additionally, the 2016 Cooperative Congressional Election Study found that Clinton's share of the Hispanic vote was 1 percentage point higher than Obama's in 2012, while Trump's was 7 percentage points lower than Romney's.Skelley, Geoffrey (March 23, 2017). "Another Look Back at 2016: Comparing the exit poll and the Cooperative Congressional Election Study", Sabato's Crystal Ball. Retrieved March 8, 2018.Similarly, a large, multi-lingual study by the Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund found that Clinton won 79% of Asian-American voters, higher than the Edison exit poll showed, while Trump only won 18%, a decrease from McCain's and Romney's numbers.Hansi Lo Wang (April 18, 2017). "Trump Lost More Of The Asian-American Vote Than The National Exit Polls Showed", NPR. Retrieved March 8, 2018. Furthermore, according to the AALDEF's report, Trump received merely 2% of the Muslim-American vote, whereas Clinton received 97%.Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund, "The Asian-American Vote 2016" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180718192119weblink |date=July 18, 2018 }}, p.13. Retrieved March 8, 2018.{| class="wikitable sortable"! colspan="8" | 2016 Presidential vote by demographic subgroup (Edison Exit Polling)! Demographic subgroup! {{party shading/Democratic}}|Clinton! {{party shading/Republican}}|Trump! {{party shading/Independent}}|Other! % oftotal vote| Total vote 48 46 6 100! colspan=5|IdeologyLiberalism in the United States>Liberals 8410 6 26| Moderates 5241 7 39Conservatism in the United States>Conservatives 15 81 4 35! colspan=5|PartyDemocratic Party (United States)>Democrats 899 2 37Republican Party (United States)>Republicans 7 90 3 33Independent (voter)>Independents 42 48 10 31! colspan=5|Party by gender| Democratic men 87 10 3 14| Democratic women 90 8 2 23| Republican men 6 90 2 17| Republican women 8 89 2 16| Independent men 37 51 10 17| Independent women 47 43 7 14! colspan=5|Gender| Men 41 52 7 47| Women 5441 5 53! colspan=5|Marital status| Married 44 52 4 59| Unmarried 55 37 8 41! colspan=5|Gender by marital status| Married men 37 58 5 29| Married women 49 47 4 30| Non-married men 46 45 9 19| Non-married women 62 33 5 23! colspan=5|Race/ethnicityWhite American>White 3758 5 70African American>Black 888 4 12Asian American>Asian 6529 6 4| Other 56 37 7 3Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic (of any race) 65 29 6 11! colspan=5| Gender by race/ethnicity| White men 31 63 5 34| White women 43 53 3 37| Black men 80 13 6 5| Black women 94 4 2 7| Latino men (of any race) 62 33 4 5| Latino women (of any race) 68 26 5 6| All other races 61 32 5 6! colspan=5|ReligionProtestantism>Protestant 37 60 3 27Catholic Church in the United States>Catholic 45 52 3 23| Mormon 25 61 14 1Christians>Christian 43 55 2 24American Jews>Jewish 71 24 5 3| Other religion 58 33 9 7Irreligion>None 68 26 6 15! colspan=5|Religious service attendance| Weekly or more 40 56 4 33| Monthly 46 49 5 16| A few times a year 48 47 5 29| Never 62 31 7 22! colspan=5|White evangelical or born-again Christian| White evangelical or born-again Christian 16 81 3 26| Everyone else 59 35 6 74! colspan=5|Age| 18–24 years old 56 35 9 10| 25–29 years old 53 39 8 9| 30–39 years old 51 40 9 17| 40–49 years old 46 50 4 19| 50–64 years old 44 53 3 30| 65 and older 45 53 2 15! colspan=5|Age by race| Whites 18–29 years old 43 47 10 12| Whites 30–44 years old 37 54 9 16| Whites 45–64 years old 34 62 4 30| Whites 65 and older 39 58 3 13| Blacks 18–29 years old 85 9 6 3| Blacks 30–44 years old 89 7 4 4| Blacks 45–64 years old 89 7 4 5| Blacks 65 and older 91 9 n/a 1| Latinos 18–29 years old 68 26 6 3| Latinos 30–44 years old 65 28 7 4| Latinos 45–64 years old 64 32 4 4| Latinos 65 and older 73 25 2 1| Others 61 31 8 6! colspan=5|Sexual orientation| LGBT 78 14 8 5Heterosexuality>Heterosexual 47 48 5 95! colspan=5|First time voterVoting>First time voter 56 40 4 10| Everyone else 47 47 6 90! colspan=5|EducationSecondary education in the United States>High school or less 45 51 4 18Higher education in the United States>college education 43 52 5 32| College graduate 49 456 32| Postgraduate education 58 375 18! colspan=5|Education by race/ethnicity| White college graduates 45 49 4 37| White no college degree 28 67 4 34| Non-white college graduates 71 23 5 13| Non-white no college degree 75 20 3 16! colspan=5|Education by race/ethnicity/sex| White women with college degrees 51 44 5 20| White men with college degrees 39 53 8 17| White women without college degrees 34 61 5 17| White men without college degrees 23 71 6 16| Non-whites 74 21 5 29! colspan=5|Family income| Under $30,000 53 41 6 17| $30,000–49,999 51 42 7 19| $50,000–99,999 46 50 431| $100,000–199,999 47 48 5 24| $200,000–249,999 48 49 3 4| Over $250,000 46 48 6 6! colspan=5|Union householdsLabor unions in the United States>Union 51 42 7 18| Non-union 46 48 6 82! colspan=5|Military serviceVeteran#United States>Veterans 34 60 6 13| Non-veterans 50 44 6 87! colspan=5|Issue regarded as most important| Foreign policy 60 34 6 13| Immigration 32 64 4 13| Economy 52 42 6 52| Terrorism 39 57 4 18! colspan=5|RegionNortheastern United States>Northeast 55 40 5 19Midwestern United States>Midwest 45 49 6 23Southern United States>South 44 52 4 37Western United States>West 55 39 6 21! colspan=5|Community size| Cities (population 50,000 and above) 59 35 6 34| Suburbs 45 50 5 49| Rural areas 34 62 4 17

Forecasting

{{further|Nationwide opinion polling for the 2016 United States presidential election|Statewide opinion polling for the 2016 United States presidential election}}Various methods were used to forecast the outcome of the 2016 election.JOURNAL,weblink Election forecasting, Stegmaier, Mary, Norpoth, Helmut, September 30, 2013, September 26, 2016, 10.1093/obo/9780199756223-0023, For the 2016 election, there were many competing election forecast approaches including Nate Silver's FiveThirtyEight, The Upshot at The New York Times, Daily Kos, Princeton Election Consortium, Cook Political Report, Rothenberg and Gonzales, PollyVote, Sabato's Crystal Ball and Electoral-Vote. These models mostly showed a Democratic advantage since the nominees were confirmed, and were supported by pundits and statisticians, including Nate Silver of FiveThirtyEight, Nate Cohn at The New York Times, and Larry Sabato from the Crystal Ball newsletter, who predicted a Democratic victory in competitive presidential races and projected consistent leads in several battleground states around the country.NEWS,weblink Who will be president? How Other Forecasts Compare, The New York Times, September 26, 2016, The near-unanimity of forecasters in predicting a Clinton victory may have been the result of groupthink. However, FiveThirtyEight's model pointed to the possibility of an Electoral College-popular vote split widening in the final weeks based on Trump's improvement in swing states like Florida or Pennsylvania. This was due to the demographics targeted by Trump's campaign which lived in big numbers there, in addition to Clinton's poor performance in several of those swing states in comparison with Obama's performance in 2012, as well as having a big number of her potential voters in very populated traditionally 'blue' states, but also in some very populated states traditionally 'red', like Texas, which were projected safe for Trump.NEWS,weblink How Trump Could Win The White House While Losing The Popular Vote, Wasserman, David, September 15, 2016, FiveThirtyEight, February 17, 2017, en-US, Early exit polls generally favored Clinton. After the polls closed and some of the results came in, the forecasts were found to be inaccurate, as Trump performed better in the competitive Midwestern states, such as Iowa, Ohio, and Minnesota, than expected. Three states (Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Michigan) which were considered to be part of Clinton's firewall, were won by Trump.NEWS,weblink Frank Luntz: Ban exit polls, Politico, November 10, 2016, Of the states in the Great Lakes region, Clinton won the swing state of Minnesota by 1 point, as well as traditional Democratic strongholds such as New York and Illinois with populous urban centers. This result stands in contrast to that of 2012, when President Obama won all but Indiana, which he carried in 2008. This table displays the final polling average published by Real Clear Politics on November 7, the actual electoral margin, and the over-performance by either candidate relative to the polls.{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"!State!Electoral votes!Polling average!Final result!Difference!Arizona|11Trump +4HTTPS://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/AZ/ARIZONA_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON_VS_STEIN-6087.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – ARIZONA: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON VS. STEIN ACCESS-DATE=JULY 14, 2017, Trump +3.5|Clinton +0.5!Colorado|9Clinton +2.9HTTPS://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/CO/COLORADO_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON_VS_STEIN-5974.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – COLORADO: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON VS. STEIN ACCESS-DATE=JULY 14, 2017, Clinton +4.9|Clinton +2!Florida|29Trump +0.2HTTP://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/FL/FLORIDA_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON_VS_STEIN-5963.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – FLORIDA: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON VS. STEIN ACCESS-DATE=JANUARY 3, 2017, Trump +1.2|Trump +1!Georgia|16Trump +4.8HTTPS://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/GA/GEORGIA_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON-5968.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – GEORGIA: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON ACCESS-DATE=JULY 14, 2017, Trump +5.1|Trump +0.3!Iowa|6Trump +3HTTP://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/IA/IOWA_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON_VS_STEIN-5981.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – IOWA: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON VS. STEIN ACCESS-DATE=JANUARY 3, 2017, Trump +9.5|Trump +6.5!Maine|4Clinton +4.5HTTP://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/ME/MAINE_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON_VS_STEIN-6091.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – MAINE: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON VS. STEIN ACCESS-DATE=FEBRUARY 6, 2017, Clinton +2.9|Trump +1.6!Michigan|16Clinton +3.4HTTP://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/MI/MICHIGAN_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON_VS_STEIN-6008.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – MICHIGAN: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON VS. STEIN ACCESS-DATE=JANUARY 3, 2017, Trump +0.3|Trump +3.7!Minnesota|10Clinton +6.2HTTP://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/MN/MINNESOTA_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON_VS_STEIN-6138.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – MINNESOTA: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON VS. STEIN ACCESS-DATE=JANUARY 3, 2017, Clinton +1.5|Trump +4.7!Nevada|6Trump +0.8HTTP://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/NV/NEVADA_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON-6004.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – NEVADA: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON ACCESS-DATE=FEBRUARY 6, 2017, Clinton +2.4|Clinton +3.2!New Hampshire|4Clinton +0.6HTTP://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/NH/NEW_HAMPSHIRE_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON_VS_STEIN-6022.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – NEW HAMPSHIRE: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON VS. STEIN ACCESS-DATE=FEBRUARY 6, 2017, Clinton +0.3|Trump +0.3!New Mexico|5Clinton +5HTTPS://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/NM/NEW_MEXICO_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON_VS_STEIN-6113.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – NEW MEXICO: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON VS. STEIN ACCESS-DATE=JULY 14, 2017, Clinton +8.3|Clinton +3.3!North Carolina|15Trump +1HTTP://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/NC/NORTH_CAROLINA_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON-5951.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – NORTH CAROLINA: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON ACCESS-DATE=JANUARY 3, 2017, Trump +3.7|Trump +2.7!Ohio|18Trump +3.5HTTP://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/OH/OHIO_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON_VS_STEIN-5970.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – OHIO: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON VS. STEIN ACCESS-DATE=FEBRUARY 6, 2017, Trump +8.1|Trump +4.6!Pennsylvania|20Clinton +1.9HTTP://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/PA/PENNSYLVANIA_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON_VS_STEIN-5964.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – PENNSYLVANIA: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON VS. STEIN ACCESS-DATE=JANUARY 3, 2017, Trump +0.7|Trump +2.6!Virginia|13Clinton +5HTTPS://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/VA/VIRGINIA_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON_VS_STEIN-5966.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – VIRGINIA: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON VS. STEIN ACCESS-DATE=JULY 14, 2017, Clinton +5.4|Clinton +0.4!Wisconsin|10Clinton +6.5HTTP://WWW.REALCLEARPOLITICS.COM/EPOLLS/2016/PRESIDENT/WI/WISCONSIN_TRUMP_VS_CLINTON_VS_JOHNSON_VS_STEIN-5976.HTML >TITLE=REALCLEARPOLITICS – ELECTION 2016 – WISCONSIN: TRUMP VS. CLINTON VS. JOHNSON VS. STEIN ACCESS-DATE=JANUARY 3, 2017, Trump +0.7|Trump +7.2Many pollsters were puzzled by the failure of mainstream forecasting models to predict the outcome of the 2016 election.JOURNAL, Skibba, Ramin, Pollsters struggle to explain failures of US presidential forecasts, Nature, 539, 7629, 339, 10.1038/nature.2016.20968, 27853221, 2016, 2016Natur.539..339S, WEB, Graefe, Andreas, A terrible day for election forecasters. Where are the winners?,weblink pollyvote.com, November 13, 2016, November 9, 2016, Some journalists compared the 2016 election to the failure of prognosticator Arthur Henning in the "Dewey Defeats Truman" incident from the 1948 presidential election.NEWS, Grossman, Ron, November 11, 2016, It's happened before: Truman's defeat of Dewey had hints of Trump-Clinton,weblink Chicago Tribune, January 4, 2018, NEWS, Rutenberg, Jim, November 9, 2016, A 'Dewey Defeats Truman' Lesson for the Digital Age,weblink New York Times, January 4, 2018, Sean Trende, writing for RealClearPolitics, wrote that many of the polls were accurate, but that the pundits' interpretation of these polls neglected polling error.WEB, Trende, Sean,weblink It Wasn't the Polls That Missed, It Was the Pundits, RealClearPolitics, November 12, 2016, January 27, 2017, Nate Silver found that the high number of undecided and third-party voters in the election was neglected in many of these models, and that many of these voters decided to vote for Trump.WEB, Silver, Nate,weblink The Invisible Undecided Voter, FiveThirtyEight, January 27, 2017, According to a February 2018 study by Public Opinion Quarterly, the main sources of polling error were "a late swing in vote preference toward Trump and a pervasive failure to adjust for over-representation of college graduates (who favored Clinton)," whereas the share of "shy" Trump voters (who declined to admit their support for Trump to the pollsters) proved to be negligible.JOURNAL, Kennedy, Courtney, Blumenthal, Mark, Clement, Scott, Clinton, Joshua D, Durand, Claire, Franklin, Charles, McGeeney, Kyley, Miringoff, Lee, Olson, Kristen, March 6, 2018, An Evaluation of the 2016 Election Polls in the United States, Public Opinion Quarterly, en, 82, 1, 1–33, 10.1093/poq/nfx047, 0033-362X, FiveThirtyEight's final polls-plus forecast predicted 18 states, plus the second congressional districts of Maine and Nebraska, with an interval of confidence lower than 90%.NEWS,weblink Election Update: Don't Ignore The Polls — Clinton Leads, But It's A Close Race, November 6, 2016, FiveThirtyEight, en-US, January 26, 2017, NEWS,weblink 2016 Election Forecast, Silver, Nate, June 29, 2016, FiveThirtyEight, en-US, January 26, 2017, However, every major forecaster, including FiveThirtyEight, the New York Times Upshot, prediction markets aggregator PredictWise, ElectionBettingOdds from Maxim Lott and John Stossel, the DailyKos, the Princeton Election Consortium, the Huffington Post, the Cook Political Report, Larry Sabato's Crystal Ball, and the Rothenberg and Gonzales Report, called every state the same way (although Cook and Rothenberg-Gonzales left two and five states as toss-ups, respectively). The lone exception was Maine's 2nd congressional district. Of the forecasters who published results on the district, the Times gave Trump a 64% chance of winning and PredictWise a 52% chance, FiveThirtyEight gave Clinton a 51% chance of winning in polls-only and 54% in polls-plus, Princeton gave her a 60% chance, Cook labelled it a toss-up, and Sabato leaned it towards Trump. The following table displays the final winning probabilities given by each outlet, along with the final electoral result. The states shown have been identified by Politico,NEWS,weblink The 2016 Results We Can Already Predict, Politico Magazine, January 31, 2017, WhipBoard,NEWS,weblink Voter profiles in ten 2016 swing states, August 8, 2016, Whipboard, en-US, January 31, 2017, dead,weblink January 31, 2017, the New York Times,NEWS,weblink 2016 Election Forecast: Who Will Be President?, Katz, Josh, July 19, 2016, The New York Times, 0362-4331, January 31, 2017, and the Crystal Ball as battlegrounds.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center"! State! New York Times Upshot! FiveThirtyEight! PredictWise! Princeton Election Consortium! Sabato's Crystal Ball! 2012 margin! 2016 margin! Alaska 83% R 76% R 94% R 96% R Likely R 14 R 15 R! Arizona 84% R 67% R 82% R 91% R Lean R 9 R 4 R! Colorado 89% D 78% D 95% D 96% D Likely D 5 D 5 D! Florida 67% D 55% D 77% D 69% D Lean D 1 D 1 R! Georgia 83% R 79% R 91% R 88% R Likely R 8 R 6 R! Iowa 62% R 70% R 79% R 74% R Lean R 6 D 10 R! Maine (statewide) 91% D 83% D 98% D 98% D Likely D 15 D 3 D! Maine (CD-2) 64% R 51% D 52% R 60% D Lean R 9 D 10 R! Michigan 94% D 79% D 95% D 79% D Lean D 9 D 1 R! Minnesota 94% D 85% D 99% D 98% D Likely D 8 D 2 D! Nebraska (CD-2) 80% R 56% R 75% R 92% R Lean R 7 R 3 R! New Mexico 95% D 83% D 98% D 91% D Likely D 10 D 8 D! Nevada 68% D 58% D 91% D 84% D Lean D 7 D 2 D! New Hampshire 79% D 70% D 84% D 63% D Lean D 6 D 1 D! North Carolina 64% D 56% D 66% D 67% D Lean D 2 R 4 R! Ohio 54% R 65% R 67% R 63% R Lean R 3 D 9 R! Pennsylvania 89% D 77% D 93% D 79% D Lean D 5 D 1 R! Utah 73% R 83% R 86% R 99% R Lean R 48 R 18 R! Virginia 96% D 86% D 98% D 98% D Likely D 4 D 5 D! Wisconsin 93% D 84% D 98% D 98% D Likely D 7 D 1 R

Viewership

{{col-begin}}{{col-break}}LegendWEB,weblink 2016 Election Night poised to be most-watched in history, November 7, 2016, Adweek, {| class="wikitable" style="font-size:95%;" style="background:#e5d1cb;"|cable news network style="background:#dfe2e9;"|broadcast network{{col-break}}Total television viewers8:00 to 11:00 p.m. EDT{| class="wikitable"! Network !! Viewers style="background:#e5d1cb;"CNN >| 13,258,000 style="background:#e5d1cb;"Fox News Channel>FNC 12,112,000 style="background:#dfe2e9;"NBC >| 11,152,000 style="background:#dfe2e9;"American Broadcasting Company>ABC 9,236,000 style="background:#dfe2e9;"CBS >| 8,008,000 style="background:#e5d1cb;"MSNBC >| 5,945,000 style="background:#dfe2e9;"Fox Broadcasting Company>Fox 4,196,000{{col-break}}Total cable TV viewers2:00 to 3:00 a.m. EDT{| class="wikitable"! Network !! Viewers style="background:#e5d1cb;"Fox News Channel>FNC 9,778,000 style="background:#e5d1cb;"CNN >| 6,452,000 style="background:#e5d1cb;"MSNBC >| 2,858,000{{col-break}}Cable TV viewers 25 to 542:00 to 3:00 a.m. EDT{| class="wikitable"! Network !! Viewers style="background:#e5d1cb;"Fox News Channel>FNC 3,955,000 style="background:#e5d1cb;"CNN >| 3,372,000 style="background:#e5d1cb;"MSNBC >| 1,207,000{{col-end}}

Post-election events and controversies

{{see also|International reactions to the 2016 United States presidential election}}Trump's victory, considered unlikely by most forecasts,NEWS, Lohr, Steve, Singer, Natasha, How Data Failed Us in Calling an Election,weblink The New York Times, November 10, 2016, NEWS, D.R., How did the polls get it wrong?,weblink The Economist, November 9, 2016, November 10, 2016, MAGAZINE, Catanese, David, Republicans' Last Hope: The Polls Are Wrong,weblink October 24, 2016, U.S. News & World Report, December 6, 2016, WEB, Vogel, Kenneth P., Isenstadt, Alex, How Did Everyone Get it So Wrong?,weblink November 9, 2016, Politico, December 6, 2016, NEWS, Flint, Joe, Alpert, Lukas I., How the Media's Election Predictions Badly Missed the Mark,weblink November 9, 2016, The Wall Street Journal, December 6, 2016, was characterized as an "upset" and as "shocking" by the media.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump's Victory Is Met With Shock Across a Wide Political Divide, The New York Times, November 9, 2016, November 10, 2016, WEB, Arkin, Daniel, Siemaszko, Corky,weblink 2016 Election: Donald Trump Wins the White House in Upset, NBC News, November 9, 2016, November 10, 2016, WEB,weblink How Donald Trump swept to an unreal, surreal presidential election win, November 9, 2016, Guardian, November 9, 2016, WEB, Goldmacher, Shane, Schreckinger, Ben, Trump Pulls Off Biggest Upset in U.S. History,weblink November 9, 2016, Politico, December 6, 2016, Trump himself thought he would lose even as the polls were closing.WEB,weblink Trump tells Wisconsin: Victory was a surprise, Nolan D., Mccaskill, POLITICO,

Protests

File:Protests in Los Angeles.webm|thumb|right|upright=.91|News report about the protests in Los Angeles on November 12 from Voice of AmericaVoice of America{{further|Protests against Donald Trump#Post-election protests}}Following the announcement of Trump's election, large protests broke out across the United States with some continuing for several days.NEWS,weblink Protests of Trump's Election Continue Into Third Day, Bromwich, Jonah Engel, November 11, 2016, The New York Times, 0362-4331, November 12, 2016, WEB,weblink Across The Country, Thousands March In Protest Against Trump's Victory : The Two-Way, Domonoske, Camila, Overland, Martha Ann, NPR, November 9, 2016, June 15, 2017, NEWS,weblink The Wall Street Journal, Anti-Trump Protests Likely to Continue Friday and Saturday, Calvert, Scott, McWhirter, Cameron, November 11, 2016, June 15, 2017, NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, As anti-Trump anger feeds protests and violence, Obama echoes appeals for unity, Leah Sottile, Samantha Schmidt, Brian Murphy, November 11, 2016, Protesters have held up a number of different signs and chanted various shouts including "Not my president" and "We don't accept the president-elect".NEWS,weblink Anti-Trump protests continue across America, November 10, 2016, The Economist, 0013-0613, November 10, 2016, The movement organized on Twitter under the hashtags #Antitrump and #NotMyPresident.NEWS,weblink Here are all the Southern California students who walked out of high schools to protest Donald Trump, Ratzlaff, Angela, Press Enterprise, en, November 10, 2016, NEWS,weblink In second day of anti-Trump protests, civil rights a top concern, November 10, 2016, Reuters, November 10, 2016, Javier, Galeano, High school and college students walked out of classes to protest.NEWS,weblink Oxnard students took to the streets protesting Trump, Ventura County Star, November 10, 2016, November 10, 2016, The protests were peaceful for the most part. At some protests fires were lit, flags and other items were burned and people yelled derogatory remarks about Trump. Rioters also broke glass at certain locations.WEB,weblink Russia Today, 'F**k Trump': Protesters take to streets in pro-Hillary Oregon after election results, November 9, 2016, November 9, 2016, WEB,weblink Toby, Meyjes, Metro, November 9, 2016, November 9, 2016, Rioting breaks out in the US in reaction to Donald Trump's shock victory, NEWS,weblink Seerat, Chabba, International Business Times, Donald Trump Elected President: Riots Break Out At University Campuses After Republican's Win, November 9, 2016, November 9, 2016, Celebrities such as Madonna, Cher, and Lady Gaga took part in New York.NEWS,weblink Madonna, Mark Ruffalo, T.I. and more celebrities join New York City anti-Trump protests, The New York Daily News, November 10, 2016, November 10, 2016, Nicole, Bitette, NEWS,weblink Cher, Madonna And T.I. Lend Their Support To NYC's Anti-Trump Protests, Gotty, John, November 10, 2016, UPROXX, en-US, June 15, 2017, NEWS,weblink Lady Gaga Protested Outside Trump Tower During the Election, Lang, Cady, TIME, November 10, 2016, November 10, 2016, Some protesters took to blocking freeways in Los Angeles, San Diego, and Portland, Oregon, and were dispersed by police in the early hours of the morning.NEWS,weblink Thousands protest Trump election in LA, block 101 Freeway downtown, Rand, Jory Rand bio, about Jory, November 10, 2016, ABC7 Los Angeles, en-US, November 11, 2016, NEWS,weblink 6 arrested after march disrupts I-5 Portland traffic, TEGNA, KGW, en-US, November 11, 2016, In a number of cities, protesters were dispersed with rubber bullets, pepper spray and bean-bags fired by police.NEWS,weblink Police fire rubber bullets at anti-Trump protesters in Santa Ana; 10 arrested, about, John Gregory, bio, November 10, 2016, ABC7 Los Angeles, en-US, November 11, 2016, WEB,weblink "Not My President": Tens of Thousands Take to Streets, Block Freeways & Rally Against Trump, Democracy Now!, November 11, 2016, NEWS,weblink Anti-Trump protests continue for second day in California following a night of vandalism and arrests, Serna, Joseph, Los Angeles Times, en-US, 0458-3035, November 11, 2016, In New York City, calls were made to continue the protests over the coming days after the election.NEWS,weblink Anti-Trump Demonstrators Take to the Streets in Several U.S. Cities, Fuller, Thomas, November 9, 2016, The New York Times, 0362-4331, November 11, 2016, Former New York mayor Rudy Giuliani called protesters "a bunch of spoiled cry-babies".NEWS,weblink Rudy Giuliani calls college kids 'a bunch of spoiled crybabies' – as universities bring in therapy dogs and Play-Doh to soothe Hillary supporters, Schwab, Nikki, Daily Mail, November 10, 2017, June 15, 2017, Los Angeles mayor Eric Garcetti expressed understanding of the protests and praised those who peacefully wanted to make their voices heard.NEWS, L.A. Mayor Praises Peaceful Anti-Trump Protests,weblink June 15, 2017, The Hollywood Reporter, Associated Press, November 10, 2016,

Vote tampering concerns

File:How Hard Is It to Hack the US Election - November 5 2016.webm|thumb|right|200px|'How Hard Is It to Hack the US Election' video report from Voice of AmericaVoice of AmericaAfter the election, computer scientists, including J. Alex Halderman, the director of the University of Michigan Center for Computer Security and Society, urged the Clinton campaign to request an election recount in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Pennsylvania (three swing states where Trump had won narrowly) for the purpose of excluding the possibility that the hacking of electronic voting machines had influenced the recorded outcome.NEWS,weblink Computer scientists to Clinton campaign: Challenge election results, CNN, Dan Merica, CNN, November 23, 2016, NEWS,weblink Experts Urge Clinton Campaign to Challenge Election Results in 3 Swing States, Sherman, Gabriel, Daily Intelligencer, November 23, 2016, WEB,weblink Want to Know if the Election was Hacked? Look at the Ballots, Halderman, J. Alex, November 24, 2016, Medium, November 24, 2016, However, statistician Nate Silver performed a regression analysis which demonstrated that the alleged discrepancy between paper ballots and electronic voting machines "completely disappears once you control for race and education level".NEWS,weblink Nate Silver on Twitter, Twitter, November 24, 2016, On November 25, 2016, the Obama administration said the results from November 8 "accurately reflect the will of the American people".NEWS,weblink U.S. Officials Defend Integrity of Vote, Despite Hacking Fears, Sanger, David E., The New York Times, November 27, 2016, The following day, the White House released another statement, saying: "the federal government did not observe any increased level of malicious cyberactivity aimed at disrupting our electoral process on Election Day."NEWS,weblink Hillary Clinton's Team to Join Wisconsin Recount Pushed by Jill Stein, Sanger, David E., The New York Times, November 27, 2016, Donald Trump and New Hampshire governor Chris Sununu both complained that liberal voters from Massachusetts were illegally bused into New Hampshire for the 2016 election, and Scott Brown blamed the same phenomenon for losing his senate race in 2014.NEWS,weblink N.H. says once and for all that no one was bused in to vote, June 1, 2018, The Boston Globe, James Pindell, October 26, 2018,weblink October 26, 2018, dead, The New Hampshire Secretary of State and New Hampshire Department of Justice issued a report in 2018 regarding complaints of voters being bused in from Vermont, Maine, and Massachusetts for the 2016 election. They found that in every case, field inspectors were able to determine that the voters were from New Hampshire, though they were riding a bus operated by an out-of-state company (which has its name and address written on the outside of the bus, presumably the source of the confusion). Out of 743,000 votes cast, four were determined to be cast illegally, either because the voters were told to go to the wrong location, or because the voter believed they were able to vote in each town in which they owned property. Out of about 6,000 same-day voter registrations in the state, the report says only 66 voters could not have their residency confirmed (though fraud is not the only explanation for such a failure).

Recount petitions

On November 23, Green Party presidential candidate Jill Stein launched a public fundraiser to pay for recounts in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, asserting that the election's outcome had been affected by hacking in those states; Stein did not provide evidence for her claims.NEWS, Why are people giving Jill Stein millions of dollars for an election recount?,weblink Weigel, David, The Washington Post, November 24, 2016, December 15, 2016, NEWS, Stein Ends Recount Bid, but Says It Revealed Flaws in Voting System,weblink The New York Times, December 13, 2016, Changing the outcome of these three states would make Clinton the winner, and this would require showing that fewer than 60,000 votes had been counted for Trump which should have been counted for Clinton. Stein filed for a recount in Wisconsin on November 25,WEB,weblink Election recount process to begin in Wisconsin after Green Party petition, nbcnews.com, November 26, 2016, after which Clinton campaign general counsel Marc Elias stated that their campaign would join Stein's recount efforts in that state and possibly others "in order to ensure the process proceeds in a manner that is fair to all sides".NEWS, Clinton campaign splits from White House in backing Jill Stein recount push,weblink The Guardian, November 26, 2016, November 26, 2016, WEB, Marc Elias, Listening and Responding To Calls for an Audit and Recount,weblink November 26, 2016, November 26, 2016, Medium (website), Medium, Stein subsequently filed for a recount in Pennsylvania on November 28,WEB,weblink Jill Stein files petition seeking Pennsylvania presidential election recount, pennlive.com, November 30, 2016, and in Michigan on November 30.NEWS, Jill Stein files for Michigan recount,weblink Politico, November 30, 2016, Concurrently, American Delta Party/Reform Party presidential candidate Rocky De La Fuente sought and was granted a partial recount in Nevada that was unrelated to Stein's efforts.President-elect Donald Trump issued a statement denouncing Stein's Wisconsin recount request saying, "The people have spoken and the election is over." Trump further commented that the recount "is a scam by the Green Party for an election that has already been conceded".NEWS, Read: Trump Slams Jill Stein Over 'Ridiculous' Vote Recount Effort,weblink Fox News, November 26, 2016, The Trump campaign and Republican Party officials moved to block Stein's three recount efforts through state and federal courts.NEWS, Trump Campaign Objects To Michigan Hand Recount,weblink CBS Detroit, December 1, 2016, NEWS,weblink Michigan attorney general files lawsuit to stop recount, CNN.com, December 2, 2016, U.S. District Judge Mark Goldsmith ordered a halt to the recount in Michigan on December 7, dissolving a previous temporary restraining order against the Michigan Board of Elections that allowed the recount to continue, stating in his order: "Plaintiffs have not presented evidence of tampering or mistake. Instead, they present speculative claims going to the vulnerability of the voting machinery – but not actual injury."NEWS,weblink Michigan recount halted, CNN.com, December 8, 2016, On December 12, U.S. District Judge Paul Diamond rejected an appeal by the Green Party and Jill Stein to force a recount in Pennsylvania, stating that suspicion of a hacked Pennsylvania election "borders on the irrational" and that granting the Green Party's recount bid could "ensure that no Pennsylvania vote counts" given the December 13, 2016, federal deadline to certify the vote for the Electoral College.NEWS, December 12, 2016, U.S. judge rejects Green Party's Pennsylvania recount case; Wisconsin recount finished,weblink Chicago Tribune, Chicago, Illinois, December 12, 2016, Meanwhile, the Wisconsin recount was allowed to continue as it was nearing completion and had uncovered no significant irregularities.NEWS, The Latest: Judge to Rule Monday on Pennsylvania Recount,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161210110914weblink">weblink dead, December 10, 2016, ABC News, December 9, 2016, The recounts in Wisconsin and Nevada were completed on schedule, resulting in only minor changes to vote tallies.NEWS, Completed Wisconsin recount widens Donald Trump's lead by 131 votes,weblink Wisconsin State Journal, December 12, 2016, NEWS, Nevada ballot recount changes just 15 Trump, Clinton votes,weblink Fox 5 KVVU-TV, December 8, 2016, December 19, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161221134247weblink">weblink December 21, 2016, dead, A partial recount of Michigan ballot found some precinct imbalances in Detroit, which were corrected. A subsequent state audit found no evidence of voter fraud and concluded that the mistakes, which were "almost entirely" caused by poll-worker mistakes attributed to poor training, did not impair "the ability of Detroit residents to cast a ballot and have their vote counted".NEWS, Kathleen Gray, State audit: No evidence of fraud in Detroit vote,weblink Detroit Free Press, February 9, 2017, The overall outcome of the election remained unchanged by the recount efforts.NEWS, Green Party U.S. election recount bid comes to a close,weblink Reuters, December 13, 2016,

Electoral College lobbying

{{anchor|ElectoralLobbying}} Intense lobbying (in one case involving claims of harassment and death threatsWEB,weblink Electoral College voter: I'm getting death threats {{!, CNN|website=cnn.com|access-date=November 30, 2016}}) and grass-roots campaigns were directed at various GOP electors of the United States Electoral CollegeNEWS,weblink Electoral College: Are Idaho's 4 electors being pressured to dump Trump, or harassed?, Dentzer, Bill, November 15, 2016, The Idaho Statesman, to convince a sufficient number of them (37) to not vote for Trump, thus precluding a Trump presidency.NEWS,weblink Trump opponents' campaign to beat him at the Electoral College is a long shot, Kruesi, Kimberlee, November 21, 2016, Associated Press, Members of the Electoral College themselves started a campaign for other members to "vote their conscience for the good of America" in accordance with Alexander Hamilton's Federalist Paper No. 68.NEWS,weblink Meet the 'Hamilton Electors' Campaigning for an Electoral College Revolt, O'Donnell, Lilly, The Atlantic, en-US, November 23, 2016, WEB,weblink Hamilton Electors {{!, Facebook|website=www.facebook.com|access-date=November 23, 2016}}NEWS,weblink Hamilton Electors, Hamilton Electors, November 23, 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161123013646weblink">weblink November 23, 2016, WEB,weblink HamiltonElectors (@HamiltonElector) {{!, Twitter|website=twitter.com|access-date=November 23, 2016}} This group's members may have become faithless electors in the presidential election.On December 5, former candidate Lawrence Lessig and attorney Laurence Tribe established The Electors Trust under the aegis of EqualCitizens.US to provide pro bono legal counsel as well as a secure communications platform for members of the Electoral College who were considering a vote of conscience against Trump.WEB,weblink Lessig, lawyers to offer support to anti-Trump electors, Cheney, Kyle, On December 6, Colorado Secretary of State Wayne W. Williams castigated Democratic electors who had filed a lawsuit in Federal court to have the state law binding them to the popular vote (in their case for Hillary Clinton) overturned.WEB,weblink Colorado secretary of state slams rogue electors, Cheney, Kyle, On December 10, ten electors, in an open letter headed by Christine Pelosi to the Director of National Intelligence James Clapper, demanded an intelligence briefingWEB,weblink Electors demand intelligence briefing before Electoral College vote, Cheney, Kyle, December 12, 2016, WEB,weblink Bipartisan Electors Ask James Clapper: Release Facts on Outside Interference in U.S. Election, Pelosi, Christine, in light of Russian interference in the election to help Trump win the presidency.WEB,weblink CIA Concludes Russian Interference Aimed To Elect Trump, Mary, Kelly, December 10, 2016, Fifty-eight additional electors subsequently added their names to the letter, bringing the total to 68 electors from 17 different states.Pete Williams, Coming Soon: The 'Real' Presidential Election, NBC News (December 15, 2016). On December 16, the briefing request was denied.NEWS,weblink Electors won't get intelligence briefing: report, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, December 16, 2016, February 12, 2017, On December 19, several electors voted against their pledged candidates: two against Trump and five against Clinton. A further three electors attempted to vote against Clinton but were replaced or forced to vote again.The 115th United States Congress officially certified the results on January 6, 2017.WEB, Caldwell, Leigh Ann, Despite Objections, Congress Certifies Donald Trump's Election,weblink January 6, 2017, NBC News, January 6, 2017, NEWS, Chiacu, Doina, Susan, Cornwell, U.S. Congress Certifies Trump's Electoral College Victory,weblink January 6, 2017, Reuters, January 6, 2017,

Faithless electors

In the Electoral College vote on December 19, for the first time since 1808, multiple faithless electors voted against their pledged qualified presidential candidate.{{efn|The 1872 presidential election also saw multiple electors vote for a different candidate than that pledged, due to the death of Liberal Republican candidate Horace Greeley, after the popular vote, yet before the meeting of the Electoral College. Greeley still garnered three posthumous electoral votes which were subsequently dismissed by Congress.}} Five Democrats rebelled in Washington and Hawaii, while two Republicans rebelled in Texas.NEWS, Detrow, Scott, Donald Trump Secures Electoral College Win, With Few Surprises,weblink June 15, 2017, NPR, December 19, 2016, Two Democratic electors, one in Minnesota and one in Colorado, were replaced after voting for Bernie Sanders and John Kasich, respectively.NEWS, Coolican, J. Patrick, Minnesota electors align for Clinton; one replaced after voting for Sanders,weblink June 15, 2017, Star Tribune, December 20, 2016, NEWS, Hickey, Chuck, Colorado Electoral College casts all 9 votes for Clinton after elector replaced,weblink June 15, 2017, Fox 31 Denver, December 19, 2016, Electors in Maine conducted a second vote after one of its members voted for Sanders; the elector then voted for Clinton.NEWS, Thistle, Scott, Maine electors cast votes for Clinton, Trump – after protests inside and outside State House,weblink June 15, 2017, Portland Press Herald, December 19, 2016, Likewise, for the first time since 1896,{{efn|Not including 1912, because of the death of James S. Sherman.}} multiple faithless electors voted against the pledged qualified vice presidential candidate.
  • One Clinton elector in Colorado attempted to vote for John Kasich.NEWS, Eason, Brian, Frank, John, Colorado's electoral votes go to Hillary Clinton after one is replaced,weblink November 6, 2017, The Denver Post, December 19, 2016, The single vote was ruled invalid by Colorado state law, the elector was dismissed, and an alternative elector was sworn in who voted for Clinton.WEB,weblink Electoral College vote: Live updates on state-by-state voting, Lord, Debbie, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, December 19, 2016, November 6, 2017,
  • One Clinton elector in Minnesota voted for Bernie Sanders as president and Tulsi Gabbard as vice president; his votes were discarded and he was replaced by an alternate who voted for Clinton.
  • One Clinton elector in Maine voted for Bernie Sanders; this vote was invalidated as "improper" and the elector subsequently voted for Clinton.
  • Four Clinton electors in Washington did not vote for Clinton (three votes went to Colin Powell, and one to Faith Spotted Eagle).NEWS,weblink Tracking the Electoral College Vote, December 19, 2016, The New York Times, Schmidt, Kiersten, Andrews, Wilson,
  • One Trump elector in Georgia resigned before the vote rather than vote for Trump and was replaced by an alternate.NEWS, Liebergen, Stephanie, Georgia Elector Resigns After Publicly Refusing To Vote For Trump,weblink June 15, 2017, Newsy, August 3, 2016,
  • Two Trump electors in Texas did not vote for Trump (one vote went to John Kasich, one to Ron Paul); one elector did not vote for Pence and instead voted for Carly Fiorina for vice-president; a third resigned before the vote rather than vote for Trump and was replaced by an alternate.
  • One Clinton elector in Hawaii voted for Bernie Sanders.NEWS,weblink The Latest: Hawaii electors cast votes for Clinton, Sanders, Associated Press, December 20, 2016, November 6, 2017,
Of the faithless votes, Colin Powell and Elizabeth Warren were the only two to receive more than one; Powell received three electoral votes for president and Warren received two for vice president. Receiving one valid electoral vote each were Sanders, John Kasich, Ron Paul and Faith Spotted Eagle for president, and Carly Fiorina, Susan Collins, Winona LaDuke and Maria Cantwell for vice president. Sanders is the first Jewish American to receive an electoral vote for president. LaDuke is the first Green Party member to receive an electoral vote, and Paul is the third member of the Libertarian Party to do so, following the party's presidential and vice-presidential nominees each getting one vote in 1972. It is the first election with faithless electors from more than one political party. The seven people to receive electoral votes for president were the most in a single election since 1796, and more than any other election since the enactment of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804.

See also

Notes

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References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • NEWS, Rigged: How Voter Suppression Threw Wisconsin to Trump, November–December 2017,weblinkweblink September 23, 2018, Berman, Ari, Mother Jones (magazine), Mother Jones,
  • JOURNAL, Ott, Brian L., The age of Twitter: Donald J. Trump and the politics of debasement, Critical Studies in Media Communication, 2017, 34, 1, 59–68, 10.1080/15295036.2016.1266686, free,
  • WEB, Patterson, Thomas E., News Coverage of the 2016 Presidential Primaries: Horse Race Reporting Has Consequences, July 11, 2016, Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy,weblink October 2, 2018,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Ross, Andrew S., Rivers, Damian J., Digital cultures of political participation: Internet memes and the discursive delegitimization of the 2016 U.S Presidential candidates, Discourse, Context & Media, April 2017, 16, 1–11, 10.1016/j.dcm.2017.01.001,
  • BOOK, Sabato, Larry, Kondik, Kyle, Shelley, Geoffrey, Trumped: The 2016 Election That Broke All the Rules, 2017, Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-1-4422-7940-7,
  • BOOK, Schaffner, Brian, John A., Clark, Making Sense of the 2016 Elections: A CQ Press Guide, CQ Press, 2017, Thousand Oaks, CA, 978-1-5063-8418-4,
  • JOURNAL, Visser, Beth A., Book, Angela S., Volk, Anthony A., Is Hillary dishonest and Donald narcissistic? A HEXACO analysis of the presidential candidates' public personas, Personality and Individual Differences, 2017, 106, 281–286, 10.1016/j.paid.2016.10.053,weblink
  • BOOK, West, Darrell M., Air Wars: Television Advertising and Social Media in Election Campaigns, 1952–2016, CQ Press, 2017, Thousand Oaks, CA, 9781506329833,

External links

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